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Louisville (/ˈluːəvəl/ ( listen) LOO-ə-vəl, /ˈlʊvəl/ ( listen) LUUV-əl or /ˈluːiːvɪl/ ( listen)) is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Kentucky
Kentucky
and the 29th-most populous city in the United States.[d][5] It is one of two cities in Kentucky
Kentucky
designated as first-class, the other being the state's second-largest city of Lexington.[e] Louisville is the historical seat and, since 2003, the nominal seat of Jefferson County. Louisville was founded in 1778 by George Rogers Clark
George Rogers Clark
and is named after King Louis XVI of France, making Louisville one of the oldest cities west of the Appalachian Mountains. Sited beside the Falls of the Ohio, the only major obstruction to river traffic between the upper Ohio River
Ohio River
and the Gulf of Mexico, the settlement first grew as a portage site. It was the founding city of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which grew into a 6,000-mile (9,700 km) system across 13 states. Today, the city is known as the home of the Kentucky
Kentucky
Derby, Kentucky
Kentucky
Fried Chicken, the University of Louisville and its Louisville Cardinals
Louisville Cardinals
athletic teams, Louisville Slugger baseball bats, and three of Kentucky's six Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies.[13] Its main airport is also the site of United Parcel Service's worldwide air hub. Since 2003, Louisville's borders have been the same as those of Jefferson County because of a city-county merger.[14] The official name of this consolidated city-county government is the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Government,[15] abbreviated to Louisville Metro.[16] Despite the merger and renaming, the term "Jefferson County" continues to be used in some contexts in reference to Louisville Metro, particularly including the incorporated cities outside the "balance" which make up Louisville proper. The city's total consolidated population as of the 2014 census estimate was 760,026.[4] However, the balance total of 612,780[5] excludes other incorporated places and semiautonomous towns within the county and is the population listed in most sources and national rankings. The Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), sometimes also referred to as Kentuckiana,[17][18] includes Louisville-Jefferson County and 12 surrounding counties, seven in Kentucky
Kentucky
and five in Southern Indiana. As of 2014, the MSA had a population of 1,269,702,[8] ranking 43rd nationally.[a]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history and founding 1.2 19th century 1.3 20th and 21st centuries

2 Geography

2.1 Cityscape 2.2 Panoramic views 2.3 Climate

3 Demographics

3.1 Religion

4 Economy 5 Culture

5.1 Annual festivals and other events 5.2 Indie scene 5.3 Museums, galleries and interpretive centers 5.4 Performing arts 5.5 Sports

5.5.1 Current professional teams

6 Parks and outdoor attractions 7 Government and politics

7.1 Public safety and crime

8 Education 9 Media 10 Infrastructure

10.1 Transportation 10.2 Utilities

11 Notable people 12 Events 13 Sister cities 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 Further reading 18 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Louisville, Kentucky
Kentucky
and Timeline of Louisville, Kentucky See also: History of Kentucky
Kentucky
and National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Kentucky The history of Louisville spans hundreds of years, and has been influenced by the area's geography and location. Early history and founding[edit]

Louisville's founder, George Rogers Clark

The rapids at the Falls of the Ohio
Falls of the Ohio
created a barrier to river travel, and as a result, settlements grew up at this stopping point. The first European settlement in the vicinity of modern-day Louisville was on Corn Island in 1778 by Col. George Rogers Clark, credited as the founder of Louisville. Several landmarks in the community are named after him.[19] Two years later, in 1780, the Virginia General Assembly
Virginia General Assembly
approved the town charter of Louisville. The city was named in honor of King Louis XVI of France, whose soldiers were then aiding Americans in the Revolutionary War. Early residents lived in forts to protect themselves from Indian raids, but moved out by the late 1780s.[20] In 1803, explorers Meriwether Lewis
Meriwether Lewis
and William Clark
William Clark
organized their expedition across America in the town of Clarksville, Indiana
Clarksville, Indiana
at the present-day Falls of the Ohio
Falls of the Ohio
opposite Louisville, Kentucky.[21][22] 19th century[edit] See also: Louisville, Kentucky, in the American Civil War

View of Main Street Louisville in 1846

The city's early growth was influenced by the fact that river boats had to be unloaded and moved downriver before reaching the falls. By 1828, the population had swelled to 7,000 and Louisville became an incorporated city. The city grew rapidly in its formative years.[23] Louisville was a major shipping port and slaves worked in a variety of associated trades. The city was often a point of escape for slaves to the north, as Indiana
Indiana
was a free state. During the Civil War, Louisville was a major stronghold of Union forces, which kept Kentucky
Kentucky
firmly in the Union. During this point in the 1850's, the city was growing and vibrant, but that also came with negativity. It was the center of planning, supplies, recruiting, and transportation for numerous campaigns, especially in the Western Theater. By the year 1855, ethnic tension was arising. Nobody knew how far this would go, though. On August 6, 1855 "Bloody Monday" happened. Then by 1861, the civil war broke out. [24]By the end of the war, Louisville had not been attacked, although skirmishes and battles, including the battles of Perryville and Corydon, took place nearby. After Reconstruction, returning Confederate veterans largely took political control of the city, leading to the jibe that Louisville joined the Confederacy after the war was over.

Churchill Downs
Churchill Downs
in 1901

The first Kentucky Derby
Kentucky Derby
was held on May 17, 1875, at the Louisville Jockey Club track (later renamed Churchill Downs). The Derby was originally shepherded by Meriwether Lewis
Meriwether Lewis
Clark, Jr., the grandson of William Clark
William Clark
of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, and grandnephew of the city's founder George Rogers Clark. Horse racing had a strong tradition in Kentucky, whose Inner Bluegrass Region had been a center of breeding high-quality livestock throughout the 19th century. Ten thousand spectators watched the first Derby, which Aristides won.[25] On March 27, 1890, the city was devastated and its downtown nearly destroyed when an F4 tornado tore through as part of the middle Mississippi
Mississippi
Valley tornado outbreak. An estimated 74 to 120 people were killed. 20th and 21st centuries[edit] Throughout January 1937, 19.17 inches (48.7 cm) of rain fell in Louisville, and by January 27, the Ohio River
Ohio River
crested at a record 57.15 feet (17.42 m), almost 30 feet (9.1 m) above flood stage. These events triggered the "Great Flood
Flood
of 1937", which lasted into early February. The flood submerged 60–70% of the city, caused complete loss of power for four days, and forced the evacuation of 175,000 or 230,000 residents, depending on sources. Ninety people died as a result of the flood.[26][27] It led to dramatic changes in where residents lived. Today, the city is protected by numerous flood walls. After the flood, the areas of high elevation in the eastern part of the city had decades of residential growth. Louisville was a center for factory war production during World War II. In May 1942, the U.S. government assigned the Curtiss-Wright Aircraft Company, a war plant located at Louisville's air field, for wartime aircraft production. The factory produced the C-46 Commando cargo plane, among other aircraft. In 1946, the factory was sold to International Harvester, which began large-scale production of tractors and agricultural equipment. In 1950, the Census Bureau reported Louisville's population as 84.3% white and 15.6% black.[28] Similar to many other older American cities, Louisville began to experience a movement of people and businesses to the suburbs in the 1960s and 1970s. Middle class residents used newly built freeways and interstate highways to commute to work, moving into more distant but newer housing. Because of tax laws, businesses found it cheaper to build new rather than renovate older buildings. Economic changes included a decline in local manufacturing. The West End and older areas of the South End, in particular, began to decline economically as many local factories closed.

Entrance to the Fourth Street Live!
Fourth Street Live!
entertainment complex in Louisville, featuring the marquee of the Hard Rock Cafe

In 1974, a major (F4) tornado hit Louisville as part of the 1974 Super Outbreak of tornadoes that struck 13 states. It covered 21 miles (34 km) and destroyed several hundred homes in the Louisville area. Only two people died.[29] Since the 1980s, many of the city's urban neighborhoods have been revitalized into areas popular with young professionals and college students. The greatest change has occurred along the Bardstown Road/Baxter Avenue and Frankfort Avenue corridors as well as the Old Louisville neighborhood. In recent years, such change has also occurred in the East Market District
East Market District
(NuLu). Since the late 1990s, Downtown has experienced significant residential, tourist and retail growth, including the addition of major sports complexes KFC Yum! Center
KFC Yum! Center
and Louisville Slugger
Louisville Slugger
Field, conversion of waterfront industrial sites into Waterfront Park, openings of varied museums (see Museums, galleries and interpretive centers below), and the refurbishing of the former Galleria into the bustling entertainment complex Fourth Street Live!, which opened in 2004. Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Louisville, Kentucky

Hilly terrain blankets the southwest part of the city

Louisville and Jefferson County have a combined area of 397.68 square miles (1,030.0 km2), of which 380.46 square miles (985.4 km2) is land and 17.23 square miles (44.6 km2) (4.33%) is covered by water.[7] Louisville is southeasterly situated along the border between Kentucky and Indiana, the Ohio River, in north-central Kentucky
Kentucky
at the Falls of the Ohio. Although situated in a Southern state, Louisville is influenced by both Southern and Midwestern culture. It is sometimes referred to as either one of the northernmost Southern cities or as one of the southernmost Northern cities in the United States.[30][31] Louisville is located in Kentucky's outer Bluegrass region.[32] Its development has been influenced by its location on the Ohio River, which spurred Louisville's growth from an isolated camp site into a major shipping port. Much of the city is located on a very wide and flat floodplain surrounded by hill country on all sides. Much of the area was swampland that had to be drained as the city grew. In the 1840s, most creeks were rerouted or placed in canals to prevent flooding and disease outbreaks. Areas generally east of I-65 are above the flood plain, and are composed of gently rolling hills. The southernmost parts of Jefferson County are in the scenic and largely undeveloped Knobs region, which is home to Jefferson Memorial Forest. The Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 43rd largest in the United States,[a][8] includes the Kentucky
Kentucky
county of Jefferson (coterminous with Louisville Metro), plus twelve outlying counties—seven in Kentucky
Kentucky
and five in Southern Indiana. Louisville's MSA is included in the Louisville–Elizabethtown–Madison, KY–IN Combined Statistical Area (CSA), which also includes the Elizabethtown, KY MSA, as well as the Madison, IN Micropolitan Statistical Area. The Louisville area is near several other urban areas, especially Frankfort, Kentucky
Kentucky
(the state's capital), Cincinnati, Ohio
Cincinnati, Ohio
(the two cities' metropolitan statistical areas almost border each other), Lexington, Kentucky, and the Indianapolis, Indiana
Indiana
area (especially Columbus, Indiana, to the north of Southern Indiana). Cityscape[edit] Main article: Cityscape of Louisville, Kentucky See also: Downtown Louisville; Neighborhoods in Louisville, Kentucky; List of parks in the Louisville metropolitan area; and List of tallest buildings in Louisville

East Louisville's Highlands district, specifically, the Bonnycastle neighborhood.

The downtown business district of Louisville is located immediately south of the Ohio River
Ohio River
and southeast of the Falls of the Ohio. Major roads extend outwards from the downtown area in all directions, like the spokes of a wheel. The airport is about 6.75 miles (10.86 km) south of the downtown area. The industrial sections of town are to the south and west of the airport, while most of the residential areas of the city are to the southwest, south, and east of downtown. In 2010, the 22,000-seat KFC Yum! Center
KFC Yum! Center
was completed.[33][34] Twelve of the 15 buildings in Kentucky
Kentucky
over 300 feet (91 m) are located in downtown Louisville. Another primary business and industrial district is located in the suburban area east of the city on Hurstbourne Parkway.[35] Louisville's late 19th- and early 20th-century development was spurred by three large suburban parks built at the edges of the city in 1890. The city's architecture contains a blend of old and new. The Old Louisville neighborhood is the largest historic preservation district solely featuring Victorian homes and buildings in the United States;[36][37] it is also the third-largest such district overall. Victorian architecture
Victorian architecture
is a series of architectural revival styles. The reason that the Victorian style became so popular is because it began to emigrate. First to the colonies and then the British empire, then the world started to find out about how beautiful Victorian architecture seemed.[38] Many modern skyscrapers are located downtown, as well as older preserved structures, such as the Southern National Bank building. The buildings of West Main Street in downtown Louisville have the largest collection of cast iron facades of anywhere outside of New York's SoHo
SoHo
district.[39]

Werne's Row
Werne's Row
in Old Louisville

Broadway and 3rd Street in downtown Louisville

Since the mid-20th century, Louisville has in some ways been divided into three sides of town: the West End, the South End, and the East End. In 2003, Bill Dakan, a University of Louisville
University of Louisville
geography professor, said that the West End, west of 7th Street and north of Algonquin Parkway, is "a euphemism for the African American
African American
part of town" although he points out that this belief is not entirely true, and most African Americans no longer live in areas where more than 80% of residents are black. Nevertheless, he says the perception is still strong.[40] The South End has long had a reputation as a white, working-class part of town, while the East End has been seen as middle and upper class.[41] According to the Greater Louisville Association of Realtors, the area with the lowest median home sales price is west of Interstate 65, in the West and South Ends, the middle range of home sales prices are between Interstates 64 and 65 in the South and East Ends, and the highest median home sales price are north of Interstate 64
Interstate 64
in the East End.[42] Immigrants
Immigrants
from Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
tend to settle in the South End, while immigrants from Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
settle in the East End.[43] Panoramic views[edit]

Climate[edit] Louisville has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinct seasons and is located in USDA hardiness zones 6b and 7a.[11] Spring-like conditions typically begin in mid-to-late March, summer from mid-to-late-May to late September, with fall in the October–November period. Seasonal extremes in both temperature and precipitation are not uncommon during early spring and late fall; severe weather is not uncommon, with occasional tornado outbreaks in the region. Winter typically brings a mix of rain, sleet, and snow, with occasional heavy snowfall and icing. Louisville averages 4.5 days with low temperatures dipping to 10 °F (−12 °C);[44] the first and last freezes of the season on average fall on November 2 and April 5, respectively.[45] Summer is typically hazy, hot, and humid with long periods of 90–100 °F (32–38 °C) temperatures and drought conditions at times. Louisville averages 38 days a year with high temperatures at or above 90 °F (32 °C). The mean annual temperature is 58.2 °F (14.6 °C), with an average annual snowfall of 12.7 inches (32 cm) and an average annual rainfall of 44.9 inches (1,140 mm). The wettest seasons are spring and summer, although rainfall is fairly constant year round. During the winter, particularly in January and February, several days of snow can be expected. January is the coldest month, with a mean temperature of 34.9 °F (1.6 °C). July is the average hottest month with a mean of 79.3 °F (26.3 °C).[46] The highest recorded temperature was 107 °F (42 °C), which last occurred on July 14, 1936, and the lowest recorded temperature was −22 °F (−30 °C) on January 19, 1994.[47] In 2012, Louisville had the fourth-hottest summer on record, with the temperature rising up to 106 °F (41 °C) in July and the June all-time monthly record high temperature being broken on two consecutive days.[45] As the city exemplifies the urban heat island effect, temperatures in commercial areas and in the industrialized areas along interstates are often higher than in the suburbs, often as much as 5 °F (2.8 °C).

Climate data for Louisville International Airport, Kentucky (1981–2010 normals,[f] extremes 1872–present[g])

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 77 (25) 78 (26) 88 (31) 91 (33) 98 (37) 105 (41) 107 (42) 105 (41) 104 (40) 93 (34) 85 (29) 76 (24) 107 (42)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 64.7 (18.2) 69.4 (20.8) 78.5 (25.8) 84.2 (29) 87.8 (31) 92.9 (33.8) 95.5 (35.3) 95.7 (35.4) 91.8 (33.2) 84.3 (29.1) 75.3 (24.1) 65.3 (18.5) 97.0 (36.1)

Average high °F (°C) 43.0 (6.1) 47.8 (8.8) 57.9 (14.4) 68.8 (20.4) 77.1 (25.1) 85.3 (29.6) 88.7 (31.5) 88.3 (31.3) 81.5 (27.5) 70.1 (21.2) 57.9 (14.4) 45.8 (7.7) 67.8 (19.9)

Average low °F (°C) 26.8 (−2.9) 29.9 (−1.2) 37.8 (3.2) 47.3 (8.5) 57.0 (13.9) 66.0 (18.9) 69.9 (21.1) 68.5 (20.3) 60.5 (15.8) 48.9 (9.4) 39.5 (4.2) 30.0 (−1.1) 48.6 (9.2)

Mean minimum °F (°C) 4.9 (−15.1) 10.2 (−12.1) 20.1 (−6.6) 30.4 (−0.9) 41.0 (5) 52.1 (11.2) 58.7 (14.8) 57.2 (14) 44.7 (7.1) 32.8 (0.4) 23.0 (−5) 9.2 (−12.7) 0.2 (−17.7)

Record low °F (°C) −22 (−30) −19 (−28) −1 (−18) 21 (−6) 31 (−1) 42 (6) 49 (9) 45 (7) 33 (1) 23 (−5) −1 (−18) −15 (−26) −22 (−30)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.24 (82.3) 3.18 (80.8) 4.17 (105.9) 4.01 (101.9) 5.27 (133.9) 3.79 (96.3) 4.23 (107.4) 3.33 (84.6) 3.05 (77.5) 3.22 (81.8) 3.59 (91.2) 3.83 (97.3) 44.91 (1,140.7)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 3.7 (9.4) 4.5 (11.4) 1.4 (3.6) 0.1 (0.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.1 (0.3) 0.1 (0.3) 2.6 (6.6) 12.5 (31.8)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.4 10.1 11.9 11.7 12.6 10.3 10.0 8.0 8.0 7.7 10.1 12.0 122.8

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 3.6 3.6 1.2 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.3 2.9 11.8

Average relative humidity (%) 68.6 68.1 64.0 61.5 67.2 68.9 70.9 71.7 72.9 69.9 69.4 70.2 68.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 140.5 148.9 188.6 221.1 263.4 288.9 293.6 272.6 234.3 208.5 135.7 118.3 2,514.4

Percent possible sunshine 46 49 51 56 60 65 65 65 63 60 45 40 56

Source: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)[44][45][48]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1790 200

1800 359

79.5%

1810 1,357

278.0%

1820 4,012

195.7%

1830 10,341

157.8%

1840 21,210

105.1%

1850 43,194

103.6%

1860 68,033

57.5%

1870 100,753

48.1%

1880 123,758

22.8%

1890 161,129

30.2%

1900 204,731

27.1%

1910 223,928

9.4%

1920 234,891

4.9%

1930 307,745

31.0%

1940 319,077

3.7%

1950 369,129

15.7%

1960 390,639

5.8%

1970 361,706

−7.4%

1980 298,694

−17.4%

1990 269,063

−9.9%

2000 256,231

−4.8%

2010 597,337

133.1%

Est. 2016 616,261 [49] 3.2%

U.S. Decennial Census[50]

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Unless otherwise noted, all demographics refer to the consolidated Louisville Metro, including the separately incorporated cities within it. As of the 2010 census, Louisville Metro held a population of 741,096,[4] while the "balance" area of Louisville proper[51] included 597,337.[5] Due to the city-county merger in 2003, the city's population had greatly expanded from the premerger area of Louisville, which held only 245,315 people in 2007. Louisville is the largest city in Kentucky, with 17.1% of the state's total population as of 2010; the balance's percentage was 13.8%.[52] In 2010, over one-third of the population growth in Kentucky
Kentucky
was in Louisville's CSA counties.[citation needed]

Map of racial distribution in Louisville, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

The 2007 demographic breakdown for the entire Louisville Metro area was 74.8% White (71.7% non-Hispanic), 22.2% Black, 0.6% American Indian, 2.0% Asian, 0.1% Hawaiian or Pacific islander, 1.4% other, and 1.6% multiracial. About 2.9% of the total population was identified as Hispanic of any race. During the same year, the area of premerger Louisville consisted 60.1% White, 35.2% African American, 1.9% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, and 3.0% other, with 2.4% identified as Hispanic of any race. Of the 287,012 households, 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.2% were not families. About 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.97. The age distribution is 24.3% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.60 males. The median income for a household is $39,457 and for a family was $49,161. Males had a median income of $36,484 versus $26,255 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,352. About 9.5% of families and 12.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.1% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those ages 65 or over. Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Louisville, Kentucky See also: Religion in Kentucky

Louisville's Cathedral of the Assumption

Louisville hosts religious institutions of various faiths, including Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism. The 135,421 Roman Catholic Louisvillians are part of the Archdiocese of Louisville, covering 24 counties in central Kentucky, and consisting of 121 parishes and missions spread over 8,124 square miles (21,040 km2).[53] The Cathedral of the Assumption in downtown Louisville is the seat of the Archdiocese of Louisville. Our Lady of Gethsemani Abbey, the monastic home of Catholic writer Thomas Merton, is in nearby Bardstown, Kentucky, and also in the archdiocese. Most of Louisville's Roman Catholic population is of German descent, the result of large-scale 19th-century immigration. Bellarmine University
Bellarmine University
and Spalding University
Spalding University
in Louisville are affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. One in three Louisvillians is Southern Baptist, belonging to one of 147 local congregations.[54] This denomination increased in number when large numbers of people moved into Louisville in the early 20th century from rural Kentucky
Kentucky
and Tennessee
Tennessee
to work in the city's factories; some of these migrants also formed Holiness and Pentecostal churches and Churches of Christ. German immigrants in the 19th century brought not only a large Catholic population, but also the Lutheran
Lutheran
and Evangelical faiths, which are represented today in Louisville by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the Lutheran
Lutheran
Church–Missouri Synod, and the United Church of Christ, respectively. The city is home to two megachurches. Southeast Christian Church, with its main campus in Middletown and three others in the surrounding region, is, as of 2013[update], the seventh-largest church in the United States.[55] St. Stephen Church[56] is the 38th largest in the US,[55] and has the largest African American
African American
congregation in Kentucky.[57] The city is home to several religious institutions: the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville Bible College, Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, and the denominational headquarters of the Presbyterian Church (USA). The Jewish population of around 8,500 in the city is served by five synagogues. Most Jewish families emigrated from Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
at the start of the 20th century; around 800 Soviet Jews have moved to Louisville since 1991.[58] Jewish immigrants founded Jewish Hospital in what was once the center of the city's Jewish district. From 2005 to 2012, Jewish Hospital
Hospital
merged with two Kentucky-based Catholic healthcare systems to form KentuckyOne Health, which later in 2012 announced a partnership with the University of Louisville
University of Louisville
Hospital. A significant focal point for Louisville's Jewish community is located near Bowman Field, where there are two Orthodox synagogues (including Anshei Sfard, founded in 1893), the Jewish Community Center, Jewish Family and Career Services, and an affordable housing complex. Since 1996, every May, the Festival
Festival
of Faiths,[59] a five-day national interfaith gathering, is held featuring music, poetry, film, art and dialogue with internationally renowned spiritual leaders, thinkers and practitioners. The festival is organized by the Center for Interfaith Relations[60] and is held at Actors Theatre of Louisville.[61][62] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Louisville, Kentucky See also: Greater Louisville Inc.; Keep Louisville Weird; and List of major employers in Louisville, Kentucky

The L&N Building on West Broadway

Bourbon bottle, 19th century: One-third of all bourbon whiskey comes from Louisville.

Louisville today is home to dozens of companies and organizations across several industrial classifications. However, the underpinning of the city's economy since its earliest days has been the shipping and cargo industries. Its strategic location at the Falls of the Ohio, and its unique position in the central United States
United States
(within one day's road travel to 60% of the cities in the continental U.S.) make it a practical location for the transfer of cargo along its route to other destinations.[63] The Louisville and Portland Canal
Louisville and Portland Canal
and the Louisville and Nashville Railroad were important links in water and rail transportation. Louisville's importance to the shipping industry continues today with the presence of the Worldport global air-freight hub for UPS at Louisville International Airport. Louisville's location at the crossroads of three major interstate highways (I-64, I-65, and I-71) also contributes to its modern-day strategic importance to the shipping and cargo industry. In addition, the Port of Louisville[64] continues Louisville's river shipping presence at Jefferson Riverport International. As of 2003, Louisville ranks as the seventh-largest inland port in the United States.[65]

From left to right, BB&T Building, 400 West Market, National City Tower, and the Humana
Humana
headquarters building in downtown Louisville

Louisville has emerged as a major center for the health care and medical sciences industries. It has been central to advancements in heart and hand surgery, as well as cancer treatment. Some of the earliest artificial heart and hand transplants were conducted in Louisville. Its thriving downtown medical research campus includes a new $88 million rehabilitation center and a health sciences research and commercialization park, that in partnership with the University of Louisville, has lured nearly 70 top scientists and researchers.[citation needed] Louisville is also home to Humana, one of the nation's largest health insurance companies. Louisville is a significant center of manufacturing, with two major Ford plants, and the headquarters and major home appliance factory of GE Appliances (a subsidiary of Haier). The city is also a major center of the American whiskey
American whiskey
industry, with about one-third of all bourbon coming from Louisville.[66][67][68][69] Brown-Forman, one of the major makers of American whiskey, is headquartered in Louisville and operates a distillery in the Louisville suburb of Shively. The current primary distillery site operated by Heaven Hill, called the Bernheim distillery, is also located in Louisville near Brown-Forman's distillery. Other distilleries and related businesses can also be found in neighboring cities in Kentucky, such as Bardstown, Clermont, Lawrenceburg, and Loretto. Similar to the Kentucky
Kentucky
Bourbon Trail that links these central Kentucky
Kentucky
locations, Louisville offers tourists its own "Urban Bourbon Trail",[70] where people can stop at nearly 20 "area bars and restaurants, all offering at least 50 labels of America's only native spirit."[68] Not typically known for high tech outside of the previously identified industries, the city in the 2010s has been at or near the forefront of some high-tech-related developments. In April 2017, Google Fiber confirmed that Louisville will be wired for its ultrafast network.[71] Meanwhile, since October 2016, AT&T Fiber has been building out its similar service in the city as well as neighboring counties in Indiana.[72] Beyond networking, the city, through its public–private partnership called Code Louisville, recognized by President Barack Obama, is aiding area residents in the learning of software coding skills.[73][74][75] Louisville for a long time was also home to the Belknap Hardware and Manufacturing Company, at its peak one of the largest manufacturers and wholesale distributors of hardware in the United States, as well as Brown & Williamson, the third-largest company in the tobacco industry before merging with R. J. Reynolds in 2004 to form the Reynolds American
Reynolds American
Company. Brown & Williamson, one of the subjects of the tobacco industry scandals of the 1990s, was the focus of The Insider, a 1999 film shot around the Louisville area. Louisville prides itself in its large assortment of small, independent businesses and restaurants, some of which have become known for their ingenuity and creativity. In 1926, the Brown Hotel became the home of the Hot Brown
Hot Brown
"sandwich". A few blocks away, the Seelbach Hotel, which F. Scott Fitzgerald
F. Scott Fitzgerald
references in The Great Gatsby, is also famous for a secret back room where Al Capone
Al Capone
would regularly meet with associates during the Prohibition
Prohibition
era. The drink the Old Fashioned
Old Fashioned
was invented in Louisville's Pendennis Club. Several major motion pictures have also been filmed in or near Louisville, including The Insider, Goldfinger, Stripes, Lawn Dogs, Elizabethtown, Demolition Man, and Secretariat. Culture[edit]

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Annual festivals and other events[edit] See also: List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area

2006 Kentucky Derby Festival
Kentucky Derby Festival
Thunder Over Louisville
Thunder Over Louisville
fireworks display as seen from the Kentucky
Kentucky
side of the Ohio River

Louisville is home to many annual cultural events. Perhaps most well-known is the Kentucky
Kentucky
Derby, held annually during the first Saturday of May. The Derby is preceded by a two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival, which starts with the annual Thunder Over Louisville, the largest annual fireworks display in North America.[76] The Kentucky Derby Festival
Kentucky Derby Festival
also features notable events such as the Pegasus Parade, The Great Steamboat
Steamboat
Race, Great Balloon Race, a combined marathon/mini marathon and about seventy events in total. Esquire magazine has called the Kentucky Derby
Kentucky Derby
"the biggest party in the south." Usually beginning in late February or early March is the Humana Festival
Festival
of New American Plays at Actors Theatre of Louisville, an internationally acclaimed new-play festival that lasts approximately six weeks. On Memorial Day
Memorial Day
weekend, Louisville hosts the largest annual Beatles Festival
Festival
in the world, Abbey Road on the River. The festival lasts five days and is located on the Belvedere in downtown Louisville. The summer season in Louisville also features a series of cultural events such as the Kentucky
Kentucky
Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Festival
Festival
(commonly called " Shakespeare
Shakespeare
in Central Park"), held in July of every year and features free Shakespeare
Shakespeare
plays in Central Park
Park
in Old Louisville. Also in July, the Forecastle Festival
Forecastle Festival
draws 35,000 visitors annually to Louisville Waterfront Park
Louisville Waterfront Park
in celebration of the best in music, art and environmental activism. Past performers include The Black Keys, The Flaming Lips, Widespread Panic, The Smashing Pumpkins, The Avett Brothers, The Black Crowes
The Black Crowes
and hundreds more. The Kentucky
Kentucky
State Fair is held every August at the Kentucky Exposition Center in Louisville as well, featuring an array of culture from all areas of Kentucky. In places, the African American
African American
community celebrates Juneteenth
Juneteenth
commemorating June 19, 1865, when slaves in the western territories learned of their freedom.[77][78][79] In September, in nearby Bardstown, is the annual Kentucky
Kentucky
Bourbon Festival, which celebrates the history and art of distilling bourbon whiskey. The suburb of Jeffersontown is also the home of the annual Gaslight Festival, a series of events spread over a week. Attendance is approximately 200,000 for the week. The month of October features the St. James Court Art Show
St. James Court Art Show
in Old Louisville. Thousands of artists gather on the streets and in the courtyard to exhibit and sell their wares, and the event is attended by many art collectors and enthusiasts. The show is the second most-attended event next to the Derby. Another art-related event that occurs every month is the First Friday Hop.[80] A free TARC bus takes art lovers to many downtown area (especially East Market District/NuLu) independent art galleries on the first Friday of every month. Indie scene[edit] Louisville has blossomed as a booming center for independent art, music and business. A Louisville locale that highlights this scene is Bardstown Road, an area located in the heart of the Highlands. Bardstown Road is known for its cultural diversity and local trade. The majority of the businesses along Bardstown Road, such as coffee shops, clothing stores and art galleries, are locally owned and operated businesses. Though it is only about one mile (1.6 km) long, this strip of Bardstown Road constitutes much of the city's culture and diverse lifestyle, contributing to the unofficial "Keep Louisville Weird" slogan. In downtown Louisville, 21c Museum Hotel, a hotel that showcases contemporary art installations and exhibitions throughout its public spaces, and features a red penguin on its roof, is, according to The New York Times, "an innovative concept with strong execution and prompt and enthusiastic service." Louisville is home to a thriving indie music scene with bands such as Love Jones, Tantric, Squirrel Bait, CABIN, Slint, My Morning Jacket, Houndmouth, Young Widows and Wax Fang. Acclaimed singer-songwriters Will Oldham, who performs under the moniker "Bonnie 'Prince' Billy", is a resident, as was country/rock singer-songwriter Tim Krekel. Cellist Ben Sollee
Ben Sollee
splits his time between Louisville and Lexington. Long running rock/jazz fusion band NRBQ
NRBQ
also formed in Louisville in the late 1960s as well as 1980s psychobilly band Bodeco. Post-grunge band Days of the New, at one time including future breakout pop star Nicole Scherzinger, formed in Louisville in the mid-1990s. The Louisville music scene reaches a crescendo every July during the Forecastle Festival, a three-day music, art and environmental activism festival taking place at Louisville Waterfront Park. Especially catering to Louisville's music scene is 91.9 WFPK
WFPK
Radio Louisville, a local public radio station funded, in part, from local listeners. The station features not only national and international musicians common to public radio, but also local and regional talent. The station also hosts summer concerts on the waterfront from April until July, where up-and-coming alternative artists are brought to stage. Museums, galleries and interpretive centers[edit]

A giant baseball bat adorns the outside of Louisville Slugger
Louisville Slugger
Museum & Factory in downtown Louisville

See also: List of museums in the Louisville metropolitan area
Louisville metropolitan area
and List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area The West Main District in downtown Louisville features what is locally known as "Museum Row". In this area is the Frazier History Museum, which opened its doors in 2004 as an armaments museum, featuring the only collection of Royal Armouries
Royal Armouries
artifacts outside of the United Kingdom. Since then the Frazier has expanded its focus to broader history. The Frazier Museum has three floors of exhibits, an education center and a tournament ring, which presents daily performances, as well as event spaces available for rent, including a rooftop garden featuring native plants and 4th floor loft-style space that accommodates up to 360 people seated.

The facade of the Frazier History Museum

Also nearby is the Kentucky
Kentucky
Science Center, which is Kentucky's largest hands-on science center and features interactive exhibits, IMAX
IMAX
films, educational programs and technology networks. The Kentucky Museum of Art and Craft, opened in 1981, is a nonprofit organization with a mission to support and promote excellence in art, craft, applied arts and design. The Muhammad Ali Center
Muhammad Ali Center
opened November 2005 in "Museum Row" and features Louisville native Muhammad Ali's boxing memorabilia.

The Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali
Center, alongside Interstate 64
Interstate 64
on Louisville's riverfront.

The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution
National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution
(SAR) is a patriotic, historical, and educational non-profit organization and a leading male lineage society that perpetuates the ideals of the American war for independence and the founding of the United States. The SAR opened its National Genealogical Research Library in 2010 along Louisville's Museum Row next door to its national headquarters, with an on-site American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
Education Center expected to be completed soon. The Speed Art Museum
Speed Art Museum
opened in 1927 and is the oldest and largest art museum in the state of Kentucky. Located adjacent to the University of Louisville, the museum features over 12,000 pieces of art in its permanent collection and hosts traveling exhibitions. Multiple art galleries are located in the city, but they are especially concentrated in the East Market District
East Market District
(NuLu), immediately to the east of downtown. This row of galleries, plus others in the West Main District, are prominently featured in the monthly First Friday Hop. Several local history museums can be found in the Louisville area. The most prominent among them is The Filson Historical Society, founded in 1884, which has holdings exceeding 1.5 million manuscript items and over 50,000 volumes in the library. The Filson's extensive collections focus on Kentucky, the Upper South
Upper South
and the Ohio River
Ohio River
Valley, and contain a large collection of portraiture and over 10,000 museum artifacts. Other local history museums include the Portland Museum, Historic Locust Grove, Conrad-Caldwell House
Conrad-Caldwell House
Museum, the Falls of the Ohio State Park
Park
interpretive center (Clarksville, Indiana), Howard Steamboat
Steamboat
Museum (Jeffersonville, Indiana) and the Carnegie Center for Art and History (New Albany, Indiana). The Falls interpretive center, part of the Falls of the Ohio
Falls of the Ohio
National Wildlife Conservation Area, also functions as a natural history museum, covering findings in the nearby exposed Devonian
Devonian
fossil bed.

The Belle of Louisville

There are also several historical properties and items of interest in the area, including the Belle of Louisville, the oldest Mississippi-style steamboat in operation in the United States. The United States
United States
Marine Hospital
Hospital
of Louisville is considered by the National Park Service
National Park Service
to be the best remaining antebellum hospital in the United States.[81] It was designed by Robert Mills, who is best known as the designer of the Washington Monument. Fort Knox, spread out among Bullitt, Hardin and Meade Counties (two of which are in the Louisville metropolitan area), is home to the U.S. Bullion Depository and the General George Patton Museum. The previously mentioned Locust Grove, former home of Louisville Founder George Rogers Clark, portrays life in the early days of the city. Other notable properties include the Farmington Historic Plantation
Farmington Historic Plantation
(home of the famous Speed family), Riverside, The Farnsley-Moremen Landing
Riverside, The Farnsley-Moremen Landing
and the restored Union Station, which opened in 1891. The Louisville area is also home to the Waverly Hills Sanatorium, a turn-of-the-century (20th) hospital that was originally built to accommodate tuberculosis patients, and subsequently has been reported and sensationalized to be haunted. The Little Loomhouse
Little Loomhouse
maintains historical records of local spinning and weaving patterns and techniques, and also offers tours, hands-on activities, and professional-level classes and materials. Performing arts[edit]

The Kentucky Center
The Kentucky Center
in Downtown Louisville

Main article: Performing arts in Louisville, Kentucky See also: Theater in Kentucky
Kentucky
and List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area The Kentucky
Kentucky
Center, dedicated in 1983, located in the downtown hotel and entertainment district, features a variety of plays and concerts. This is also the home of the Louisville Ballet, Louisville Orchestra, Bourbon Baroque, StageOne Family Theatre, Kentucky
Kentucky
Shakespeare Festival, which operates the oldest professional outdoor Shakespeare festival, and the Kentucky
Kentucky
Opera, which is the twelfth oldest opera in the United States. The Louisville Orchestra
Louisville Orchestra
was founded in 1937 by conductor Robert Whitney and Charles Farnsley, then Mayor of Louisville, and was a world leader in commissioning and recording contemporary works for orchestra from the 1950s to 1980s. The Louisville Orchestra
Louisville Orchestra
today performs more than 125 concerts per year with a core of salaried musicians and is recognized as a cornerstone of the Louisville arts community. Actors Theatre of Louisville, is in the city's urban cultural district and hosts the Humana
Humana
Festival
Festival
of New American Plays each spring. It presents approximately six hundred performances of about thirty productions during its year-round season, composed of a diverse array of contemporary and classical fare. Louisville is home to a fast-growing independent theatre scene. Theatre 502, Savage Rose Classical Theatre, The Bard's Town Theatre Company, The Liminal Playhouse, Looking For Lilith, Bunbury Theatre Company, Louisville Repertory Theatre, Louisville Improvisors, Pandora Productions, Eve Theatre Company, Squallis Puppeteers and Baby Horse Theatre all curate full seasons of contemporary, classical and experimental work. The Louisville Palace, the official venue for the Louisville Orchestra, is an ornate theatre in downtown Louisville's so-called theatre district. In addition to orchestra performances, the theatre shows films and hosts concerts. Iroquois Park
Iroquois Park
is the home of the renovated Iroquois Amphitheater, which hosts a variety of musical concerts in a partially covered outdoor setting. Sports[edit]

Louisville Slugger
Louisville Slugger
Field, where the Louisville Bats
Louisville Bats
play.

Main article: Sports in Louisville, Kentucky College sports
College sports
are popular in the Louisville area. The Louisville Cardinals have competed as members of the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), since joining that league in July 2014. College basketball
College basketball
is particularly popular. The Louisville Cardinals's Freedom Hall
Freedom Hall
averaged sellouts for 10 straight years and the downtown KFC Yum! Center
KFC Yum! Center
following suit with regular sellouts. The Cardinals ranked third nationally in attendance in 2012–13,[82] the most recent of the program's three national championship seasons. The Cardinals also hold the Big East conference women's basketball paid attendance record with nearly 17,000 attending the game against the Kentucky
Kentucky
Wildcats in 2008. The Louisville market has ranked first in ratings for the NCAA
NCAA
men's basketball tournament every year since 1999.[83] The Kentucky
Kentucky
Wildcats used to play an annual game in Freedom Hall. The Louisville Cardinals
Louisville Cardinals
football team has played in the Big East Conference. The team has produced successful NFL players such as Johnny Unitas, Deion Branch, Sam Madison, David Akers, and Ray Buchanan. The Cardinals won the 1991 Fiesta Bowl, the 2007 Orange Bowl, and the 2013 Sugar Bowl. In 2016, sophomore quarterback Lamar Jackson took the football team to new heights. Lamar was the school's first Heisman Trophy winner, which is awarded to the most outstanding college football player during that season. He was also one of the youngest players to ever receive the award. The team also matched their highest ranking in school history, coming in at #3 after their blow out win against the Florida State Seminoles. Louisville Football is now a top school in not only the Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference
but on the national scale.[84] University of Louisville
University of Louisville
baseball team advanced to the College World Series
College World Series
in Omaha in 2007, 2013, and 2014, as one of the final eight teams to compete for the national championship.

The Kentucky Derby
Kentucky Derby
in progress at Churchill Downs.

Horse racing is also a major attraction. Churchill Downs
Churchill Downs
is home to the Kentucky
Kentucky
Derby, the largest sporting event in the state, as well as the Kentucky
Kentucky
Oaks which together cap the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. Churchill Downs
Churchill Downs
has also hosted the renowned Breeders' Cup on eight occasions, most recently in 2011. Louisville is also the home of Valhalla Golf Club
Valhalla Golf Club
which hosted the 1996, 2000 and 2014 PGA Championships, the 2004 Senior PGA Championship and the 2008 Ryder Cup. It is also home to David Armstrong Extreme Park
Park
(formerly Louisville Extreme Park), which skateboarder Tony Hawk
Tony Hawk
has called one of his top five skate parks.[85] Louisville has seven professional and semi-professional sports teams, but no major league teams. It is the fourth largest U.S. city without one, with only Austin, Texas, Fort Worth, Texas
Fort Worth, Texas
and El Paso, Texas larger. The Louisville Bats
Louisville Bats
are a baseball team playing in the International League
International League
as the Class AAA affiliate of the nearby Cincinnati Reds. The team plays at Louisville Slugger
Louisville Slugger
Field at the edge of the city's downtown. In 2014 Louisville City
City
FC, a professional soccer team in the league then known as USL Pro and now as the United Soccer
Soccer
League, was announced. The team made its debut in 2015, playing home games at Louisville Slugger
Louisville Slugger
Field. In its first season, Louisville City
City
was the official reserve side for Orlando City SC while making its debut in Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
at the same time. That arrangement ended in 2016, when Orlando City
City
established a directly controlled reserve side in the USL. Louisville had two professional American football teams in the National Football League: the Louisville Breckenridges (or Brecks for short) from 1921 to 1924 and the Louisville Colonels in 1926.[86]

David Armstrong Extreme Park

Between 1967 and 1976, Louisville was home to the Kentucky
Kentucky
Colonels of the American Basketball Association. The Colonels was one of the ABA's most successful teams during its existence, winning four division titles and the 1975 ABA Championship, but was not invited to join the NBA when the two leagues merged in 1976, and subsequently folded. Louisville has the added distinction of being the only city in the world that is the birthplace of four heavyweight boxing champions: Marvin Hart, Muhammad Ali, Jimmy Ellis and Greg Page.[87] Current professional teams[edit] See also: Historical professional sports teams in Louisville

Club Sport Began Play League Venue

Louisville Bats Baseball 2002 International League Louisville Slugger
Louisville Slugger
Field

Derby City
City
Rovers Soccer 2011 Premier Development League Centurion Soccer
Soccer
Fields

Derby City
City
Dynamite Women's football 2013 Women's Football Alliance John Hardin High School (Radcliff)[88]

Louisville City
City
FC Soccer 2015 United Soccer
Soccer
League Louisville Slugger
Louisville Slugger
Field

Parks and outdoor attractions[edit]

The Louisville Waterfront Park
Louisville Waterfront Park
exhibits rolling hills, spacious lawns and walking paths on Louisville's waterfront in the downtown area.

See also: List of parks in the Louisville metropolitan area
Louisville metropolitan area
and List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area Louisville Metro has 122 city parks covering more than 13,000 acres (53 km2). Several of these parks were designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, who also designed New York City's Central Park
Park
as well as parks, parkways, college campuses and public facilities in many U.S. locations. The Louisville Waterfront Park
Louisville Waterfront Park
is prominently located on the banks of the Ohio River
Ohio River
near downtown and features large open areas, which often hold free concerts and other festivals. The Big Four Bridge, a former railroad bridge spanning 547 feet (167 m) but is now a pedestrian bridge connecting Waterfront Park
Park
with Jeffersonville, Indiana's waterfront park, fully opened in May 2014 with the completion of Jeffersonville's ramp.[89][90] Cherokee Park, one of the most visited parks in the nation,[91] features a 2.6-mile (4.2 km) mixed-use loop and many well-known landscaping and architectural features including the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion. Other notable parks in the system include Iroquois Park, Shawnee Park, Seneca Park
Park
and Central Park. Further from the downtown area is the Jefferson Memorial Forest, which at 6,218 acres (25.16 km2) is the largest municipal urban forest in the United States.,[92] The forest is designated as a National Audubon Society wildlife refuge and offers over 30 miles (48 km) of various hiking trails.

A section of the Louisville Loop
Louisville Loop
bike and pedestrian trail

Otter Creek Outdoor Recreation Area, owned and operated by the Kentucky
Kentucky
Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, is another large park in nearby Brandenburg, Kentucky. The park's namesake, Otter Creek, winds along the eastern side of the park. A scenic bend in the Ohio River, which divides Kentucky
Kentucky
from Indiana, can be seen from northern overlooks within the park. The park is a popular mountain biking destination, with trails maintained by a local mountain bike organization. Other outdoor points of interest in the Louisville area include Cave Hill Cemetery (the burial location of Col. Harland Sanders), Zachary Taylor National Cemetery (the burial location of President Zachary Taylor), the Louisville Zoo
Louisville Zoo
and the Falls of the Ohio
Falls of the Ohio
National Wildlife Conservation Area. In development is the City
City
of Parks, a project to create a 110-mile (180 km) continuous paved pedestrian and biking trail called the Louisville Loop
Louisville Loop
around Louisville Metro while also adding a large amount of park land. Current plans call for making approximately 4,000 acres (16 km2) of the Floyds Fork flood plain in eastern Jefferson County into a new park system called The Parklands of Floyds Fork, expanding area in the Jefferson Memorial Forest, and adding riverfront land and wharfs along the Riverwalk and Levee Trail, both completed segments of the Louisville Loop. Government and politics[edit]

Louisville City Hall
Louisville City Hall
in downtown, built 1870–1873, is a blend of Italianate
Italianate
styles characteristic of Neo-Renaissance

Main article: Government of Louisville, Kentucky See also: List of mayors of Louisville, Kentucky; Louisville Metro Council; and Government of Kentucky On January 6, 2003, Louisville merged its government with that of Jefferson County, forming coterminous borders.[14] Louisville was the second and only other city in the state to merge with its county since Lexington merged with Fayette County in 1974. Louisville Metro is governed by an executive called the Metro Mayor and a city legislature called the Metro Council. The second and current Metro Mayor is Greg Fischer
Greg Fischer
(D), who entered office on January 3, 2011. The Metro Council consists of 26 seats representing districts apportioned by population throughout the city and county. The residents of the semi-independent municipalities within Louisville Metro are apportioned to districts along with all other county residents. Half (13) of the seats come up for reelection every two years. The council is chaired by a Council President, currently David Yates (D), who is elected by the council members annually. Democrats currently have a 17 to 9 seat majority on the council. Before merger, under the Kentucky
Kentucky
Constitution and statutory law Louisville was designated as a first-class city in regard to local laws affecting public safety, alcohol beverage control, revenue options, and various other matters; as of 2014, it is the only such designated city in the state.[93] The Official Seal of the City
City
of Louisville, no longer used following the merger, reflected its history and heritage in the fleur-de-lis representing French aid given during the Revolutionary War and the thirteen stars signifying the original colonies. The new Seal of Louisville Metro retains the fleur-de-lis, but has only two stars, one representing the city and the other the county. Kentucky's 3rd congressional district
Kentucky's 3rd congressional district
encompasses most of Louisville Metro, and is represented by Rep. John Yarmuth
John Yarmuth
(D). Far eastern portions of the county are part of the 4th congressional district, which is represented by Thomas Massie
Thomas Massie
(R).[94][95] Public safety and crime[edit] See also: Louisville Metro Police Department, Louisville Metro EMS, Louisville Division of Fire, and Jefferson County Fire Service

A Louisville Metro Police cruiser

In a 2005 survey, Morgan Quitno Press ranked Louisville as the seventh safest large city in the United States.[96] The 2006 edition of the survey ranked Louisville eighth.[97] In 2004, Louisville recorded 70 murders. The numbers for 2005 ranged from 55 to 59 (FBI says 55, LMPD says 59), which was down 16 percent from 2004.[98] In 2006, Louisville-Jefferson County recorded 50 murders, which was significantly lower than previous years. In 2008, Louisville recorded 79 murders.[99] The Louisville Metro Area's overall violent crime rate was 412.6 per 100,000 residents in 2005.[100] The Elizabethtown, Kentucky
Kentucky
Metro Area, which is part of Louisville's Combined Statistical Area, was the 17th safest Metro in the U.S.[101] Kentucky
Kentucky
has the 5th lowest violent crime rate out of the 50 states.[102] Violent crime
Violent crime
is most concentrated west of downtown, especially in the Russell neighborhood. The West End, located north of Algonquin Parkway and West of 9th Street, had 32 of the city's 79 murders in 2007.[103]

Louisville Metro EMS
Louisville Metro EMS
ambulance

The primary law enforcement agencies are the Louisville Metro Police Department (LMPD) and the Jefferson County Sheriff's Office (JCSO). 911 emergency medical services are provided by the government as Louisville Metro EMS
Louisville Metro EMS
(LMEMS) which responds to about 100,000 calls for service annually. Louisville Metro Department of Corrections operates two facilities housing approximately 2,000 inmates. Louisville has recently been featured on the television show First 48. The show follows LMPD's homicide unit while they try to solve murders. Fire protection, which is not solely a Metro government function, is provided by 20 independent fire departments (most of which are autonomous taxing districts) working in concert through mutual aid agreements. The only fire department operated by metro government is Louisville Fire & Rescue (formerly Louisville Division of Fire before city-county merger in 2003). The independent city of Shively in western Jefferson County possesses a city-run department. The other 18 fire departments in Louisville-Jefferson County are taxing districts known collectively as the Jefferson County Fire Service. Education[edit]

Grawemeyer Hall, modeled after the Roman Pantheon, is the University of Louisville's main administrative building

See also: List of schools in Louisville, Kentucky
Kentucky
and Louisville Free Public Library Louisville is home to several institutions of higher learning. There are six four-year universities, the University of Louisville, Bellarmine University, Boyce College, Spalding University, Sullivan University and Simmons College of Kentucky; Louisville Bible College; a two-year community college, Jefferson Community and Technical College; and several other business or technical schools such as Spencerian College, Strayer University
Strayer University
and Sullivan College of Technology and Design. Indiana
Indiana
University Southeast is located across the Ohio River
Ohio River
in New Albany, Indiana. The University of Louisville
University of Louisville
has had notable achievements including several hand transplants[104] and the world's first self-contained artificial heart transplant.[105]

The newly completed Medical Office Plaza on the University of Louisville's downtown Health Sciences Campus

Two major graduate-professional schools of religion are also located in Louisville. The Southern Baptist
Southern Baptist
Theological Seminary, with more than 5,300 students, is the flagship institution of the Southern Baptist Convention. It was founded in Greenville, South Carolina, in 1859 and moved to Louisville in 1877, occupying its present campus on Lexington Road in 1926. Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, product of a 1901 merger of two predecessor schools founded at Danville, Kentucky
Kentucky
in 1853 and in Louisville in 1893, occupied its present campus on Alta Vista Road in 1963. According to the U.S. Census, of Louisville's population over 25, 21.3% (the national average is 24%) hold a bachelor's degree or higher and 76.1% (80% nationally) have a high school diploma or equivalent. The public school system, Jefferson County Public Schools, consists of more than 100,000 students in 173 schools.[106] Due to Louisville's large Catholic population, there are 27 Catholic schools in the city. The Kentucky
Kentucky
School for the Blind, for all of Kentucky's blind and visually impaired students, is located on Frankfort Avenue in the Clifton neighborhood. Media[edit] Main article: Media in Louisville, Kentucky Louisville's newspaper of record is The Courier-Journal. The alternative paper is the progressive alt-weekly Louisville Eccentric Observer (commonly called 'LEO'), which was founded by 3rd district U.S. Representative John Yarmuth
John Yarmuth
(D). WAVE 3, an NBC
NBC
affiliate, was Kentucky's first TV station. Another prominent TV station is ABC affiliate WHAS 11, formerly owned by the famous Bingham family (who also owned The Courier-Journal), which hosts the regionally notable annual fundraiser, the WHAS Crusade for Children. CBS
CBS
affiliate WLKY
WLKY
32 and Fox affiliate WDRB
WDRB
41 (along with its sister station WBKI) round out the major television stations in the city. The most popular radio station is 84 WHAS 840 AM, designated by the FCC as a clear-channel station. This station was also formerly owned by the Binghams (now iHeartMedia), and is a talk radio station which also broadcasts regional sports. Infrastructure[edit] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Louisville, Kentucky See also: Roads in Louisville, Kentucky As with most American cities, transportation in Louisville is based primarily on automobiles. However, the city traces its foundation to the era where the river was the primary means of transportation, and railroads have been an important part of local industry for over a century. In more recent times, Louisville has become an international hub for air cargo.

Overhead view of the Kennedy Interchange
Kennedy Interchange
("Spaghetti Junction") before the ongoing reconstruction as part of the Ohio River
Ohio River
Bridges Project.

Louisville has inner and outer interstate beltways, I-264 and I-265 respectively. Interstates I-64 and I-65 pass through Louisville, and I-71 has its southern terminus in Louisville. Since all three of these highways intersect at virtually the same location on the east side of downtown, this spot has become known as "Spaghetti Junction". Two bridges carry I-64 and I-65 over the Ohio River, and a third automobile bridge carries non-interstate traffic, including bicyclists and pedestrians. Immediately east of downtown is the Big Four Bridge, a former railroad bridge now renovated as a pedestrian bridge. The Ohio River
Ohio River
Bridges Project, a plan under consideration for decades to construct two new interstate bridges over the Ohio River
Ohio River
to connect Louisville to Indiana, including a reconfiguration of Spaghetti Junction, began construction in 2012.[107] One bridge, the Abraham Lincoln Bridge, is located downtown beside the existing Kennedy Bridge for relief of I-65 traffic. The other, named the Lewis and Clark Bridge, connects I-265 between the portions located in southeast Clark County, Indiana
Indiana
and northeast Jefferson County, Kentucky
Kentucky
(Louisville Metro).[108] Both bridges and corresponding construction were finished in 2016.[109][110] As with any major project, there have been detractors and possible alternatives; one grassroots organization, 8664.org, has proposed options for downtown revitalization improvements, and a simpler and less expensive roadway design.

Louisville International Airport

Louisville's main airport is the centrally located Louisville International Airport, whose IATA Airport Code (SDF) reflects its former name of Standiford Field. The airport is also home to UPS's Worldport global air hub. UPS operates its largest package-handling hub at Louisville International Airport
Louisville International Airport
and bases its UPS Airlines division there. Over 3.2 million passengers and over 4.7 billion pounds (2,350,000 t) of cargo pass through the airport each year.[111] It is also the third busiest airport in the United States
United States
in terms of cargo traffic, and seventh busiest for such in the world.[112] Furthermore, since Louisville is located only around 35 minutes from Fort Knox, the airport is a major hub for armed services personnel traveling to and from the military installation. The historic but smaller Bowman Field is used mainly for general aviation while nearby Clark Regional Airport
Clark Regional Airport
is used mostly by private jets. The McAlpine Locks and Dam
McAlpine Locks and Dam
is located on the Kentucky
Kentucky
side of the Ohio River, near the downtown area. The locks were constructed to allow shipping past the Falls of the Ohio. In 2001 over 55 million tons of commodities passed through the locks.

Toonerville II Trolleys provided transportation in downtown Louisville up through 2014, before being replaced by ZeroBus.

Public transportation
Public transportation
consists mainly of buses run by the Transit Authority of River City
City
(TARC). The city buses serve all parts of downtown Louisville and Jefferson County, as well as Kentucky
Kentucky
suburbs in Oldham County, Bullitt County, and the Indiana
Indiana
suburbs of Jeffersonville, Clarksville and New Albany. In addition to regular city buses, transit throughout the downtown hotel and shopping districts is served by a fleet of zero-emissions buses called ZeroBus. In late 2014, these vehicles replaced the series of motorized trolleys known as the Toonerville II Trolley.[113] A light rail system has been studied and proposed for the city, but no plan was in development as of 2007.[114] Louisville has historically been a major center for railway traffic. The Louisville and Nashville Railroad
Louisville and Nashville Railroad
was once headquartered here, before it was purchased by CSX Transportation. Today the city is served by two major freight railroads, CSX (with a major classification yard in the southern part of the metro area) and Norfolk Southern. Five major main lines connect Louisville to the rest of the region. Two regional railroads, the Paducah and Louisville Railway
Railway
and the Louisville and Indiana
Indiana
Railroad, also serve the city. With the discontinuance of the stop in Louisville in 2003 for a more northerly route between New York and Chicago, the Kentucky
Kentucky
Cardinal no longer serves the city; it is thus the fifth largest city in the country with no passenger rail service.[115] In 2016 Walk Score
Walk Score
ranked Louisville 43rd "most walkable" of 141 U.S. cities with a population greater than 200,000.[116] Utilities[edit]

Completed in 1860, the Louisville Water Tower
Louisville Water Tower
is the oldest water tower in the U.S.

Electricity is provided to the Louisville Metro area by Louisville Gas & Electric. Water is provided by the Louisville Water Company, which provides water to more than 800,000 residents in Louisville as well as parts of Oldham and Bullitt counties. Additionally, they provide wholesale water to the outlying counties of Shelby, Spencer and Nelson.[117] The Ohio River
Ohio River
provides for most of the city's source of drinking water. Water is drawn from the river at two points: the raw water pump station at Zorn Avenue and River Road, and the B.E. Payne Pump Station northeast of Harrods Creek. Water is also obtained from a riverbank infiltration well at the Payne Plant. There are also two water treatment plants serving the Louisville Metro area: The Crescent Hill Treatment Plant and the B.E. Payne Treatment Plant. In June 2008, the Louisville Water Company
Louisville Water Company
received the "Best of the Best" award from the American Water Works Association, citing it as the best-tasting drinking water in the country.[118] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from the Louisville metropolitan area See also: List of University of Louisville
University of Louisville
people Events[edit] Important events occurring in the city have included the first large space lighted by Edison's light bulb which occurred during the Southern Exposition. (At the time, in 1883, the largest such installation to date.) Also, Louisville had the first library open to African Americans in the South,[119][120] and medical advances including the first human hand transplant[104] and the first self-contained artificial heart transplant.[105] Sister cities[edit]

The distances to each of Louisville's sister cities are represented on this downtown light post.

Louisville has nine sister cities as of 2012:[121][122][123]

Adapazarı, Turkey Jiujiang, Jiangxi, China La Plata, Argentina Leeds, West Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany Montpellier, Hérault, Occitanie, France Perm, Perm
Perm
Krai, Russia Quito, Ecuador Tamale, Ghana

In addition, Leeds
Leeds
has been recognized as a "friendship city". The two cities have engaged in many cultural exchange programs, particularly in the fields of nursing and law, and cooperated in several private business developments, including the Frazier History Museum.[124] On April 15, 2008, it was announced that Louisville would be twinned with the town of Bushmills
Bushmills
in Northern Ireland. The two places share a tradition for the distilling of whiskey. The choice of Louisville came after a search of U.S. cities, followed by an online poll conducted for the public to decide between three finalists, which also included Boston
Boston
and Portland, Maine.[125] See also[edit]

Geography portal North America portal United States
United States
portal Kentucky
Kentucky
portal Louisville portal

List of cities and towns along the Ohio River Bloody Monday

Notes[edit]

^ a b c The United States
United States
MSA table excludes the San Juan, Puerto Rico MSA which has a higher population than Louisville. ^ Based on 2010 data. ^ 2015 ranking. ^ a b Louisville's "balance" population is considered in determining rank among cities in the U.S. ^ Under Kentucky's current classification scheme, which went into effect on January 1, 2015, cities with a mayor–alderman form of government are first-class, with the "home rule class" covering all other forms. This replaced a system in which cities were divided into six classes, nominally by population.[12] ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official records for Louisville were kept at the Weather Bureau Office from August 1872 to June 1945, Bowman Field from July 1945 to November 1947, Louisville Int'l from December 1947 to October 1995, the Weather Forecast Office (38°06′54″N 85°38′42″W / 38.1150°N 85.6450°W / 38.1150; -85.6450) from November 1995 to December 2005, and again at Louisville Int'l since January 2006. For more information, see Threadex

References[edit]

^ " Transit Authority of River City
Transit Authority of River City
(TARC)". ridetarc.org. Retrieved June 11, 2016.  ^

"The Gateway to the South: A Beginner's Guide to Louisville". The Virgin Atlantic Blog. January 2014. Retrieved August 10, 2015.  K'Meyer, Tracy E. (January 1, 2010). Civil Rights in the Gateway to the South: Louisville, Kentucky, 1945–1980. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0813139201. Retrieved August 10, 2015.  "Flooded riverfront, Louisville, Kentucky, 1937. :: R. G. Potter Collection". Retrieved August 10, 2015. View of downtown Louisville, Kentucky, with buildings submerged by floodwater. Neon sign on top of building reads: "The Gateway to the South Louisville Gas & Electric Co." 

^

Puckett, Jeffrey Lee (March 9, 2016). "The Who, other must-see shows in the 'Ville". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved June 11, 2016.  Forde, Pat (September 10, 2003). "UofL's bogus billboards don't impress experts". The Courier-Journal. 

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United States
– Places of 50,000+ Population". 2016 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. May 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2017.  ^ a b Commonwealth of Kentucky. Office of the Secretary of State. Land Office. "Louisville, Kentucky". Accessed September 19, 2013. ^ a b "U.S. Gazetteer file for Kentucky
Kentucky
counties (Jefferson County)". United States
United States
Census Bureau. 2015. Retrieved August 26, 2016.  ^ a b c "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". 2014 Population Estimates. United States
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Kentucky
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Department for Libraries and Archives. Archived from the original on April 25, 2007. Retrieved July 19, 2007.  ^ Yater, George H. (1987). Two Hundred Years at the Fall of the Ohio: A History of Louisville and Jefferson County (2nd ed.). Louisville, Kentucky: Filson Club, Incorporated. pp. 9–10. ISBN 0-9601072-3-1.  ^ "The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition". Retrieved July 30, 2009.  ^ "Lewis and Clark — Falls of the Ohio". Retrieved July 30, 2009.  ^ Yater, pp. 46–48. ^ "Louisville, Kentucky, in the American Civil War".. 2017-09-04.  ^ " Kentucky Derby
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Kentucky
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Kentucky
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United States
Census Bureau, Population Division. December 30, 2013. Archived from the original (CSV) on August 24, 2014. Retrieved June 25, 2014.  ^ "Data on Catholic residents from the Archdiocese of Louisville". Archlou.org. Retrieved July 28, 2009.  ^ Data on Baptist Population from LRA website Long Run Baptist Association Archived February 1, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "2013 Outreach 100 Largest Churches in America". Outreach. Retrieved March 15, 2017.  ^ "St. Stephen Church". Retrieved October 21, 2013.  ^ Katayama, Devin (January 3, 2012). "Former Pastor Files Discrimination Suit Against St. Stephen Baptist Church". WFPL. Retrieved March 15, 2017.  ^ Smith, Peter (September 28, 2003). "Some synagogues eye broader styles of worship". The Courier-Journal.  ^ " Festival
Festival
of Faiths". Retrieved August 26, 2016.  ^ "Center for Interfaith
Interfaith
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Interfaith
Leaders Gather To Promote Peace In The Heart Of The Christian South". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 26, 2016.  ^ Smith, Ethan (May 9, 2015). " Festival
Festival
of Faiths: A Q&A with the director of Louisville's 'Sundance of Sacred'". LEO Weekly. Retrieved August 26, 2016.  ^ Kramer, Carl (1978). Louisville Survey: Central Report. p. 32.  ^ "Port of Louisville". Retrieved April 22, 2017.  ^ "Top 20 Inland U.S. Ports for 2003" (PDF). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 20, 2013.  ^ Kiniry, Laura (September 2, 2015). "Beyond bourbon in Louisville". BBC. Retrieved September 29, 2015.  ^ Lufkin, Bryan (April 29, 2015). "In Louisville, Try the Bourbon and Zip Line (Not at Once)". Wired. Retrieved September 29, 2015.  ^ a b "Things to Do in Louisville". Travel Channel. Retrieved September 29, 2015.  ^ Hall, Gregory A. (October 21, 2014). "Much of bourbon boom carries Louisville address". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved September 29, 2015.  ^ "Louisville, KY's Urban Bourbon Trail (UBT)". BourbonCounty.com. Archived from the original on February 19, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.  ^ Shafer, Sheldon S. (April 26, 2017). " Google Fiber
Google Fiber
confirms it will wire Louisville". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved April 26, 2017.  ^ Sayers, Justin (February 17, 2017). "AT&T Fiber ultrafast internet launched to New Albany, Jeffersonville". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved April 26, 2017.  ^ "President Obama Wants More Programs Like Code Louisville". 89.3 WFPL.  ^ " Code Louisville Aims to Expand the Region's Available Tech Talent - 89.3 WFPL". 89.3 WFPL.  ^ "Why Louisville's Tech Initiatives Are on a National Stage Today". 89.3 WFPL.  ^ Lammers, Braden (April 11, 2014). "Distinguished service awards presented to the men behind Thunder Over Louisville". Louisville Business First. American City
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Business Journals. Retrieved October 16, 2014.  ^ "The 11th Annual Juneteenth
Juneteenth
Jamboree of New Plays". Archived from the original on May 9, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2010.  ^ " Juneteenth
Juneteenth
Jamboree runs June 3–19 – Louisville, Kentucky". Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2010.  ^ "Juneteenth — Kentucky". Retrieved July 16, 2010.  ^ "Republic Bank First Friday Hop". firstfridayhop.com. Retrieved June 3, 2016.  ^ "National Historic Landmarks Program (NHL) – United States
United States
Marine Hospital". Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved July 15, 2014.  ^ "2013 NCAA
NCAA
MEN'S BASKETBALL ATTENDANCE" (PDF). NCAA.  ^ "Louisville No. 1 in basketball TV ratings". The Courier-Journal. April 8, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2008.  ^ " Lamar Jackson - 2017 Football". Retrieved 2017-09-16.  ^ "Louisville Extreme Park". Skateboardermag.com. Skateboarder Magazine. Archived from the original on February 11, 2011. Retrieved July 28, 2009.  ^ Biesel, David B. (1993). Can You Name that Team?: A Guide to Professional Baseball, Football, Soccer, Hockey, and Basketball Teams and Leagues. Scarecrow Press. p. 38.  ^ Loverro, Thom (June 9, 2016). " Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali
always stood out among Louisville's four kings of boxing". The Washington Times. Retrieved March 15, 2017.  ^ "Derby City
City
Dynamite". derbycitydynamite.com. Retrieved April 14, 2015.  ^ Shafer, Sheldon (May 16, 2007). " Big Four Bridge
Big Four Bridge
walkway about to be a step closer". The Courier-Journal.  ^ Lord, Joseph (May 20, 2014). " Indiana
Indiana
Side of Big Four Bridge
Big Four Bridge
Is Opening This Afternoon". WFPL. Retrieved June 22, 2014.  ^ "America's Most Visited City
City
Parks" (PDF). October 1, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 31, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2009.  ^ "New Property Connects Sections of Jefferson Memorial Forest
Jefferson Memorial Forest
– November 2009".  ^ "KLC Research Report: The Basics of Kentucky
Kentucky
Cities" (PDF). Kentucky League of Cities. September 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2012.  ^ "Kentucky's 3rd Congressional District – Representatives & District Map". GovTrack.us. Retrieved August 19, 2014.  ^ "Kentucky's 4th Congressional District – Representatives & District Map". GovTrack.us. Retrieved August 19, 2014.  ^ "America's Safest (and Most Dangerous) Cities." Morgan Quitno Press. November 21, 2005. Retrieved July 8, 2006. ^ "Louisville among nation's safest cities". The Courier-Journal. October 31, 2006.  ^ "FBI Report: Louisville Crime Rate Outpacing National Average".  ^ "The Urban Louisvillian — FBI Crime Statistics from 2006 Released".  ^ "Morgan Quitno — Violent Crime Rate in 2005 (ordered by metro area)" (PDF).  ^ "Morgan Quitno — Safest 25 Metropolitan Areas". Archived from the original on June 15, 2011.  ^ "Infoplease — Crime Rate by State, 2004 (rate per 100,000 inhabitants)".  ^ "courier-journal.com — Jefferson County homicide victims, 2007". Archived from the original on June 4, 2012.  ^ a b Altman, Lawrence K. (January 26, 1999). "Doctors in Louisville Perform Nation's First Hand Transplant". The New York Times. Retrieved August 8, 2015.  ^ a b Altman, Lawrence K. (July 4, 2001). "Self-Contained Mechanical Heart Throbs for First Time in a Human". The New York Times. Retrieved August 8, 2015.  ^ "About JCPS, JCPS at a Glance". Jefferson County Public Schools. Retrieved October 5, 2015.  ^ Collier, Rachel (August 24, 2012). "Construction to begin soon on The Ohio River
Ohio River
Bridges Project". WDRB. Retrieved June 22, 2014.  ^ Green, Marcus (July 16, 2007). "Bridge project tunnels' cost rises; Exploratory shaft will plot path for two others". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved July 16, 2007.  ^ "The Ohio River
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Bridges Project Downtown Crossing – The Project Overview". Retrieved June 22, 2014.  ^ "East End Crossing – The Project". Retrieved June 22, 2014.  ^ "Louisville, KY: Louisville International-Standiford Field (SDF)". March 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2014.  ^ "Preliminary World Airport Traffic and Rankings 2013 – High Growth Dubai Moves Up to 7th Busiest Airport". Airports Council International. March 31, 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2014.  ^ Gee, Dawne (December 22, 2014). "TARC replaces trolleys with ZeroBus". WAVE. Retrieved September 29, 2015.  ^ Green, Marcus (November 29, 2006). "Mass transit plan still possible; Officials will look for financing options". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved January 23, 2007.  ^ "Metropolitan Areas Served by Amtrak". November 23, 2006. Retrieved April 21, 2009.  ^ "Most Walkable Cities in the US". Walk Score. 2016. Archived from the original on January 31, 2017. Retrieved May 6, 2017.  ^ Data from Louisville Water ^ "Louisville wins best water taste test". American Water Works Association. June 10, 2008. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2010.  ^ "African Americans in Library Professions: The Kentucky
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City
Status Archived April 27, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.." Sister Cities of Louisville. 2006. Retrieved June 1, 2006. ^ "Louisville tastes victory in twin search". BBC. April 15, 2008. Retrieved April 15, 2008. 

Further reading[edit]

Bell, Rick (2007). The Great Flood
Flood
of 1937: Rising Waters, Soaring Spirits. Louisville, Kentucky: Butler Books. ISBN 1-884532-82-9. Retrieved August 9, 2015.  Domer, Dennis; Gregory A. Luhan; David Mohney (2004). The Louisville Guide. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 1-56898-451-0.  Greater Louisville Inc. (2006). Louisville Then and Now. Butler Books. ISBN 1-884532-68-3.  Kleber, John E., ed. (2001). The Encyclopedia of Louisville. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2100-0. OCLC 247857447. Retrieved May 14, 2015.  Lee, Gary (August 20, 2006). "Louisville Old and New: Either Way, It's a Knockout". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 1, 2006.  Nold, Chip; Bob Bahr (1997). Insiders' Guide to Louisville, Kentucky & Southern Indiana. Globe Pequot. ISBN 1-57380-043-0.  Sanders, David; Glen Conner (2000). Fact Sheet – Ohio River
Ohio River
Floods. Kentucky
Kentucky
Climate Center. Archived from the original on March 19, 2015. Retrieved June 23, 2014.  Yater, George H. (1987). Two Hundred Years at the Fall of the Ohio: A History of Louisville and Jefferson County (2nd ed.). Louisville, Kentucky: Filson Club, Incorporated. ISBN 0-9601072-3-1. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutLouisville, Kentuckyat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official website Louisville Metro's Open Data Portal Louisville Convention and Visitors Bureau Louisville, Kentucky
Kentucky
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Louisville/Jefferson County Information Consortium (LOJIC)

[https://web.archive.org/web/20140816193530/http://www.lojic.org/main/apps/ Interactive Maps of Louisville Metro, Jefferson County, KY

City
City
Mayors feature: "Louisville Metro has shown other regions how mergers can change balance of power" Louisville Life—weekly broadcast on Kentucky
Kentucky
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University of Louisville
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(metro area)

History

Timeline George Rogers Clark–founder Civil War Historic places

Geography

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National Historic Landmarks

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Prominent suburbs (over 10K pop.)

Clarksville Jeffersontown Jeffersonville Lyndon New Albany St. Matthews Shelbyville Shepherdsville Shively

Category (city) Category (metro area) Portal WikiProject

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Jefferson County, Kentucky, United States

County seat: Louisville

Cities

Anchorage Audubon Park Bancroft Barbourmeade Beechwood Village Bellemeade Bellewood Blue Ridge Manor Briarwood Broeck Pointe Brownsboro Farm Brownsboro Village Cambridge Coldstream Creekside Crossgate Douglass Hills Druid Hills Fincastle Forest Hills Glenview Glenview Hills Glenview Manor Goose Creek Graymoor-Devondale Green Spring Heritage Creek Hickory Hill Hills and Dales Hollow Creek Hollyvilla Houston Acres Hurstbourne Hurstbourne Acres Indian Hills Jeffersontown Kingsley Langdon Place Lincolnshire Louisville (balance) Lyndon Lynnview Manor Creek Maryhill Estates Meadow Vale Meadowbrook Farm Meadowview Estates Middletown Mockingbird Valley Moorland Murray Hill Norbourne Estates Northfield Norwood Old Brownsboro Place Parkway Village Plantation Poplar Hills Prospect‡ Richlawn Riverwood Rolling Fields Rolling Hills St. Matthews St. Regis Park Seneca Gardens Shively South Park
Park
View Spring Mill Spring Valley Strathmoor Manor Strathmoor Village Sycamore Ten Broeck Thornhill Watterson Park Wellington West Buechel Westwood Wildwood Windy Hills Woodland Hills Woodlawn Park Worthington Hills

Former CDPs

Buechel Fairdale Fern Creek Highview Newburg Okolona Pleasure Ridge Park St. Dennis Valley Station

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

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25 largest cities

Louisville Lexington Bowling Green Owensboro Covington Richmond Georgetown Florence Hopkinsville Nicholasville Elizabethtown Henderson Frankfort Jeffersontown Independence Paducah Radcliff Ashland Madisonville Murray Erlanger Winchester St. Matthews Danville Fort Thomas

Metropolitan areas

Ashland Bowling Green Clarksville, TN Elizabethtown Evansville Lexington–Fayette Louisville/Jefferson County Northern Kentucky Owensboro

Counties

Adair Allen Anderson Ballard Barren Bath Bell Boone Bourbon Boyd Boyle Bracken Breathitt Breckinridge Bullitt Butler Caldwell Calloway Campbell Carlisle Carroll Carter Casey Christian Clark Clay Clinton Crittenden Cumberland Daviess Edmonson Elliott Estill Fayette Fleming Floyd Franklin Fulton Gallatin Garrard Grant Graves Grayson Green Greenup Hancock Hardin Harlan Harrison Hart Henderson Henry Hickman Hopkins Jackson Jefferson Jessamine Johnson Kenton Knott Knox LaRue Laurel Lawrence Lee Leslie Letcher Lewis Lincoln Livingston Logan Lyon Madison Magoffin Marion Marshall Martin Mason McCracken McCreary McLean Meade Menifee Mercer Metcalfe Monroe Montgomery Morgan Muhlenberg Nelson Nicholas Ohio Oldham Owen Owsley Pendleton Perry Pike Powell Pulaski Robertson Rockcastle Rowan Russell Scott Shelby Simpson Spencer Taylor Todd Trigg Trimble Union Warren Washington Wayne Webster Whitley Wolfe Woodford

v t e

County seats in Kentucky

Albany Alexandria Barbourville Bardstown Bardwell Beattyville Bedford Benton Booneville Bowling Green Brandenburg Brooksville Brownsville Burkesville Burlington Cadiz Calhoun Campbellsville Campton Carlisle Carrollton Catlettsburg Clinton Columbia Covington Cynthiana Danville Dixon Eddyville Edmonton Elizabethtown Elkton Falmouth Flemingsburg Frankfort Franklin Frenchburg Georgetown Glasgow Grayson Greensburg Greenup Greenville Hardinsburg Harlan Harrodsburg Hartford Hawesville Hazard Henderson Hickman Hindman Hodgenville Hopkinsville Hyden Independence Inez Irvine Jackson Jamestown La Grange Lancaster Lawrenceburg Lebanon Leitchfield Lexington Liberty London Louisa Louisville Madisonville Manchester Marion Mayfield Maysville McKee Monticello Morehead Morganfield Morgantown Mount Olivet Mount Sterling Mount Vernon Munfordville Murray New Castle Newport Nicholasville Owensboro Owenton Owingsville Paducah Paintsville Paris Pikeville Pineville Prestonsburg Princeton Richmond Russellville Salyersville Sandy Hook Scottsville Shelbyville Shepherdsville Smithland Somerset Springfield Stanford Stanton Taylorsville Tompkinsville Vanceburg Versailles Warsaw West Liberty Whitesburg Whitley City Wickliffe Williamsburg Williamstown Winchester

v t e

50 most populous cities of Kentucky

Louisville Lexington Bowling Green Owensboro Covington Hopkinsville Richmond Florence Georgetown Henderson Elizabethtown Nicholasville Jeffersontown Frankfort Paducah Independence Radcliff Ashland Madisonville Winchester Erlanger Murray St. Matthews Fort Thomas Danville Newport Shively Shelbyville Glasgow Berea Bardstown Shepherdsville Somerset Lyndon Lawrenceburg Middlesboro Mayfield Mount Washington Campbellsville Maysville Edgewood Versailles Paris Alexandria Elsmere Franklin Harrodsburg Fort Mitchell Hillview La Grange

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 144873293 LCCN: n79022918 GND: 4138296-1 BNF:

.