HOME
The Info List - Münster


--- Advertisement ---



Münster
Münster
(German pronunciation: [ˈmʏnstɐ] ( listen); Low German: Mönster; Latin: Monasterium, from the Greek μοναστήριον monastērion, "monastery") is an independent city (Kreisfreie Städte) in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the Westphalia
Westphalia
region. It is also capital of the local government region Münsterland. Münster
Münster
was the location of the Anabaptist
Anabaptist
rebellion during the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
and the site of the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia
Westphalia
ending the Thirty Years' War in 1648. Today it is known as the bicycle capital of Germany. Münster
Münster
gained the status of a Großstadt (major city) with more than 100,000 inhabitants in 1915.[2] As of 2014[update], there are 300,000[3] people living in the city, with about 55,500 students,[citation needed] only some of whom are recorded in the official population statistics as having their primary residence in Münster.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and early modern period 1.3 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries 1.4 World War II 1.5 Postwar period 1.6 Post-reunification

2 Geography

2.1 Geographic position 2.2 Population density 2.3 Climate 2.4 Adjacent cities and districts 2.5 City boroughs

3 Demographics 4 Politics

4.1 The makeup of the City Council

5 Economy 6 Main sights 7 Education 8 Transportation

8.1 Bicycling 8.2 Train 8.3 Public transportation

9 Sports 10 British forces 11 International relations

11.1 Twin towns – sister cities

12 Notable residents 13 Gallery 14 See also 15 References 16 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Münster
History of Münster
and Timeline of Münster Early history[edit] In 793, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
sent out Ludger
Ludger
as a missionary to evangelise the Münsterland.[4] In 797, Ludger
Ludger
founded a school that later became the Cathedral School.[4] Gymnasium Paulinum
Gymnasium Paulinum
traces its history back to this school.[4] Ludger
Ludger
was ordained as the first bishop of Münster.[4] The first cathedral was completed by 850.[4] The combination of ford and crossroad, market place, episcopal administrative centre, library and school, established Münster
Münster
as an important centre.[5] In 1040, Heinrich III became the first king of Germany
Germany
to visit Münster.[4] Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and early modern period[edit] In the Middle Ages, the Prince-Bishopric of Münster
Prince-Bishopric of Münster
was a leading member of the Hanseatic League.[4]

View from the south-west of Münster
Münster
in 1570 as seen by Remigius Hogenberg. On the left is the Überwasserkirche, in the centre is St. Paul's Cathedral and to its right St. Lambert's Church, and on the far right is the Ludgerikirche

In 1534, the Anabaptists led by John of Leiden, took power in the Münster Rebellion
Münster Rebellion
and founded a democratic proto-socialistic state. They claimed all property, burned all books except the Bible, and called it the "New Jerusalem". John of Leiden
John of Leiden
believed he would lead the elect from Münster
Münster
to capture the entire world and purify it of evil with the sword in preparation for the Second Coming of Christ
Second Coming of Christ
and the beginning of the Millennium. They went so far as to require all citizens to be naked as preparation for the Second Coming. However, the town was recaptured in 1535; the Anabaptists were tortured to death, their corpses were exhibited in metal baskets (often confused with cages), which can still be seen hanging from the Tower of St. Lambert's steeple.[4] Part of the signing of the Peace of Westphalia
Westphalia
of 1648 was held in Münster.[6] This ended the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
and the Eighty Years' War.[6] It also guaranteed the future of the prince-bishop and the diocese; the area was to be exclusively Roman Catholic. 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries[edit]

Photo of the Prinzipalmarkt
Prinzipalmarkt
in 1900

The last outstanding palace of the German baroque period was created according to plans by Johann Conrad Schlaun.[4] The University of Münster
Münster
(today called "Westphalian Wilhelms-University", WWU) was established in 1780. It is now a major European centre for excellence in education and research with large faculties in the arts, humanities, theology, sciences, business and law. Currently there are about 40,000 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled.[citation needed] In 1802 Münster
Münster
was conquered by Prussia during the Napoleonic Wars. It was also part of the Grand Duchy of Berg between 1806 and 1811 and the Lippe department of the First French Empire between 1811 and 1813, before returning to Prussian rule. It became the capital of the Prussian province of Westphalia. A century later in 1899 the city's harbour started operations when the city was linked to the Dortmund-Ems Canal. World War II[edit]

Photo of part of the Prinzipalmarkt
Prinzipalmarkt
area around St. Lambert's church in 1945

In the 1940s The Bishop of Münster, Cardinal Clemens August Graf von Galen, was one of the most prominent critics of the Nazi government. In retaliation for his success ( The New York Times
The New York Times
described Bishop von Galen as "the most obstinate opponent of the National Socialist anti-Christian program"[7]), Münster
Münster
was heavily garrisoned during World War II, and five large complexes of barracks are still a feature of the city. Münster
Münster
was the headquarters (Hauptsitz) for the 6th Military District (Wehrkreis) of the German Wehrmacht, under the command of Infantry General (General der Infanterie) Gerhard Glokke. Originally made up of Westphalia
Westphalia
and the Rhineland, after the Battle of France
France
it was expanded to include the Eupen
Eupen
- Malmedy
Malmedy
district of Belgium. The headquarters controlled military operations in Münster, Essen, Düsseldorf, Wuppertal, Bielefeld, Coesfeld, Paderborn, Herford, Minden, Detmold, Lingen, Osnabrück, Recklinghausen, Gelsenkirchen, and Cologne. Münster
Münster
was the home station for the VI and XXIII Infantry Corps (Armeekorps), as well as the XXXIII and LVI Panzerkorps. Münster
Münster
was also the home of the 6th, 16th and 25th Panzer Division; the 16th Panzergrenadier
Panzergrenadier
Division; and the 6th, 26th, 69th, 86th, 106th, 126th, 196th, 199th, 211th, 227th, 253rd, 254th, 264th, 306th, 326th, 329th, 336th, 371st, 385th, and 716th Infantry Divisions (Infanterie-division). A secondary target of the Oil Campaign of World War II, Münster
Münster
was bombed on October 25, 1944 by 34 diverted B-24 Liberator
B-24 Liberator
bombers, during a mission to a nearby primary target, the Scholven/Buer synthetic oil plant at Gelsenkirchen. About 91% of the Old City and 63% of the entire city was destroyed by Allied air raids.[8] The US 17th Airborne Division, employed in a standard infantry role and not in a parachute capacity, attacked Münster
Münster
with the British 6th Guards Tank Brigade on 2 April 1945 in a ground assault and fought its way into the contested city centre, which was cleared in urban combat on the following day.[9] Postwar period[edit] From 1946 to 1998, there was a Latvian secondary school in Münster,[10] and in 1947, one of the largest of about 93 Latvian libraries in the West was established in Münster.[11] In the 1950s the Old City was rebuilt to match its pre-war state, though many of the surrounding buildings were replaced with cheaper modern structures. It was also for several decades a garrison town for the British forces stationed in West Germany.

Prinzipalmarkt, 2005.

Post-reunification[edit] In 2004, Münster
Münster
won an honourable distinction: the LivCom-Award for the most livable city in the world with a population between 200,000 and 750,000.[12] Münster
Münster
is famous and liked for its bicycle friendliness and for the student character of the city that is due to the influence of its university, the Westfälische Wilhelms Universität Münster.[13][14] Geography[edit] Geographic position[edit]

Gerard ter Borch: Dutch envoy Adriaan Pauw
Adriaan Pauw
enters Münster
Münster
around 1646 for the peace negotiations resulting in the Peace of Westphalia (Stadtmuseum Münster)

Münster
Münster
is situated on the river Aa, approximately 15 kilometres (9 miles) south of its confluence with the Ems in the Westphalian Bight, a landscape studded with dispersed settlements and farms, the so-called "Münsterland". The Wolstonian sediments of the mountain ridge called "Münsterländer Kiessandzug" cross the city from north to south. The highest elevation is the Mühlenberg in the northwest of Münster, 97 metres above sea level. The lowest elevation is at the Ems with 44 m above sea level. The city centre is 60 m above sea level, measured at the Prinzipalmarkt
Prinzipalmarkt
in front of the historic city hall. The Dutch city of Enschede
Enschede
is about 65 km (40 mi) northwest of Münster. Other major cities nearby include Osnabrück, about 44 km (27 mi) to the north, Dortmund, about 61 km (38 mi) to the south, and Bielefeld, about 62 km (39 mi) to the east. Münster
Münster
is one of the 42 agglomeration areas and one of Germany's biggest cities in terms of area. But this includes substantial sparsely populated, rural districts which were formerly separate local government authorities until they were amalgamated in 1975. Thus nearly half the city's area is agricultural, resulting in a low population density of approximately 900 inhabitants per km².

Bronze model of Münster's city centre

Münster's Lake Aa

Population density[edit] The city's built-up area is quite extensive. There are no skyscrapers and few high-rise buildings but very many detached houses and mansions. Still the population density reaches about 15,000 inhabitants per km² in the city centre.[15] Calculating the population density based on the actual populated area results in approximately 2890 inhabitants per km².[16][verification needed] Münster's urban area of 302.91 square kilometres (116.95 sq mi) is distributed into 57.54 square kilometres (22.22 sq mi) covered with buildings while 0.99 km2 (0.38 sq mi) are used for maintenance and 25.73 km2 (9.93 sq mi) for traffic areas, 156.61 km2 (60.47 sq mi) for agriculture and recreation, 8.91 km2 (3.44 sq mi) are covered by water, 56.69 km2 (21.89 sq mi) is forested and 6.23 km2 (2.41 sq mi) is used otherwise.[17]:18 The perimeter has a length of 107 kilometres (66 miles), the largest extend of the urban area in north–south direction is 24.4 km (15.2 mi), in east–west direction 20.6 km (12.8 mi).[18] Climate[edit] A well-known saying in Münster
Münster
is "Entweder es regnet oder es läuten die Glocken. Und wenn beides zusammen fällt, dann ist Sonntag" ("Either it rains or the church bells ring. And if both occur at the same time, it's Sunday."), but in reality the rainfall with approximately 758 mm (29.8 inches) per year is close to the average rainfall in Germany.[19] The perception of Münster
Münster
as a rain-laden city isn't caused by the absolute amount of rainfall but by the above-average number of rainy days with relatively small amounts of rainfall. The average temperature is 9.4 °C (48.9 °F) with approximately 1500 sun hours per year.[19] Consequently, Münster is in the bottom fifth in comparison with other German cities. The winter in Münster
Münster
is fairly mild and snowfall is unusual. The temperature during summertime meets the average in Germany. The highest daily rainfall was registered on July 28, 2014: One weather station of the MeteoGroup reported a rainfall of 122.2 l/m2 (2.50 imp gal/sq ft) the State Environment Agency registered at one of its stations 292 l/m2 (6.0 imp gal/sq ft) during seven hours.[20] The record rainfall led to severe flooding throughout the city and the nearby Greven.

Climate data for Münster

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 3 (37) 4 (39) 8 (46) 13 (55) 18 (64) 21 (70) 22 (72) 22 (72) 19 (66) 14 (57) 8 (46) 4 (39) 13 (55)

Average low °C (°F) −2 (28) −2 (28) 0 (32) 3 (37) 7 (45) 10 (50) 12 (54) 12 (54) 9 (48) 6 (43) 2 (36) −1 (30) 4.6 (40.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 65 (2.56) 48 (1.89) 60 (2.36) 50 (1.97) 64 (2.52) 74 (2.91) 67 (2.64) 66 (2.6) 63 (2.48) 54 (2.13) 71 (2.8) 77 (3.03) 758 (29.84)

Source: [19][21][verification needed]

Adjacent cities and districts[edit] Münster
Münster
borders on the following cities and municipalities, named clockwise and beginning in the northwest: Altenberge
Altenberge
and Greven (District of Steinfurt), Telgte, Everswinkel, Sendenhorst
Sendenhorst
and Drensteinfurt
Drensteinfurt
(District of Warendorf), as well as Ascheberg, Senden and Havixbeck
Havixbeck
(District of Coesfeld). City boroughs[edit]

Münster
Münster
administrative districts – the darker parts represent the built-up areas of the city

The city is divided into six administrative districts or Stadtbezirke: "Mitte" (Middle), "Nord" (North), "Ost" (East), "West", "Süd-Ost" (South-East) and "Hiltrup". Each district is represented by a council of 19 representatives elected in local elections. Heading each council is the district mayor, or Bezirksvorsteher. Every district is subdivided into residential quarters (Wohnbereiche). This official term, however, is not used in common speech, as there are no discrete definitions of the individual quarters. The term "Stadtteil" is used instead, mainly referring to the incorporated communities. The districts are also divided into 45 statistical districts. The following list names each district with its residential and additional quarters. These are the official names, which partly differ from the usage in common speech.[22]

Bicycle parking station, located at the Hauptbahnhof

Market Square Münster, Centre

Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Museum Münster, popular for sightseeing tours

Mitte:

Kernbereich (Centre)

Nord:

Münster-CoerdeCoerde Kinderhaus Sprakel with Sandrup

Ost:

Dyckburg, consisting of Mariendorf and Sudmühle Gelmer with Gittrup Handorf with Kasewinkel, Kreuzbach, Laer, Dorbaum and Verth on the left bank of the Ems and Werse Mauritz-Ost and Mondstraße, combined better known as St. Mauritz

West:

Albachten Gievenbeck Mecklenbeck Nienberge with Häger, Schönebeck and Uhlenbrock Roxel with Altenroxel and Oberort Sentruper Höhe

Süd-Ost:

Angelmodde with Hofkamp Gremmendorf
Gremmendorf
with Loddenheide Wolbeck

Hiltrup:

Amelsbüren with Sudhoff, Loevelingloh and Wilbrenning Berg Fidel Hiltrup

The centre can be subdivided into historically evolved city districts whose borders are not always strictly defined, such as

Aaseestadt Erphoviertel Geistviertel' Hansaviertel Herz-Jesu-Viertel Kreuzviertel Kuhviertel Mauritzviertel Neutor Pluggendorf Rumphorst Schlossviertel Südviertel Uppenberg Zentrum Nord

Demographics[edit]

Signal-Iduna-Building, Servatiiplatz

Münster
Münster
has approximately 300,000 inhabitants,[3] and more than 10,000 others who have their secondary residence in the city. The city has about 50,000 resident foreigners.[23] The life-expectancy in Münster
Münster
is 76.3 years for males and 83.1 years for females. The average age of Münster's residents was 40 in 2006.[17]:54 Number of largest minority groups in Münster
Münster
by nationality:[citation needed]

Rank Nationality Population (2018)

1  Syria 2,775

2  Poland 2,265

3  Serbia 1,885

4  Turkey 1,735

5  Portugal 1,636

6  Italy 1,143

7  Russia 987

8  Kosovo 839

9  Iraq 830

10  Spain 805

Politics[edit]

Lamberti square

The makeup of the City Council[edit]

Party Percentage Seats Source

Christian Democratic Union 35.21% 25 [24]

Social Democratic Party 26.98% 19

Green Party 20.14% 15

Free Democratic Party 5.85% 4

The Left 5.04% 4

UWG-MS 0.91% 1

Pirate Party 2.09% 2

Ecological Democratic Party 1.15% 1

Alternative for Germany 2.60% 2

Economy[edit] The city is considered the "creative desk of Westphalia".[25] Greater Münster
Münster
is home to many industries such as those of public authorities, consulting companies, insurance companies, banks, computer centres, publishing houses, advertising and design.[25] The service sector has created several thousand jobs.[25] Retailers have approximately 1.9 billion euro turnover.[25] The city still has traditional merchants' townhouses as well as modern outlets.[25] The job market situation in Münster
Münster
is "comparatively good".[26] Of the approximately 130,000 employees subject to social insurance contribution more than 80% work in the tertiary sector, about 17% work in the secondary sector and 1% work in the primary sector.[17]:95 Main sights[edit]

Main administration building of WWU

Botanic Garden

Krameramtshaus

Erbdrostenhof Palace, birthplace of Blessed Mary of the Divine Heart

Town Museum Münster

Headquarters LVM Insurance ("Villa Kunterbunt")

St. Paul's Cathedral, built in the 13th century in a mixture of late Romanesque and early Gothic styles. It was completely restored after World War II. It includes an astronomical clock of 1540, adorned with hand-painted zodiac symbols, which traces the movement of the planets, and plays a Glockenspiel
Glockenspiel
tune every noon. The Prinzipalmarkt, the main shopping street in the city centre with the Gothic town hall (14th century) in which the Peace of Westphalia treaty which put an end to the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
was signed in 1648. Immediately north of the Prinzipalmarkt
Prinzipalmarkt
is the Roggenmarkt. St Lambert's Church (1375), with three cages hanging from its tower above the clock face. In 1535 these cages were used to display the corpses of Jan van Leiden
Jan van Leiden
and other leaders of the Münster
Münster
Rebellion, who promoted polygamy and renunciation of all property. The Schloss (palace), built in 1767–87 as residence for the prince-bishops by the Baroque architect Johann Conrad Schlaun
Johann Conrad Schlaun
and Wilhelm Ferdinand Lipper. Now the administrative centre for the University. The Botanischer Garten Münster, a botanical garden founded in 1803. The Zwinger fortress built in 1528. Used from the 18th to the 20th century as a prison. During World War II, the Gestapo
Gestapo
used the Zwinger also for executions. "Krameramtshaus" (1589), an old guild house, which housed the delegation from the Netherlands during the signing of the Peace of Westphalia. Stadthaus (1773) Haus Rüschhaus (1743–49), a country estate situated in Nienberge, built by Johann Conrad Schlaun
Johann Conrad Schlaun
for himself Erbdrostenhof (1749–53), a Baroque palace, also built by Schlaun, residence of Droste zu Vischering noble family and birthplace of Blessed Mary of the Divine Heart. Clemenskirche (1745–53), a Baroque church, also built by Schlaun Signal-Iduna Building (1961), the first high-rise building in Münster. LVM-Building, high-rise building near the Aasee. LBS-Building, location of Münster's first zoo. Some old structures of the former zoo can be found in the park around the office building. Also the "Tuckesburg", the strange-looking house of the zoo-founder, is still intact. " Münster
Münster
Arkaden" (2006), new shopping centre between Prinzipalmarkt and the Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Museum of Graphic Art. "Cavete", the oldest academic pub in Münster Westphalian State Museum of Art and Cultural History University Bible museum Town Museum ("Stadtmuseum"), exhibition of a large collection showing the political and cultural history of the city from its beginning up to present, housed by a converted former department store University Mineralogical Museum Westphalian Horse Museum
Westphalian Horse Museum
("Hippomax") Mühlenhof open-air museum, depicting a typical Westphalian village as it looked centuries ago Westphalian Museum for Natural History, state museum and planetarium West Prussian State Museum ("Drostenhof Wolbeck") Museum of Lacquer Art (founded and operated by the company BASF Coatings) Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Museum of Graphic Art, the only museum devoted exclusively to the graphic works of Pablo Picasso Pinkus Müller
Pinkus Müller
the only brewery left in Münster
Münster
of original more than 150.

Education[edit] Münster
Münster
is home to many institutions of higher education, including the University of Münster
University of Münster
and University of Applied Sciences. The city also has 92 Schools of primary and secondary education. The city has 47,000 students.[27] Transportation[edit]

"Promenade" in the summer

Bicycling[edit] Münster
Münster
claims to be the bicycle capital of Germany.[28] It states that in 2007, vehicle traffic (36.4%) fell below traffic by bicycle (37.6%),[29] even though it is unclear how such a figure is defined. The city maintains an extensive network for bicycles including the popular "Promenade" which encircles Münster's city centre. While motorised vehicles are banned, there are paths for pedestrians. Additional bicycle paths link all city districts with the inner city and special traffic lights provide signals for bicyclists.[29] Bicycle stations in Münster
Münster
offer bicycle rentals.[29] Train[edit] Münster's Central Station is on the Wanne-Eickel– Hamburg
Hamburg
railway. The city is connected by Intercity trains to a lot of other German major cities. Public transportation[edit] Historically, Münster
Münster
had a historic tramway system, but later closed in 1954. Today, Münster
Münster
does have some public transportation, which includes bus expresses,[30] sightseeing buses,[31] "waterbuses",[32] and bicycle rentals.[29] Sports[edit] The city is home to Preußen Münster
Münster
which was founded on 30 April 1906. The main section is football and the team plays at Preußenstadion. Other important sports teams include the USC Münster e.V. volleyball club. British forces[edit] See also: British Forces Germany After the Second World War, Münster
Münster
became a major station within Osnabrück
Osnabrück
Garrison, part of British Forces Germany. Their presence was gradually reduced, yet there are still many active military bases. The last forces left Münster
Münster
on 4 July 2013.[33] International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Münster
Münster
is twinned with the following places:[34]

York, United Kingdom[34][35] Orléans, France[34] Kristiansand, Norway[34] Monastir, Tunisia[34] Rishon LeZion, Israel[34] Fresno, USA[34] Ryazan, Russia[34] Mühlhausen, Germany[34] Lublin, Poland[34][36]

Notable residents[edit]

Annette von Droste-Hülshoff
Annette von Droste-Hülshoff
1838

Annette von Droste-Hülshoff, (1797-1848), noble and one of the most important German poets Maria Droste zu Vischering, noble and nun beatified by Pope Paul VI. Georges Depping, German-French historian. Alfred Dregger, politician and leader of the Christian Democratic Union. Alfred Flechtheim, art dealer, art collector, journalist, and publisher. Carl Schuhmann, athlete. Clemens August Graf von Galen, cardinal, Bishop of Münster, beatified by Pope Benedict XVI. Gunther Plaut, Reform rabbi and author. Tanita Tikaram, German-British singer-songwriter Andreas Dombret, board member of German central bank Deutsche Bundesbank Ute Lemper, cabaret singer and actress

Wilhelm Emanuel Ketteler, bishop of Mainz

1811, December 25, Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler; † July 13, 1877 in Burghausen, 1850-1877 Bishop of Mainz
Mainz
("Workers Bishop"), co-founder of the Centre Party 1813, January 6, Paul Melchers; † December 14, 1895 in Rome, 1857-1866 Bishop of Osnabrück, 1866-1885 Archbishop of Cologne 1818, February 2, Joseph Arnold Weydemeyer; † August 26, 1866 in St. Louis (USA), soldier, journalist, newspaper editor, politician and Marxist revolutionary 1821, October 23, Maximilian Franz August von Forckenbeck; † 26 May 1892 in Berlin, National Liberal politician, mayor of Wroclaw and Berlin, president of the Prussian House of Representatives, president of the Reichstag 1824, 31 December, Bernard Altum; † 1 February 1900 in Eberswalde, zoologist, ornithologist and forest scientist 1833, January 26, Elisabeth Ney; † June 29, 1907 in Austin / Texas, sculptor

Gallery[edit]

Symbolic sword, old town-hall

Hauptbahnhof, Centre

Entrance bicycle station opposite the railway station

Promenade in autumn

Marienplatz Münster
Münster
Centre

Old Apollo cinema, Marienplatz

Münster's municipal theatre

Public Library, Centre

Landesmuseum Münster

Roadsign for the Ice Hall Münster

LVA (State Social Insurance Board) Münster-Nord

Trade Fair Centre Münster
Münster
(on a Sunday)

See also[edit]

Munster Province, Republic of Ireland CeNTech Fernmeldeturm Muenster, Texas
Muenster, Texas
(USA) Neaera H-Blockx Minster, Ohio

References[edit]

^ "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen". Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW (in German). 18 July 2016.  ^ "1900 to 1945". Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 20 April 2011.  ^ a b Martin Kalitschke (2014-10-11). "Jetzt hat Münster
Münster
300 000 Einwohner" [Now Münster
Münster
has 300 000 inhabitants]. Westfälische Nachrichten (in German). Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ a b c d e f g h i "793 to 1800". Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 20 April 2011.  ^ "Vita des heiligen Liudgers" [Resume of the holy Liudgers]. Kirchensite.de (in German). Archived from the original on 2009-01-10. Retrieved 2008-11-18.  ^ a b "A foray into town history". Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 20 April 2011.  ^ "The Lion of Münster
Münster
and Pius XII". 30Days. Retrieved 2010-11-20.  ^ Ian L. Hawkins (1999). The Munster Raid: Before and After. ISBN 978-0917678493.  ^ Stanton, Shelby (2006). World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946. Stackpole Books. p. 97.  ^ Ebdene, Aija (9 February 2005). "Greetings to all users of the Guide worldwide from the Latvian Community in Germany
Germany
(LKV)" (PDF). A Guide for Latvians Abroad. LKV. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2010.  ^ Smith, Inese; Štrāle, Aina (July 2006). "Witnessing and Preserving Latvian Culture in Exile: Latvian Libraries in the West". Library History, Volume 22, Number 2 - pp. 123-135(13). Maney Publishing. Retrieved 8 November 2010.  ^ "LivCom website, page for 2004 awards". livcomawards.com. Retrieved January 27, 2010.  ^ "With history into the future" (PDF). Stadt Münster. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-18.  ^ 10-minute DivX
DivX
coded film: the 48mb-version or the 87mb-version from the official Münster-homepage. ^ Amt für Stadtentwicklung, Stadtplanung, Verkehrsplanung. "Map of population density in the statistical areas" (PDF). Stadt Münster. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) [permanent dead link], page 2 ^ Regional statistics for NRW of Landesamt für Datenverarbeitung und Statistik Nordrhein-Westfalen ^ a b c "Jahres-Statistik 2006 Stadt Münster" [Yearly statistics 2006 City of Münster] (PDF) (in German). City of Münster. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-09.  ^ "Von Aasee bis Zwinger - ein kleines Glossar" [From Aasee to Zwinger - a small glossary] (in German). Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2008-05-04.  ^ a b c "Klima in Münster". kli. February 21, 2006. Archived from the original on May 6, 2006. Retrieved January 27, 2010.  ^ "Unwetterlage Deutschland Ende Juli 2014 - Extremregen in Münster". Unwetterzentral. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ "Monthly High/Lows for Münster, Germany". HolidayCheck (in German). Archived from the original on 2010-02-12. Retrieved January 27, 2010.  ^ "Hauptsatzung der Stadt Münster
Münster
vom 21.12.1995" [Main constituation of the city of Münster
Münster
on December 21, 1995] (PDF) (in German). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 9, 2008.  ^ "Learning German – without forgetting your native language". Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 20 April 2011.  ^ "Wahl des Rates der Stadt Münster
Münster
2014" [Election of the Council of the City of Münster
Münster
2014] (in German). Archived from the original on 2014-05-27. Retrieved 25 May 2014.  ^ a b c d e "Economic location". Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ "Job market". Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 20 April 2011.  ^ "Ten times Münster
Münster
- in brief". Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ "Bicycling Münster". Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 8 April 2011.  ^ a b c d "Bicycles". Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 8 April 2011.  ^ "How to travel by bus: some helpful tips" (PDF). Stadtwerke Münster. Retrieved 2018-03-10.  ^ "Stadtrundfahrten in Münster" [City tours in Münster]. Der Münster
Münster
Bus (in German). Retrieved 2018-03-10.  ^ "Das KombiTicket-WasserBus SOLAARIS – Ihre Vorteile auf einen Blick:" [The KombiTicket water bus SOLAARIS - Your benefits at a glance:]. Stadtwerke Münster
Münster
(in German). Retrieved 2018-03-10.  ^ "Abzug britischer Streitkräfte: Prinz Andrew verabschiedet die letzten Soldaten aus Münster" [Withdrawal of British forces: Prince Andrew bids farewell to the last soldiers from Münster]. Westfalen heute (in German). 11 June 2013. Retrieved 2017-03-22.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Portrait of Münster". Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2013-05-09. Retrieved 2013-08-07.  ^ "Enquiry Y4537: - City of York
York
Council". City of York
York
Council. 30 January 2012. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2013.  ^ "Miasta Partnerskie Lublina" [ Lublin
Lublin
- Partnership Cities] (in Polish). Lublin
Lublin
City Office. Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Münster
Münster
(Westfalen).

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Münster.

Official website (in German) English page of Münster
Münster
All-Weather Zoo (in English) Münster
Münster
Zoo at Zoo-Infos.de (in English) Muenster City Panoramas - Panoramic Views of Münster's Highlights (in German) 7Grad.org - Bunkers in Muenster - History of Muenster's air raid shelters (in German) The Siege of Muenster - audio discussion from "In Our Time" BBC Technology Park Münster
Münster
(Host of technology companies in Münster) (in English) Tourist-Info Münster
Münster
Events (in German) Texts on Wikisource:

"Münster". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.  " Münster
Münster
(Westphalia)". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). 1911.  "Münster". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (9th ed.). 1884. 

v t e

Cities in Germany
Germany
by population

1,000,000+

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich

500,000+

Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart

200,000+

Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal

100,000+

Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Bottrop Dortmund Duisburg Düsseldorf Essen Gelsenkirchen Hagen Hamm Herne Köln (Cologne) Krefeld Leverkusen Mönchengladbach Mülheim Münster Oberhausen Remscheid Solingen Wuppertal

Rural districts

Aachen Borken Coesfeld Düren Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis Euskirchen Gütersloh Heinsberg Herford Hochsauerlandkreis Höxter Kleve (Cleves) Lippe Märkischer Kreis Mettmann Minden-Lübbecke Oberbergischer Kreis Olpe Paderborn Recklinghausen Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis Rhein-Erft-Kreis Rhein-Kreis Neuss Rhein-Sieg-Kreis Siegen-Wittgenstein Soest Steinfurt Unna Viersen Warendorf Wesel

v t e

Members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
by Quarter

Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
shown in italics.

Wendish

Lübeck

Anklam Demmin Greifswald Hamburg Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Lüneburg Rostock Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Stettin (Szczecin) Stolp (Słupsk) Stockholm Stralsund Visby Wismar

Saxon

Brunswick Magdeburg

Berlin Bremen Erfurt Frankfurt
Frankfurt
an der Oder Goslar Mühlhausen Nordhausen

Baltic

Danzig (Gdańsk)

Breslau (Wrocław) Dorpat (Tartu) Elbing (Elbląg) Königsberg
Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Cracow (Kraków) Reval (Tallinn) Riga
Riga
(Rīga) Thorn (Toruń)

Westphalian

Cologne
Cologne
1 Dortmund
Dortmund
1

Deventer Groningen Kampen Münster Osnabrück Soest

Kontore

Principal

Bryggen
Bryggen
(Bergen) Hanzekantoor

Bruges Antwerp2 

Steelyard
Steelyard
(London) Peterhof (Novgorod)

Subsidiary

Bishop's Lynn Falsterbo Ipswich Kaunas Malmö Polotsk Pskov

Other cities

Bristol Boston Damme Leith Herford Hull Newcastle Stargard Yarmouth York Zutphen Zwolle

1 Cologne
Cologne
and Dortmund
Dortmund
were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at different times. 2 Antwerp
Antwerp
gained importance once Bruges
Bruges
became inaccessible due to the silting of the Zwin
Zwin
channel.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 132447077 LCCN: n82040141 GND: 4040608-8 SUDOC: 030154189 BNF:

.