DOS (/ˌɛmɛsˈdɒs/ EM-es-DOSS ; acronym for MICROSOFT DISK
OPERATING SYSTEM) is a discontinued operating system for x86 -based
personal computers mostly developed by
Microsoft . Collectively,
MS-DOS, its rebranding as
IBM PC DOS, and some operating systems
attempting to be compatible with MS-DOS, are sometimes referred to as
"DOS" (which is also the generic acronym for disk operating system ).
DOS was the main operating system for
IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible personal
computers during the 1980s and the early 1990s, when it was gradually
superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface
(GUI), in various generations of the graphical
DOS resulted from a request in 1981 by IBM for an operating system
to use in its
IBM PC range of personal computers.
bought the rights to 86-
Seattle Computer Products , and
began work on modifying it to meet IBM's specification. IBM licensed
and released it on August 12, 1981 as PC
DOS 1.0 for use in their PCs.
DOS and PC
DOS were initially developed in parallel by
Microsoft and IBM, the two products diverged after twelve years, in
1993, with recognizable differences in compatibility, syntax, and
During its lifetime, several competing products were released for the
x86 platform, and MS-
DOS went through eight versions, until
development ceased in 2000. Initially MS-
DOS was targeted at Intel
8086 processors running on computer hardware using floppy disks to
store and access not only the operating system, but application
software and user data as well. Progressive version releases delivered
support for other mass storage media in ever greater sizes and
formats, along with added feature support for newer processors and
rapidly evolving computer architectures. Ultimately it was the key
product in Microsoft's growth from a programming language company to a
diverse software development firm, providing the company with
essential revenue and marketing resources. It was also the underlying
basic operating system on which early versions of
Windows ran as a
GUI. It is a flexible operating system, and consumes negligible
* 1 History
* 2 Versions
* 3 Competition
* 4 Legal issues
* 5 Use of undocumented APIs
* 6 End of MS-
Windows command-line interface
* 8 Legacy compatibility
* 9 Related systems
* 10 See also
* 11 Notes
* 12 References
* 13 External links
DOS and Timeline of
DOS operating systems
DOS was a renamed form of 86-
DOS – owned by Seattle Computer
Products , written by
Tim Paterson . Development of 86-
DOS took only
six weeks, as it was basically a clone of
Digital Research 's CP/M
(for 8080/Z80 processors), ported to run on
8086 processors and with
two notable differences compared to CP/M; an improved disk sector
buffering logic and the introduction of
FAT12 instead of the CP/M
filesystem. This first version was shipped in August 1980. Microsoft,
which needed an operating system for the
IBM Personal Computer
Tim Paterson in May 1981 and bought 86-
DOS 1.10 for $75,000 in
July of the same year.
Microsoft kept the version number, but renamed
it MS-DOS. They also licensed MS-
DOS 1.10/1.14 to IBM, who, in August
1981, offered it as PC
DOS 1.0 as one of three operating systems for
IBM 5150 , or the
IBM PC .
Within a year
Microsoft licensed MS-
DOS to over 70 other companies.
It was designed to be an OS that could run on any 8086-family
computer. Each computer would have its own distinct hardware and its
own version of MS-DOS, similar to the situation that existed for CP/M
, and with MS-
DOS emulating the same solution as
CP/M to adapt for
different hardware platforms. To this end, MS-
DOS was designed with a
modular structure with internal device drivers, minimally for primary
disk drives and the console, integrated with the kernel and loaded by
the boot loader, and installable device drivers for other devices
loaded and integrated at boot time. The
OEM would use a development
kit provided by
Microsoft to build a version of MS-
DOS with their
basic I/O drivers and a standard
Microsoft kernel, which they would
typically supply on disk to end users along with the hardware. Thus,
there were many different versions of "MS-DOS" for different hardware,
and there is a major distinction between an IBM-compatible (or ISA)
machine and an MS-
DOS machine. Some machines, like the
Tandy 2000 ,
DOS compatible but not IBM-compatible, so they could run
software written exclusively for MS-
DOS without dependence on the
peripheral hardware of the
IBM PC architecture.
This design would have worked well for compatibility, if application
programs had only used MS-
DOS services to perform device I/O, and
indeed the same design philosophy is embodied in
Windows NT (see
Hardware Abstraction Layer ). However, in MS-DOS's early days, the
greater speed attainable by programs through direct control of
hardware was of particular importance, especially for games, which
often pushed the limits of their contemporary hardware. Very soon an
IBM-compatible architecture became the goal, and before long all
8086-family computers closely emulated IBM\'s hardware , and only a
single version of MS-
DOS for a fixed hardware platform was needed for
the market. This version is the version of MS-
DOS that is discussed
here, as the dozens of other
OEM versions of "MS-DOS" were only
relevant to the systems they were designed for, and in any case were
very similar in function and capability to some standard version for
the IBM PC—often the same-numbered version, but not always, since
some OEMs used their own proprietary version numbering schemes (e.g.
labeling later releases of MS-
DOS 1.x as 2.0 or vice versa)—with a
few notable exceptions.
Microsoft omitted multi-user support from MS-
DOS because Microsoft's
Unix -based operating system,
Xenix , was fully multi-user. The
company planned to over time improve MS-
DOS so it would be almost
indistinguishable from single-user Xenix, or XEDOS, which would also
run on the
Motorola 68000 ,
Zilog Z8000 , and the
LSI-11 ; they would
be upwardly compatible with Xenix, which Byte in 1983 described as
"the multi-user MS-
DOS of the future".
Microsoft advertised MS-DOS
Xenix together, listing the shared features of its "single-user
OS" and "the multi-user, multi-tasking ,
UNIX -derived operating
system", and promising easy porting between them. After the breakup
of the Bell System , however,
AT&T Computer Systems
AT&T Computer Systems started selling
UNIX System V . Believing that it could not compete with AT"> The
DOS advertisement in 1981.
On microcomputers based on the
Intel 8086 and 8088 processors,
IBM PC and clones, the initial competition to the PC
DOS line came from
Digital Research , whose
system had inspired MS-DOS. In fact, there remains controversy as to
DOS was more or less plagiarised from early versions of CP/M
Digital Research released
CP/M-86 a few months after MS-DOS, and
it was offered as an alternative to MS-
DOS and Microsoft's licensing
requirements, but at a higher price. Executable programs for CP/M-86
DOS were not interchangeable with each other; many applications
were sold in both MS-
CP/M-86 versions until MS-
Digital Research operating systems could run both
CP/M-86 software). MS-
DOS originally supported the simple
.COM , which was modelled after a similar but binary incompatible
format known from
CP/M-86 instead supported a relocatable
format using the file extension .CMD to avoid name conflicts with
CP/M-80 and MS-
DOS .COM files. MS-
DOS version 1.0 added a more
advanced relocatable .
EXE executable file format.
Most of the machines in the early days of MS-
DOS had differing system
architectures and there was a certain degree of incompatibility, and
subsequently vendor lock-in . Users who began using MS-
DOS with their
machines were compelled to continue using the version customized for
their hardware, or face trying to get all of their proprietary
hardware and software to work with the new system.
In the business world the 808x-based machines that MS-
DOS was tied to
faced competition from the
Unix operating system which ran on many
different hardware architectures.
Microsoft itself sold a version of
Unix for the PC called
In the emerging world of home users, a variety of other computers
based on various other processors were in serious competition with the
IBM PC: the
Apple II , early
Apple Macintosh , the
Commodore 64 and
others did not use the 808x processor; many 808x machines of different
architectures used custom versions of MS-DOS. At first all these
machines were in competition. In time the
IBM PC hardware
configuration became dominant in the 808x market as software written
to communicate directly with the PC hardware without using standard
operating system calls ran much faster, but on true PC-compatibles
only. Non-PC-compatible 808x machines were too small a market to have
fast software written for them alone, and the market remained open
only for IBM PCs and machines that closely imitated their
architecture, all running either a single version of MS-
only with PCs, or the equivalent
IBM PC DOS. Most clones cost much
less than IBM-branded machines of similar performance, and became
widely used by home users, while IBM PCs had a large share of the
business computer market.
Microsoft and IBM together began what was intended as the follow-on
to MS-DOS/PC DOS, called
OS/2 . When
OS/2 was released in 1987,
Microsoft began an advertising campaign announcing that "
DOS is Dead"
and stating that version 4 was the last full release.
designed for efficient multi-tasking (as was standard in operating
systems since 1963) and offered a number of advanced features that had
been designed together with similar look and feel ; it was seen as the
legitimate heir to the "kludgy"
DOS had grown in spurts, with many significant features being
taken or duplicated from Microsoft's other products and operating
DOS also grew by incorporating, by direct licensing or
feature duplicating, the functionality of tools and utilities
developed by independent companies, such as
Norton Utilities , PC
Microsoft Anti-Virus ),
QEMM expanded memory manager, Stacker
disk compression , and others.
During the period when
Digital Research was competing in the
operating system market some computers, like
Amstrad PC1512 , were
sold with floppy disks for two operating systems (only one of which
could be used at a time), MS-
CP/M-86 or a derivative of it.
Digital Research produced
DOS Plus , which was compatible with MS-DOS
CP/M-86 programs, had additional features including
multi-tasking, and could read and write disks in
CP/M and MS-DOS
OS/2 was under protracted development, Digital Research
released the MS-
DOS compatible DR
DOS 5.0, which included features
only available as third-party add-ons for MS-DOS. Unwilling to lose
any portion of the market,
Microsoft responded by announcing the
"pending" release of MS-
DOS 5.0 in May 1990. This effectively killed
DOS sales until the actual release of MS-
DOS 5.0 in June 1991.
Digital Research brought out DR
DOS 6.0, which sold well until the
"pre-announcement" of MS-
DOS 6.0 again stifled the sales of DR DOS.
Microsoft had been accused of carefully orchestrating leaks about
future versions of MS-
DOS in an attempt to create what in the industry
is called FUD (fear, uncertainty, and doubt ) regarding DR DOS. For
example, in October 1990, shortly after the release of DR
DOS 5.0, and
long before the eventual June 1991 release of MS-
DOS 5.0, stories on
feature enhancements in MS-
DOS started to appear in
InfoWorld and PC
Brad Silverberg , then Vice President of Systems Software at
Microsoft and general manager of its
Windows and MS-
DOS Business Unit,
wrote a forceful letter to PC Week (5 November 1990), denying that
Microsoft was engaged in FUD tactics ("to serve our customers better,
we decided to be more forthcoming about version 5.0") and denying that
Microsoft copied features from DR DOS:
"The feature enhancements of MS-
DOS version 5.0 were decided and
development was begun long before we heard about DR
DOS 5.0. There
will be some similar features. With 50 million MS-
DOS users, it
shouldn't be surprising that DRI has heard some of the same requests
from customers that we have." – (Schulman et al. 1994).
The pact between
Microsoft and IBM to promote
OS/2 began to fall
apart in 1990 when
Windows 3.0 became a marketplace success. Much of
Microsoft's further contributions to
OS/2 also went into creating a
GUI replacement for DOS,
Windows NT .
IBM, which had already been developing the next version of OS/2,
carried on development of the platform without
Microsoft and sold it
as the alternative to
DOS and Windows.
As a response to
Digital Research 's DR
DOS 6.0 , which bundled
SuperStor disk compression,
Microsoft opened negotiations with Stac
Electronics , vendor of the most popular
DOS disk compression tool,
Stacker. In the due diligence process, Stac engineers had shown
Microsoft part of the Stacker source code. Stac was unwilling to meet
Microsoft's terms for licensing Stacker and withdrew from the
Microsoft chose to license Vertisoft's DoubleDisk, using
it as the core for its DoubleSpace disk compression.
DOS 6.0 and 6.20 were released in 1993, both including the
Microsoft DoubleSpace disk compression utility program. Stac
Microsoft for patent infringement regarding the
compression algorithm used in DoubleSpace. This resulted in the 1994
release of MS-
DOS 6.21, which had disk compression removed. Shortly
afterwards came version 6.22, with a new version of the disk
compression system, DriveSpace, which had a different compression
algorithm to avoid the infringing code.
Prior to 1995,
Microsoft licensed MS-
DOS (and Windows) to computer
manufacturers under three types of agreement: per-processor (a fee for
each system the company sold), per-system (a fee for each system of a
particular model), or per-copy (a fee for each copy of MS-DOS
installed). The largest manufacturers used the per-processor
arrangement, which had the lowest fee. This arrangement made it
expensive for the large manufacturers to migrate to any other
operating system, such as DR DOS. In 1991, the U.S. government Federal
Trade Commission began investigating Microsoft's licensing procedures,
resulting in a 1994 settlement agreement limiting
Digital Research did not gain by this settlement,
and years later its successor in interest, Caldera , sued Microsoft
for damages in the Caldera v.
Microsoft lawsuit. It was believed that
the settlement ran in the order of $150 million, but was revealed in
November 2009 with the release of the Settlement Agreement to be $280
USE OF UNDOCUMENTED APIS
Microsoft also used a variety of tactics in MS-
DOS and several of
their applications and development tools that, while operating
perfectly when running on genuine MS-
DOS (and PC DOS), would break
when run on another vendor's implementation of DOS. Notable examples
of this practice included:
* Microsoft's QuickPascal released in early 1989 was the first MS
product that checked for MS-
DOS by modifying the program's Program
Segment Prefix using undocumented
DOS functions, and then checked
whether or not the associated value changed in a fixed position within
DOS data segment (also undocumented). This check also made it into
later MS products, including
QuickC v2.5, Programmer's
Microsoft C v6.0.
AARD code , a block of code in the windows launcher (WIN.COM)
and a few other system files of
Windows 3.1. It was XOR encrypted,
self-modifying , and deliberately obfuscated, using various
DOS structures and functions to determine whether or not
Windows really was running on MS-DOS. In the beta versions, it
displayed an "error" message if the test for genuine MS-
prompting the user to abort or continue, with abort the default. In
the final release version, the code still ran, but the message and
prompt were disabled by an added flag byte, rendering it (probably)
* Note that the
Windows 3.0 beta code only gave a warning that
Windows would not operate properly on a "foreign" OS. It did, in fact,
run just fine on DR
Interrupt routines called by
Windows to inform MS-
Windows is starting/exiting, information that MS-
DOS retained in an
IN_WINDOWS flag, in spite of the fact that MS-
supposed to be two separate products.
END OF MS-DOS
As of 2011 , MS-
DOS is still used in some enterprises to run
legacy applications, such as this US Navy food service management
With the introduction of
Windows 3.0 in 1990, the easy usability of
graphical user interface severely diminished the usage of MS-
is based on the command line. With the release of
Windows 95 (and
continuing in the
Windows 9x product line through to
Windows ME ), an
integrated version of MS-
DOS was used for bootstrapping ,
troubleshooting, and backwards-compatibility with old
particularly games, and no longer released as a standalone product.
Windows 95, the DOS, called MS-
DOS 7, can be booted separately,
Windows GUI; this capability was retained through Windows
98 Second Edition.
Windows ME removed the capability to boot its
DOS 8.0 alone from a hard disk, but retained the ability
to make a
DOS boot floppy disk (called an "Emergency Boot Disk") and
can be hacked to restore full access to the underlying DOS.
In contrast to the
Windows 9x series, the
Windows NT -derived 32-bit
operating systems developed alongside the 9x series (
Windows NT , 2000
, XP and newer) do not contain MS-
DOS as part of the operating system,
but provide a subset of
DOS emulation to run
DOS applications and
provide DOS-like command prompt windows. 64-bit versions of
line do not provide
DOS emulation and cannot run
Windows XP contains a copy of the
Windows ME boot disk,
stripped down to bootstrap only. This is accessible only by formatting
a floppy as an "MS-
DOS startup disk". Files like the driver for the
CD-ROM support were deleted from the
Windows ME bootdisk and the
startup files (
CONFIG.SYS ) no longer had content.
This modified disk was the base for creating the MS-
DOS image for
Windows XP. Some of the deleted files can be recovered with an
undelete tool. With
Windows Vista the files on the startup disk are
dated 18 April 2005 but are otherwise unchanged, including the string
DOS Version 8 Copyright 1981–1999
Microsoft Corp" inside
COMMAND.COM . Starting with
Windows 10, the ability to create a DOS
startup disk has been removed.
DOS 6.22 was the last standalone version produced by
Intel 8088 ,
Intel 8086 , and
Intel 80286 processors, which remain
available for download via their
MSDN , volume license, and OEM
license partner websites, for customers with valid login credentials.
DOS is still used in embedded x86 systems due to its simple
architecture and minimal memory and processor requirements, though
some current products have switched to the still-maintained
open-source alternative Free
WINDOWS COMMAND-LINE INTERFACE
All versions of
Windows have had an MS-DOS-like
command-line interface (CLI) called
Command Prompt . This could run
DOS and variously Win32,
OS/2 1.x and
POSIX command line
utilities in the same command-line session, allowing piping between
commands. The user interface, and the icon up to
followed the native MS-
16-bit versions of
Windows (up to 3.11) ran as a Graphical User
Interface (GUI) on top of MS-DOS. With
Windows 95 , 98, 98 SE and ME,
DOS part was (superficially) integrated, treating both
operating systems as a complete package, though the
could actually stand alone. The command line accessed the
line (usually COMMAND.COM) through a
Windows module (WINOLDAP.MOD).
A new line of Windows, (
Windows NT), boot through a kernel whose sole
purpose is to load Windows. One cannot run Win32 applications in the
loader system in the manner that OS/2,
UNIX or Consumer
launch character-mode sessions.
The command session permits running of various supported command line
utilities from Win32, MS-DOS,
OS/2 1.x and POSIX. The emulators for
POSIX use the host's window in the same way that
Win16 applications use the Win32 explorer. Using the host's window
allows one to pipe output between emulations.
DOS emulation is done through the
NTVDM (NT Virtual DOS
Machine). This is a modified SoftPC (a former product similar to
VirtualPC), running a modified MS-
DOS 5 (NTIO.SYS and NTDOS.SYS). The
output is handled by the console DLLs, so that the program at the
prompt (CMD.EXE, 4NT.EXE, TCC.EXE), can see the output. 64-bit Windows
does not have either the
DOS emulation, or the
DOS commands (EDIT,
EDLIN ), that come with
DOS version returns 5.00 or 5.50, depending on which API function
is used to determine it. Utilities from MS-
DOS 5.00 run in this
emulation without modification. The very early beta programs of NT
DOS 30.00, but programs running in MS-
DOS 30.00 would assume
OS/2 was in control.
OS/2 emulation is handled through OS2SS.
EXE and OS2.EXE, and
EXE is a version of the
OS/2 shell (CMD.EXE), which
passes commands down to the OS2SS.EXE, and input-output to the Windows
Windows 2000 was the last version of NT to support OS/2. The
POSIX is emulated through the
POSIX shell, but no emulated shell; the
commands are handled directly in CMD.EXE.
Command Prompt is often called the MS-
DOS prompt. In part, this
was the official name for it in
Windows 9x and early versions of
Windows NT (NT 3.5 and earlier), and in part because the SoftPC
DOS redirects output into it. Actually only COMMAND.COM
16-bit commands run in an
NTVDM with AUTOEXEC.NT and
CONFIG.NT initialisation determined by _default.pif , optionally
permitting the use of
Win32 console applications and internal commands
with an NTCMDPROMPT directive.
Win32 console applications use CMD.
EXE as their command prompt shell.
This confusion does not exist under
OS/2 because there are separate
OS/2 prompts, and running a
DOS program under
OS/2 will launch
DOS window to run the application.
All versions of
Itanium (no longer sold by Microsoft) and
x86-64 architectures no longer include the
NTVDM and can therefore no
longer natively run MS-
Windows applications. There are
alternatives in the form of virtual machine emulators such as
Microsoft's own Virtual PC , as well as
DOSBox , and others.
From 1983 onwards, various companies worked on graphical user
interfaces (GUIs) capable of running on PC hardware. However, this
required duplicated effort and did not provide much consistency in
interface design (even between products from the same company).
Later, in 1985,
Windows was released as Microsoft's first
attempt at providing a consistent user interface (for applications).
The early versions of
Windows ran on top of MS-DOS. At first Windows
met with little success, but this was also true for most other
companies' efforts as well, for example GEM . After version 3.0,
Windows gained market acceptance.
Windows 9x used the
DOS boot process to launch into protected mode.
Basic features related to the file system, such as long file names,
were only available to
DOS when running as a subsystem of Windows.
Windows NT runs independently of
DOS but includes
NTVDM , a component
for simulating a
DOS environment for legacy applications.
DOS compatible systems include:
DOS , Novell
DOS , Open
DOS for IBM. It and MS-
identical products that eventually diverged starting with PC DOS
Digital Research 's DR-
DOS is sometimes regarded as a clone of
MS-DOS, but it did not follow Microsoft's version numbering scheme.
For example, MS-
DOS 4, released in July 1988, was followed by DR DOS
5.0 in May 1990. MS-
DOS 5.0 came in April 1991, with DR
DOS 6.0 being
released the following June.
These products are collectively referred to as "DOS," even though
"Disk Operating System" is a generic term used on other systems
unrelated to the x86 and IBM PC. "MS-DOS" can also be a generic
IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible computers.
What made the difference in the end was Microsoft's control of the
Windows platform and their programming practices which intentionally
Windows appear as if it ran poorly on competing versions of DOS.
Digital Research had to release interim releases to circumvent Windows
limitations inserted artificially, designed specifically to provide
Microsoft with an unfair competitive advantage.
DOS – designed to replace the default command interpreter
Bad command or file name
* History of
* List of
Towns OS – an MS-
DOS adaptation by
Fujitsu for FM Towns
* Tao Ex
DOS – commercial solution for
DOS software on new Windows
* Timeline of
DOS operating systems
Win32 console – an environment provided by
systems to support character-mode applications
* ^ Confirmed that there was Compaq Personal Computer
aside from MS-
* ^ Up to 512 MiB only.
* ^ Only if boot record of source floppy disk contains volume
serial number also.
* ^ One for the floppy disk, one for a bootable partition of a hard
disk, the other two are not known.
* ^ Paterson, Tim (June 1983). "An Inside Look at MS-DOS". Seattle
Computer Products . Seattle. Archived from the original on 2017-05-06.
* ^ A B Paterson, Tim (2013-12-19) . "
DOS V1.1 and V2.0:
Computer History Museum
Computer History Museum ,
Retrieved 2014-03-25. (NB. While the publishers claim this would be
DOS 1.1 and 2.0, it actually is SCP MS-
DOS 1.25 and a mixture of
DOS 2.11 and TeleVideo PC
DOS 2.11 .)
* ^ A B Shustek, Len (24 March 2014). "
source code". Software Gems: The
Computer History Museum
Computer History Museum Historical
Source Code Series. Retrieved 2014-03-29. (NB. While the author
claims this would be MS-
DOS 1.1 and 2.0, it actually is SCP MS-DOS
1.25 and a mixture of Altos MS-
DOS 2.11 and TeleVideo PC
DOS 2.11 .)
* ^ A B Levin, Roy (25 March 2014). "
Microsoft makes source code
DOS and Word for
Windows available to public". Official
Microsoft Blog. Retrieved 2014-03-29. (NB. While the author claims
this would be MS-
DOS 1.1 and 2.0, it actually is SCP MS-
DOS 1.25 and a
mixture of Altos MS-
DOS 2.11 and TeleVideo PC
DOS 2.11 .)
* ^ A B C "MS-DOS: A Brief Introduction". The
Project. Archived from the original on 2017-12-14. Retrieved
* ^ "Obsolete Products Life-Cycle Policy". Support.
Microsoft . 30
July 2009. Archived from the original on 6 July 2006. Retrieved 6
* ^ A B "A history of Windows". microsoft.com. Microsoft. November
2013. Archived from the original on 2015-05-10. Retrieved 2015-05-10.
* ^ A B Leven Antov (1996). "History of MS-DOS". Digital Research.
Archived from the original on 2017-10-02. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
* ^ "A Short History of MS-DOS". patersontech.com. Archived from
the original on 1 August 2013.
* ^ A B C Allan, Roy A. (2001). "
Microsoft in the 1980s, part III
1980s – The IBM/Macintosh era". A history of the personal computer:
the people and the technology.
London, Ontario : Allan Pub. p. 14.
ISBN 0-9689108-0-7 . Retrieved 5 December 2009.
* ^ "A Compilation of 8 Historical Essays". Google Books. Archived
from the original on 14 October 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
* ^ Conner, Doug. "Father of
DOS Still Having Fun at Microsoft".
patersontech.com. Micronews. Archived from the original on 9 February
2010. Retrieved 5 December 2009.
* ^ "Personal Computer Announced by IBM" (PDF). ibm.com. IBM.
Retrieved 27 September 2014.
* ^ Freiberger, Paul (23 August 1982). "Bill Gates,
the IBM Personal Computer".
InfoWorld . p. 22. Retrieved 29 January
* ^ Swaine, Michael (23 August 1982). "MS-DOS: examining IBM PC\'s
InfoWorld . p. 24. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
* ^ Morgan, Chris (January 1982). "Of IBM, Operating Systems, and
BYTE . p. 6. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
* ^ Fiedler, Ryan (October 1983). "The
Unix Tutorial / Part 3: Unix
in the Microcomputer Marketplace".
BYTE . p. 132. Retrieved 30 January
* ^ "Before you bet your business software on an OS, look who\'s
betting on MS-
DOS and XENIX".
InfoWorld (advertisement). 27 June 1983.
p. 44. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
* ^ Phipps, Simon (26 March 2014). "Psych!
Microsoft didn\'t really
InfoWorld . Retrieved 2014-03-27.
* ^ Luke Peters (1 April 2015). "
Microsoft launches MS-
Microsoft Lumia .
Microsoft . Archived from the original on 2 April
2015. Retrieved 2015-04-02. The MS-
DOS Mobile preview is an essential
* ^ A B Duncan, Ray (1988). The MS-
DOS Encyclopedia – version 1.0
through 3.2. Redmond, Wash.:
Microsoft Press. ISBN 1556150490 . OCLC
* ^ "Microsoft®
DOS Version Features". EMS Professional Software
and Specialty Services. Archived from the original on 2017-08-29.
* ^ "
DOS history". Pcmuseum.tripod.com. Self-published . Archived
from the original on 2017-08-29. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
* ^ "
DOS Informatie". ultrawindows.nl. Archived from
the original on 9 Aug 2011. Retrieved 2012-09-27.
* ^ A B "Standard Floppy Disk Formats Supported by MS-DOS".
Microsoft Support. Microsoft. Archived from the original on
2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
* ^ Shultz, Greg (6 November 2006). "Dinosaur Sightings: Installing
CBS Interactive . Archived from the original
on 2017-08-29. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
* ^ A B "MS-
DOS Partitioning Summary". Support. Microsoft.
Retrieved 17 June 2015.
* ^ "
DOS 4.0: About volume serial number". Faqs.org. Retrieved
* ^ Brown, Ralf D. (29 December 2002). "The x86
Retrieved 2011-10-14 – via Carnegie Mellon University.
* ^ Paul, Matthias (30 July 1997). "II.16.iv. Landessprachliche
Unterstützung – Codeseiten" . NWDOS-TIPs – Tips & Tricks rund um
DOS 7, mit Blick auf undokumentierte Details, Bugs und
Workarounds . MPDOSTIP (e-book) (in German) (edition 3, release 157
ed.). Archived from the original on 2016-06-06. Retrieved 2016-06-06.
* ^ "Country". MS-
DOS 6 Technical Reference.
Microsoft . ANSI.SYS.
Retrieved 2014-04-01 – via TechNet .
* ^ A B C D E F G Schulman, Andrew (1994). Undocumented DOS: A
Programmer's Guide to Reserved MS-
DOS Functions and Data Structures
Addison-Wesley . ISBN 0-201-63287-X .
* ^ "How Safe is Disk Compression?".
BYTE Magazine. February 1994.
Archived from the original on 19 June 2008.
* ^ "Exhibits to Microsoft\'s Cross Motion for Summary Judgment in
Novell WordPerfect Case". Groklaw. 23 November 2009. Retrieved
* ^ A B Goldstein, Phil (27 October 2017). "MS-
Synonymous with PC Operating Systems in the 1980s". BizTech Magazine.
Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January
* ^ "List of limitations in 64-Bit Windows". Support.
11 October 2007. Retrieved 2016-05-26.
* ^ Sedory, Daniel B. (8 December 2004). "
Windows XP MS-
Disk". The Starman's Realm. Archived from the original on 24 October
* ^ "MS-
DOS 6.22". winworldpc.com. Archived from the original on 5
January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
* ^ "Supplemental Disk - MS-
DOS 6 Technical Reference". Microsoft
Developer Network. Archived from the original on 2 September 2017.
Retrieved 26 January 2018.
* ^ Comerford, M. "
DOS Timeline ~ Part One ~ 1980 to 1993".
PowerLoad. Self-published . Archived from the original on 24 February
2006. Retrieved 18 June 2015.