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Luton
Luton
(/ˈluːtən/ ( listen) LOOT-ən)[4] is a large town in Bedfordshire, England,[5][6] 20 miles (30 km) east of Aylesbury, 14 miles (20 km) west of Stevenage, 30 miles (50 km) northwest of London, and 22 miles (40 km) southeast of Milton Keynes. London
London
Luton
Luton
Airport, opened in 1938, is one of Britain's major airports. The University of Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
is also based in the town. Luton
Luton
is home to League Two team Luton
Luton
Town Football Club, whose history includes several spells in the top flight of the English league as well as a Football League Cup
Football League Cup
triumph in 1988. They play at Kenilworth Road, their home since 1905. The town was for many years famous for hat-making, and also had a large Vauxhall Motors
Vauxhall Motors
factory. Car production at the plant began in 1905 and continued until 2002. Production of commercial vehicles continues, and the head office of Vauxhall Motors
Vauxhall Motors
is still in the town. Luton
Luton
Carnival, traditionally held on the Whitsun
Whitsun
May bank holiday, is the largest one-day carnival in Europe.[7]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 17th century 1.3 18th century 1.4 19th century 1.5 20th century 1.6 21st century

2 Governance

2.1 Parliamentary representation 2.2 Police and crime commissioner 2.3 Local council 2.4 Luton
Luton
Council coat of arms

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Areas

4 Demography

4.1 Ethnicity 4.2 Religion 4.3 Economic activity

5 Economy

5.1 Shopping 5.2 Food and drink 5.3 Principal employers

6 Transport 7 Education 8 Culture and leisure

8.1 Sport 8.2 Wardown Park 8.3 Stockwood Park 8.4 Carnival 8.5 Luton
Luton
St. Patrick's Festival 8.6 Imagine Luton
Luton
Festival 8.7 Theatre 8.8 Museums

8.8.1 Wardown House 8.8.2 Stockwood Discovery Centre 8.8.3 Mossman Collection

8.9 Local attractions

9 Twin towns 10 Media

10.1 Newspapers 10.2 Radio 10.3 Television 10.4 Media references

11 Lutonians

11.1 By birth 11.2 By association

12 See also 13 References

13.1 Bibliography

14 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Luton Early history[edit] The earliest settlements in the Luton
Luton
area were at Round Green
Round Green
and Mixes Hill, where Paleolithic
Paleolithic
encampments (about 250,000 years old) have been found.[8] Settlements re-appeared after the ice had retreated in the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
period around 8000 BC. Traces of these settlements have been found[by whom?] in the Leagrave
Leagrave
area of the modern town. Remains from the Neolithic
Neolithic
period (4500–2500 BC in this area) are much more common. A particular concentration of Neolithic burials occurs at Galley Hill.[9] The most prominent Neolithic structure is Waulud's Bank
Waulud's Bank
– a henge dating from around 3000 BC. From the Neolithic
Neolithic
onwards, the area seems to have been populated, but without any single large settlement. Luton
Luton
itself is believed to have been founded by the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
sometime in the 6th century,[10] and named for its situation on the River Lea.[11] After the establishment of the Danelaw
Danelaw
in the east of England
England
and the unification of the remaining English kingdoms in the west, Luton
Luton
stood on the border between Christendom
Christendom
and Heathenism which ran up the River Lea
River Lea
from London
London
through to Bedford.[12] The Anglo Saxon Chronicle
Anglo Saxon Chronicle
for the year 913 mentions Luton
Luton
because locals fought off a Viking
Viking
raiding band: "In this year the [Danish] army from Northampton and Leicester
Leicester
rode out after Easter [28th March] and broke the peace, and killed many men at Hook Norton [Oxfordshire] and round about there. And then very soon after that, as the one force came home, they met another raiding band which rode out against Luton. And then the people of the district became aware of it and fought against them and reduced them to full flight and rescued all that they had captured and also a great part of their horses and their weapons".[12] Archaeological finds for this genesis of Lutonian history include 50 burials, 8 cremations, 16 spears, 22 knives (seax), a sword, 8 shield bosses, a pair of iron shears, a single bone comb, countless examples of brooches, pendants and other jewellery of bronze and amber and shards of pottery.[13] The Domesday Book
Domesday Book
records Luton
Luton
as Loitone and also as Lintone.[14] Agriculture dominated the local economy at that time, and the town's population was around 700 to 800.[15] But this number could[original research?] represent a recently reduced population as a direct result of the Norman Invasion and the English resistance that followed. The Domesday Book
Domesday Book
records the value of King William's English possessions 20 years after his victory at Hastings, during which period, as the book would suggest, much destruction and death took place. Besides Luton, Biscot
Biscot
and Caddington
Caddington
also have entries in the Domesday Book for the surrounding area and in both these cases the value of the lands are much lower than their pre-invasion state, indicating a loss of households, livestock and crops.[16][17]

St Mary's Church, Luton
Luton
town centre

The Wenlock chapel within St Mary's

In 1121 Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester
Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester
started work on St Mary's Church in the centre of the town. The work was completed by 1137.[18] A motte-and-bailey castle which gives its name to the modern Castle Street was built in 1139. The castle was demolished in 1154[19] and the site is now occupied by a Matalan
Matalan
store. During the Middle Ages Luton
Luton
is recorded[by whom?] as having six watermills. Mill Street, in the town centre, takes its name from one of them. King John (1166–1216) had hired a mercenary soldier, Falkes de Breauté, to act on his behalf. (Breauté is a small town near Le Havre in France.) When he married, Falkes de Breauté
Falkes de Breauté
acquired his wife's house which came to be known as "Fawkes Hall", subsequently corrupted over the years to "Foxhall", then to "Vauxhall". In return for his services, King John granted Falkes the manor of Luton, where he built a castle alongside St Mary's Church. He was also granted the right to bear his own coat of arms and chose the mythical griffin as his heraldic emblem. The griffin thus became associated with both Vauxhall
Vauxhall
and Luton
Luton
in the early 13th century.[20] By 1240 the town is recorded as "Leueton". One "Simon of Luton" was Abbot of Bury St Edmunds from 1257 to 1279. The town had a market for surrounding villages in August each year, and with the growth of the town a second fair was granted each October from 1338. In 1336 a large fire destroyed much of Luton; however, the town was soon rebuilt. The agriculture base of the town changed in the 16th century with a brick-making industry developing around Luton; many of the older wooden houses were rebuilt in brick. 17th century[edit] During the English Civil War
English Civil War
of the 17th century, in 1645, royalists entered the town and demanded money and goods. Parliamentary forces arrived and during the fighting four royalist soldiers were killed and a further twenty-two were captured. A second skirmish occurred three years later in 1648 when a royalist army passed through Luton. A number of royalists were attacked by parliamentary soldiers at an inn on the corner of the current Bridge Street. Most of the royalists escaped but nine were killed. 18th century[edit] The hat making industry began in the 17th century and became synonymous with the town.[21][not in citation given] By the 18th century the industry dominated the town.[citation needed] Hats are still produced in the town but on a much smaller scale. The first Luton Workhouse
Luton Workhouse
was constructed in the town in 1722.[22] Luton
Luton
Hoo, a nearby large country house, was built in 1767 and substantially rebuilt after a fire in 1843. It is now a luxury hotel.[23] 19th century[edit]

A map of Luton
Luton
from 1888

The town grew strongly in the 19th century. In 1801 the population was 3,095.[24] By 1850 it was over 10,000 and by 1901 it was almost 39,000. Such rapid growth demanded a railway connection but the town had to wait a long time for one. The London
London
and Birmingham Railway (L&BR) had been built through Tring
Tring
in 1838, and the Great Northern Railway was built through Hitchin
Hitchin
in 1852, both bypassing Luton, the largest town in the area. A branch line connecting with the L&BR at Leighton Buzzard
Leighton Buzzard
was proposed, but because of objections to release of land, construction terminated at Dunstable
Dunstable
in 1848. It was another ten years before the branch was extended to Bute Street Station, and the first train to Dunstable
Dunstable
ran on 3 May 1858.[25] The line was later extended to Welwyn and from 1860 direct trains to King's Cross ran. The Midland Railway
Midland Railway
was extended from Bedford
Bedford
to St Pancras through Leagrave
Leagrave
and Midland Road station and opened on 9 September 1867.[26] Luton
Luton
received a gas supply in 1834. Gas street lights were erected and the first town hall was opened in 1847.[27] Following a cholera epidemic in 1848 Luton
Luton
established a water company and had a complete water and sewerage system by the late 1860s. Newspaper printing arrived in the town in 1854. The first public cemetery was opened in the same year. The first covered market was built (the Plait Halls – now demolished) in 1869. Luton
Luton
was made a borough in 1876.[28] A professional football club – the first in the South of England
South of England
– was founded in 1885 following a resolution at the town hall that a ' Luton
Luton
Town Club be formed'.[29] The crest also includes a hand holding a bunch of wheat, either taken as a symbol of the straw-plaiting industry, or from the arms of John Whethamsteade, Abbott of St Albans, who rebuilt the chancel of St Mary's Church in the 15th century. 20th century[edit]

Luton Museum
Luton Museum
& Art Gallery in Wardown Park

Luton's hat trade reached its peak in the 1930s,[30] but severely declined after the Second World War
Second World War
and was replaced by other industries. In 1905, Vauxhall Motors
Vauxhall Motors
opened the largest car plant in the United Kingdom in Luton. In 1914 Hewlett & Blondeau aviation entrepreneurs built a factory in Leagrave
Leagrave
which began aircraft production built under licence for the war effort; the site was purchased in 1920 by new proprietors Electrolux
Electrolux
domestic appliances, and this was followed by other light engineering businesses. In 1901 the Bailey Water Tower was built[31] on the edge of what was to become Luton Hoo
Luton Hoo
memorial park. It is now a private residence. In 1904 councillors Asher Hucklesby
Asher Hucklesby
and Edwin Oakley purchased the estate at Wardown Park
Wardown Park
and donated it to the people of Luton. Hucklesby went on to become Mayor of Luton. The main house in the park became Wardown Park
Wardown Park
Museum. The town had a tram system from 1908 until 1932, and the first cinema was opened in 1909. By 1914 the population had reached 50,000. The original town hall was destroyed in 1919 during Peace Day celebrations at the end of the First World War. Local people, including many ex-servicemen, were unhappy with unemployment and had been refused the use of a local park to hold celebratory events. They stormed the town hall, setting it alight (see Luton
Luton
Town Hall). A replacement building was completed in 1936. Luton Airport
Luton Airport
opened in 1938, owned and operated by the council.

The first town hall was destroyed in 1919

The pre-war years, even at the turn of the 1930s when a Great Depression saw unemployment reach record levels nationally, were something of an economic boom for Luton, as new industries grew and prospered. New private and council housing was built in the 1920s and 1930s, with Luton
Luton
growing as a town to incorporate nearby villages Leagrave, Limbury
Limbury
and Stopsley
Stopsley
between 1928 and 1933.[32] In the Second World War, the Vauxhall
Vauxhall
Factory built Churchill tanks[33] as part of the war effort. Despite heavy camouflage, the factory made Luton
Luton
a target for the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
and the town suffered a number of air raids. 107 died[34] and there was extensive damage to the town (over 1,500 homes were damaged or destroyed). Other industry in the town, such as SKF, which produced ball bearings, made a vital contribution to the war effort. Although a bomb landed at the SKF Factory,[35] no major damage was caused. Post-war, the slum clearance continued, and a number of substantial estates of council housing were built, notably at Farley Hill, Stopsley, Limbury, Marsh Farm
Marsh Farm
and Leagrave
Leagrave
(Hockwell Ring). The M1 motorway
M1 motorway
passed just to the west of the town, opening in 1959 and giving it a direct motorway link with London
London
and – eventually – the Midlands and the North. In 1962 a new library (to replace the cramped Carnegie Library) was opened by the Queen in the corner of St George's Square. In the late 1960s a large part of the town centre was cleared to build a large covered shopping centre, the Arndale Centre, which was opened in 1972.[36] It was refurbished and given a glass roof in the 1990s.

The town centre still has some of the old hat factories

In 2000, Vauxhall
Vauxhall
announced the end of car production in Luton; the plant closed in March 2002.[37] At its peak it had employed in excess of 30,000 people. Vauxhall's headquarters remain in the town, as does its van and light commercial vehicle factory. 21st century[edit] A major regeneration programme for the town centre is under way, which will include upgrades to the town's bus and railway stations as well as improvements to the town's urban environment. St George's Square has been rebuilt[38] and reopened in 2007. The new design won a Gold Standard Award for the Town Centre Environment from the annual British Council of Shopping Centres awards.[39] Work was completed on an extension to the Mall Shopping Centre facing St George's Square, the largest of the new units to was taken by TK Maxx. Planning applications for a much larger extension to the Mall Arndale Shopping Centre (In the Northern Gateway area – Bute Street, Silver Street and Guildford
Guildford
Street) and also for a new centre in Power Court[40] (close to St Mary's Church) have been submitted. On the edge of Luton
Luton
at Putteridge Bury
Putteridge Bury
a high-technology office park, Butterfield Green, is under construction. The former Vauxhall
Vauxhall
site is also to be re-developed as a mixed use site called Napier Park.[41] It will feature housing, retail and entertainment use, including a new casino. Governance[edit]

Logo of Luton
Luton
Borough Council

The town is situated within the historic county of Bedfordshire, but since 1997 Luton
Luton
has been an administratively independent unitary authority. The town remains part of Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
for ceremonial purposes. Luton Borough Council
Luton Borough Council
applied for city status at the Millennium in 2000, Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II
Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II
in 2002 and Diamond Jubilee in 2012.[42] The latest bid was rejected in March 2012.[43] Parliamentary representation[edit] Main article: Politics in Luton Luton
Luton
is represented by two Members of Parliament. The constituency of Luton
Luton
North has been held by Kelvin Hopkins
Kelvin Hopkins
(Labour) since 1997. Luton South has been held by Gavin Shuker
Gavin Shuker
(Labour) since 2010. Luton
Luton
is within the East of England
East of England
European Parliament constituency. Police and crime commissioner[edit] Luton
Luton
is served by the Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
police. The Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
Police and Crime Commissioner is Kathryn Holloway. Local council[edit] Lutonians are governed by Luton
Luton
Borough Council. The town is split into 19 wards, represented by 48 councillors. Elections are held for all seats every four years, with the most recent local elections held in May 2011 and the next due in May 2015. The Council is controlled by the Labour group, who have 36 Local Councillors (a majority of 24). The next largest party is the Liberal Democrats with 8 seats, followed by the Conservative Party with 4 seats.[44]

Position Current representatives

Members of Parliament

Kelvin Hopkins, Labour, elected 1997 · Gavin Shuker, Labour, elected 2010

Luton
Luton
Council coat of arms[edit]

Luton Borough Council
Luton Borough Council
coat of arms: granted 25 July 1876

In 1876 the town council was granted its own coat of arms. The wheatsheaf was used on the crest to represent agriculture and the supply of straw used in the local hatting industry (the straw-plaiting industry was brought to Luton
Luton
by a group of Scots under the protection of Sir John Napier
John Napier
of Luton
Luton
Hoo). The bee is traditionally the emblem of industry and the hive represents the straw-plaiting industry for which Luton
Luton
was famous. The rose is from the arms of the Napier family, whereas the thistle is a symbol for Scotland. An alternative suggestion is that the rose was a national emblem, and the thistle represents the Marquess of Bute, who formerly owned the Manor of Luton Hoo.[45][46] Geography[edit]

Neighbouring areas

Milton Keynes Bedford Hitchin

Dunstable

Luton

Stevenage

Berkhamsted Hemel Hempstead Harpenden

A pedestrian suspension bridge spans the River Lea
River Lea
in Wardown Park.

Luton
Luton
is located in a break in the Eastern part of the Chiltern Hills. The Chilterns are a mixture of chalk from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period[47] (about 66 – 145 million years ago) and deposits laid at the southernmost points of the ice sheet during the last ice age (the Warden Hills
Warden Hills
area can be seen from much of the town). Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
had a reputation for brick making but the industry is now significantly reduced. The brickworks[48] at Stopsley
Stopsley
took advantage of the clay deposits in the east of the town. The source of the River Lea, part of the Thames Valley
Thames Valley
drainage basin, is in the Leagrave
Leagrave
area of the town. The Great Bramingham
Bramingham
Wood surrounds this area. It is classified as ancient woodland; records mention the wood at least 400 years ago. There are few routes through the hilly area for some miles, this has led to several major roads (including the M1 and the A6) and a major rail-link being constructed through the town. Climate[edit] Luton
Luton
has a temperate marine climate, like much of the British Isles, with generally light precipitation throughout the year. The weather is very changeable from day to day and the warming influence of the Gulf Stream makes the region mild for its latitude. The average total annual rainfall is 698 mm (27.5 in) with rain falling on 117 days of the year.

Snow accumulation over the Chiltern hills during October 2008 snowfall, Luton
Luton
is denoted by the yellow dot.

The local climate around Luton
Luton
is differentiated somewhat from much of South East England
England
due to its position in the Chiltern Hills, meaning it tends to be 1–2 degrees Celsius cooler than the surrounding towns – often flights at Luton
Luton
airport, lying 160 m (525 ft) above sea level, will be suspended when marginal snow events occur, while airports at lower elevations, such as Heathrow, at 25 m (82 ft) above sea level, continue to function. An example of this is shown in the photograph to the right, the snowline being about 100 m (328 ft) above sea level. Absolute temperature extremes recorded at Rothamsted Research Station, 5 miles (8 km) south south east of Luton
Luton
town centre and at a similar elevation range from −17.0 °C (1.4 °F)[49] in December 1981 and −16.7 °C (1.9 °F) in January 1963[50] to 36.0 °C (96.8 °F) in August 2003[51] and 33.8 °C (92.8 °F) in August 1990[52] and July 2006.[53] Records for Rothamsted date back to 1901.

Climate data for Rothamsted 1971–2000 (Weather station 5 miles (8 km) to the south of Luton)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6.3 (43.3) 6.7 (44.1) 9.5 (49.1) 11.9 (53.4) 15.7 (60.3) 18.6 (65.5) 21.4 (70.5) 21.4 (70.5) 18.0 (64.4) 13.8 (56.8) 9.4 (48.9) 7.2 (45) 13.4 (56.1)

Average low °C (°F) 0.9 (33.6) 0.7 (33.3) 2.3 (36.1) 3.6 (38.5) 6.3 (43.3) 9.2 (48.6) 11.4 (52.5) 11.4 (52.5) 9.5 (49.1) 6.7 (44.1) 3.3 (37.9) 1.9 (35.4) 5.6 (42.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 69.5 (2.736) 47.3 (1.862) 54.0 (2.126) 53.1 (2.091) 49.8 (1.961) 60.4 (2.378) 41.2 (1.622) 53.6 (2.11) 60.9 (2.398) 74.4 (2.929) 66.0 (2.598) 67.6 (2.661) 697.8 (27.472)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.2 70.6 107.3 146.7 194.7 190.2 203.4 196.5 142.2 112.2 70.2 48.1 1,537.2

Source: Met Office[54]

Areas[edit] The Victorian expansion of Luton
Luton
focused on areas close to the existing town centre and railways. In the 1920s and 1930s growth typically was though absorbing neighbouring villages and hamlets(an example being Leagrave) and infill construction between them and Luton. After the Second World War
Second World War
there were several estates and developments constructed both by the local council such as Farley Hill or Marsh Farm, or privately such as Bushmead.

Barnfield Biscot Bramingham Challney Crawley Dallow Farley Hill High Town Icknield Leagrave

Lewsey Limbury-cum-Biscot Northwell Round Green Saints South ward Stopsley Sundon Park Wigmore

More about Places within Luton Demography[edit] Main article: Demography of Luton

Racial structure, according to the 2011 census   White (54.6%)   Asian (30.0%)   Black (9.8%)   Mixed (4.1%)   Other (1.5%)

The United Kingdom Census 2011
United Kingdom Census 2011
showed that the borough had a population of 203,201,[55] a 10.2% increase from the previous census in 2001, when Luton
Luton
was the 27th[56] largest settlement in the United Kingdom. In 2011, 46,756 were aged under 16, 145,208 were 16 to 74, and 11,237 were 75 or over.[57] The latest population figure for the borough is 216,800 (mid-2016 est.).[5]

Population since 1801 – Source: A Vision of Britain through Time[58]

Year 1801 1851 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011

Population Luton 2,985 11,067 31,981 49,315 57,378 66,762 84,516 106,999 132,017 162,928 163,208 174,567 184,390 203,201

Local inhabitants are known as Lutonians. Ethnicity[edit]

Religion in Luton
Luton
(2011 census)    Christianity
Christianity
(46.4%)    Islam
Islam
(25.6%)    Hinduism
Hinduism
(3.3%)    Sikhism
Sikhism
(1.1%)   Other religions (0.7%)   Not stated (7.2%)   No religion (16.5%)

Luton
Luton
has seen several waves of immigration. In the early part of the 20th century, there was internal migration of Irish and Scottish people to the town. These were followed by Afro-Caribbean and Asian immigrants. More recently immigrants from other European Union countries have made Luton
Luton
their home. As a result of this Luton
Luton
has a diverse ethnic mix, with a significant population of Asian descent, mainly Pakistani 29,353 (14.4%) and Bangladeshi 13,606 (6.7%).[59] Since the 2011 census, Luton
Luton
has become one of three white British-minority towns in the United Kingdom. It was announced in a report based on the census figures that along with Leicester
Leicester
and Slough, Luton
Luton
was one of three towns outside London
London
where the indigenous population was now a minority, making up only 45% of Luton's population. However, the town still has a white majority when non-British whites such as the Irish and Eastern Europeans are included[59]. Of note, 81% of the population of Luton
Luton
still define themselves as British, despite the majority of its residents being from a foreign ethnic background.[60]

Luton: Ethnicity: 2011 Census[59]

Ethnic group Population %

White 111,079 54.6

Mixed 8,281 4.1

Asian or Asian British 60,952 30.0

Black or Black British 19,909 9.8

Other Ethnic Group 2.980 1.5

Total 203,201 100

Religion[edit]

The Methodist
Methodist
Chapel in High Town (built 1897)

The Guru Nanak Gurdwara Sikh
Sikh
Temple, Luton

In the ten-year period since the United Kingdom Census 2001, the percentage of inhabitants in Luton
Luton
reporting being Christian fell from 60 to 47%. Meanwhile, those reporting being Muslim
Muslim
increased from 15 to 25%.[61][62]

Religion Population %

Christian 96,271 46.4

Muslim 51,992 25.6

Hindu 6,749 1.0

Sikh 2,347 1.0

Buddhist 652 0.3

Jewish 326 0.2

Other 898 0.4

No religion 33,594 16.5

Religion not stated 12,373 6.1

Luton
Luton
has been identified as a "centre of extremism",[63] "hotbed of terror",[64][65] "epicentre of the global clash of civilisations",[66] and "remarkable breeding ground for both Islamist and far-right extremism".[67][68][69][70] Banned Islamic extremist groups such as Al-Muhajiroun, Al Ghurabaa, The Saviour Sect and Islam4UK
Islam4UK
led by Anjem Choudary[71] were based there before being proscribed for glorifying terrorism.[72][73][74] The founder of the English Defence League
English Defence League
is from Luton, and the EDL itself originated from a group known as the "United Peoples of Luton".[75] A terrorist group known as the "Luton cell" is believed to have masterminded the 2010 Stockholm bombings[76] and had plans to blow up Heathrow Airport, the London
London
Underground and other high profile targets.[77] A number of Lutonians, including entire families have left for the caliphate of Isis – most notoriously the Mannan family of 12 including a one-year-old baby.[78][79] However, many residents say that the numbers of extremists, both Muslims and far-right, are small.[80] Inayat Bunglawala of the Muslim Council of Britain lives in Luton, and a local representative of Churches Together described "the reality of life in the town" as "a healthy interaction between people of different faiths".[80] According to a leaked secret intelligence report, of the "some thousands" of militants in Britain "the main extremist concentrations are in London, Birmingham, with significant extremist networks in the South East, notably Luton,"[81] planning mass-casualty attacks in Britain.[82] In October 2001, 3 men from Luton
Luton
who joined mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan were among the first UK casualties of war on terrorism.[83][84] One of the four terrorists convicted for the 2004 foiled fertilizer bomb plot as well as the suspected mastermind were from Luton.[85][86][87] One month latter a group of men from Luton were jailed over plans to bomb the Luton
Luton
Army Reserve Centre.[88] The 7/7 bombers, who killed 52 people on London’s transport routes in 2005, convened in Luton
Luton
before taking the trains from there to London.[89] In June 2007, Abdul Aziz Jalil of Luton
Luton
was one of a group of seven jailed for involvement in plotting terrorist atrocities such as a radioactive "dirty bomb", hijacking a train and blowing up a petrol tanker in a series of co-ordinated attacks, attacking Tube trains under the Thames, to flood the tunnel, and the Heathrow Express.[90][91] In April 2007 Salahuddin Amin of Luton, was jailed for conspiring to unleash a fertiliser bomb.[92][93] A Muslim
Muslim
protest in March 2009 against soldiers returning from the Iraq War
Iraq War
was followed by a counter-demonstration opposing sharia law in the United Kingdom. In January 2010, Five Luton
Luton
men were convicted of using threatening, abusive or insulting words or behaviour likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress for abusive chants while protesting soldiers.[94] In 2010, Swedish student Taimour Abdulwahab blew himself up in central Stockholm after attending university in the town.[95] According to a May 2014 Ofsted report, Olive Tree Primary School in Luton
Luton
provided books that promoted fundamentalist views, such as stoning and lashing being appropriate punishments, and did not ensure that it promoted respect for the British values of democracy, the rule of law, including tolerance of people with different faiths, beliefs, cultural.[96] In July 2015, the 12 members of the Mannan family left Luton
Luton
to join ISIS,[97][98] and Junead Khan of Luton
Luton
was arrested for conspiring to murder a US soldier and trying to join IS.[99][100] In September 2015, Abu Rahin Aziz of Luton
Luton
was killed in a US attack near Raqqa in Syria, after skipping bail for an assault on a football fan.[101] In Dec. 2015, police uncovered an Luton
Luton
Islamist cell encouraging people to support Islamic State terrorists and urging young men and children to fight the West.[102] In Jan 2016, two men were convicted for supporting ISIS, one of whom was also convicted for possessing information “likely to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism.”[103] It was also uncovered that he'd been grooming his young children for jihad as well.[104] Around the same time, Britain First
Britain First
carried out a "Christian patrol" in Luton,[105] and the patrols leaders were arrested by police on suspicion of wearing a political uniform and banned from entering Luton
Luton
under bail conditions.[106] In may 2016, Junead Khan of Luton
Luton
was jailed for life, for plotting to kill US personnel outside an air base and preparing to go to Syria to join so-called Islamic State (IS).[107][108] In August 2016, 3 Luton
Luton
men who praised the Charlie Hebdo attack were found guilty of "infecting the young minds of children" encouraging children to join Isis.[109][110] In February 2017, Five men were convicted of organizing and delivering terrorist speeches in Luton
Luton
in 2015.[111][112][113] Khalid Masood (born Adrian Ajao), who carried out the 2017 Westminster attack
2017 Westminster attack
lived in Luton
Luton
from 2009 to 2013.[114] Following the 2017 Buckingham Palace incident, Mohiussunnath Chowdhury of Luton
Luton
was charged with preparing an act of terrorism.[115] According to a November 2017 Ofsted report, Olive Tree Primary School in Luton
Luton
provided inappropriate books were found in the school’s library that did not promote British values, written by an author who is banned from entering, or has been expelled from, several countries, including Britain; despite the school having claimed that they were removed following an inspection in May.[116][117] Economic activity[edit] Of the town's working population (classified 16–74 years of age by the Office for National Statistics), 63% are employed. This figure includes students, the self-employed and those who are in part-time employment. 11% are retired, 8% look after the family or take care of the home and 5% are unemployed.[118] Economy[edit]

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Main article: Economy of Luton

Griffin
Griffin
House, headquarters of Vauxhall
Vauxhall
Motors

Hangar 89, EasyJet
EasyJet
headquarters

Luton's economy has, traditionally been focused on several different areas of industry including Car Manufacture, engineering and millinery. However, today, Luton
Luton
is moving towards a service based economy mainly in the retail and the airport sectors, although there is still a focus on light industry in the town. Notable firms with headquarters in Luton
Luton
include:

EasyJet
EasyJet
– head office (originally EasyLand, later moved into Hangar 89[119]) and main base at London
London
Luton
Luton
Airport Impellam Group – headquarters at Capability Green[120] Monarch Airlines
Monarch Airlines
– headquarters at Luton Airport
Luton Airport
(Prospect House)[121] TUI UK ( Thomson Holidays
Thomson Holidays
and Thomson Airways) – travel (Wigmore House)[122][123] Vauxhall Motors
Vauxhall Motors
– headquarters ( Griffin
Griffin
House)[124]

Notable firms with offices in Luton
Luton
include:

Anritsu
Anritsu
– electronics[125] AstraZeneca
AstraZeneca
– pharmaceuticals[126] Selex ES
Selex ES
– aerospace[127] Ernst & Young – accountants[128] Whitbread
Whitbread
– hospitality[129]

Shopping[edit]

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The Mall Luton, the main shopping destination in Luton.

The main shopping area in Luton
Luton
is centred on the Mall Luton. Built in the 1960s/1970s and opened as an Arndale Centre, construction of the shopping centre led to the demolition of a number of the older buildings in the town centre including the Plait Halls (a Victorian covered market building with an iron and glass roof). Shops and businesses in the remaining streets, particularly in the roads around Cheapside and in High Town, have been in decline ever since. George Street, on the south side of the Arndale, was pedestrianised in the 1990s. The shopping centre had some construction and re-design work done to it over the 2011/12 period and now has a new square used for leisure events, as well as numerous new food restaurants such as Toby's Carvery and Costa Coffee. Contained within the main shopping centre is the market, which contains butchers, fishmongers, fruit and veg, hairdressers, tattoo parlours, ice cream, flower stall, T-shirt printing and the markets original sewing shop for clothes alterations and repairs as well as eating places. Another major shopping area is Bury Park
Bury Park
where there are shops catering to Luton's ethnic minorities. Food and drink[edit] Luton
Luton
has a diverse selection of restaurants – English, Italian, Chinese, Indian, Caribbean, Thai and Malaysian to name a few. No area of the town is specifically restaurant-orientated, but in some areas (such as Bury Park) there is a concentration of Asian restaurants.

A typical street in Bury Park, where there are a significant number of restaurants.

There are pubs and clubs in the town centre, a number of which cater for the student population; however, a number of traditional pubs remain. Principal employers[edit] According to the Luton
Luton
Borough Council,[130] the principal employers in the town are:

# Employer # of Employees

1 Luton
Luton
Borough Council 8,000+

2 Luton
Luton
and Dunstable
Dunstable
University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 4,000+

3 Aircraft Service International Group 1,000–1,999

3 Carlisle Security Services 1,000–1,999

5 EasyJet 1,000–1,999

6 Menzies Aviation 1,000–1,999

7 Randstad 1,000–1,999

8 TUI 1,000–1,999

9 University of Bedfordshire 1,000–1,999

Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Luton

East Midlands Trains
East Midlands Trains
approaching Luton Airport
Luton Airport
Parkway

Luton
Luton
is situated less than 30 miles north of the centre of London, giving it good links with the City and other parts of the country via the motorway network and the National Rail
National Rail
system. Luton is also home to London
London
Luton
Luton
Airport, one of the major feeder airports for London
London
and the southeast. A network of bus services run by Arriva and Centrebus
Centrebus
serves the urban area of Luton
Luton
and Dunstable, and in 2013 a bus rapid transit route opened, the Luton
Luton
to Dunstable
Dunstable
Busway, connecting the town with the Airport. Luton
Luton
is also served by a large taxi network. As a Unitary Authority, Luton Borough Council
Luton Borough Council
is responsible for the local highways and public transport in the Borough and licensing of Taxis. Education[edit]

University of Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
– Luton

Main article: Education in Luton Luton
Luton
is one of the main locations of the University of Bedfordshire. A large campus of the university is in Luton
Luton
town centre, with a smaller campus based on the edge of town in Putteridge
Putteridge
Bury, an old Victorian manor house. The other main campus of the university is located in Bedford. The town is home to Luton Sixth Form College
Luton Sixth Form College
and Barnfield College. Both have been awarded Learning & Skills Beacon Status by the Department for Children, Schools and Families.[131][132] Luton's schools and colleges had also been earmarked for major investment in the government scheme Building Schools for the Future programme, which intends to renew and refit buildings in institutes across the country. Luton
Luton
is in the 3rd wave of this long term programme with work intending to start in 2009.[133] Some schools were rebuilt before the programme was scrapped by the coalition government. There are 98 educational institutes in Luton
Luton
– seven nurseries, 56 primary schools (9 voluntary-aided, 2 Special
Special
Requirements), 13 secondary schools (1 voluntary-aided, 1 Special
Special
Requirements), four further educational institutes and four other educational institutes.[134] Culture and leisure[edit] Sport[edit]

Kenilworth Road, home to Luton
Luton
Town Football Club

Main article: Sport in Bedfordshire Luton
Luton
is the home town of Luton
Luton
Town Football Club who currently play in the Football League 2,[135] Their nickname, "The Hatters", dates back to when Luton
Luton
had a substantial millinery industry. The club began the 2008/09 season with a thirty-point deficit, and were consequently relegated from the Football League to the Conference Premier on 13 April 2009.[4] However, Luton
Luton
did win the Football League Trophy that year in front of 42,000 Luton
Luton
fans at Wembley, despite being the lowest placed team in the competition for the whole season, Conference Premier
Conference Premier
after failing to win automatic promotion to Football League Two
Football League Two
during the 2009–10, 2010–11 and 2011–12 seasons. Luton
Luton
were beaten 2–0 on aggregate by York
York
City in the semi finals of the playoffs, and therefore failed to progress to the final at Wembley Stadium. The following season Luton
Luton
progressed to the final of the playoffs, losing to Wimbledon on penalties. In 2011–12 once again the team reached the final of the play-offs, only to lose 2–1 to York. Luton
Luton
were promoted back to the football league as champions of the Conference in 2014. Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
County Cricket
Cricket
Club is based at Wardown Park
Wardown Park
and is one of the county clubs which make up the Minor Counties in the English domestic cricket structure, representing the historic county of Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
and competing in the Minor Counties Championship and the MCCA Knockout Trophy. Speedway racing was staged in Luton
Luton
in the mid-1930s. The town has three rugby union clubs – Stockwood Park
Stockwood Park
Rugby Club who play in Midlands 3 SE, Luton Rugby Club who play in London
London
1 North, and Vauxhall Motors
Vauxhall Motors
RFC who do not currently play in the RFU league structure. Wardown Park[edit]

The Daisy-Chain Wall in Wardown Park.

Main article: Wardown Park Wardown Park
Wardown Park
is situated on the River Lea
River Lea
in Luton. The park has sporting facilities, is home to the Wardown Park
Wardown Park
Museum and contains formal gardens. The park is located between Old Bedford
Bedford
Road and the A6, New Bedford
Bedford
Road and is within walking distance of the town centre.[136] Stockwood Park[edit]

Stockwood Park, Luton

Main article: Stockwood Park Stockwood Park
Stockwood Park
is a large municipal park near Junction 10 of the M1. Located in the park is Stockwood Discovery Centre
Stockwood Discovery Centre
a free museum that houses the Mossman Collection
Mossman Collection
and Luton
Luton
local social history, archaeology and geology. There is an athletics track, an 18-hole golf course, several rugby pitches and areas of open space. The park was originally the estate and grounds to Stockwood house, which was demolished in 1964. Carnival[edit] Main article: Luton
Luton
International Carnival Luton
Luton
International Carnival
Carnival
is the largest one-day carnival in Europe. It usually takes place on the late May Bank Holiday. Crowds can reach 150,000[137] on each occasion. The procession starts at Wardown Park
Wardown Park
and makes its way down New Bedford
Bedford
Road, around the town centre via St George's Square, back down New Bedford
Bedford
Road and finishes back at Wardown Park. There are music stages and stalls around the town centre and at Wardown Park. Luton
Luton
is home to the UK Centre for Carnival
Carnival
Arts (UKCCA), the country's first purpose-built facility of its kind.[138] Due to budget cuts, the most recent carnival was run on a significantly smaller scale, with approximately one third of the typical attendance – most of the attendees were residents of the Luton
Luton
area.[139] Luton
Luton
St. Patrick's Festival[edit] The festival celebrating the patron saint of Ireland
Ireland
and organised by Luton
Luton
Irish Forum, St Patrick, is held on the weekend nearest to 17 March.[140] In its 15th year in 2014,[141] the festival includes a parade, market stalls and music stands as well as Irish themed events.[142] Imagine Luton
Luton
Festival[edit] Imagine Luton
Luton
is a new celebratory outdoor arts festival taking place throughout Luton
Luton
Town Centre, bringing the streets to life with amazing interactive theatre, circus, dance and music performances, free for all the family. Taking place on the last weekend of June each year, the festival showcases worldclass outdoor acts alongside homegrown talent, supporting local artists through commissions each year. Theatre[edit] Luton
Luton
is home to the Library Theatre, a 238-seat theatre located on the 3rd floor of the town's Central Library. The theatre's programme consists of local amateur dramatic societies, pantomime, children's theatre (on Saturday mornings) and one night shows of touring theatre companies.[143] Luton
Luton
is also home to the Hat
Hat
Factory, originally as its name suggests, this arts centre was in fact a real hat factory. The Hat Factory is a combined arts venue in the centre of Luton. It opened in 2003 and since then has been the area’s main provider of contemporary theatre, dance and music. The venue provides live music, club nights, theatre, dance, films, children's activities, workshops, classes and gallery exhibitions. Museums[edit] Wardown House[edit] Wardown House Museum and Gallery, previously known as Luton Museum
Luton Museum
and Art Gallery, is housed in a large Victorian mansion in Wardown Park
Wardown Park
on the outskirts of the town centre. The museum collection focusses on the traditional crafts and industry of Luton
Luton
and Bedfordshire, notably lace-making and hat-making. There are samples of local lace from as early as the 17th century. Stockwood Discovery Centre[edit] Main article: Stockwood Craft Museum Based in Stockwood Park, Luton, the collection of rural crafts and trades held at Stockwood Discovery Centre
Stockwood Discovery Centre
was amassed by Thomas Wyatt Bagshawe, who was a notable local historian and a leading authority on folk life. Bagshawe was born in Dunstable
Dunstable
in 1901 and became a director of the family engineering firm. The collection only contains examples from Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
and the borders of neighbouring counties, giving the collection a very strong regional identity. Mossman Collection[edit]

Part of the Mossman Collection.

Main article: Mossman Collection The Mossman Carriage collection is held at Stockwood Park, Luton
Luton
and is the largest and most significant vehicle collection of its kind in the country, including originals from the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. The Mossman collection of horse-drawn vehicles was given to Luton Museum Service in 1991. It illustrates the development of horse-drawn road transport in Britain from Roman times up until the 1930s. Local attractions[edit]

Key

Abbey/Priory/Cathedral

Accessible open space

Amusement/Theme Park

Castle

Country Park

English Heritage

Forestry Commission

Heritage railway

Historic House

Museum (free/not free)

National Trust

Theatre

Zoo

Dunstable
Dunstable
Downs Chiltern Hills Leagrave
Leagrave
Park Leighton Buzzard
Leighton Buzzard
Light Railway Galley and Warden Hills
Warden Hills
Nature Reserve The Hat
Hat
Factory Luton
Luton
Hoo Someries Castle Stockwood Discovery Centre Stockwood Park Wardown Park Wardown Park
Wardown Park
Museum Waulud's Bank Whipsnade Tree Cathedral Whipsnade Zoo Woburn Safari Park Woodside Farm and Wildfowl Park Wrest Park

Twin towns[edit] Luton
Luton
participates in international town twinning; its partners[144][145] are:

Country Place County / District / Region / State Date

Germany

Bergisch Gladbach

North Rhine-Westphalia 1956

France

Bourgoin-Jallieu[145]

Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes 1956

Sweden

Eskilstuna

Södermanland 1949

Germany

Berlin-Spandau

Berlin 1959

Germany

Wolfsburg

Lower Saxony 1950

Media[edit] Newspapers[edit]

Luton
Luton
News, published every Wednesday Luton
Luton
Herald & Post, a free weekly newspaper distributed every Thursday

Radio[edit]

BBC
BBC
Three Counties Radio, the local BBC
BBC
station, broadcasts from its office in Dunstable
Dunstable
to Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
and Buckinghamshire.[146] Heart 97.6 a formally independent local station, broadcast from Milton Keynes. Diverse FM[147] began broadcasts in April 2007 having been awarded a community radio licence from Ofcom. Radio LaB (formerly Luton
Luton
FM), the university's radio station, began broadcasting full-time in 2010 having been awarded a community radio licence from Ofcom. In addition, Radio Ramadhan used to broadcast during the month of Ramadan
Ramadan
until Inspire FM, a full-time community radio station, broadcasting on 105.1 FM, became available in 2010.

Television[edit]

Television Luton
Luton
falls at the cross over point between the two regions of Carlton/LWT (ITV London) and Anglia Television (ITV Anglia) which transmits from Norwich. Coverage for most Luton Town FC
Luton Town FC
games and highlights is usually shown on BBC
BBC
London
London
news and on BBC
BBC
1 London's Football League show Days Like These, the British re-make of the popular American sitcom That '70s Show, was set in Luton.

Media references[edit] In the TV series One Foot in the Grave
One Foot in the Grave
there are often references to places within Luton. The script-writer David Renwick was brought up in the town. The town was mentioned several times in the seminal sketch show Monty Python's Flying Circus. In one sketch a rather half-hearted hijacker demands that a plane headed for Cuba be diverted to Luton. Luton
Luton
is one of the constituencies returning a "Silly Party" victory in the famous sketch Election Night Special. In the Piranha Brothers sketch Spiny Norman lived in a hangar at Luton
Luton
Airport, which the brothers destroy with an atomic bomb, causing the police to "finally sit up and take notice". A 1976 episode of the sci-fi series Space: 1999 was called "The Rules of Luton", inspired by the town name. The well known comedian Eric Morecambe
Eric Morecambe
frequently made references to Luton
Luton
Town FC, due to him being a former chairman of the club, as well as living in close proximity to Luton
Luton
in Harpenden. Lutonians[edit] People who were born in Luton
Luton
or are associated with the town. By birth[edit]

Mick Abrahams, guitarist for Jethro Tull Jordan Thomas, World and European Karate Champion Tony Bignell, actor/singer David Arnold, composer Charles Bronson, prisoner Emily Atack, actress Keshi Anderson, footballer John Badham, film director Lewis Baker, footballer[citation needed] Clive Barker, sculptor and artist Jonathan Barnbrook, graphic designer, typographer Leon Barnett, footballer John D. Bernard, businessman Kevin Blackwell, goalkeeper, football manager Dean Brill, footballer Clive Bunker, drummer for Jethro Tull Danny Cannon, screenwriter, director and producer Ian Cashmore, actor Gerald Anthony Coles, artist Natasha Collins, actress and TV presenter Steve Dillon, comic artist Kerry Dixon, footballer Stacey Dooley, journalist and television presenter Jonathan Edwards, footballer Simon Fenton, actor Kevin Foley, footballer Sean Gallagher, actor Liam George, footballer Tommy Robinson, Political Activist John Hagan, 8th master chief petty officer, US Navy Arthur Hailey, novelist Neil Halstead, musician Jaymi Hensley, singer of Union J Nadiya Hussain, winner of The Great British Bake Off Neil Jackson, actor Stephen Kelman, novelist Ronnie Lee, founder of the Animal Liberation Front Stuart Lewis-Evans, Formula One driver Sir Frederick Mander, General Secretary of the NUT Monty Panesar
Monty Panesar
cricketer John Payne, musician Phil Read, motorcycle racer David Renwick, scriptwriter Stu Riddle, footballer Vaughan Savidge, announcer Billy Schwer, boxer Andy Selway, drummer Gavin Shuker, Labour party politician Junior Simpson, comedian Zena Skinner, TV chef and author Will Smith, cricketer Paul Sinha, one of the Chasers on The Chase David Stoten, artist Mark Titchner, artist UK Decay, band Jamie Woolford, musician for The Stereo, Animal Chin and Let Go, music producer Stephen Yaxley-Lennon, political activist Paul Young, singer

By association[edit]

Ian Anderson, leader of British rock band Jethro Tull[148] Stefan Bailey, footballer Rodney Bewes, actor Mo Chaudry, entrepreneur Diana Dors, actress Ian Dury, singer Danny Dyer, actor John Hegley, poet Hilda Hewlett, UK's first female pilot Sir Alec Jeffreys, geneticist Sarfraz Manzoor, author and columnist, The Guardian Elizabeth Price, artist Eric Morecambe, entertainer Lee Ross, actor Colin Salmon, actor Edward Tudor-Pole, singer and actor Kenneth Williams, actor Richard Wiseman, psychologist

See also[edit]

Luton
Luton
portal

Outline of England Healthcare in Bedfordshire Our Lady Help of Christians Church, Luton

References[edit]

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plot: Police believe Luton cell helped Stockholm bomber plan terror attack". The Daily mail.  ^ McDevitt, Johnny. "Stockholm suicide bomber lived near terrorists". channel 4. Retrieved 25 February 2018.  ^ Townsend, Mark. "After Paris, Luton
Luton
wages its own battle for hearts and minds of homegrown radicals".  ^ SMITH, SAPHORA; GARDHAM, DUNCAN. "Luton: U.K. Commuter Town With Reputation as a Jihadi Breeding Ground". NBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2018.  ^ a b Hughes, Mark (14 December 2010). "How Luton
Luton
became the epicentre of the global clash of civilisations". The Independent. London. Retrieved 30 December 2011.  ^ "Terrorism threat in UK 'growing'". BBC. Retrieved 25 February 2018.  ^ Rayment, Sean. "Report identifies UK terrorist enclaves". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 February 2018.  ^ "'Three Luton
Luton
men killed in US attack'".  ^ Harris, Paul; Bright, Martin; Wazir, Burhan. "Five Britons killed in 'jihad brigade'".  ^ Gardham, Duncan; Malkin, Bonnie. "Fertiliser bombers jailed for at least 95 years". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 February 2018.  ^ Cardwell, Niki. "Is Luton
Luton
a breeding ground for terrorists?". BBC. Retrieved 25 February 2018.  ^ McDevitt, Johnny. "Stockholm suicide bomber lived near terrorists". Channel 4. Retrieved 26 February 2018.  ^ " Luton
Luton
terror plot: four jailed over plan to bomb army centre". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 February 2018.  ^ SMITH, SAPHORA; GARDHAM, DUNCAN. "Luton: U.K. Commuter Town With Reputation as a Jihadi Breeding Ground". NBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2018.  ^ Steele, John. "Al-Qa'eda bomb plot gang jailed for 136 years".  ^ "UK al-Qaeda cell members jailed".  ^ "Profile: Salahuddin Amin". BBC.  ^ "Did you know terrorist Amin?".  ^ "Five Luton
Luton
men found guilty after abusive chants at soldiers".  ^ SMITH, SAPHORA; GARDHAM, DUNCAN. "Luton: U.K. Commuter Town With Reputation as a Jihadi Breeding Ground". NBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2018.  ^ "Books 'promoting stoning' found at Olive Tree Primary School".  ^ Harley, Nicola. " Luton
Luton
family of 12 say they were not "kidnapped"".  ^ sylhet, mohammed. "12 of a Bangladesh origin".  ^ "Man 'planned to kill US serviceman and tried to join IS'".  ^ "Ofsted reports on Olive Tree Primary School".  ^ Ross, Alice. "Death of British jihadi in July drone strike raises 'kill list' questions".  ^ GREENWOOD, CHRIS. "'Cell called for jihad' in Luton
Luton
church hall: Police believe they have smashed network that encouraged people to support ISIS". Daily Mail. Retrieved 26 February 2018.  ^ PARRIS-LONG, ADAM. "Five years in jail for Luton
Luton
men convicted of stirring up support for ISIS". Luton
Luton
Today. Retrieved 26 February 2018.  ^ GARDHAM, DUNCAN; WAHID, OMAR. "Age SIX and groomed for jihad in British suburbia: Shocking image of UK extremism, taken by little boy's Muslim
Muslim
convert father". Daily Mail. Retrieved 26 February 2018.  ^ Piggott, Mark. "Luton: 'Britain First' video showing group walking through Muslim
Muslim
area with crosses goes viral".  ^ Wright, Paul. "Britain First: Leaders Paul Golding and Jayda Fransen arrested for 'wearing political uniforms'".  ^ "US air base attack plot: British man Junead Khan jailed". BBC.  ^ "Delivery driver jailed for planning terror attack on US soldier in Britain". The Guardian.  ^ "Three men 'infected young minds' with support for Islamic State".  ^ Watkinson, William. "3 Luton
Luton
men who praised Charlie Hebdo attack found guilty of encouraging children to join Isis".  ^ " Luton
Luton
terror gang jailed for more than 20 years". Tuton Today.  ^ RICHARD, SPILLETT; GARDHAM, DUNCAN. "Five members of hate preacher Anjem Choudary's inner circle are jailed for drumming up support of ISIS after one ranted about '40 trucks of explosives in Oxford Street'".  ^ Swann, Steve. "Islamic State supporters jailed after undercover police operation".  ^ "Westminster attack: police scramble to piece together past of London
London
killer". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 March 2018.  ^ Dearden, Lizzie. "Buckingham Palace attack: Uber driver Mohiussunnath Chowdhury appears in court charged with sword attack".  ^ "Ofsted reports on Olive Tree Primary School".  ^ Turner, Camilla. "Islamic primary school had books written by banned extremist, Ofsted report finds".  ^ "Employment statistics". National Office of Statistics. Retrieved 16 June 2008.  ^ "New headquarters for easyJet at London
London
Luton Airport
Luton Airport
Archived 28 January 2010 at WebCite." Easyjet. Retrieved on 27 September 2009. ^ " Impellam Group - Company Contacts". Investors.impellam.com. Retrieved 24 September 2017.  ^ "customer services & other faqs." Monarch Airlines. Retrieved on 27 September 2009. ^ "Contact Us." TUI UK & Ireland. Retrieved on 4 January 2011. "Wigmore House Wigmore Lane Luton
Luton
Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
LU2 9TN" ^ "Luton." Thomson UK. Retrieved on 27 September 2009. ^ "Corporate contact information Archived 30 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine.." Vauxhall
Vauxhall
Motors. Retrieved on 2 September 2009. ^ "Contact US (Test and Measurement)- Anritsu
Anritsu
Europe". Anritsu.com. Retrieved 24 September 2017.  ^ "Working with UK Healthcare Professionals". Astrazeneca.co.uk. Retrieved 24 September 2017.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015.  ^ "Ernst and Young Locations". Ey.com. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  ^ "Contact Us". Whitbread.co.uk. Archived from the original on 29 November 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017.  ^ Major Employers in Luton
Luton
2014 ^ "Barnfield Newsletter". Communiqueonline.com. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  ^ " Luton
Luton
Sixth Form College". Archived from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2008.  ^ "L2G Building for the Future Programme details". Retrieved 19 June 2008.  ^ "LEA School List". Luton
Luton
Borough Council. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2008.  ^ " Luton
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Town homepage". Archived from the original on 4 December 2003. Retrieved 16 June 2008.  ^ " Luton
Luton
Council website". Archived from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 16 June 2008.  ^ " Luton Carnival
Luton Carnival
Coverage on the BBC". Retrieved 16 June 2008.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 February 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2014.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 August 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.  ^ "Beds Herts and Bucks – Why Don't You – Luton's turning green!". BBC. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  ^ " Luton
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Irish Forum – St patrick's festival" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  ^ 4 March 2008 15:37. "St Patrick's Day party is coming to Luton". Luton
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Today. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  ^ "Shout Luton
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Theatre Guide". Archived from the original on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2008.  ^ "Town twinning". Luton
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Borough Council. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2008.  ^ a b "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 11 July 2013.  ^ " BBC
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Bibliography[edit]

Dyer, James; Stygall, Frank; Dony, John (1964). The Story of Luton. Luton: White Crescent Press. 

External links[edit]

Look up luton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia
Collier's Encyclopedia
article Luton.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Luton.

Luton
Luton
travel guide from Wikivoyage Luton Borough Council
Luton Borough Council
YouTube channel Luton
Luton
On Sunday: News feed

v t e

The town of Luton
Luton
in Bedfordshire, England

Places within Luton

Barnfield Biscot Bramingham Bury Park Bushmead Butterfield Green Capability Green Challney Crawley
Crawley
Green Farley Hill Dallow High Town, Luton Hockwell Ring Icknield Leagrave Lewsey Limbury-cum-Biscot Marsh Farm New Town Northwell Putteridge Round Green Saints South ward Stopsley Sundon Park Warden Hills Wigmore

Amenities

Kenilworth Road
Kenilworth Road
(stadium) Luton
Luton
Museum The Mall Luton Stockwood Discovery Centre Stockwood Park Wardown Park Waulud's Bank Luton
Luton
Airport

Education

Ashcroft High School Barnfield College University of Bedfordshire Cardinal Newman RC School The Chalk
Chalk
Hills Academy Challney
Challney
High School for Boys Challney
Challney
High School for Girls Denbigh High School Icknield
Icknield
High School Lea Manor High School Lealands High School Luton
Luton
Sixth Form College Putteridge
Putteridge
High School Rabia School Stockwood Park
Stockwood Park
Academy Stopsley
Stopsley
High School Woodlands Secondary School

Transport

Luton Airport
Luton Airport
Parkway railway station Luton
Luton
railway station Luton
Luton
Airport Luton
Luton
to Dunstable
Dunstable
Busway

Media

BBC
BBC
3 Counties Radio Heart 97.6

v t e

Ceremonial county of Bedfordshire

England
England
Portal

Unitary authorities

Borough of Bedford Borough of Luton Central Bedfordshire

Major settlements

Ampthill Arlesey Bedford Biggleswade Dunstable Flitwick Houghton Regis Kempston Leighton Buzzard Linslade Luton Potton Sandy Shefford Stotfold Wixams See also: List of civil parishes in Bedfordshire

Topics

Parliamentary constituencies Places SSSIs Tourist attractions Country houses Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings History Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs Museums Sport County flag

v t e

Unitary authorities of England

Districts

Bath and North East Somerset Bedford Blackburn with Darwen Blackpool Bournemouth Bracknell
Bracknell
Forest Brighton and Hove Bristol Central Bedfordshire Cheshire East Cheshire West and Chester Cornwall County Durham Darlington Derby East Riding of Yorkshire Halton Hartlepool Herefordshire Isle of Wight Kingston upon Hull Leicester Luton Medway Middlesbrough Milton Keynes North East Lincolnshire North Lincolnshire North Somerset Northumberland Nottingham Peterborough Plymouth Poole Portsmouth Reading Redcar and Cleveland Rutland Shropshire Slough Southampton Southend-on-Sea South Gloucestershire Stockton-on-Tees Stoke-on-Trent Swindon Telford and Wrekin Thurrock Torbay Warrington West Berkshire Wiltshire Windsor and Maidenhead Wokingham York

Councils

Bath and North East Somerset Bedford Blackburn with Darwen Blackpool Bournemouth Bracknell
Bracknell
Forest Brighton and Hove Bristol Central Bedfordshire Cheshire East Cheshire West and Chester Cornwall Derby Durham Darlington East Riding of Yorkshire Halton Hartlepool Herefordshire Isle of Wight Kingston upon Hull Leicester Luton Medway Middlesbrough Milton Keynes North East Lincolnshire North Lincolnshire North Somerset Northumberland Nottingham Peterborough Plymouth Poole Portsmouth Reading Redcar and Cleveland Rutland Shropshire Slough Southampton Southend-on-Sea South Gloucestershire Stockton-on-Tees Stoke-on-Trent Swindon Telford and Wrekin Thurrock Torbay Warrington West Berkshire Wiltshire Windsor and Maidenhead Wokingham York

Local elections

Bath and North East Somerset Bedford Blackburn with Darwen Blackpool Bournemouth Bracknell
Bracknell
Forest Brighton and Hove Bristol Central Bedfordshire Cheshire East Cheshire West and Chester Cornwall County Durham Darlington Derby East Riding of Yorkshire Halton Hartlepool Herefordshire Isle of Wight Kingston upon Hull Leicester Luton Medway Middlesbrough Milton Keynes North East Lincolnshire North Lincolnshire North Somerset Northumberland Nottingham Peterborough Plymouth Poole Portsmouth Reading Redcar and Cleveland Rutland Shropshire Slough Southampton Southend-on-Sea South Gloucestershire Stockton-on-Tees Stoke-on-Trent Swindon Telford and Wrekin Thurrock Torbay Warrington West Berkshire Wiltshire Windsor and Maidenhead Wokingham York

v t e

Districts of the East of England

Bedfordshire

Bedford Central Bedfordshire Luton

Cambridgeshire

Cambridge East Cambridgeshire Fenland Huntingdonshire Peterborough South Cambridgeshire

Essex

Basildon Braintree Brentwood Castle Point Chelmsford Colchester Epping Forest Harlow Maldon Rochford Southend-on-Sea Tendring Thurrock Uttlesford

Hertfordshire

Broxbourne Dacorum East Hertfordshire Hertsmere North Hertfordshire St Albans Stevenage Three Rivers Watford Welwyn Hatfield

Norfolk

Breckland Broadland Great Yarmouth King's Lynn and West Norfolk North Norfolk Norwich South Norfolk

Suffolk

Babergh Forest Heath Ipswich Mid Suffolk St Edmundsbury Suffolk
Suffolk
Coastal Waveney

v t e

River Lea
River Lea
/ Lee, England

Counties

Bedfordshire Essex Hertfordshire Greater London

Mouth

River Thames

Settlements

Leagrave Luton Harpenden Wheathampstead Welwyn Garden City Hertford Ware Stanstead Abbotts Hoddesdon Broxbourne Cheshunt Waltham Abbey Ponders End Edmonton Tottenham Upper Clapton Hackney Wick Stratford Bromley-by-Bow Canning Town Leamouth

Major tributaries

River Ash River Beane River Ching River Mimram River Moselle River Rib River Stort

Minor tributaries

Bayford Brook Broxbourne
Broxbourne
Mill Stream Cobbins Brook Coppermill Stream Cornmill Stream Cuffley Brook Dagenham Brook Hackney Brook Houghton Brook Knapps Brook Lewsey
Lewsey
Brook Millhead Stream Pymmes Brook Rags Brook River Lynch Salmons Brook Small River Lea Spital Brook Theobalds Brook Turkey Brook Turnford Brook Woollens Brook Wormleybury Brook

v t e

London
London
commuter belt

Home counties

Berkshire Buckinghamshire Essex Hertfordshire Kent Surrey

Urban areas

Greater London
London
Built-up Area Reading/ Wokingham
Wokingham
Urban Area Southend Urban Area Farnborough/ Aldershot
Aldershot
Built-up Area Luton/ Dunstable
Dunstable
Urban Area High Wycombe
High Wycombe
Urban Area Medway
Medway
Towns Urban Area

Cities and towns (100k+)

Chelmsford Crawley Guildford High Wycombe London Luton Maidstone Reading Slough Southend-on-Sea

Towns (25k–99k)

Aldershot Ashford, Surrey Aylesbury Basildon Basingstoke Billericay Bishop's Stortford Borehamwood Bracknell Brentwood Burgess Hill Camberley Canvey Island Chatham Cheshunt Dartford Dunstable Epsom Ewell Earley Farnborough Farnham Fleet Gillingham Gravesend Grays Harlow Harpenden Hatfield Hemel Hempstead Horsham Hitchin Leighton Buzzard Letchworth Loughton Maidenhead Rayleigh Redhill Rochester Royal Tunbridge Wells Sittingbourne St Albans Stevenage Strood Sunbury-on-Thames Tonbridge Ware Watford Welwyn Garden City Wickford Windsor Woking Wokingham Woodley

Towns (10k–25k)

Addlestone Amersham Ashtead Baldock Beaconsfield Berkhamsted Broxbourne Buckhurst Hill Bushey Chertsey Chesham Chigwell Corringham Croxley Green Dorking East Grinstead East Malling Englefield Green Epping Frimley Frogmore Godalming Hadleigh Haywards Heath Hertford Hoddesdon Horley Houghton Regis Knaphill Marlow Potters Bar Reigate Rickmansworth Rochford Sandhurst Sevenoaks Snodland Shepperton South Benfleet Southborough, Kent Staines-upon-Thames Stanford-le-Hope Stanwell Swanley Thundersley Tilbury Tring Waltham Abbey Waltham Cross Yateley

Coordinates: 51°52′47″N 0°25′03″W / 51.87972°N 0.41750°W / 51.87972; -0.41750

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 242579

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