HOME
ListMoto - London


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i)

London
London
(/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom.[7][8] Standing on the River Thames
River Thames
in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[9] London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent
Kent
and Hertfordshire,[10][11][12] which today largely makes up Greater London,[13][14][note 1] a region governed by the Mayor of London
Mayor of London
and the London
London
Assembly.[15][note 2][16] London
London
is a leading global city[17][18] in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transportation.[19][20][21] It is the world's largest financial centre[22][23][24][25] and has the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP in the world.[note 3][26][27] London
London
is often regarded as a world cultural capital.[28][29][30] It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals[31] and has the world's largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic.[32] It is the world's leading investment destination,[33][34][35][36] hosting more international retailers[37][38] and ultra high-net-worth individuals[39][40] than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe.[41] In 2012, London
London
became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
three times.[42] London
London
has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.[43] Its estimated mid-2016 municipal population (corresponding to Greater London) was 8,787,892,[3] the largest of any city in the European Union[44] and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population.[45] London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.[46] The city's metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016,[note 4][2] while the Greater London
Greater London
Authority states the population of the city-region (covering a large part of the south east) as 22.7 million.[47][48] London
London
was the world's most populous city from around 1831 to 1925.[49] London
London
contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London; Kew Gardens; the site comprising the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, and St Margaret's Church; and the historic settlement of Greenwich
Greenwich
(in which the Royal Observatory, Greenwich
Greenwich
defines the Prime Meridian, 0° longitude, and GMT).[50] Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London
London
Eye, Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
and The Shard. London
London
is home to numerous museums, galleries, libraries, sporting events and other cultural institutions, including the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library
British Library
and West End theatres.[51] The London Underground
London Underground
is the oldest underground railway network in the world.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Roman London 2.3 Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
London
London
(and Viking
Viking
period) 2.4 Middle Ages 2.5 Early modern 2.6 Late modern and contemporary

3 Administration

3.1 Local government 3.2 National government 3.3 Policing and crime

4 Geography

4.1 Scope 4.2 Status 4.3 Topography 4.4 Climate 4.5 Districts 4.6 Architecture 4.7 Natural history

5 Demography

5.1 Ethnic groups 5.2 Religion 5.3 Accent

6 Economy

6.1 The City of London 6.2 Media and technology 6.3 Tourism 6.4 Housing crisis

7 Transport

7.1 Aviation 7.2 Rail

7.2.1 Underground and DLR 7.2.2 Suburban 7.2.3 Inter-city and international 7.2.4 Freight

7.3 Buses and trams 7.4 Cable car 7.5 Cycling 7.6 Port and river boats 7.7 Roads

8 Education

8.1 Tertiary education 8.2 Primary and secondary education

9 Culture

9.1 Leisure and entertainment 9.2 Literature, film and television 9.3 Museums and art galleries 9.4 Music

10 Notable people 11 Recreation

11.1 Parks and open spaces 11.2 Walking

12 Sport 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References

15.1 Bibliography

16 External links

Etymology Main article: Etymology of London

The city's name may derive from the River Thames.

The etymology of London
London
is uncertain.[52] It is an ancient name, attested already in the first century AD, usually in the Latinised form Londinium;[52] for example, handwritten Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio ("in London").[53] Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations. The earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136.[52] This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.[54] Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin
Latin
(usually Londinium), Old English
Old English
(usually Lunden), and Welsh (usually Llundein), with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed that the name came into these languages from British Celtic; recent work tends to reconstruct the lost Celtic form of the name as *[Londonjon] or something similar. This was adapted into Latin
Latin
as Londinium
Londinium
and borrowed into West Germanic, the ancestor-language of English, already before English had become widely spoken in Britain.[55] The etymology and original meaning of the British Celtic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *(p)lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames
River Thames
which flows through London; from this, the settlement gained the Celtic form of its name, *Lowonidonjon.[56] However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, and recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of an proto-Indo-European root *lendh- ('sink, cause to sink'), combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo- (used to form place-names). Peter Schrijver has specifically suggested, on these grounds, that the name originally meant 'place that floods (periodically, tidally)'.[57][55] Until 1889, the name "London" officially applied only to the City of London, but since then it has also referred to the County of London and now to Greater London.[58] "London" is sometimes abbreviated as "L'don" or "LDN".[59] History Main articles: History of London
History of London
and Timeline of London Prehistory Two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London
London
area. In 1999, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the foreshore north of Vauxhall
Vauxhall
Bridge.[60] This bridge either crossed the Thames or reached a now lost island in it. Dendrochronology
Dendrochronology
dated the timbers to ca. 1500 BC.[60] In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to ca. 4500 BC, were found on the Thames foreshore, south of Vauxhall
Vauxhall
Bridge.[61] The function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank, at a natural crossing point where the River Effra flows into the Thames.[61] Roman London

In 1300, the City was still confined within the Roman walls

Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans after the invasion of 43 AD.[62] This lasted only until around 61, when the Iceni
Iceni
tribe led by Queen Boudica
Boudica
stormed it, burning it to the ground.[63] The next, heavily planned, incarnation of Londinium prospered, and it superseded Colchester
Colchester
as the capital of the Roman province of Britannia
Britannia
in 100. At its height in the 2nd century, Roman London
London
had a population of around 60,000.[64] Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
London
London
(and Viking
Viking
period) With the collapse of Roman rule in the early 5th century, London ceased to be a capital, and the walled city of Londinium
Londinium
was effectively abandoned, although Roman civilisation continued in the area of St Martin-in-the-Fields
St Martin-in-the-Fields
until around 450.[65] From around 500, an Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
settlement known as Lundenwic developed slightly west of the old Roman city.[66] By about 680, the city had regrown into a major port, although there is little evidence of large-scale production. From the 820s repeated Viking
Viking
assaults brought decline. Three are recorded; those in 851 and 886 succeeded, while the last, in 994, was rebuffed.[67]

The Lancastrian siege of London
London
in 1471 is attacked by a Yorkist sally

The Vikings established Danelaw
Danelaw
over much of eastern and northern England; its boundary stretched roughly from London
London
to Chester. It was an area of political and geographical control imposed by the Viking incursions which was formally agreed by the Danish warlord, Guthrum and the West Saxon king Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
in 886. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that Alfred "refounded" London
London
in 886. Archaeological research shows that this involved abandonment of Lundenwic and a revival of life and trade within the old Roman walls. London
London
then grew slowly until about 950, after which activity increased dramatically.[68] By the 11th century, London
London
was beyond all comparison the largest town in England. Westminster
Westminster
Abbey, rebuilt in the Romanesque style by King Edward the Confessor, was one of the grandest churches in Europe. Winchester
Winchester
had previously been the capital of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England, but from this time on, London
London
became the main forum for foreign traders and the base for defence in time of war. In the view of Frank Stenton: "It had the resources, and it was rapidly developing the dignity and the political self-consciousness appropriate to a national capital."[69][70] Middle Ages

Westminster
Westminster
Abbey, as seen in this painting (by Canaletto, 1749), is a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
and one of London's oldest and most important buildings

After winning the Battle of Hastings, William, Duke of Normandy was crowned King of England
England
in the newly completed Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
on Christmas Day 1066.[71] William constructed the Tower of London, the first of the many Norman castles in England
England
to be rebuilt in stone, in the southeastern corner of the city, to intimidate the native inhabitants.[72] In 1097, William II began the building of Westminster Hall, close by the abbey of the same name. The hall became the basis of a new Palace of Westminster.[73][74] In the 12th century, the institutions of central government, which had hitherto accompanied the royal English court as it moved around the country, grew in size and sophistication and became increasingly fixed in one place. For most purposes this was Westminster, although the royal treasury, having been moved from Winchester, came to rest in the Tower. While the City of Westminster
City of Westminster
developed into a true capital in governmental terms, its distinct neighbour, the City of London, remained England's largest city and principal commercial centre, and it flourished under its own unique administration, the Corporation of London. In 1100, its population was around 18,000; by 1300 it had grown to nearly 100,000.[75] Disaster struck in the form of the Black Death in the mid-14th century, when London
London
lost nearly a third of its population.[76] London
London
was the focus of the Peasants' Revolt
Peasants' Revolt
in 1381.[77] Early modern

Map of London
London
in 1593. There is only one bridge across the Thames, but parts of Southwark
Southwark
on the south bank of the river have been developed.

During the Tudor period
Tudor period
the Reformation produced a gradual shift to Protestantism, and much of London
London
property passed from church to private ownership, which accelerated trade and business in the city.[78] In 1475, the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
set up its main trading base (kontor) of Britain in London, since called Stalhof or Steelyard. It existed until 1853, when the Hanseatic cities of Lübeck, Bremen
Bremen
and Hamburg
Hamburg
sold the property to South Eastern Railway.[79] Woollen cloth was shipped undyed and undressed from 14th/15th century London
London
to the nearby shores of the Low Countries, where it was considered indispensable.[80] But the reach of English maritime enterprise hardly extended beyond the seas of north-west Europe. The commercial route to Italy
Italy
and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
normally lay through Antwerp
Antwerp
and over the Alps; any ships passing through the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
to or from England
England
were likely to be Italian or Ragusan. Upon the re-opening of the Netherlands
Netherlands
to English shipping in January 1565, there ensued a strong outburst of commercial activity.[81] The Royal Exchange was founded.[82] Mercantilism
Mercantilism
grew, and monopoly trading companies such as the East India Company
East India Company
were established, with trade expanding to the New World. London
London
became the principal North Sea
North Sea
port, with migrants arriving from England
England
and abroad. The population rose from an estimated 50,000 in 1530 to about 225,000 in 1605.[78] In the 16th century William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
and his contemporaries lived in London
London
at a time of hostility to the development of the theatre. By the end of the Tudor period
Tudor period
in 1603, London
London
was still very compact. There was an assassination attempt on James I in Westminster, in the Gunpowder Plot
Gunpowder Plot
on 5 November 1605.[83]

Vertue's 1738 plan of the Lines of Communication, built during the English Civil War

In the English Civil War
English Civil War
the majority of Londoners supported the Parliamentary cause. After an initial advance by the Royalists in 1642, culminating in the battles of Brentford
Brentford
and Turnham Green, London
London
was surrounded by a defensive perimeter wall known as the Lines of Communication. The lines were built by up to 20,000 people, and were completed in under two months.[84] The fortifications failed their only test when the New Model Army
New Model Army
entered London
London
in 1647,[85] and they were levelled by Parliament the same year.[86] London
London
was plagued by disease in the early 17th century,[87] culminating in the Great Plague of 1665–1666, which killed up to 100,000 people, or a fifth of the population.[88]

The Great Fire of London
Great Fire of London
destroyed many parts of the city in 1666

The Great Fire of London
Great Fire of London
broke out in 1666 in Pudding Lane in the city and quickly swept through the wooden buildings.[89] Rebuilding took over ten years and was supervised by Robert Hooke[90][91][92] as Surveyor of London.[93] In 1708 Christopher Wren's masterpiece, St Paul's Cathedral was completed. During the Georgian era, new districts such as Mayfair
Mayfair
were formed in the west; new bridges over the Thames encouraged development in South London. In the east, the Port of London
London
expanded downstream. London's development as an international financial centre matured for much of the 1700s. In 1762, George III acquired Buckingham House and it was enlarged over the next 75 years. During the 18th century, London
London
was dogged by crime, and the Bow Street Runners
Bow Street Runners
were established in 1750 as a professional police force.[94] In total, more than 200 offences were punishable by death,[95] including petty theft.[96] Most children born in the city died before reaching their third birthday.[97]

View to the Royal Exchange in the City of London
City of London
in 1886

The coffeehouse became a popular place to debate ideas, with growing literacy and the development of the printing press making news widely available; and Fleet Street
Fleet Street
became the centre of the British press. Following the invasion of Amsterdam
Amsterdam
by Napoleonic armies, many financiers relocated to London, especially a large Jewish
Jewish
community, and the first London
London
international issue[clarification needed] was arranged in 1817. Around the same time, the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
became the world leading war fleet[citation needed], acting as a serious deterrent to potential economic adversaries of the United Kingdom. The repeal of the Corn Laws
Corn Laws
in 1846 was specifically aimed at weakening Dutch economic power[citation needed]. London
London
then overtook Amsterdam as the leading international financial centre[citation needed].[98]In 1888, London
London
became home to a series of murders by a man known only as Jack the Ripper
Jack the Ripper
and It has since become one of the world's most famous unsolved mysteries. According to Samuel Johnson:

You find no man, at all intellectual, who is willing to leave London. No, Sir, when a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London
London
all that life can afford. — Samuel Johnson, 1777[99]

Late modern and contemporary

British volunteer recruits in London, August 1914

London
London
was the world's largest city from about 1831 to 1925.[49] London's overcrowded conditions led to cholera epidemics,[100] claiming 14,000 lives in 1848, and 6,000 in 1866.[101] Rising traffic congestion led to the creation of the world's first local urban rail network. The Metropolitan Board of Works
Metropolitan Board of Works
oversaw infrastructure expansion in the capital and some of the surrounding counties; it was abolished in 1889 when the London County Council
London County Council
was created out of those areas of the counties surrounding the capital. London
London
was bombed by the Germans during the First World War,[102] and during the Second World War, the Blitz and other bombings by the German Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
killed over 30,000 Londoners, destroying large tracts of housing and other buildings across the city.[103] Immediately after the war, the 1948 Summer Olympics were held at the original Wembley
Wembley
Stadium, at a time when London
London
was still recovering from the war.[104]

A bombed-out London
London
street during the Blitz of the Second World War

From the 1940s onwards, London
London
became home to a large number of immigrants, primarily from Commonwealth countries such as Jamaica, India, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Pakistan,[105] making London
London
one of the most diverse cities worldwide. In 1951, the Festival of Britain
Festival of Britain
was held on the South Bank.[106] The Great Smog
Great Smog
of 1952 led to the Clean Air Act 1956, which ended the "pea soup fogs" for which London
London
had been notorious.[107] Primarily starting in the mid-1960s, London
London
became a centre for the worldwide youth culture, exemplified by the Swinging London subculture[108] associated with the King's Road, Chelsea[109] and Carnaby Street.[110] The role of trendsetter was revived during the punk era.[111] In 1965 London's political boundaries were expanded to take into account the growth of the urban area and a new Greater London
London
Council was created.[112] During The Troubles
The Troubles
in Northern Ireland, London
London
was subjected to bombing attacks by the Provisional IRA.[113] Racial inequality was highlighted by the 1981 Brixton riot.[114] Greater London's population declined steadily in the decades after the Second World War, from an estimated peak of 8.6 million in 1939 to around 6.8 million in the 1980s.[115] The principal ports for London
London
moved downstream to Felixstowe and Tilbury,[citation needed] with the London Docklands
London Docklands
area becoming a focus for regeneration, including the Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
development. This was borne out of London's ever-increasing role as a major international financial centre during the 1980s.[116] The Thames Barrier
Thames Barrier
was completed in the 1980s to protect London
London
against tidal surges from the North Sea.[117]

Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge
at the 2012 Summer Olympics

The Greater London
Greater London
Council was abolished in 1986, which left London without a central administration until 2000 when London-wide government was restored, with the creation of the Greater London Authority.[118] To celebrate the start of the 21st century, the Millennium Dome, London Eye
London Eye
and Millennium Bridge were constructed.[119] On 6 July 2005 London
London
was awarded the 2012 Summer Olympics, making London
London
the first city to stage the Olympic Games three times.[120] On 7 July 2005, three London Underground
London Underground
trains and a double-decker bus were bombed in a series of terrorist attacks.[121] In 2008, London
London
named alongside New York City
New York City
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
as Nylonkong, being hailed as the world's three most influential global cities.[122] In January 2015, Greater London's population was estimated to be 8.63 million, the highest level since 1939.[123] During the Brexit referendum in 2016, the UK as a whole decided to leave the European Union, but a majority of London
London
constituencies voted to remain in the EU.[124] Administration

London

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of London

Greater London
Greater London
Authority

Mayor:

Sadiq Khan Mayoral elections

Deputy Mayor:

Joanne McCartney

Deputy Mayor for Business

Rajesh Agrawal

Deputy Mayor for Planning, Regeneration and Skills

Jules Pipe

London
London
Assembly:

Constituencies London Assembly
London Assembly
election, 2016

1998 referendum; 1999 Act; 2007 Act

City of London
City of London
Corporation

Lord Mayor:

Jeffrey Evans, Lord Mountevans

Court of Aldermen:

Wards

Sheriffs

Parliamentary constituencies in London

European Parliament
European Parliament
constituency

European Parliament
European Parliament
election, 2014

London
London
boroughs:

London
London
local elections, 2014

British politics portal

v t e

Local government Main articles: Local government in London, History of local government in London, and List of heads of London
London
government The administration of London
London
is formed of two tiers: a citywide, strategic tier and a local tier. Citywide administration is coordinated by the Greater London
Greater London
Authority (GLA), while local administration is carried out by 33 smaller authorities.[125] The GLA consists of two elected components: the Mayor of London, who has executive powers, and the London
London
Assembly, which scrutinises the mayor's decisions and can accept or reject the mayor's budget proposals each year. The headquarters of the GLA is City Hall, Southwark; the mayor is Sadiq Khan, the first Muslim
Muslim
mayor of a major Western capital.[126][127] The mayor's statutory planning strategy is published as the London
London
Plan, which was most recently revised in 2011.[128] The local authorities are the councils of the 32 London boroughs and the City of London
City of London
Corporation.[129] They are responsible for most local services, such as local planning, schools, social services, local roads and refuse collection. Certain functions, such as waste management, are provided through joint arrangements. In 2009–2010 the combined revenue expenditure by London
London
councils and the GLA amounted to just over £22 billion (£14.7 billion for the boroughs and £7.4 billion for the GLA).[130] The London Fire Brigade
London Fire Brigade
is the statutory fire and rescue service for Greater London. It is run by the London
London
Fire and Emergency Planning Authority and is the third largest fire service in the world.[131] National Health Service
National Health Service
ambulance services are provided by the London Ambulance Service (LAS) NHS Trust, the largest free-at-the-point-of-use emergency ambulance service in the world.[132] The London Air Ambulance
London Air Ambulance
charity operates in conjunction with the LAS where required. Her Majesty's Coastguard
Her Majesty's Coastguard
and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution operate on the River Thames,[133][134] which is under the jurisdiction of the Port of London
Port of London
Authority from Teddington Lock
Teddington Lock
to the sea.[135] National government

10 Downing Street, official residence of the Prime Minister

London
London
is the seat of the Government of the United Kingdom. Many government departments, as well as the Prime Minister's residence at 10 Downing Street, are based close to the Palace of Westminster, particularly along Whitehall.[136] The British Parliament is often referred to as the "Mother of Parliaments" (although this sobriquet was first applied to England
England
itself by John Bright)[137] because it has been the model for most other parliamentary systems.[137] There are 73 Members of Parliament (MPs) from London, elected from local parliamentary constituencies in the national Parliament. As of May 2015, 49 are from the Labour Party, 21 are Conservatives, and three are Liberal Democrat.[138] The UK government ministerial post of Minister for London
Minister for London
was created in 1994 and currently occupied by Jo Johnson.[139] Policing and crime Main article: Crime in London Policing in Greater London, with the exception of the City of London, is provided by the Metropolitan Police Service, overseen by the Mayor through the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime
Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime
(MOPAC).[140][141] The City of London
City of London
has its own police force – the City of London
London
Police.[142] The British Transport Police
British Transport Police
are responsible for police services on National Rail, London
London
Underground, Docklands Light Railway and Tramlink
Tramlink
services.[143] A fourth police force in London, the Ministry of Defence Police, do not generally become involved with policing the general public. Crime rates vary widely by area, ranging from parts with serious issues to parts considered very safe. Today crime figures are made available nationally at Local Authority[144] and Ward level.[145] In 2015 there were 118 homicides, a 25.5% increase over 2014.[146] The Metropolitan Police have made detailed crime figures, broken down by category at borough and ward level, available on their website since 2000.[147] Geography Main article: Geography of London Scope

Satellite view of inner London
London
(2010)

London, also referred to as Greater London, is one of nine regions of England
England
and the top-level subdivision covering most of the city's metropolis.[note 5] The small ancient City of London
City of London
at its core once comprised the whole settlement, but as its urban area grew, the Corporation of London
London
resisted attempts to amalgamate the city with its suburbs, causing "London" to be defined in a number of ways for different purposes.[148] Forty per cent of Greater London
Greater London
is covered by the London
London
post town, within which 'LONDON' forms part of postal addresses.[149][150] The London
London
telephone area code (020) covers a larger area, similar in size to Greater London, although some outer districts are excluded and some places just outside are included. The Greater London
Greater London
boundary has been aligned to the M25 motorway
M25 motorway
in places.[151] Outward urban expansion is now prevented by the Metropolitan Green Belt,[152] although the built-up area extends beyond the boundary in places, resulting in a separately defined Greater London
Greater London
Urban Area. Beyond this is the vast London
London
commuter belt.[153] Greater London
Greater London
is split for some purposes into Inner London
Inner London
and Outer London.[154] The city is split by the River Thames
River Thames
into North and South, with an informal central London
London
area in its interior. The coordinates of the nominal centre of London, traditionally considered to be the original Eleanor Cross
Eleanor Cross
at Charing Cross
Charing Cross
near the junction of Trafalgar Square and Whitehall, are about 51°30′26″N 00°07′39″W / 51.50722°N 0.12750°W / 51.50722; -0.12750.[155] However the geographical centre of London, on one definition, is in the London Borough of Lambeth, just 0.1 miles to the northeast of Lambeth
Lambeth
North tube station.[156] Status Within London, both the City of London
City of London
and the City of Westminster have city status and both the City of London
City of London
and the remainder of Greater London
Greater London
are counties for the purposes of lieutenancies.[157] The area of Greater London
Greater London
has incorporated areas that are part of the historic counties of Middlesex, Kent, Surrey, Essex
Essex
and Hertfordshire.[158] London's status as the capital of England, and later the United Kingdom, has never been granted or confirmed officially—by statute or in written form.[note 6] Its position was formed through constitutional convention, making its status as de facto capital a part of the UK's unwritten constitution. The capital of England
England
was moved to London
London
from Winchester
Winchester
as the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
developed in the 12th and 13th centuries to become the permanent location of the royal court, and thus the political capital of the nation.[162] More recently, Greater London has been defined as a region of England
England
and in this context is known as London.[13] Topography

London
London
from Primrose Hill

Greater London
Greater London
encompasses a total area of 1,583 square kilometres (611 sq mi), an area which had a population of 7,172,036 in 2001 and a population density of 4,542 inhabitants per square kilometre (11,760/sq mi). The extended area known as the London Metropolitan Region or the London
London
Metropolitan Agglomeration, comprises a total area of 8,382 square kilometres (3,236 sq mi) has a population of 13,709,000 and a population density of 1,510 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,900/sq mi).[163] Modern London
London
stands on the Thames, its primary geographical feature, a navigable river which crosses the city from the south-west to the east. The Thames Valley
Thames Valley
is a floodplain surrounded by gently rolling hills including Parliament Hill, Addington Hills, and Primrose Hill. Historically London
London
grew up at the lowest bridging point on the Thames. The Thames was once a much broader, shallower river with extensive marshlands; at high tide, its shores reached five times their present width.[164] Since the Victorian era
Victorian era
the Thames has been extensively embanked, and many of its London
London
tributaries now flow underground. The Thames is a tidal river, and London
London
is vulnerable to flooding.[165] The threat has increased over time because of a slow but continuous rise in high water level by the slow 'tilting' of Britain (up in the north and down in the south) caused by post-glacial rebound.[166] In 1974, a decade of work began on the construction of the Thames Barrier across the Thames at Woolwich
Woolwich
to deal with this threat. While the barrier is expected to function as designed until roughly 2070, concepts for its future enlargement or redesign are already being discussed.[167] Climate Main article: Climate of London

Average summertime day temperatures range between 20 and 26 °C (68 and 79 °F). Temperatures as high as 38 °C (100 °F) were recorded in 2003.

London
London
has a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb ), similar to all of southern England. Despite its reputation as being a rainy city, London
London
receives less precipitation in a year than Rome, Bordeaux, Lisbon, Naples, Sydney
Sydney
and New York City.[168][169][170][171][172][173] Temperature extremes for all sites in the London
London
area range from 38.1 °C (100.6 °F) at Kew during August 2003[174] down to −16.1 °C (3.0 °F) at Northolt
Northolt
during January 1962.[175] Summers are generally warm. London's average July high is 24 °C (74 °F). On average London
London
will see 31 days above 25 °C (77.0 °F) each year, and 4.2 days above 30.0 °C (86.0 °F) every year. During the 2003 European heat wave
2003 European heat wave
there were 14 consecutive days above 30 °C (86.0 °F) and 2 consecutive days where temperatures reached 38 °C (100.4 °F), leading to hundreds of heat related deaths.[176] Winters are generally cool, cloudy and damp with little temperature variation. Snowfall occurs occasionally and can cause travel disruption when this happens. Snowfall is more common in outer London. Spring and autumn are mixed seasons and can be pleasant. As a large city, London
London
has a considerable urban heat island effect,[177] making the centre of London
London
at times 5 °C (9 °F) warmer than the suburbs and outskirts. The effect of this can be seen below when comparing London
London
Heathrow, 15 miles west of London, with the London Weather Centre, in the city centre.[178]

Climate data for London
London
Heathrow (1981–2010, extremes 1948–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 17.2 (63) 19.8 (67.6) 24.2 (75.6) 29.4 (84.9) 32.8 (91) 35.6 (96.1) 36.7 (98.1) 38.1 (100.6) 35.4 (95.7) 29.9 (85.8) 20.8 (69.4) 17.4 (63.3) 38.1 (100.6)

Average high °C (°F) 8.1 (46.6) 8.4 (47.1) 11.3 (52.3) 14.2 (57.6) 17.9 (64.2) 21.0 (69.8) 23.5 (74.3) 23.2 (73.8) 19.9 (67.8) 15.5 (59.9) 11.1 (52) 8.3 (46.9) 15.2 (59.36)

Average low °C (°F) 2.3 (36.1) 2.1 (35.8) 3.9 (39) 5.5 (41.9) 8.7 (47.7) 11.7 (53.1) 13.9 (57) 13.7 (56.7) 11.4 (52.5) 8.4 (47.1) 4.9 (40.8) 2.7 (36.9) 7.43 (45.38)

Record low °C (°F) −13.2 (8.2) −9.6 (14.7) −5.1 (22.8) −2.6 (27.3) −0.9 (30.4) 1.5 (34.7) 5.6 (42.1) 5.9 (42.6) 1.8 (35.2) −3.3 (26.1) −7.0 (19.4) −11.8 (10.8) −13.2 (8.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 55.2 (2.173) 40.9 (1.61) 41.6 (1.638) 43.7 (1.72) 49.4 (1.945) 45.1 (1.776) 44.5 (1.752) 49.5 (1.949) 49.1 (1.933) 68.5 (2.697) 59.0 (2.323) 55.2 (2.173) 601.7 (23.689)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.1 8.5 9.3 9.1 8.8 8.2 7.7 7.5 8.1 10.8 10.3 10.2 109.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 61.5 77.9 114.6 168.7 198.5 204.3 212.0 204.7 149.3 116.5 72.6 52.0 1,632.6

Source: Met Office
Met Office
[179] Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Meteorological Institute [180] For more station data near London, see Geography of London.

Climate data for London
London
Weather Centre, 2001–2014

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 8.5 (47.3) 8.9 (48) 11.7 (53.1) 15.7 (60.3) 18.6 (65.5) 22.4 (72.3) 23.6 (74.5) 23.2 (73.8) 20.8 (69.4) 16.1 (61) 11.9 (53.4) 8.6 (47.5) 15.83 (60.51)

Daily mean °C (°F) 6.8 (44.2) 6.8 (44.2) 8.8 (47.8) 12.0 (53.6) 14.8 (58.6) 18.3 (64.9) 19.6 (67.3) 19.4 (66.9) 17.3 (63.1) 13.5 (56.3) 10.0 (50) 7.0 (44.6) 12.86 (55.13)

Average low °C (°F) 5.0 (41) 4.7 (40.5) 5.8 (42.4) 8.2 (46.8) 10.9 (51.6) 14.1 (57.4) 15.5 (59.9) 15.5 (59.9) 13.7 (56.7) 10.9 (51.6) 8.0 (46.4) 5.4 (41.7) 9.81 (49.66)

Source #1: Weather Online [181]

Source #2: Tutiempo [182]

Districts Main articles: List of districts of London
List of districts of London
and London
London
boroughs London's vast urban area is often described using a set of district names, such as Bloomsbury, Mayfair, Wembley
Wembley
and Whitechapel. These are either informal designations, reflect the names of villages that have been absorbed by sprawl, or are superseded administrative units such as parishes or former boroughs. Such names have remained in use through tradition, each referring to a local area with its own distinctive character, but without official boundaries. Since 1965 Greater London
Greater London
has been divided into 32 London boroughs in addition to the ancient City of London.[183][184] The City of London
London
is the main financial district,[185] and Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
has recently developed into a new financial and commercial hub in the Docklands to the east. The West End is London's main entertainment and shopping district, attracting tourists.[186] West London
London
includes expensive residential areas where properties can sell for tens of millions of pounds.[187] The average price for properties in Kensington
Kensington
and Chelsea is over £2 million with a similarly high outlay in most of central London.[188][189] The East End
East End
is the area closest to the original Port of London, known for its high immigrant population, as well as for being one of the poorest areas in London.[190] The surrounding East London
London
area saw much of London's early industrial development; now, brownfield sites throughout the area are being redeveloped as part of the Thames Gateway including the London Riverside
London Riverside
and Lower Lea Valley, which was developed into the Olympic Park for the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics.[190] Architecture Main articles: Architecture of London
Architecture of London
and List of tallest buildings and structures in London

Aerial view of the Tower of London, a historic medieval castle

London's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style, partly because of their varying ages. Many grand houses and public buildings, such as the National Gallery, are constructed from Portland stone. Some areas of the city, particularly those just west of the centre, are characterised by white stucco or whitewashed buildings. Few structures in central London pre-date the Great Fire of 1666, these being a few trace Roman remains, the Tower of London
Tower of London
and a few scattered Tudor survivors in the City. Further out is, for example, the Tudor-period Hampton Court Palace, England's oldest surviving Tudor palace, built by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey
Thomas Wolsey
c.1515.[191] Wren's late 17th-century churches and the financial institutions of the 18th and 19th centuries such as the Royal Exchange and the Bank of England, to the early 20th century Old Bailey
Old Bailey
and the 1960s Barbican Estate form part of the varied architectural heritage.

30 St Mary Axe, also known as "the Gherkin", towers over St Andrew Undershaft. Modern architecture juxtaposed by historic architecture is seen often in London

Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
and its fountains, with Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column
on the right

The disused – but soon to be rejuvenated – 1939 Battersea
Battersea
Power Station by the river in the south-west is a local landmark, while some railway termini are excellent examples of Victorian architecture, most notably St. Pancras and Paddington.[192] The density of London
London
varies, with high employment density in the central area, high residential densities in inner London, and lower densities in Outer London. The Monument
The Monument
in the City of London
City of London
provides views of the surrounding area while commemorating the Great Fire of London, which originated nearby. Marble Arch
Marble Arch
and Wellington Arch, at the north and south ends of Park Lane, respectively, have royal connections, as do the Albert Memorial and Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
in Kensington. Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column
is a nationally recognised monument in Trafalgar Square, one of the focal points of central London. Older buildings are mainly brick built, most commonly the yellow London stock brick
London stock brick
or a warm orange-red variety, often decorated with carvings and white plaster mouldings.[193] In the dense areas, most of the concentration is via medium- and high-rise buildings. London's skyscrapers, such as 30 St Mary Axe, Tower 42, the Broadgate Tower
Broadgate Tower
and One Canada
Canada
Square, are mostly in the two financial districts, the City of London
City of London
and Canary Wharf. High-rise development is restricted at certain sites if it would obstruct protected views of St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral
and other historic buildings. Nevertheless, there are a number of very tall skyscrapers in central London
London
(see Tall buildings in London), including the 95-storey Shard London
London
Bridge, the tallest building in the European Union. Other notable modern buildings include City Hall in Southwark
Southwark
with its distinctive oval shape[194] and the British Library
British Library
in Somers Town/Kings Cross. What was formerly the Millennium Dome, by the Thames to the east of Canary Wharf, is now an entertainment venue called the O2 Arena.

The Shard
The Shard
dominating the City of London
City of London
skyline, as seen from Forest Hill in July 2013. The St Pauls dome can be seen towards the left.

Natural history The London
London
Natural History Society suggest that London
London
is "one of the World's Greenest Cities" with more than 40 percent green space or open water. They indicate that 2000 species of flowering plant have been found growing there and that the tidal Thames supports 120 species of fish.[195] They also state that over 60 species of bird nest in central London
London
and that their members have recorded 47 species of butterfly, 1173 moths and more than 270 kinds of spider around London. London's wetland areas support nationally important populations of many water birds. London
London
has 38 Sites of Special
Special
Scientific Interest (SSSIs), two National Nature Reserves and 76 Local Nature Reserves.[196] Amphibians
Amphibians
are common in the capital, including smooth newts living by the Tate Modern, and common frogs, common toads, palmate newts and great crested newts. On the other hand, native reptiles such as slowworms, common lizards, grass snakes and adders, are mostly only seen in Outer London.[197]

Fox on Ayres Street, Southwark, South London

Among other inhabitants of London
London
are 10,000 red foxes, so that there are now 16 foxes for every square mile (2.6 square kilometres) of London. These urban foxes are noticeably bolder than their country cousins, sharing the pavement with pedestrians and raising cubs in people's backyards. Foxes have even sneaked into the Houses of Parliament, where one was found asleep on a filing cabinet. Another broke into the grounds of Buckingham Palace, reportedly killing some of Queen Elizabeth II's prized pink flamingos. Generally, however, foxes and city folk appear to get along. A survey in 2001 by the London-based Mammal Society found that 80 percent of 3,779 respondents who volunteered to keep a diary of garden mammal visits liked having them around. This sample cannot be taken to represent Londoners as a whole.[198][199] Other mammals found in Greater London
Greater London
are hedgehogs, rats, mice, rabbit, shrew, vole, and squirrels,[200] In wilder areas of Outer London, such as Epping Forest, a wide variety of mammals are found including hare, badger, field, bank and water vole, wood mouse, yellow-necked mouse, mole, shrew, and weasel, in addition to fox, squirrel and hedgehog. A dead otter was found at The Highway, in Wapping, about a mile from the Tower Bridge, which would suggest that they have begun to move back after being absent a hundred years from the city.[201] Ten of England's eighteen species of bats have been recorded in Epping Forest: soprano, nathusius and common pipistrelles, noctule, serotine, barbastelle, daubenton's, brown Long-eared, natterer's and leisler's.[202] Among the strange sights seen in London
London
have been a whale in the Thames,[203] while the BBC
BBC
Two programme "Natural World: Unnatural History of London" shows pigeons using the London Underground
London Underground
to get around the city, a seal that takes fish from fishmongers outside Billingsgate Fish Market, and foxes that will "sit" if given sausages.[204] Herds of red and fallow deer also roam freely within much of Richmond and Bushy Park. A cull takes place each November and February to ensure numbers can be sustained.[205] Epping Forest
Epping Forest
is also known for its fallow deer, which can frequently be seen in herds to the north of the Forest. A rare population of melanistic, black fallow deer is also maintained at the Deer Sanctuary near Theydon Bois. Muntjac deer, which escaped from deer parks at the turn of the twentieth century, are also found in the forest. While Londoners are accustomed to wildlife such as birds and foxes sharing the city, more recently urban deer have started becoming a regular feature, and whole herds of fallow deer come into residential areas at night to take advantage of London's green spaces.[206][207] Demography Main article: Demography of London

2011 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Census[208]

Country of birth Population

United Kingdom 5,175,677

India 262,247

Poland 158,300

Ireland 129,807

Nigeria 114,718

Pakistan 112,457

Bangladesh 109,948

Jamaica 87,467

Sri Lanka 84,542

France 66,654

London
London
maps showing the percentage distribution of selected races according to the 2011 Census

White

Asian

Black

The 2011 census recorded that 2,998,264 people or 36.7% of London's population are foreign-born making London
London
the city with the second largest immigrant population, behind New York City, in terms of absolute numbers. About 69% of children born in London
London
in 2015 had at least one parent who was born abroad.[209] The table to the right shows the most common countries of birth of London
London
residents. Note that some of the German-born population, in 18th position, are British citizens from birth born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces in Germany.[210] With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and it was for some time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the most populous city in the world. Its population peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939 immediately before the outbreak of the Second World War, but had declined to 7,192,091 at the 2001 Census. However, the population then grew by just over a million between the 2001 and 2011 Censuses, to reach 8,173,941 in the latter enumeration.[211] However, London's continuous urban area extends beyond the borders of Greater London
Greater London
and was home to 9,787,426 people in 2011,[46] while its wider metropolitan area has a population of between 12 and 14 million depending on the definition used.[212][213] According to Eurostat, London
London
is the most populous city and metropolitan area of the European Union
European Union
and the second most populous in Europe. During the period 1991–2001 a net 726,000 immigrants arrived in London.[214] The region covers an area of 1,579 square kilometres (610 sq mi). The population density is 5,177 inhabitants per square kilometre (13,410/sq mi),[215] more than ten times that of any other British region.[216] In terms of population, London
London
is the 19th largest city and the 18th largest metropolitan region in the world. As of 2014[update], London
London
has the largest number of billionaires (British Pound Sterling) in the world, with 72 residing in the city.[217] London
London
ranks as one of the most expensive cities in the world, alongside Tokyo
Tokyo
and Moscow.[218] Ethnic groups Main article: Ethnic groups in London

Ethnic groups in the 2011 census [219]    White British (44.9%)    Other White (14.9%)   Asian (18.4%)   Black (13.3%)   Arab (1.3%)   Mixed (5%)   Other (2.2%)

According to the Office for National Statistics, based on the 2011 Census estimates, 59.8 per cent of the 8,173,941 inhabitants of London were White, with 44.9 per cent White British, 2.2 per cent White Irish, 0.1 per cent gypsy/ Irish traveller
Irish traveller
and 12.1 per cent classified as Other White. 20.9 per cent of Londoners are of Asian and mixed-Asian descent. 19.7 per cent are of full Asian descent, with those of mixed-Asian heritage comprising 1.2 of the population. Indians account for 6.6 per cent of the population, followed by Pakistanis and Bangladeshis at 2.7 per cent each. Chinese peoples account for 1.5 per cent of the population, with Arabs comprising 1.3 per cent. A further 4.9 per cent are classified as "Other Asian". 15.6 per cent of London's population are of Black and mixed-Black descent. 13.3 per cent are of full Black descent, with those of mixed-Black heritage comprising 2.3 per cent. Black Africans account for 7.0 per cent of London's population, with 4.2 per cent as Black Caribbean
Caribbean
and 2.1 per cent as "Other Black". 5.0 per cent are of mixed race. Across London, Black and Asian children outnumber White British children by about six to four in state schools.[220] Altogether at the 2011 census, of London's 1,624,768 population aged 0 to 15, 46.4 per cent were White, 19.8 per cent were Asian, 19 per cent were Black, 10.8 per cent were Mixed and 4 per cent represented another ethnic group.[221] In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that there were more than 300 languages spoken in London
London
and more than 50 non-indigenous communities with a population of more than 10,000.[222] Figures from the Office for National Statistics show that, in 2010[update], London's foreign-born population was 2,650,000 (33 per cent), up from 1,630,000 in 1997. The 2011 census showed that 36.7 per cent of Greater London's population were born outside the UK.[223] A portion of the German-born population are likely to be British nationals born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces
British Armed Forces
in Germany.[224] Estimates produced by the Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
indicate that the five largest foreign-born groups living in London
London
in the period July 2009 to June 2010 were those born in India, Poland, the Republic of Ireland, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Nigeria.[225] Religion Main article: Religion in London

Religion in London
Religion in London
(2011 census)[226]

Religion

Percent(%)

Christian

48.4%

No religion

20.7%

Muslim

12.4%

Undeclared

8.5%

Hindu

5.0%

Jewish

1.8%

Sikh

1.5%

Buddhist

1.0%

Other

0.6%

According to the 2011 Census, the largest religious groupings are Christians (48.4 per cent), followed by those of no religion (20.7 per cent), Muslims
Muslims
(12.4 per cent), no response (8.5 per cent), Hindus (5.0 per cent), Jews
Jews
(1.8 per cent), Sikhs (1.5 per cent), Buddhists (1.0 per cent) and other (0.6 per cent). London
London
has traditionally been Christian, and has a large number of churches, particularly in the City of London. The well-known St Paul's Cathedral in the City and Southwark
Southwark
Cathedral south of the river are Anglican administrative centres,[227] while the Archbishop of Canterbury, principal bishop of the Church of England
England
and worldwide Anglican Communion, has his main residence at Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
in the London
London
Borough of Lambeth.[228]

St Paul's Cathedral

Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's and Westminster
Westminster
Abbey.[229] The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby Westminster
Westminster
Cathedral, which is the largest Roman Catholic cathedral in England
England
and Wales.[230] Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, observance is very low within the Anglican denomination. Church attendance continues on a long, slow, steady decline, according to Church of England
England
statistics.[231] London
London
is also home to sizeable Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, and Jewish communities. Notable mosques include the East London Mosque
East London Mosque
in Tower Hamlets, London Central Mosque
London Central Mosque
on the edge of Regent's Park[232] and the Baitul Futuh
Baitul Futuh
Mosque of the Ahmadiyya Muslim
Muslim
Community. Following the oil boom, increasing numbers of wealthy Hindus and Middle-Eastern Muslims
Muslims
have based themselves around Mayfair
Mayfair
and Knightsbridge
Knightsbridge
in West London.[233][234][235] There are large Muslim
Muslim
communities in the eastern boroughs of Tower Hamlets and Newham.[236] Large Hindu communities are in the north-western boroughs of Harrow and Brent, the latter of which is home to Europe's largest Hindu
Hindu
temple, Neasden Temple.[237] London
London
is also home to 42 Hindu
Hindu
temples. There are Sikh communities in East and West London, particularly in Southall, home to one of the largest Sikh
Sikh
populations and the largest Sikh
Sikh
temple outside India.[238] The majority of British Jews
Jews
live in London, with significant Jewish communities in Stamford Hill, Stanmore, Golders Green, Finchley, Hampstead, Hendon
Hendon
and Edgware
Edgware
in North London. Bevis Marks Synagogue in the City of London
City of London
is affiliated to London's historic Sephardic Jewish
Jewish
community. It is the only synagogue in Europe which has held regular services continuously for over 300 years. Stanmore
Stanmore
and Canons Park Synagogue has the largest membership of any single Orthodox synagogue in the whole of Europe, overtaking Ilford
Ilford
synagogue (also in London) in 1998.[239] The community set up the London
London
Jewish
Jewish
Forum in 2006 in response to the growing significance of devolved London Government.[240] Accent There are many accents traditionally associated with London. The most well known of the London
London
accents long ago acquired the Cockney
Cockney
label, which is heard both in London
London
itself, and across the wider South East England
England
region more generally.[241] The accent of a 21st-century Londoner varies widely; what is becoming more and more common amongst the under-30s however is some fusion of Cockney
Cockney
with a whole array of ethnic accents, in particular Caribbean, which form an accent labelled Multicultural London English (MLE).[242] The other widely heard and spoken accent is RP (Received Pronunciation) in various forms, which can often be heard in the media and many of other traditional professions and beyond, although this accent is not limited to London and South East England, and can also be heard selectively throughout the whole UK amongst certain social groupings. Economy Main articles: Economy of London
Economy of London
and Media in London

The City of London, one of the largest financial centres in the world[243]

London
London
generates about 20 per cent of the UK's GDP[244] (or $600 billion in 2014); while the economy of the London metropolitan area—the largest in Europe—generates about 30 per cent of the UK's GDP (or an estimated $669 billion in 2005).[245] London
London
has five major business districts: the City, Westminster, Canary Wharf, Camden & Islington
Islington
and Lambeth
Lambeth
& Southwark. One way to get an idea of their relative importance is to look at relative amounts of office space: Greater London
Greater London
had 27 million m2 of office space in 2001, and the City contains the most space, with 8 million m2 of office space. London
London
has some of the highest real estate prices in the world.[246][247] London
London
is the world's most expensive office market for the last three years according to world property journal (2015) report.[248] As of 2015[update] the residential property in London
London
is worth $2.2 trillion – same value as that of Brazil
Brazil
annual GDP.[249] The city has the highest property prices of any European city according to the Office for National Statistics and the European Office of Statistics.[250] On average the price per square metre in central London
London
is €24,252 (April 2014). This is higher than the property prices in other G8 European capital cities; Berlin
Berlin
€3,306, Rome
Rome
€6,188 and Paris
Paris
€11,229.[251] The City of London

The London Stock Exchange
London Stock Exchange
at Paternoster Square
Paternoster Square
in the City of London. Temple Bar can be seen at bottom left.

London
London
finance industry is based in the City of London
City of London
and Canary Wharf, the two major Central Business Districts in London. London
London
is one of the pre-eminent financial centres of the world as the most important location for international finance.[252][253] London
London
took over as a major financial centre shortly after 1795 when the Dutch Republic collapsed before the Napoleonic armies. For many bankers established in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
(e.g. Hope, Baring), this was only time to move to London. The London
London
financial elite was strengthened by a strong Jewish
Jewish
community from all over Europe capable of mastering the most sophisticated financial tools of the time.[254] This unique concentration of talents accelerated the transition from the Commercial Revolution to the Industrial Revolution. By the end of the 19th century, Britain was the wealthiest of all nations, and London
London
a leading financial centre. Still, as of 2016 London
London
tops the world rankings on both the Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI)[255] and The Global Cities Index.[256] London's largest industry is finance, and its financial exports make it a large contributor to the UK's balance of payments. Around 325,000 people were employed in financial services in London
London
until mid-2007. London
London
has over 480 overseas banks, more than any other city in the world. It is also the world's biggest currency trading centre, accounting for some 37 percent of the $5.1 trillion average daily volume, according to the BIS.[257] Over 85 percent (3.2 million) of the employed population of greater London
London
works in the services industries. Because of its prominent global role, London's economy had been affected by the financial crisis of 2007–2008. However, by 2010 the City has recovered; put in place new regulatory powers, proceeded to regain lost ground and re-established London's economic dominance.[258] Along with professional services headquarters, the City of London
City of London
is home to the Bank of England, London
London
Stock Exchange, and Lloyd's of London
Lloyd's of London
insurance market. Over half of the UK's top 100 listed companies (the FTSE 100) and over 100 of Europe's 500 largest companies have their headquarters in central London. Over 70 per cent of the FTSE 100
FTSE 100
are within London's metropolitan area, and 75 per cent of Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies have offices in London.[259] Media and technology Media companies are concentrated in London
London
and the media distribution industry is London's second most competitive sector.[260] The BBC
BBC
is a significant employer, while other broadcasters also have headquarters around the City. Many national newspapers are edited in London. London is a major retail centre and in 2010 had the highest non-food retail sales of any city in the world, with a total spend of around £64.2 billion.[261] The Port of London
Port of London
is the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year.[262] A growing number of technology companies are based in London
London
notably in East London
London
Tech City, also known as Silicon Roundabout. In April 2014, the city was among the first to receive a geoTLD.[263] In February 2014 London
London
was ranked as the European City of the Future [264] in the 2014/15 list by FDi Magazine.[265] The gas and electricity distribution networks that manage and operate the towers, cables and pressure systems that deliver energy to consumers across the city are managed by National Grid plc, SGN[266] and UK Power Networks.[267] Tourism Main article: Tourism in London

The Natural History Museum

London
London
is one of the leading tourist destinations in the world and in 2015 was ranked as the most visited city in the world with over 65 million visits.[268][269] It is also the top city in the world by visitor cross-border spending, estimated at US$20.23 billion in 2015.[270] Tourism is one of London's prime industries, employing the equivalent of 350,000 full-time workers in 2003,[271] and the city accounts for 54% of all inbound visitor spending in the UK.[272] As of 2016[update] London
London
is the world top city destination as ranked by TripAdvisor
TripAdvisor
users.[273] In 2015, the top most-visited attractions in UK were all in London. The top 10 most visited attractions were: (with visits per venue) [274]

The British Museum: 6,820,686 The National Gallery: 5,908,254 The Natural History Museum
Natural History Museum
(South Kensington): 5,284,023 The Southbank Centre: 5,102,883 The Tate Modern: 4,712,581 The Victoria and Albert Museum
Victoria and Albert Museum
(South Kensington): 3,432,325 The Science Museum: 3,356,212 Somerset House: 3,235,104 The Tower of London: 2,785,249 The National Portrait Gallery: 2,145,486

The number of hotel rooms in London
London
in 2015 stood at 138,769, and is expected to grow over the years.[275] Housing crisis Main article: Affordability of housing in the United Kingdom Thousands of homeless families find themselves in emergency accommodation for at least two years.[276] A growth in the number of UK households has led to the homeless charity Shelter stating: "This growth is a result of people living longer, more people living alone or in smaller households, and net migration."[277] Transport Main articles: Transport in London
Transport in London
and Infrastructure in London

Two black London
London
taxis, also known as a hackney carriage

Transport is one of the four main areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London,[278] however the mayor's financial control does not extend to the longer distance rail network that enters London. In 2007 he assumed responsibility for some local lines, which now form the London Overground
London Overground
network, adding to the existing responsibility for the London
London
Underground, trams and buses. The public transport network is administered by Transport for London
Transport for London
(TFL). The lines that formed the London
London
Underground, as well as trams and buses, became part of an integrated transport system in 1933 when the London Passenger Transport Board
London Passenger Transport Board
or London
London
Transport was created. Transport for London
Transport for London
is now the statutory corporation responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London, and is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the Mayor of London.[279] Aviation Main article: Airports of London

London Heathrow Airport
London Heathrow Airport
is the busiest airport in Europe as well as the second busiest in the world for international passenger traffic. (Terminal 5C is pictured)

London
London
is a major international air transport hub with the busiest city airspace in the world. Eight airports use the word London
London
in their name, but most traffic passes through six of these. Additionally, various other airports also serve London, catering primarily to general aviation flights.

London
London
Heathrow Airport, in Hillingdon, West London, is the busiest airport in the world for international traffic, and is the major hub of the nation's flag carrier, British Airways.[280] In March 2008 its fifth terminal was opened.[281] There were plans for a third runway and a sixth terminal; however, these were cancelled by the Coalition Government on 12 May 2010.[282] Gatwick Airport, south of London
London
in West Sussex, handles similar traffic, with some cheap short-haul flights.[283] Stansted Airport, north east of London
London
in Essex, is a local UK hub. Luton Airport
Luton Airport
to the north of London
London
in Bedfordshire, caters mostly for cheap short-haul flights.[284][285] London
London
City Airport, the smallest and most central airport, in Newham, East London, is focused on business travellers, with a mixture of full service short-haul scheduled flights and considerable business jet traffic.[286] London
London
Southend Airport, east of London
London
in Essex, is a smaller, regional airport that mainly caters for cheap short-haul flights.

Rail Underground and DLR

The London Underground
London Underground
is the world's oldest and second-longest rapid transit system

The London
London
Underground, commonly referred to as the Tube, is the oldest[287] and second longest[288] metro system in the world. The system serves 270 stations[289] and was formed from several private companies, including the world's first underground electric line, the City and South London
South London
Railway.[290] It dates from 1863.[291] Over four million journeys are made every day on the Underground network, over 1 billion each year.[292] An investment programme is attempting to reduce congestion and improve reliability, including £6.5 billion (€7.7 billion) spent before the 2012 Summer Olympics.[293] The Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
(DLR), which opened in 1987, is a second, more local metro system using smaller and lighter tram-type vehicles that serve the Docklands, Greenwich
Greenwich
and Lewisham. Suburban

King's Cross railway station Western Concourse

There are 366 railway stations in the London
London
Travelcard
Travelcard
Zones on an extensive above-ground suburban railway network. South London, particularly, has a high concentration of railways as it has fewer Underground lines. Most rail lines terminate around the centre of London, running into eighteen terminal stations, with the exception of the Thameslink
Thameslink
trains connecting Bedford
Bedford
in the north and Brighton
Brighton
in the south via Luton
Luton
and Gatwick airports.[294] London
London
has Britain's busiest station by number of passengers – Waterloo, with over 184 million people using the interchange station complex (which includes Waterloo East station) each year.[295][296] Clapham
Clapham
Junction is the busiest station in Europe by the number of trains passing. With the need for more rail capacity in London, Crossrail
Crossrail
is due to open in 2018. It will be a new railway line running east to west through London
London
and into the Home Counties
Home Counties
with a branch to Heathrow Airport.[297] It is Europe's biggest construction project, with a £15 billion projected cost.[298][299] Inter-city and international

St Pancras International is the main terminal for high speed Eurostar and HS1
HS1
services, as well as commuter suburban Thameslink
Thameslink
and inter-city East Midlands Trains
East Midlands Trains
services

London
London
is the centre of the National Rail
National Rail
network, with 70 percent of rail journeys starting or ending in London.[300] Like suburban rail services, regional and inter-city trains depart from several termini around the city centre, linking London
London
with the rest of Britain including Birmingham, Brighton, Reading, Bristol, Cardiff, Derby, Exeter, Sheffield, Southampton, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Cambridge, Newcastle upon Tyne, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and Glasgow. Some international railway services to Continental Europe
Continental Europe
were operated during the 20th century as boat trains, such as the Admiraal de Ruijter to Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and the Night Ferry
Night Ferry
to Paris
Paris
and Brussels. The opening of the Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
in 1994 connected London
London
directly to the continental rail network, allowing Eurostar
Eurostar
services to begin. Since 2007, high-speed trains link St. Pancras International with Lille, Paris, Brussels
Brussels
and European tourist destinations via the High Speed 1 rail link and the Channel Tunnel.[301] The first high-speed domestic trains started in June 2009 linking Kent
Kent
to London.[302] There are plans for a second high speed line linking London
London
to the Midlands, North West England, and Yorkshire. Freight Although rail freight levels are far down compared to their height, significant quantities of cargo are also carried into and out of London
London
by rail; chiefly building materials and landfill waste.[303] As a major hub of the British railway network, London's tracks also carry large amounts of freight for the other regions, such as container freight from the Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
and English Channel
English Channel
ports, and nuclear waste for reprocessing at Sellafield.[303] Buses and trams

The red double decker bus is an iconic symbol of London

London's bus network is one of the largest in the world, running 24 hours a day, with about 8,500 buses, more than 700 bus routes and around 19,500 bus stops.[304] In 2013, the network had more than 2 billion commuter trips per annum, more than the Underground.[304] Around £850 million is taken in revenue each year. London
London
has the largest wheelchair accessible network in the world[305] and, from the 3rd quarter of 2007, became more accessible to hearing and visually impaired passengers as audio-visual announcements were introduced. The distinctive red double-decker buses are an internationally recognised trademark of London
London
transport along with black cabs and the Tube.[306][307] London
London
has a modern tram network, known as Tramlink, centred on Croydon
Croydon
in South London. The network has 39 stops and four routes, and carried 28 million people in 2013.[308] Since June 2008 Transport for London
London
has completely owned Tramlink, and it plans to spend £54m by 2015 on maintenance, renewals, upgrades and capacity enhancements.[309] Cable car London's first and only cable car, known as the Emirates Air Line, opened in June 2012. Crossing the River Thames, linking Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Docks
Royal Docks
in the east of the city, the cable car is integrated with London's Oyster Card ticketing system, although special fares are charged. Costing £60 million to build, it carries over 3,500 passengers every day, although this is very much lower than its capacity. Similar to the Santander Cycles
Santander Cycles
bike hire scheme, the cable car is sponsored in a 10-year deal by the airline Emirates. Cycling Main article: Cycling in London

Santander Cycle Hire near Victoria in Central London

A dual bike road, but still a bike road in central London, just west of Tower of London

In the whole Greater London
Greater London
Area, around 650,000 people use a bike everyday. [310] But out of a total population of around 8.8 million [311], this means that just around 7% of Greater London's population use a bike on an average day. This is a small proportion, when compared to many other cities in the world [312] A reason may well be the poor investments for cycling in the UK. In England, cycling investment equates to around £1.40 per person and year, which can be compared to £22 in the Netherlands.[313] Cycling is nevertheless becoming increasingly popular way to get around London. The launch of a cycle hire scheme in July 2010 has been successful and generally well received. The London Cycling Campaign
London Cycling Campaign
lobbies for better provision.[314] There are many cycle routes in London, including several Cycle Superhighways. Port and river boats From being the largest port in the world, the Port of London
Port of London
is now only the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year.[262] Most of this actually passes through the Port of Tilbury, outside the boundary of Greater London. London
London
has frequent river boat services on the Thames known as Thames Clippers. These run up to every 20 minutes between Embankment Pier
Embankment Pier
and North Greenwich
Greenwich
Pier. The Woolwich
Woolwich
Ferry, with 2.5 million passengers every year,[315] is a frequent service linking the North and South Circular Roads. Other operators run both commuter and tourist boat services in London. Roads

The M4 near Slough. The M4 runs between London
London
and South Wales

Although the majority of journeys involving central London
London
are made by public transport, car travel is common in the suburbs. The inner ring road (around the city centre), the North and South Circular roads (in the suburbs), and the outer orbital motorway (the M25, outside the built-up area) encircle the city and are intersected by a number of busy radial routes—but very few motorways penetrate into inner London. A plan for a comprehensive network of motorways throughout the city (the Ringways Plan) was prepared in the 1960s but was mostly cancelled in the early 1970s. The M25 is the longest ring-road motorway in the world at 121.5 mi (195.5 km) long.[316][317] The A1 and M1 connect London
London
to Leeds, and Newcastle and Edinburgh. London
London
is notorious for its traffic congestion, with the M25 motorway the busiest stretch in the country. The average speed of a car in the rush hour is 10.6 mph (17.1 km/h).[318] In 2003, a congestion charge was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city centre. With a few exceptions, motorists are required to pay £10 per day to drive within a defined zone encompassing much of central London.[319][320] Motorists who are residents of the defined zone can buy a greatly reduced season pass.[321] London
London
government initially expected the Congestion Charge Zone to increase daily peak period Underground and bus users by 20,000 people, reduce road traffic by 10 to 15 per cent, increase traffic speeds by 10 to 15 per cent, and reduce queues by 20 to 30 per cent.[322] Over the course of several years, the average number of cars entering the centre of London
London
on a weekday was reduced from 195,000 to 125,000 cars – a 35-per-cent reduction of vehicles driven per day.[323] Education Main article: Education in London Tertiary education

Imperial College London, a world leading research university located in South Kensington

King's College London, established by Royal Charter having been founded by King George IV
King George IV
and the Duke of Wellington
Duke of Wellington
in 1829, is one of the founding colleges of the University of London

The Wilkins Building at University College London

London
London
is a major global centre of higher education teaching and research and has the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe.[41] According to the QS World University Rankings 2015/16, London
London
has the greatest concentration of top class universities in the world[324][325] and its international student population of around 110,000 is larger than any other city in the world.[326] A 2014 PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers
report termed London
London
as the global capital of higher education.[327] A number of world-leading education institutions are based in London. In the 2014/15 QS World University Rankings, Imperial College London is ranked joint 2nd in the world, University College London
University College London
(UCL) is ranked 5th, and King's College London
King's College London
(KCL) is ranked 16th.[328] The London School of Economics
London School of Economics
has been described as the world's leading social science institution for both teaching and research.[329] The London Business School
London Business School
is considered one of the world's leading business schools and in 2015 its MBA programme was ranked second best in the world by the Financial Times.[330] With 120,000 students in London,[331] the federal University of London is the largest contact teaching university in the UK.[332] It includes five multi-faculty universities – City, King's College London, Queen Mary, Royal Holloway
Royal Holloway
and UCL – and a number of smaller and more specialised institutions including Birkbeck, the Courtauld Institute of Art, Goldsmiths, Guildhall School of Music and Drama, the London
London
Business School, the London
London
School of Economics, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, the Royal Academy of Music, the Central School of Speech and Drama, the Royal Veterinary College and the School of Oriental and African Studies.[333] Members of the University of London
University of London
have their own admissions procedures, and some award their own degrees. A number of universities in London
London
are outside the University of London
London
system, including Brunel University, Imperial College London, Kingston University, London
London
Metropolitan University,[334] University of East London, University of West London, University of Westminster, London
London
South Bank
South Bank
University, Middlesex
Middlesex
University, and University of the Arts London
London
(the largest university of art, design, fashion, communication and the performing arts in Europe).[335] In addition there are three international universities in London – Regent's University London, Richmond, The American International University in London
London
and Schiller International University.

The front façade of the Royal College of Music

London
London
is home to five major medical schools – Barts and The London
London
School of Medicine and Dentistry (part of Queen Mary), King's College London
London
School of Medicine (the largest medical school in Europe), Imperial College School of Medicine, UCL Medical School
UCL Medical School
and St George's, University of London – and has a large number of affiliated teaching hospitals. It is also a major centre for biomedical research, and three of the UK's eight academic health science centres are based in the city – Imperial College Healthcare, King's Health Partners
King's Health Partners
and UCL Partners
UCL Partners
(the largest such centre in Europe).[336] There are a number of business schools in London, including the London School of Business and Finance, Cass Business School
Cass Business School
(part of City University London), Hult International Business School, ESCP Europe, European Business School London, Imperial College Business School, the London Business School
London Business School
and the UCL School of Management. London
London
is also home to many specialist arts education institutions, including the Academy of Live and Recorded Arts, Central School of Ballet, LAMDA, London
London
College of Contemporary Arts (LCCA), London
London
Contemporary Dance School, National Centre for Circus Arts, RADA, Rambert School of Ballet and Contemporary Dance, the Royal College of Art, the Royal College of Music and Trinity Laban. Primary and secondary education The majority of primary and secondary schools and further-education colleges in London
London
are controlled by the London boroughs
London boroughs
or otherwise state-funded; leading examples include City and Islington
Islington
College, Ealing, Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and West London
London
College, Leyton
Leyton
Sixth Form College, Tower Hamlets College, Bethnal Green Academy
Bethnal Green Academy
and Newham College. There are also a number of private schools and colleges in London, some old and famous, such as City of London
City of London
School, Harrow, St Paul's School, Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School, University College School, The John Lyon School, Highgate School
Highgate School
and Westminster
Westminster
School. Culture Main article: Culture of London Leisure and entertainment See also: List of annual events in London and West End theatre

Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus

Leisure is a major part of the London
London
economy, with a 2003 report attributing a quarter of the entire UK leisure economy to London[337] at 25.6 events per 1000 people.[338] Globally, the city is amongst the big four fashion capitals of the world, and according to official statistics, London
London
is the world's third busiest film production centre, presents more live comedy than any other city,[339] and has the biggest theatre audience of any city in the world.[340]

Harrods
Harrods
in Knightsbridge

Within the City of Westminster
City of Westminster
in London, the entertainment district of the West End has its focus around Leicester Square, where London and world film premieres are held, and Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus, with its giant electronic advertisements.[341] London's theatre district is here, as are many cinemas, bars, clubs, and restaurants, including the city's Chinatown district (in Soho), and just to the east is Covent Garden, an area housing speciality shops. The city is the home of Andrew Lloyd Webber, whose musicals have dominated the West End theatre since the late 20th century.[342] The United Kingdom's Royal Ballet, English National Ballet, Royal Opera, and English National Opera are based in London
London
and perform at the Royal Opera House, the London
London
Coliseum, Sadler's Wells Theatre, and the Royal Albert Hall, as well as touring the country.[343]

Scene of the annual Notting Hill
Notting Hill
Carnival, 2014

Islington's 1 mile (1.6 km) long Upper Street, extending northwards from Angel, has more bars and restaurants than any other street in the United Kingdom.[344] Europe's busiest shopping area is Oxford Street, a shopping street nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) long, making it the longest shopping street in the UK. Oxford Street
Oxford Street
is home to vast numbers of retailers and department stores, including the world-famous Selfridges
Selfridges
flagship store.[345] Knightsbridge, home to the equally renowned Harrods
Harrods
department store, lies to the south-west. London
London
is home to designers Vivienne Westwood, Galliano, Stella McCartney, Manolo Blahnik, and Jimmy Choo, among others; its renowned art and fashion schools make it an international centre of fashion alongside Paris, Milan, and New York City. London
London
offers a great variety of cuisine as a result of its ethnically diverse population. Gastronomic centres include the Bangladeshi restaurants of Brick Lane and the Chinese restaurants of Chinatown.[346]

Shakespeare's Globe
Shakespeare's Globe
is a modern reconstruction of the Globe Theatre on the south bank of the River Thames

There is a variety of annual events, beginning with the relatively new New Year's Day Parade, a fireworks display at the London
London
Eye; the world's second largest street party, the Notting Hill
Notting Hill
Carnival, is held on the late August Bank Holiday
August Bank Holiday
each year. Traditional parades include November's Lord Mayor's Show, a centuries-old event celebrating the annual appointment of a new Lord Mayor of the City of London
London
with a procession along the streets of the City, and June's Trooping the Colour, a formal military pageant performed by regiments of the Commonwealth and British armies to celebrate the Queen's Official Birthday.[347] Literature, film and television Main articles: London
London
in fiction, London
London
in film, List of television shows set in London, and London
London
Television Archive

Sherlock Holmes Museum
Sherlock Holmes Museum
in Baker Street, bearing the number 221B

London
London
has been the setting for many works of literature. The literary centres of London
London
have traditionally been hilly Hampstead
Hampstead
and (since the early 20th century) Bloomsbury. Writers closely associated with the city are the diarist Samuel Pepys, noted for his eyewitness account of the Great Fire, Charles Dickens, whose representation of a foggy, snowy, grimy London
London
of street sweepers and pickpockets has been a major influence on people's vision of early Victorian London, and Virginia Woolf, regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the 20th century.[348] The pilgrims in Geoffrey Chaucer's late 14th-century Canterbury
Canterbury
Tales set out for Canterbury
Canterbury
from London – specifically, from the Tabard inn, Southwark. William Shakespeare spent a large part of his life living and working in London; his contemporary Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
was also based there, and some of his work—most notably his play The Alchemist—was set in the city.[348] A Journal of the Plague Year
A Journal of the Plague Year
(1722) by Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe
is a fictionalisation of the events of the 1665 Great Plague.[348] Later important depictions of London
London
from the 19th and early 20th centuries are Dickens' novels, and Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories.[348] Modern writers pervasively influenced by the city include Peter Ackroyd, author of a "biography" of London, and Iain Sinclair, who writes in the genre of psychogeography.

Keats House, where Keats wrote his Ode to a Nightingale. The village of Hampstead
Hampstead
has historically been a literary centre in London.

London
London
has played a significant role in the film industry. Major studios within or bordering London
London
include Twickenham, Ealing, Shepperton, Pinewood, Elstree and Borehamwood,[349] and a special effects and post-production community centred in Soho. Working Title Films has its headquarters in London.[350] London
London
has been the setting for films including Oliver Twist (1948), Scrooge (1951), Peter Pan (1953), The 101 Dalmatians (1961), My Fair Lady (1964), Mary Poppins (1964), Blowup
Blowup
(1966), The Long Good Friday (1980), Notting Hill (1999), Love Actually
Love Actually
(2003), V For Vendetta (2005), Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber Of Fleet Street
Fleet Street
(2008) and The King's Speech
The King's Speech
(2010). Notable actors and filmmakers from London
London
include; Charlie Chaplin, Alfred Hitchcock, Michael Caine, Helen Mirren, Gary Oldman, Christopher Nolan, Jude Law, Benedict Cumberbatch, Tom Hardy, Keira Knightley and Daniel Day-Lewis. As of 2008[update], the British Academy Film Awards have taken place at the Royal Opera House. London is a major centre for television production, with studios including BBC
BBC
Television Centre, The Fountain Studios
The Fountain Studios
and The London
London
Studios. Many television programmes have been set in London, including the popular television soap opera EastEnders, broadcast by the BBC
BBC
since 1985. Museums and art galleries

The British Museum

London
London
is home to many museums, galleries, and other institutions, many of which are free of admission charges and are major tourist attractions as well as playing a research role. The first of these to be established was the British Museum
British Museum
in Bloomsbury, in 1753. Originally containing antiquities, natural history specimens, and the national library, the museum now has 7 million artefacts from around the globe. In 1824, the National Gallery
National Gallery
was founded to house the British national collection of Western paintings; this now occupies a prominent position in Trafalgar Square. In the latter half of the 19th century the locale of South Kensington was developed as "Albertopolis", a cultural and scientific quarter. Three major national museums are there: the Victoria and Albert Museum (for the applied arts), the Natural History Museum, and the Science Museum. The National Portrait Gallery was founded in 1856 to house depictions of figures from British history; its holdings now comprise the world's most extensive collection of portraits.[351] The national gallery of British art is at Tate Britain, originally established as an annexe of the National Gallery
National Gallery
in 1897. The Tate Gallery, as it was formerly known, also became a major centre for modern art; in 2000, this collection moved to Tate Modern, a new gallery housed in the former Bankside Power Station. Music

The Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
hosts concerts and musical events

London
London
is one of the major classical and popular music capitals of the world and is home to major music corporations, such as Warner Music Group, as well as countless bands, musicians and industry professionals. The city is also home to many orchestras and concert halls, such as the Barbican Arts Centre
Barbican Arts Centre
(principal base of the London Symphony Orchestra and the London
London
Symphony Chorus), Cadogan Hall (Royal Philharmonic Orchestra) and the Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
(The Proms).[343] London's two main opera houses are the Royal Opera House and the London
London
Coliseum.[343] The UK's largest pipe organ is at the Royal Albert Hall. Other significant instruments are at the cathedrals and major churches. Several conservatoires are within the city: Royal Academy of Music, Royal College of Music, Guildhall School of Music and Drama and Trinity Laban.

Abbey Road Studios, 3 Abbey Road, St John's Wood, City of Westminster

London
London
has numerous venues for rock and pop concerts, including the world's busiest arena the O2 arena[352] and other large arenas such as Earls Court, Wembley
Wembley
Arena, as well as many mid-sized venues, such as Brixton
Brixton
Academy, the Hammersmith Apollo
Hammersmith Apollo
and the Shepherd's Bush Empire.[343] Several music festivals, including the Wireless Festival, South West Four, Lovebox, and Hyde Park's British Summer Time
British Summer Time
are all held in London.[353] The city is home to the original Hard Rock Cafe and the Abbey Road Studios, where The Beatles
The Beatles
recorded many of their hits. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, musicians and groups like Elton John, Pink Floyd, Cliff Richard, David Bowie, Queen, The Kinks, The Rolling Stones, The Who, Eric Clapton, Led Zeppelin, The Small Faces, Iron Maiden, Fleetwood Mac, Elvis Costello, Cat Stevens, The Police, The Cure, Madness, The Jam, Ultravox, Spandau Ballet, Culture Club, Dusty Springfield, Phil Collins, Rod Stewart, Adam Ant, Status Quo and Sade, derived their sound from the streets and rhythms of London.[354] London
London
was instrumental in the development of punk music,[355] with figures such as the Sex Pistols, The Clash,[354] and Vivienne Westwood all based in the city. More recent artists to emerge from the London music scene include George Michael's Wham!, Kate Bush, Seal, the Pet Shop Boys, Bananarama, Siouxsie and the Banshees, Bush, the Spice Girls, Jamiroquai, Blur, McFly, The Prodigy, Gorillaz, Bloc Party, Mumford & Sons, Coldplay, Amy Winehouse, Adele, Sam Smith, Ed Sheeran, Paloma Faith, Ellie Goulding, One Direction
One Direction
and Florence and the Machine.[356][357][358] London
London
is also a centre for urban music. In particular the genres UK garage, drum and bass, dubstep and grime evolved in the city from the foreign genres of hip hop and reggae, alongside local drum and bass. Music station BBC
BBC
Radio 1Xtra was set up to support the rise of local urban contemporary music both in London
London
and in the rest of the United Kingdom.[citation needed] Notable people Main article: List of people from London Recreation Parks and open spaces Main articles: Parks and open spaces in London
Parks and open spaces in London
and Royal Parks
Royal Parks
of London See also: List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest
Sites of Special Scientific Interest
in Greater London
London
and List of Local Nature Reserves in Greater London

Aerial view of Hyde Park

St. James's Park
St. James's Park
lake with the London Eye
London Eye
in the distance

The largest parks in the central area of London
London
are three of the eight Royal Parks, namely Hyde Park and its neighbour Kensington
Kensington
Gardens in the west, and Regent's Park
Regent's Park
to the north.[359] Hyde Park in particular is popular for sports and sometimes hosts open-air concerts. Regent's Park contains London
London
Zoo, the world's oldest scientific zoo, and is near the tourist attraction of Madame Tussauds
Madame Tussauds
Wax Museum.[360][361] Primrose Hill, immediately to the north of Regent's Park, at 256 feet (78 m)[362] is a popular spot from which to view the city skyline. Close to Hyde Park are smaller Royal Parks, Green Park
Green Park
and St. James's Park.[363] A number of large parks lie outside the city centre, including Hampstead
Hampstead
Heath and the remaining Royal Parks
Royal Parks
of Greenwich Park to the south-east[364] and Bushy Park
Bushy Park
and Richmond Park
Richmond Park
(the largest) to the south-west,[365][366] Hampton Court Park
Hampton Court Park
is also a royal park, but, because it contains a palace, it is administered by the Historic Royal Palaces, unlike the eight Royal Parks.[367] Close to Richmond Park
Richmond Park
is Kew Gardens
Kew Gardens
which has the world's largest collection of living plants. In 2003, the gardens were put on the UNESCO
UNESCO
list of World Heritage Sites.[368] There are also numerous parks administered by London's borough Councils, including Victoria Park in the East End
East End
and Battersea Park
Battersea Park
in the centre. Some more informal, semi-natural open spaces also exist, including the 320-hectare (790-acre) Hampstead
Hampstead
Heath of North London,[369] and Epping Forest, which covers 2,476 hectares (6,118 acres)[370] in the east. Both are controlled by the City of London
City of London
Corporation.[371][372] Hampstead
Hampstead
Heath incorporates Kenwood House, a former stately home and a popular location in the summer months when classical musical concerts are held by the lake, attracting thousands of people every weekend to enjoy the music, scenery and fireworks.[373] Epping Forest
Epping Forest
is a popular venue for various outdoor activities, including mountain biking, walking, horse riding, golf, angling, and orienteering.[374] Walking Walking is a popular recreational activity in London. Areas that provide for walks include Wimbledon Common, Epping Forest, Hampton Court Park, Hampstead
Hampstead
Heath, the eight Royal Parks, canals and disused railway tracks.[375] Access to canals and rivers has improved recently, including the creation of the Thames Path, some 28 miles (45 km) of which is within Greater London, and The Wandle Trail; this runs 12 miles (19 km) through South London
South London
along the River Wandle, a tributary of the River Thames.[376] Other long distance paths, linking green spaces, have also been created, including the Capital Ring, the Green Chain Walk, London
London
Outer Orbital Path ("Loop"), Jubilee Walkway, Lea Valley Walk, and the Diana, Princess of Wales
Wales
Memorial Walk.[377] Sport Main article: Sport in London

Wembley
Wembley
Stadium, home of the England
England
football team, has a 90,000 capacity. It is the UK's biggest stadium.

London
London
has hosted the Summer Olympics three times: in 1908, 1948, and 2012.[378][379] making it the first city to host the modern Games three times.[42] The city was also the host of the British Empire Games in 1934.[380] In 2017, London
London
hosted the World Championships in Athletics for the first time.[381] London's most popular sport is football and it has twelve Football League clubs, including five in the Premier League: Arsenal, Chelsea, Crystal Palace, Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur, and West Ham
West Ham
United.[382] Other professional teams in London
London
are Fulham, Queens Park Rangers, Brentford, Millwall, Charlton Athletic, AFC Wimbledon
AFC Wimbledon
and Barnet.

Twickenham, home of the England
England
rugby union team, has an 82,000 capacity, the world's largest rugby union stadium

From 1924, the original Wembley
Wembley
Stadium was the home of the English national football team. It hosted the 1966 FIFA World Cup Final, with England
England
defeating West Germany, and served as the venue for the FA Cup Final as well as rugby league's Challenge Cup
Challenge Cup
final.[383] The new Wembley
Wembley
Stadium serves exactly the same purposes and has a capacity of 90,000.[384] Two Aviva Premiership rugby union teams are based in London, Saracens and Harlequins.[385] London
London
Scottish, London Welsh
London Welsh
and London
London
Irish play in the RFU Championship
RFU Championship
club and other rugby union clubs in the city include Richmond F.C., Rosslyn Park F.C., Westcombe Park R.F.C. and Blackheath F.C.. Twickenham Stadium
Twickenham Stadium
in south-west London
London
is the national rugby union stadium, and has a capacity of 82,000 now that the new south stand has been completed.[386]

Centre Court
Centre Court
at Wimbledon. First played in 1877, the Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world.[387]

While rugby league is more popular in the north of England, there are two professional rugby league clubs in London – the second tier Championship One team, the London
London
Broncos, who play at the Trailfinders Sports Ground
Trailfinders Sports Ground
in West Ealing, and the third tier League 1 team, the London Skolars from Wood Green, Haringey; in addition, Hemel Stags from Hemel Hempstead
Hemel Hempstead
north of London
London
also play in League 1. One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is the Wimbledon Tennis Championships, held at the All England
England
Club in the south-western suburb of Wimbledon.[388] Played in late June to early July, it is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.[389][390][391] London
London
has two Test cricket
Test cricket
grounds, Lord's
Lord's
(home of Middlesex
Middlesex
C.C.C.) in St John's Wood[392] and the Oval (home of Surrey
Surrey
C.C.C.) in Kennington.[393] Lord's
Lord's
has hosted four finals of the Cricket World Cup. Other key events are the annual mass-participation London Marathon, in which some 35,000 runners attempt a 26.2 miles (42.2 km) course around the city,[394] and the University Boat Race on the River Thames
River Thames
from Putney
Putney
to Mortlake.[395] See also

London
London
portal England
England
portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal European Union
European Union
portal Europe portal

Outline of London List of museums in London List of companies based in London List of pubs in London List of restaurants in London List of twin towns and sister cities in England
England
§ London Outline of England Water supply and sanitation in London

Notes

^ See also: Independent city § National capitals. ^ The London
London
Mayor is not to be confused with the Lord Mayor of London who heads the City of London
City of London
Corporation, which administers the City of London. ^ Rankings of cities by metropolitan area GDP can vary as a result of differences in the definition of the boundaries and population sizes of the areas compared, exchange rate fluctuations and the method used to calculate output. London
London
and Paris
Paris
are of broadly similar size in terms of total economic output which can result in third party sources varying as to which is the fifth-largest city GDP in the world. A report by the McKinsey Global Institute published in 2012 estimated that London
London
had a city GDP of US$751.8 billion in 2010, compared to US$764.2 billion for Paris, making them respectively the sixth- and fifth-largest in the world. A report by PricewaterhouseCoopers published in November 2009 estimated that London
London
had a city GDP measured in purchasing power parity of US$565 billion in 2008, compared to US$564 billion for Paris, making them respectively the fifth- and sixth-largest in the world. The McKinsey Global Institute study used a metropolitan area with a population of 14.9 million for London
London
compared to 11.8 million for Paris, whilst the PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers
study used a metropolitan area with a population of 8.59 million for London
London
compared to 9.92 million for Paris. ^ According to the European Statistical Agency (Eurostat), London
London
has the largest Larger Urban Zone in the EU. Eurostat
Eurostat
uses the sum of the populations of the contiguous urban core and the surrounding commuting zone as its definition. ^ London
London
is not a city in the sense that the word applies in the United Kingdom, that of having city status granted by the Crown. ^ According to the Collins English Dictionary definition of 'the seat of government',[159] London
London
is not the capital of England, as England does not have its own government. According to the Oxford English Reference Dictionary definition of 'the most important town'[160] and many other authorities.[161]

References

^ "London, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Forecast : Weather Underground (weather and elevation at Bloomsbury)" (online). The Weather Underground, Inc. Retrieved 22 August 2014.  ^ a b "Metropolitan Area Populations". Eurostat. 16 November 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2017.  ^ a b "Population Estimates for UK, England
England
and Wales, Scotland
Scotland
and Northern Ireland". ONS. 22 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ "Regional gross value added (income approach) - Office for National Statistics". www.ons.gov.uk.  ^ "XE: Convert GBP/USD. United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Pound to United States
United States
Dollar". www.xe.com.  ^ "XE: Convert GBP/USD. United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Pound to United States
United States
Dollar". www.xe.com.  ^ "London". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 23 September 2014.  ^ "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.  ^ "Roman London". Museum of London. n.d. Archived from the original on 22 March 2008.  ^ Joshua Fowler (5 July 2013). " London
London
Government Act: Essex, Kent, Surrey
Surrey
and Middlesex
Middlesex
50 years on". BBC
BBC
News.  ^ Laurence Cawley (1 August 2013). "The big debate: Is Bromley
Bromley
in London
London
or Kent?". Bromley
Bromley
Times.  ^ Joanna Till (14 February 2012). "Croydon, London
London
or Croydon, Surrey?". Croydon
Croydon
Advertiser. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.  ^ a b "Government Offices for the English Regions, Fact Files: London". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2008.  ^ Elcock, Howard (1994). Local Government: Policy and Management in Local Authorities. London: Routledge. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-415-10167-7.  ^ Jones, Bill; Kavanagh, Dennis; Moran, Michael; Norton, Philip (2007). Politics UK. Harlow: Pearson Education. p. 868. ISBN 978-1-4058-2411-8.  ^ Lieutenancies Act 1997 ^ Adewunmi, Bim (10 March 2013). "London: the everything capital of the world". The Guardian. London.  ^ "What's The Capital Of The World?". More Intelligent Life. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.  ^ "The World's Most Influential Cities 2014". Forbes. Retrieved 2 March 2015.  ^ "Global Power City Index 2014". Institute for Urban Strategies – The Mori Memorial Foundation. Retrieved 2 March 2015.  ^ Dearden, Lizzie (7 October 2014). " London
London
is 'the most desirable city in the world to work in', study finds". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2 March 2015.  ^ "The Global Financial Centers Index measures cities". Alex Tanzi. September 2016.  ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 18" (PDF). Long Finance. September 2015.  ^ "Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008" (PDF). Mastercard.  ^ "Global Financial Centres Index 18" (PDF). Z/Yen. 2015.  ^ "The Most Dynamic Cities of 2025". Foreign Policy. Washington DC. September–October 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012.  ^ " Global city
Global city
GDP rankings 2008–2025". PricewaterhouseCoopers. Archived from the original on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2010.  ^ Calder, Simon (22 December 2007). "London, capital of the world". The Independent. London.  ^ Teodorczuk, Tom (20 March 2007). " London
London
is the world capital of the 21st century ... says New York". London
London
Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 25 November 2009.  ^ " London
London
is world capital of culture says LSE expert" (Press release). London
London
School of Economics. 11 March 2008. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011.  ^ " London
London
tops ranking of destination cities". The Independent. London. 1 June 2011. Archived from the original on 3 June 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2012.  ^ " Beijing
Beijing
to overtake london as world's largest aviation hub". Centre for Aviation. Retrieved 12 June 2012.  ^ "Global Cities Investment Monitor 2017" (PDF). KPMG. Retrieved 5 September 2017.  ^ "Global Cities Investment Monitor 2016" (PDF). KPMG. Retrieved 12 September 2016.  ^ "Global Investor Intentions Survey 2015". CBRE. Retrieved 27 August 2015.  ^ " London
London
Top Target for Global Investors, Secondary Markets Gain Popularity". World Property Journal. Retrieved 27 August 2015.  ^ "Global Retail Report 2014". CBRE. Retrieved 27 August 2015.  ^ Bourke, Joanna (18 May 2015). " London
London
retains title as world's most international shopping destination". London
London
Evening Standard. Retrieved 27 August 2015.  ^ "The Wealth Report 2015". Knight Frank. Retrieved 27 August 2015.  ^ Bourke, Joanna (11 March 2015). "NYC Is No Longer the No. 1 City for the Super-Wealthy". Curbed. Retrieved 27 August 2015.  ^ a b "Number of international students in London
London
continues to grow" (Press release). Greater London
Greater London
Authority. 20 August 2008. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010.  ^ a b "IOC elects London
London
as the Host City of the Games of the XXX Olympiad in 2012". International Olympic Committee. 6 July 2005. Retrieved 3 June 2006.  ^ "Languages spoken in the UK population". National Centre for Language. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Additional archives: 13 February 2005. ^ "Largest EU City. Over 7 million residents in 2001". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 26 July 2007. Retrieved 28 June 2008.  ^ "Focus on London – Population and Migration London DataStore". Greater London
Greater London
Authority. Archived from the original on 16 October 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2012.  ^ a b "2011 Census – Built-up areas". ONS. Retrieved 29 June 2013.  ^ "The London Plan
London Plan
(March 2015)". London.gov.uk. The Greater London Authority. Retrieved 27 January 2017.  ^ "A Manifesto for Long Term Growth of the London
London
City Region" (PDF). aecom.com. AECOM. Retrieved 27 January 2017.  ^ a b "London: The greatest city". Channel 4. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2008.  ^ "Lists: United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 November 2008.  ^ "West End Must Innovate to Renovate, Says Report". What's On Stage. London. 25 January 2008. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2010.  ^ a b c Mills 2001, p. 139 ^ "UK's oldest hand-written document 'at Roman London
London
dig'". BBC
BBC
News. 1 June 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2016.  ^ Ackroyd, Peter (2 December 2001). "London". The New York Times. ISBN 978-0-7011-7279-4. Retrieved 28 October 2008.  ^ a b Theodora Bynon, 'London's Name', Transactions of the Philological Society, 114:3 (2016), 281–97, doi: 10.1111/1467-968X.12064. ^ Coates, Richard (1998). "A new explanation of the name of London". Transactions of the Philological Society. 96 (2): 203–229. doi:10.1111/1467-968X.00027. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011.  ^ Peter Schrijver, Language Contact and the Origins of the Germanic Languages, Routledge Studies in Linguistics, 13 (New York: Routledge, 2014), p. 57. ^ Mills 2001, p. 140 ^ "Page Not Found – The National Archives". Archived from the original on 25 September 2017.  ^ a b Denison, Simon (July 1999). "First ' London
London
Bridge' in River Thames at Vauxhall". British Archaeology (46). Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ a b Milne, Gustav. "London's Oldest Foreshore Structure!". Frog Blog. Thames Discovery Programme. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ Perring, Dominic (1991). Roman London. London: Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-203-23133-3.  ^ "British History Timeline —Roman Britain". BBC. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2008.  ^ Anne Lancashire (2002). London
London
Civic Theatre: City Drama and Pageantry from Roman Times to 1558. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-5216-3278-2.  ^ "The last days of Londinium". Museum of London. Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2013.  ^ "The early years of Lundenwic". The Museum of London. Archived from the original on 10 June 2008.  ^ Wheeler, Kip. " Viking
Viking
Attacks". Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ Vince, Alan (2001). "London". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Stenton, Frank (1971). Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England
England
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 538–539. ISBN 978-0-19-280139-5.  ^ Blair, John (2001). "Westminster". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ "History – 1066 – King William". BBC. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2008.  ^ Tinniswood, Adrian. "A History of British Architecture — White Tower". BBC. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2008.  ^ "UK Parliament — Parliament: The building". UK Parliament. 9 November 2007. Archived from the original on 11 March 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ "Palace of Westminster". UK Parliament. Archived from the original on 4 April 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ Schofield, John; Vince, Alan (2003). Medieval Towns: The Archaeology of British Towns in Their European Setting. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-8264-6002-8.  ^ "Black Death". BBC
BBC
History. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2008.  ^ "Richard II (1367–1400)". BBC. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2008.  ^ a b Pevsner, Nikolaus. London
London
I: The Cities of London
London
and Westminster
Westminster
rev. edition, 1962. Introduction p. 48. ^  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Steelyard, Merchants of the". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ J. G. Pounds (1976). "An Historical Geography of Europe 450 B.C.-A.D. 1330, Part 1330". p. 430. CUP Archive ^ Ramsay, George Daniel (1986). The Queen's Merchants and the Revolt of the Netherlands: The End of the Antwerp
Antwerp
Mart. Volume 2, pp. 1 and 62–63. Manchester
Manchester
University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-1849-7 ^ The life and times of Sir Thomas Gresham, founder of the Royal Exchange: including notices of many of his contemporaries. With illustrations, Volume 2, pages 80–81, John William Burgon, E. Wilson, 1839. ^ Durston, Christopher (1993). James I. London: Routledge. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-415-07779-8.  ^ David Flintham. Civil War fortifications of London
London
Archived 16 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Fortified Places, 13 July 2009 ^ Harrington, Peter (2003). English Civil War
English Civil War
Fortifications 1642–51, Volume 9 of Fortress, 9, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-604-6. p. 57 ^ David Flintham. Civil War fortifications of London
London
Archived 16 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Fortified Places, 18 August 2008. Citing:

The English Civil War
English Civil War
– A Contemporary Account, Caliban Books, London, (1996), Vol. 3, p. 33. Whitelocke, in Victor T. C. Smith The Defences of London
London
During the English Civil War, Fort, Volume 25, Fortress Study Group, (1997). p. 79.

^ "A List of National Epidemics of Plague in England
England
1348–1665". Urban Rim. 4 December 2009. Archived from the original on 4 May 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ "Story of the plague". Channel 4. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011.  ^ Pepys, Samuel (2 September 1666) [1893]. Mynors Bright (decipherer); Henry B. Wheatley, eds. The Diary of Samuel Pepys. 45: August/September 1666. ISBN 978-0-520-22167-3. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011.  ^ Schofield, John (17 February 2011). " London
London
After the Great Fire: Civil War and Revolution". BBC
BBC
History. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2013.  ^ "Rebuilding after the fire". Museum of London. Archived from the original on 1 February 2008.  ^ The Rebuilding of London
London
After the Great Fire. Thomas Fiddian. 1940. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ The curious life of Robert Hooke, the man who measured London
London
by Lisa Jardine ^ "Thief Taker, Constable, Police". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). ^ Jackson, Peter (3 August 2009). "Rough justice – Victorian style". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  ^ "National Affairs: Capital punishment: a fading practice". Time. New York. 21 March 1960. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  ^ "The Foundling Hospital". BBC
BBC
History. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  ^ Coispeau, Olivier (10 August 2016). Finance Masters: A Brief History of International Financial Centers in the Last Millennium. World Scientific. ISBN 9789813108844.  ^ "When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life: Samuel Johnson". Archived from the original on 19 May 2011.  ^ "Hidden extras: cholera comes to Victorian London". London: The Science Museum. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  ^ Brown, Robert W. " London
London
in the Nineteenth Century". University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Archived from the original on 30 December 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  ^ Goebel, Stefan; White, Jerry (2016). " London
London
and the First World War". London
London
Journal. 41 (3): 1–20. doi:10.1080/03058034.2016.1216758.  ^ "Bomb-Damage Maps Reveal London's World War II
World War II
Devastation". nationalgeographic.com.au. 18 May 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ Ronk, Liz (27 July 2013). "LIFE at the 1948 London
London
Olympics". time.com. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ Christopher Hibbert; Ben Weinreb; John Keay; Julia Keay (2010). The London
London
Encyclopaedia (3rd Edition). Pan Macmillan. p. 428. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "1951: King George opens Festival of Britain". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ CORTON, CHRISTINE L. (6 November 2015). "The Return of London's Fog". nytimes.com. NYT. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ Brown, Mick (29 May 2012). "The Diamond Decades: The 1960s". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ Robson, David (8 September 2016). "SWINGING SIXTIES: Take a walk down Chelsea's King's Road
King's Road
in the '60s". express.co.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Magical memory tour of London". telegraph.co.uk. 15 July 2007. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ Gregory Byrne Bracken (2011). Walking Tour London: Sketches of the city’s architectural treasures... Journey Through London's Urban Landscapes. Marshall Cavendish International. p. 10. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Webber, Esther (31 March 2016). "The rise and fall of the GLC". bbc.com/news. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ Cutler, David (16 May 2011). "Timeline – Worst IRA bomb attacks on mainland Britain". reuters.com. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ John, Cindi (5 April 2006). "The legacy of the Brixton
Brixton
riots". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "London's population hits 8.6m record high". BBC
BBC
News. 2 February 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2017.  ^ Zolfagharifard, Ellie (14 February 2014). " Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
timeline: from the Thatcher years to Qatari control". Guardian. Retrieved 19 June 2017.  ^ Hanlon, Michael (18 February 2014). "The Thames Barrier
Thames Barrier
has saved London
London
– but is it time for TB2?". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 19 June 2017.  ^ "1986: Greater London
Greater London
Council abolished". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 20 June 2017.  ^ Ijeh, Ike (25 June 2010). "Millennium projects: 10 years of good luck". www.building.co.uk. Retrieved 20 June 2017.  ^ " London
London
beats Paris
Paris
to 2012 Games". BBC
BBC
Sport. 6 July 2005. Retrieved 28 September 2012.  ^ "7 July Bombings: Overview". London: BBC
BBC
News. Archived from the original on 13 February 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2008.  ^ Ben Derudder (2011). International Handbook of Globalization and World Cities. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 422. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "Population Growth in London, 1939–2015". London
London
Datastore. Greater London
Greater London
Authority. Archived (PDF) from the original on Feb 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2015.  ^ "Thousands call on Sadiq Khan
Sadiq Khan
to declare London's independence". 24 June 2016.  ^ "Who runs London". London
London
Government. Retrieved 29 March 2017.  ^ James, William; Piper, Elizabeth (7 May 2016). "Labour's Khan becomes first Muslim
Muslim
mayor of London
London
after bitter campaign". Reuters. Retrieved 19 September 2016.  ^ " London
London
Elections 2016: Results". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 7 May 2016.  ^ "The London
London
Plan". Greater London
Greater London
Authority. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012.  ^ " London
London
Government Directory". London
London
Government. Retrieved 29 March 2017.  ^ http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/statistics/pdf/1911067.pdf ^ "Who we are". London
London
Fire Brigade. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2009.  ^ "About us". London Ambulance Service
London Ambulance Service
NHS Trust. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2009.  ^ "Station list". Maritime and Coastguard Agency. 2007. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2009.  ^ "Thames lifeboat service launched". BBC
BBC
News. 2 January 2002. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2009.  ^ " Port of London
Port of London
Act 1968" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.  ^ "10 Downing Street — Official Website". Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2008.  ^ a b "UK Politics: Talking Politics — The 'Mother of Parliaments'". BBC. 3 June 1998. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ "General Election Results 2017". London
London
DataStore. Greater London Authority. 8 June 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017. Download the spreadsheet and count up  ^ Amesbury, Mike (12 January 2018). "Jo Johnson's new jobs show northern transport again taking backseat". the Guardian.  ^ "About MOPAC". Greater London
Greater London
Authority. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2013.  ^ "MPA: Metropolitan Police Authority". Metropolitan Police Authority. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2013.  ^ "Policing". Greater London
Greater London
Authority. Archived from the original on 21 January 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2009.  ^ "Areas". British Transport Police. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2009.  ^ "Home Office Interactive Crime Atlas". Homeoffice.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 15 April 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  ^ "National Policing Improvement Agency: Local Crime Mapping". Archived from the original on 23 October 2009.  ^ " London
London
murder rate up 14% over the past year". ITV News. 24 January 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2016.  ^ "Metropolitan Police Crime Mapping Data Tables". Maps.met.police.uk. Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  ^ Beavan, Charles; Bickersteth, Harry (1865). "Reports of Cases in Chancery, Argued and Determined in the Rolls Court". Saunders and Benning.  ^ Stationery Office (1980). The Inner London
Inner London
Letter Post. H.M.S.O. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-10-251580-0.  ^ Geographers' A-Z Map Company (2008). London
London
Postcode and Administrative Boundaries (6 ed.). Geographers' A-Z Map Company. ISBN 978-1-84348-592-6.  ^ "The Essex, Greater London
Greater London
and Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
(County and London Borough Boundaries) Order". Office of Public Sector Information. 1993. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ Dilys, M Hill (2000). Urban Policy and Politics in Britain. St. Martin's Press. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-312-22745-6.  ^ " London
London
in its Regional Setting" (PDF). London
London
Assembly. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ London
London
Government Act 1963. Office of Public Sector Information. ISBN 978-0-16-053895-7. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2008.  ^ "London — Features — Where is the Centre of London?". BBC. Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ M@ (30 April 2014). "Where Is The Centre Of London? An Update". Londonist. Archived from the original on 30 May 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016.  ^ "Lieutenancies Act 1997". OPSI. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2008.  ^ Barlow, I. M. (1991). Metropolitan Government. Routledge. p. 346.  ^ (1994) Collins English Dictionary, Collins Education plc. ^ Oxford English Reference Dictionary, Oxford English. ^ "HC 501 0304.PDF" (PDF). Parliament Publications ^ Schofield, John (June 1999). "British Archaeology" (45). British Archaeology. ISSN 1357-4442. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2008.  ^ "Metropolis: 027 London, World Association of the Major Metropolises" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ Sheppard, Francis (2000). London: A History. Oxford University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-19-285369-1. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ "Flooding". UK Environment Agency. Archived from the original on 15 February 2006. Retrieved 19 June 2006.  ^ ""Sea Levels" – UK Environment Agency". Environment Agency. Archived from the original on 23 May 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ Adam, David (31 March 2009). " Thames Barrier
Thames Barrier
gets extra time as London's main flood defence". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2009.  ^ "Climate statistics for Australian locations". bom.gov.au.  ^ "Weather Information for Naples". Worldweather.org. 5 October 2006. Retrieved 4 May 2013.  ^ The Weather Network 18 November 2011 ^ Prévisions météo de Météo- France
France
– Climat en France
France
18 November 2011 ^ World Weather Information Service – Toulouse 18 November 2011 ^ Data, US Climate. "Climate New York – New York and Weather averages New York".  ^ "August 2003 weather". Weather. 59: 239–246. doi:10.1256/wea.10.04B. Retrieved 18 September 2012.  ^ "January 1962 weather". Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 18 September 2012.  ^ Johnson, H; Kovats, RS; McGregor, G; Stedman, J; Gibbs, M; Walton6, H (1 July 2005). "The impact of the 2003 heat wave on daily mortality in England
England
and Wales
Wales
and the use of rapid weekly mortality estimates". Eurosurveillance. 10 (7).  ^ "London's Urban Heat Island: A Summary for Decision Makers" (PDF). Greater London
Greater London
Authority. October 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 August 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2015.  ^ Eden, Philip (9 June 2004). "Ever warmer as temperatures rival France". The Daily Telegraph. London.  ^ " London
London
Heathrow Airport". Met Office. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ " Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
Extreme Values". KNMI. Retrieved 29 November 2015.  ^ " London
London
Weather Centre analysis". Weather Online. Retrieved 17 November 2014.  ^ "climate: Climate London
London
Weather Centre". Tutiempo. Retrieved 17 November 2014.  ^ " London
London
boroughs — London
London
Life, GLA". London
London
Government. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2008.  ^ Dogan, Mattei; Kasarda, John D. (1988). The Metropolis
Metropolis
Era. Sage. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-8039-2603-5.  ^ " London
London
as a financial centre". Mayor of London. Archived from the original on 6 January 2008.  ^ "West End still drawing crowds". BBC
BBC
News. 22 October 2001. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ Meek, James (17 April 2006). "Super Rich". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2008.  ^ "Information on latest house prices in the Royal Borough". Royal Borough of Kensington
Kensington
and Chelsea. Archived from the original on 10 October 2016.  ^ Rupert Jones (8 August 2014). "Average house prices in London
London
jump 19 percent in a year". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 24 September 2014.  ^ a b Flynn, Emily (6 July 2005). "Tomorrow's East End". Newsweek. New York. Archived from the original on 29 August 2006.  ^ Foyle, Jonathan (29 March 2011). "Hampton Court: The Lost Palace". BBC
BBC
History. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2013.  ^ " Paddington
Paddington
Station". Great Buildings. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ Lonsdale, Sarah (27 March 2008). "Eco homes: Wooden it be lovely... ?". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2008.  ^ "Inside London's new 'glass egg'". BBC
BBC
News. 16 July 2002. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2008.  ^ "Wildlife in London, England: LNHS Home page". lnhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 12 February 2007.  ^ London
London
Natural History Society. ^ Laurie Tuffrey (27 July 2012). "London's amphibians and reptile populations mapped". The Guardian. London. ^ "The Garden Mammal Survey Report 2001" (PDF). The Mammal Society. The Mammal Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2015.  ^ "10,000 Foxes Roam London". James Owen in London
London
for National Geographic News, May 15, 2006 ^ "Mammals". The Royal Parks.  ^ Peter Law. "London's first wild otter found". This Is Local London. Archived from the original on 1 April 2010.  ^ "Mammals". cityoflondon.gov.uk.  ^ Liam O'Brien, (24 March 2013). "Dead whale found floating in the Thames Estuary 'will be examined'". The Independent
The Independent
on Sunday (London). ^ " BBC
BBC
Nature – A Question of Nature: How hidden is the UK's wild side?". BBC
BBC
Nature.  ^ Rachel Bishop (5 November 2012). " Richmond Park
Richmond Park
deer cull begins". Wandsworth
Wandsworth
Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 November 2012.  ^ "In pictures: London's urban deer". London
London
Evening Standard.  ^ Emma Innes (14 June 2012). "Photographer snaps Muntjac deer
Muntjac deer
in Mill Hill garden". Edgware
Edgware
& Mill Hill
Mill Hill
Times. London.  ^ "A summary of countries of birth in London". Census Update. data.london.gov.uk. 2011: 1. 17 May 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2014.  ^ "Most London
London
babies have foreign-born parent". Financial Times. 1 December 2016. ^ Kyambi, Sarah (7 September 2005). Beyond Black and White: Mapping New Immigrant Communities. London: Institute for Public Policy Research. ISBN 1-86030-284-X.  ^ "2011 Census. London
London
population". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 27 May 2015 ^ "The Principal Agglomerations of the World". City Population. Archived from the original on 24 July 2010. Retrieved 3 March 2009.  ^ "British urban pattern: population data" (PDF). ESPON project 1.4.3 Study on Urban Functions. European Spatial Planning Observation Network. March 2007. p. 119. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2010.  ^ Leppard, David (10 April 2005). "Immigration rise increases segregation in British cities". The Times. London. Retrieved 8 August 2009.  (subscription required) ^ Metropolis
Metropolis
World Association of the Major Metropolises (PDF). ISBN 978-0-7306-2020-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ "Population density of London: by London
London
borough, 2006" (PDF). UK Statistics Authority. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 June 2008.  ^ "'Rich List' counts more than 100 UK billionaires". BBC
BBC
News Online. 11 May 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014.  ^ "World's Most Expensive Cities 2004". CNN. 11 June 2004. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2007.  ^ "2011 Census: Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England
England
and Wales". ONS. Retrieved 3 July 2014 ^ Paton, Graeme (1 October 2007). "One fifth of children from ethnic minorities". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 15 June 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2008.  ^ ONS. "LC2109EWls – Ethnic group by age". www.nomisweb.co.uk. Retrieved 26 March 2015.  ^ Benedictus, Leo (21 January 2005). "Every race, colour, nation and religion on earth". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2008.  ^ "Census 2001: London". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2006.  ^ Kyambi, Sarah (7 September 2005). Beyond Black and White: Mapping new immigrant communities. Institute for Public Policy Research. ISBN 978-1-86030-284-8. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2007.  ^ "Table 1.4: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, July 2009 to June 2010". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.  Figure given is the central estimate. See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals. ^ "2011 Census, Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England
England
and Wales". Ons.gov.uk. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2013.  ^ "About Saint Paul's Cathedral". Dean and Chapter St Paul's. Archived from the original on 7 April 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ " Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
Library". Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
Library. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ " Westminster
Westminster
Abbey". Dean and Chapter of Westminster. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ " Westminster
Westminster
Cathedral". Westminster
Westminster
Cathedral. Archived from the original on 27 March 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ "Church of England
England
Statistics" (PDF). Church of England. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ " London Central Mosque
London Central Mosque
Trust Ltd". London Central Mosque
London Central Mosque
Trust Ltd. & The Islamic Cultural Centre. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ "sikhchic.com – The Art and Culture of the Diaspora – Sikh-Britons Second Wealthiest: Government Report". sikhchic.com.  ^ "Comment: British Sikhs are the best example of cultural integration". politics.co.uk.  ^ Bill, Peter (29 May 2008). "The $300 billion Arabs are coming". London
London
Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ Census 2001 Key Statistics, Local Authorities in England
England
and Wales Office for National Statistics ^ " Hindu
Hindu
London". BBC
BBC
London. 6 June 2005. Archived from the original on 18 February 2006. Retrieved 3 June 2006.  ^ "£17 m Sikh
Sikh
temple opens". BBC
BBC
News. 30 March 2003. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2008.  ^ "Stanmore". The Jewish
Jewish
Agency for Israel. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2008.  ^ Paul, Jonny (10 December 2006). "Livingstone apologizes to UK's Jews". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.  ^ "Cracking Up!". p. 178. Lulu.com ^ Brown, Jonathan (11 April 2006). "Jafaican and Tikkiny drown out the East End's Cockney
Cockney
twang". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2008.  ^ " London
London
tops 2015 global financial centre rankings and knocks New York into second place". Cityam.com. Retrieved 12 November 2015 ^ "London's place in the UK economy, 2005–06" (PDF). City of London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2006. Retrieved 11 March 2008.  ^ "The Economic Positioning of Metropolitan Areas in North Western Europe" (PDF). The Institute for Urban Planning and Development of the Paris
Paris
Île-de- France
France
Region. December 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2008.  ^ Lowe, Felix (19 February 2008). " Highgate
Highgate
trumps Chelsea as priciest postcode". The Daily Telegraph. London.  ^ "U.K.'s Most Expensive Postcodes". Forbes. 12 December 2007.  ^ "Top 10 Most Expensive Office Markets in the World Revealed". Retrieved 27 September 2015.  ^ Frater, James. " London
London
homes are worth $2 trillion". CNNMoney. Retrieved 27 September 2015.  ^ "City Mayors: UK and European cities compared". citymayors.com.  ^ Global Property Guide. "Price per Square Meter United Kingdom
United Kingdom
– British Cost per Square Meter". Global Property Guide.  ^ "After the fall". The Economist. London. 29 November 2007. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2009.  ^ "Financial Centres — Magnets for money". The Economist. London. 13 September 2007. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2009.  ^ Coispeau, Olivier (10 August 2016). Finance Masters: A Brief History of International Financial Centers in the Last Millennium. World Scientific. ISBN 9789813108844.  ^ http://www.longfinance.net/images/gfci/20/GFCI20_26Sep2016.pdf ^ https://www.atkearney.com/documents/10192/8178456/Global+Cities+2016.pdf/8139cd44-c760-4a93-ad7d-11c5d347451a ^ Editorial, Reuters. "London's core role in euros under spotlight after Brexit vote".  ^ "The London
London
Banking Center Is Beginning to Feel Like Itself Again". International Herald Tribune. 21 January 2010 – via The New York Times.  ^ " London
London
Stock Exchange". London Stock Exchange
London Stock Exchange
plc. 2008. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ "London's Place in the UK Economy, 2005–6" (PDF). Oxford Economic Forecasting on behalf of the Corporation of London. November 2005. p. 19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2006. Retrieved 19 June 2006.  ^ Potter, Mark (17 February 2011). " London
London
tops world cities spending league". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.  ^ a b "ARCHIVED CONTENT] Provisional Port Statistics 2009". Department for Transport – Webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.  ^ "Availability". mydotlondon.com.  ^ " London
London
named as European City of the Future" (Press release). London&Partners. 17 February 2014.  ^ "European Cities and Regions of the Future 2014/15". fDiIntelligence.com. London. 17 February 2014.  ^ "Gas distributors". Ofgem. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ "Electricity distributor". National Grid. Retrieved 19 January 2015.  ^ "Mastercard".  ^ " London
London
and Partners".  ^ "Mastercard" (PDF).  ^ " London
London
is the HR centre of opportunity in the UK". Personnel Today. 15 February 2005. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2006.  ^ "visitbritain".  ^ " London
London
named No.1 city destination on TripAdvisor". BBC
BBC
News. 21 March 2016.  ^ " British Museum
British Museum
tops UK visitor attractions list". 7 March 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.  ^ " London
London
and Partners Statistics".  ^ Dugan, Emily (6 August 2014). "Housing shortage leaves homeless families 'stuck' in hostels for two years". The Independent. London. Retrieved 11 August 2014.  ^ "Immigration and housing" (PDF). Shelter. p. 9.  ^ "Transport for London". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ "How do I find out about transport in London?". Greater London Authority. Archived from the original on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2008.  ^ "BAA Heathrow: Official Website". BAA. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ " Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
Terminal 5". TMC Ltd. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ "Heathrow runway plans scrapped by new government". BBC
BBC
News. 12 May 2010. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011.  ^ "BAA Gatwick: Gatwick Airport". BAA. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ BAA Stansted : Stansted Airport. BAA. 2008. ISBN 978-0-86039-476-1. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ London
London
Luton
Luton
Airport. London
London
Luton
Luton
Airport. ISBN 978-0-11-510256-1. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ " London
London
City Airport — Corporate Information". London
London
City Airport Ltd. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ Transport for London. London
London
Underground: History. ISBN 978-0-904711-30-1. Archived from the original on 2 May 2007. Retrieved 30 December 2012.  ^ " Shanghai
Shanghai
now the world's longest metro". Railway Gazette International. London. 4 May 2010. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2010.  ^ "Key facts". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 29 May 2007. Retrieved 15 October 2009.  ^ Schwandl, Robert (2001). London
London
Underground. UrbanRail.net. ISBN 978-3-936573-01-5. Archived from the original on 6 October 2006. Retrieved 24 September 2006.  ^ " Oyster card
Oyster card
celebrates 150th Tube anniversary". BBC
BBC
News. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2013.  ^ "Tube breaks record for passenger numbers" (Press release). Transport for London. 27 December 2007. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.  ^ "The London
London
2012 legacy". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2013.  ^ "First Capital Connect". First Capital Connect. Archived from the original on 1 February 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ "Rail Station Usage". Office of Rail Regulation. Archived from the original on 17 July 2007. Retrieved 24 October 2009.  ^ "Tube exits". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 22 July 2007. Retrieved 24 October 2009.  ^ " Crossrail
Crossrail
Regional Map". Crossrail. Retrieved 8 September 2013.  ^ "Crossrail's giant tunnelling machines unveiled". BBC
BBC
News. 2 January 2012.  ^ Leftly, Mark (29 August 2010). " Crossrail
Crossrail
delayed to save £1bn". The Independent
The Independent
on Sunday. London.  ^ "Rail". London
London
First. London
London
First. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.  ^ "Eurostar". Eurostar. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ "Highspeed". Southeastern. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.  ^ a b August 2007, Rail Freight Strategy, London
London
Rail ^ a b "What we do – Buses". Transport for London. Transport for London. Retrieved 5 April 2014.  ^ "London's bus improvements get Parliamentary seal of approval". Transport For London. 23 May 2006. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.  ^ " London
London
Black Cabs". London
London
Black Cabs. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ "Tube". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ "What we do – Trams". Transport for London. Transport for London. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.  ^ " Tramlink
Tramlink
Factsheet" (PDF). Transport for London. Summer 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2010. Retrieved 19 February 2010.  ^ http://content.tfl.gov.uk/travel-in-london-report-9.pdf, p.144 ^ " Greater London
Greater London
(United Kingdom): Boroughs - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". www.citypopulation.de.  ^ "The 20 Most Bike-Friendly Cities on the Planet".  ^ The Guardian
The Guardian
[1] ^ " London
London
Cycling Campaign". Rosanna Downes. 20 November 2006. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ Transport for London: Woolwich
Woolwich
Ferry, 50 years on Retrieved 8 September 2013 ^ Campbell, Ken (2000). "Guinness World Records 2001". p. 150. ^ "Beds, Herts and Bucks Travel — All you need to know about the M25". BBC. 17 August 1988. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2010.  ^ Mulholland, Hélène (16 March 2009). "Boris Johnson mulls 'intelligent' congestion charge system for London". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2009.  ^ "Charging Zone". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2008.  ^ "Who pays what". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 8 June 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2008.  ^ "Residents". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2008.  ^ Santos, Georgina; Button, Kenneth; Noll, Roger G. " London
London
Congestion Charging/Comments." Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs. 15287084 (2008): 177,177–234. ^ Table 3 in Santos, Georgina; Button, Kenneth; Noll, Roger G. "London Congestion Charging/Comments." Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs.15287084 (2008): 177,177–234. ^ "QS World University Rankings® 2015/16". Retrieved 26 September 2015.  ^ " Mayor of London
Mayor of London
says city is 'education capital of the world'". www.londonandpartners.com. Retrieved 26 September 2015.  ^ "Capital offer Times Higher Education". Retrieved 26 September 2015.  ^ "Pricewaterhousecoopers" (PDF). Retrieved 26 September 2015.  ^ " QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
– Overall for 2014". Retrieved 13 November 2014.  ^ Hipwell, Deirdre (23 September 2007). "The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2007 – Profile for London
London
School of Economics". The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  (subscription required) ^ "FT Global MBA Rankings". Financial Times. London. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2010.  ^ "About us". University of London. Retrieved 1 December 2014.  ^ HESA Statistics: United Kingdom. HESA. Retrieved 6 April 2015 ^ "Colleges and Institutes". University of London. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2010.  ^ About London
London
Met London
London
Metropolitan University, August 2008 ^ "University of the Arts London". The Guardian. London. 1 May 2008. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2010.  ^ Carvel, John (7 August 2008). "NHS hospitals to forge £2bn research link-up with university". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ " Mayor of London
Mayor of London
– Spending Time: Londons Leisure Economy". www.london.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 19 December 2003. Retrieved 30 September 2015.  ^ Chadha, Aayush. "UK Event Data – In Review". www.tickx.co.uk. Retrieved 11 December 2017.  ^ "20 facts about London's culture London
London
City Hall". www.london.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.  ^ Pickford, James (30 July 2014). "Study puts London
London
ahead of New York as centre for theatre". Financial Times. ISSN 0307-1766. Retrieved 30 September 2015.  ^ " Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Lights". Land Securities. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2008.  ^ Sondheim and Lloyd-Webber: the new musical The New York Times.. referred to Andrew Lloyd Webber
Andrew Lloyd Webber
as "the most commercially successful composer in history" ^ a b c d "Theatres and concert halls". Your London. Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ "2001: Public houses". BBC. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2008.  ^ " Oxford Street
Oxford Street
gets its own dedicated local police team". The Londoner. September 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2007.  ^ "Chinatown — Official website". Chinatown London. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ "One Queen, Two Birthdays". Royal Government. Archived from the original on 20 June 2008. Retrieved 27 September 2008.  ^ a b c d " London
London
in Literature,". Bryn Mawr College. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ "Film London
London
– studio contacts". Filmlondon.org.uk.  ^ "Working Title Films". Universal Studios. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008.  ^ "Organisation". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 18 November 2013.  ^ "Pollstarrpro.com" (PDF).  ^ "The best music festivals in London". Time Out London. Retrieved 27 January 2016.  ^ a b London's top 40 artists. BBC. 6 April 2006. ISBN 978-0-89820-135-2. Retrieved 9 September 2008.  ^ "Punk". AllMusic. Retrieved 19 February 2010.  ^ "History of music in London". The London
London
Music Scene. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ Walker, Tim (28 July 2008). "Mumford & Sons, The Luminaire, London". The Independent
The Independent
(London). Retrieved 13 October 2012. ^ Warren, Emma (9 December 2011). "From the Dug Out and dreads to DMZ and dubstep: 10 classic club nights". Guardian Music Blog. London. Retrieved 13 October 2012.  ^ " Kensington
Kensington
Gardens". The Royal Parks. 2008. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2008.  ^ "Madame Tussauds — Official website". Madame Tussauds. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ "Tourist Information". Madame Tussauds. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2008.  ^ Mills, A., Dictionary of London
London
Place Names, (2001) ^ "Green Park". The Royal Parks. 2008. Archived from the original on 1 February 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2008.  ^ " Greenwich
Greenwich
Park". The Royal Parks. 2008. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2008.  ^ "Bushy Park". The Royal Parks. 2008. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2008.  ^ "Richmond Park". The Royal Parks. 2008. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2008.  ^ "Park details – Hampton Court". London
London
Borough of Richmond upon Thames. Archived from the original on 26 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ "Kew, History & Heritage" (PDF). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2013.  ^ " City of London
City of London
Corporation Hampstead
Hampstead
Heath". City of London Corporation. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2010.  ^ " Epping Forest
Epping Forest
You & Your Dog" (PDF). brochure. City of London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 July 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2010.  ^ Ramblers. "Corporation of London
London
Open Spaces". Ramblers. Archived from the original on 29 October 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2011.  ^ "Green spaces". City of London. Retrieved 27 July 2012.  ^ "Kenwood House". English Heritage. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2008.  ^ "Epping Forest". cityoflondon.gov.uk.  ^ Phil Marson. " Inner London
Inner London
Ramblers – Walk Ideas". innerlondonramblers.org.uk.  ^ " Wandle Trail
Wandle Trail
– Map". Sustrans.  ^ Ideas for London
London
walks from the Inner London
Inner London
Walking Group ^ " London
London
1908". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.  ^ " London
London
1948". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.  ^ "England — Introduction". Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Federation. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2008.  ^ " London
London
Defeats Doha
Doha
to host 2017 International Athletics Championships". Gamesbids.com. Archived from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  ^ "Barclays Premier League
Premier League
Clubs". Premier League.  ^ " Wembley
Wembley
Stadium History — Official Website". Wembley National Stadium Limited. Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2008.  ^ " Wembley
Wembley
Stadium — Presspack — Facts and Figures". Wembley
Wembley
National Stadium Limited. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ "Premiership Rugby: Clubs". Premier Rugby. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2010.  ^ "RFU apply for two additional concerts at Twickenham Stadium
Twickenham Stadium
in 2007" (Press release). Twickenham
Twickenham
Rugby Stadium. 3 October 2006. Archived from the original on 25 June 2008.  ^ 125 years of Wimbledon: From birth of lawn tennis to modern marvels CNN. Retrieved 28 September 2011 ^ "Wimbledon — official website". The All England
England
Tennis and Croquet Club (AELTC). Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2008.  ^ Clarey, Christopher (7 May 2008). "Traditional Final: It's Nadal and Federer". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 July 2008. Federer said[:] 'I love playing with him, especially here at Wimbledon, the most prestigious tournament we have.'  ^ Will Kaufman & Heidi Slettedahl Macpherson, ed. (2005). "Tennis". Britain and the Americas. 1 : Culture, Politics, and History. ABC-CLIO. p. 958. ISBN 1-85109-431-8. this first tennis championship, which later evolved into the Wimbledon Tournament ... continues as the world's most prestigious event.  ^ Burke, Monte (30 May 2012). "What Is The Most Prestigious Grand Slam Tennis Tournament?". Forbes. New York. Retrieved 25 June 2013.  ^ "About Lord's—the home of cricket — official website". MCC. 2008. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2008.  ^ "The Brit Oval — Official Website". Surrey
Surrey
CCC. 2008. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2008.  ^ "Flora London Marathon
London Marathon
2008". London Marathon
London Marathon
Ltd. Archived from the original on 26 April 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2008.  ^ "The Oxford and Cambridge
Cambridge
Boat Race — Official Website". The Oxford and Cambridge
Cambridge
Boat Race. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2008. 

Bibliography

Ackroyd, Peter (2001). London: The Biography. London: Vintage. p. 880. ISBN 978-0-09-942258-7.  Mills, David (2001). Dictionary of London
London
Place Names. Oxford Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-19-280106-7. OCLC 45406491. 

External links

Find more aboutLondonat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

London.gov.uk – Greater London
Greater London
Authority VisitLondon.com – Official London
London
tourism site Transport for London
Transport for London
(TfL) – city transport authority Museum of London British Pathé – Digitalised archive containing hundreds of films of 20th century London London
London
in British History Online, with links to numerous authoritative online sources Map of Early Modern London
London
– Historical map and encyclopaedia of Shakespeare's London "London", In Our Time, BBC
BBC
Radio 4 discussion with Peter Ackroyd, Claire Tomalin and Iain Sinclair
Iain Sinclair
(28 September 2000) Geographic data related to London
London
at OpenStreetMap

v t e

History of London

Evolution

Londinium Lundenwic City of London City of Westminster Middlesex County of London Greater London Timeline

Periods

Roman London Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
London Norman and Medieval London Tudor London Stuart London 18th-century London 19th-century London 1900–39 The Blitz 1945–2000 21st century

Events

Peasants' Revolt Black Death Great Plague Great Fire 1854 cholera outbreak Great Stink Great Exhibition 1908 Franco-British Exhibition The Battle of Cable Street Festival of Britain Great Smog Swinging London London
London
Plan 1966 FIFA World Cup Final 7/7 bombings Olympic Games
Olympic Games
(1908 1948 2012) 2012 Summer Paralympics Grenfell Tower fire

Government

Metropolitan Board of Works London
London
County Council Greater London
Greater London
Council Greater London
Greater London
Authority London
London
Assembly Mayor of London London
London
independence

Services

Bow Street Runners Metropolitan Police Service London
London
Ambulance Service London
London
Fire Brigade Port of London
Port of London
Authority London
London
sewerage system London
London
Underground

City of London

City of London
City of London
Corporation Lord Mayor of the City of London Wards of the City of London Guildhall Livery Companies Lord Mayor's Show City of London
City of London
Police Bank of England

Structures

St Paul's Cathedral Tower of London Palace of Whitehall Westminster
Westminster
Hall London
London
Bridge Tower Bridge Westminster
Westminster
Abbey Big Ben The Monument Fortifications

Category

v t e

London
London
landmarks

Buildings and structures

Bridges

Albert Bridge Blackfriars Bridge Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges Lambeth
Lambeth
Bridge London
London
Bridge Millennium Footbridge Southwark
Southwark
Bridge Tower Bridge Vauxhall
Vauxhall
Bridge Waterloo Bridge Westminster
Westminster
Bridge

Entertainment venues

Cinemas

Empire, Leicester Square BFI IMAX Odeon, Leicester Square

Football stadia

Wembley
Wembley
Stadium (national stadium) Craven Cottage
Craven Cottage
(Fulham) The Den
The Den
(Millwall) Emirates Stadium
Emirates Stadium
(Arsenal) Loftus Road
Loftus Road
(Queens Park Rangers) London Stadium
London Stadium
( West Ham
West Ham
United) Selhurst Park
Selhurst Park
(Crystal Palace) Stamford Bridge (Chelsea) The Valley (Charlton Athletic) White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
( Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur)

Other major sports venues

All England
England
Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club The Championship Course
The Championship Course
(rowing) Crystal Palace National Sports Centre Lord's
Lord's
(cricket) Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park The Oval
The Oval
(cricket) Twickenham Stadium
Twickenham Stadium
(rugby)

Theatres

Adelphi Apollo Victoria Coliseum Criterion Dominion Lyceum Old Vic Palladium Royal National Theatre Royal Opera House Shakespeare's Globe Theatre Royal, Drury Lane Theatre Royal Haymarket Vaudeville

Other

Alexandra Palace Brixton
Brixton
Academy ExCeL Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Apollo O2 Arena Royal Albert Hall Royal Festival Hall Wembley
Wembley
Arena

Government

10 Downing Street Admiralty Arch Bank of England City Hall County Hall Guildhall Horse Guards Mansion House National Archives Old Bailey Palace of Westminster Royal Courts of Justice Scotland
Scotland
Yard SIS Building

Museums and galleries

British Museum Cutty Sark Golden Hinde HMS Belfast Imperial War Museum Madame Tussauds Museum of London National Gallery National Maritime Museum Natural History Museum Royal Academy of Arts Royal Observatory Science Museum Tate Britain Tate Modern Tower of London Victoria and Albert Museum

Places of worship

All Hallows-by-the-Tower BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Bevis Marks Synagogue Methodist Central Hall Regent's Park
Regent's Park
Mosque St Martin-in-the-Fields St Mary-le-Bow St Paul's Cathedral Southwark
Southwark
Cathedral Westminster
Westminster
Abbey Westminster
Westminster
Cathedral

Retailing

Shops

Fortnum & Mason Hamleys Harrods Liberty Peter Jones Selfridges

Shopping centres and markets

Borough Market Brent Cross Burlington Arcade Kensington
Kensington
Arcade Leadenhall Market The Mall Wood Green One New Change Petticoat Lane Market Royal Exchange Westfield London Westfield Stratford City

Royal buildings

Partly occupied by the Royal Family

Buckingham Palace Clarence House Kensington
Kensington
Palace St James's Palace

Unoccupied

Banqueting House Hampton Court Palace Kew
Kew
Palace The Queen's Gallery Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace

Skyscrapers

Broadgate Tower 1 Canada
Canada
Square 8 Canada
Canada
Square 25 Canada
Canada
Square 1 Churchill Place 20 Fenchurch Street Heron Tower Leadenhall Building The Shard St George Wharf Tower 30 St Mary Axe Tower 42

Structures

Albert Memorial ArcelorMittal Orbit Big Ben Cleopatra's Needle Crystal Palace transmitting station London
London
Eye London
London
Wall Marble Arch The Monument Nelson's Column Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
("Eros") Thames Barrier Wellington Arch

Transport

City Airport Heathrow Airport Charing Cross
Charing Cross
station Clapham
Clapham
Junction station Euston station King's Cross station Liverpool Street station London Bridge
London Bridge
station Paddington
Paddington
station St Pancras station Stratford station Victoria station Waterloo station Victoria Coach Station Emirates Air Line cable car

Other

Barbican Estate Battersea
Battersea
Power Station British Library BT Tower Kew
Kew
Gardens Lambeth
Lambeth
Palace Lloyd's building London
London
Zoo Oxo Tower St Bartholomew's Hospital Smithfield Market Somerset House

Parks

Royal Parks

Bushy Park Green Park Greenwich
Greenwich
Park Hampton Court Park Hyde Park Kensington
Kensington
Gardens Regent's Park Richmond Park St. James's Park

Other

Battersea
Battersea
Park Burgess Park Clapham
Clapham
Common College Green Epping Forest Finsbury Park Gunnersbury
Gunnersbury
Park Hampstead
Hampstead
Heath Holland Park Mitcham Common Osterley Park Trent Park Victoria Park Wandsworth
Wandsworth
Common Wimbledon Common

Squares and public spaces

Covent Garden Horse Guards Parade Leicester Square Oxford Circus Parliament Square Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus Sloane Square Trafalgar Square

Streets

Aldwych Baker Street Bishopsgate Bond Street Carnaby Street Chancery Lane Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Road Cheapside Cornhill Denmark
Denmark
Street Fenchurch Street Fleet Street Haymarket Jermyn Street Kensington
Kensington
High Street King's Road Lombard Street The Mall Oxford Street Park Lane Piccadilly Portobello Road Regent Street Shaftesbury Avenue Sloane Street Strand Tottenham
Tottenham
Court Road Victoria Embankment Whitehall

v t e

Areas of London

Central activities zone

Bloomsbury City of London
City of London
wards Holborn Marylebone Mayfair Paddington Pimlico Soho Southwark Vauxhall Waterloo Westminster

Town centre network

International

Belgravia Knightsbridge West End

Metropolitan

Bromley Croydon Ealing Harrow Hounslow Ilford Kingston Romford Shepherd's Bush Stratford Sutton Uxbridge Wood Green

Major

Angel Barking Bexleyheath Brixton Camden Town Canary Wharf Catford Chiswick Clapham
Clapham
Junction Dalston East Ham Edgware Eltham Enfield Town Fulham Hammersmith Holloway Nags Head Kensington
Kensington
High Street Kilburn King's Road
King's Road
East Lewisham Orpington Peckham Putney Queensway/Westbourne Grove Richmond Southall Streatham Tooting Walthamstow Wandsworth Wembley Whitechapel Wimbledon Woolwich

Districts (principal)

Acton Beckenham Bethnal Green Brentford Camberwell Canada
Canada
Water Carshalton Chadwell Heath Chingford Clapham Crystal Palace Coulsdon Cricklewood Dagenham Deptford Dulwich Edmonton Elephant and Castle Erith Feltham Finchley Forest Gate Forest Hill Golders Green Greenwich Harlesden Hampstead Harringay Hayes (Hillingdon) Hendon Hornchurch Kentish Town Leyton Mill Hill Mitcham Morden Muswell Hill New Cross New Malden Northwood Notting Hill Penge Pinner Purley Ruislip Sidcup Southgate South Norwood Stanmore Stoke Newington Surbiton Sydenham Teddington Thamesmead Tolworth Tulse Hill Twickenham Upminster Upper Norwood Wanstead Wealdstone Welling West Ham West Hampstead West Norwood Willesden
Willesden
Green Woodford

Neighbourhoods (principal)

Abbey Wood Alperton Anerley Barnes Barnsbury Battersea Beckton Bedford
Bedford
Park Bermondsey Bow Brent Cross Brockley Canonbury Charlton Chelsea Chessington Chipping Barnet Chislehurst Clerkenwell Elmers End Gidea Park Greenford Gunnersbury Hackbridge Hackney Ham Hampton Hanwell Hanworth Harold Wood Highams Park Highbury Highgate Hillingdon Hook Holloway Hoxton Ickenham Isle of Dogs Isleworth Islington Kensal Green Kew Lambeth Manor Park Mortlake Neasden Northolt Nunhead Plaistow (Newham) Poplar Roehampton Rotherhithe Seven Kings Seven Sisters Shoreditch Stamford Hill Stepney St Helier Surrey
Surrey
Quays Tottenham Upper Clapton Walworth Wapping West Drayton Worcester Park Yiewsley

Lists of areas by borough

Barking
Barking
and Dagenham Barnet Bexley Brent Bromley Camden Croydon Ealing Enfield Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and Fulham Haringey Harrow Havering Hillingdon Hounslow Islington Kensington
Kensington
and Chelsea Kingston upon Thames Lambeth Lewisham Merton Newham Redbridge Richmond upon Thames Southwark Sutton Tower Hamlets Waltham Forest Wandsworth Westminster

Fictional

Canley (borough) (The Bill: TV soap) Charnham (suburb) (Family Affairs: TV soap) Gasforth (town) (The Thin Blue Line: TV series) London
London
Below (magical realm) (Neverwhere: TV series, novel) Walford
Walford
(borough) (EastEnders: TV soap)

The London Plan
London Plan
2011, Annex Two: London's Town Centre Network – Greater London
Greater London
Authority

v t e

Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

Other articles related to London

Government and Geography

v t e

Governance of Greater London

City of London London

Regional

Greater London
Greater London
Authority London
London
Assembly Mayor of London London
London
Councils

Boroughs

Barking
Barking
and Dagenham Barnet Bexley Brent Bromley Camden Croydon Ealing Enfield Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and Fulham Haringey Harrow Havering Hillingdon Hounslow Islington Kensington
Kensington
and Chelsea Kingston upon Thames Lambeth Lewisham Merton Newham Redbridge Richmond upon Thames Southwark Sutton Tower Hamlets Waltham Forest Wandsworth Westminster

Ceremonial

Lord Mayor of the City of London Lord Lieutenant of Greater London High Sheriff of Greater London

Historical

Metropolitan Board of Works
Metropolitan Board of Works
(MBW) 1855–1889 London County Council
London County Council
(LCC) 1889–1965 Greater London
Greater London
Council (GLC) 1965–1986 Leaders Sheriffs of the City of London

v t e

Transport in London

Companies and organisations

Transport for London

Air Line Buses

East London
London
Transit Night buses

Coach station Cycle hire Dial-a-Ride London
London
Rail

Docklands Light Railway London
London
Overground TfL Rail Tramlink Crossrail
Crossrail
(under construction) Crossrail
Crossrail
2 (proposed)

London
London
River Services London
London
Streets London
London
Underground

Night Tube

Source London Taxi and Private Hire office

Bus operators

Abellio Arriva East Herts & Essex Arriva London Arriva Southern Counties CT Plus Go-Ahead London London
London
Sovereign London
London
United Metrobus Metroline Quality Line Stagecoach London Tower Transit Uno

River operators

Bateaux London City Cruises Crown River Cruises Livett's Launches Lower Thames and Medway
Medway
Passenger Boat Company Thames Clippers Thames Executive Charters Thames River Services Westminster
Westminster
Passenger Services Association

Train operators

Arriva Rail London c2c Caledonian Sleeper Chiltern Railways East Midlands Trains Eurostar Govia Thameslink
Thameslink
Railway

Gatwick Express Great Northern Southern Thameslink

Grand Central Great Western Railway Greater Anglia

Stansted Express

Heathrow Connect Heathrow Express Hull Trains London
London
Northwestern Railway South Western Railway Southeastern TfL Rail Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
(West Coast) Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
East Coast

Other

Global Infrastructure Partners Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
Holdings Port of London
Port of London
Authority

Airports

Within London

City Heathrow Private: Biggin Hill Damyns Hall London
London
Heliport Military: Northolt

Outside London

Gatwick Luton Southend Stansted Proposed: Thames Estuary

Major stations

Central area

Bank/Monument Baker Street Blackfriars Bond Street Cannon Street Charing Cross City Thameslink Euston Farringdon Fenchurch Street King's Cross Liverpool Street London
London
Bridge Marylebone Moorgate Oxford Circus Paddington St Pancras International Tottenham
Tottenham
Court Road Vauxhall Victoria Waterloo Waterloo East Westminster

Other

Barking Bromley
Bromley
South Canary Wharf Clapham
Clapham
Junction Ealing
Ealing
Broadway East Croydon Finsbury Park Heathrow Stations Highbury
Highbury
& Islington Ilford Lewisham London
London
City Airport Orpington Putney Richmond Romford Stratford Surbiton Sutton Wimbledon

Roads

Motorways

M1 M4 M11 M25 London
London
Orbital Former: M41 (West Cross Route) A40(M) (Westway) A102(M) (East Cross Route)

Ring roads

London
London
Inner Ring Road London
London
Ringways North Circular Road South Circular Road

Charging

Congestion charge Low emission zone

Ticketing

Freedom Pass Oyster card Travelcard

Other

History of public transport authorities London
London
Transport Museum Port of London Regent's Canal Cycle routes Thameslink Trams Trolleybuses Windsor House

Former BR sectors

British Rail InterCity Network SouthEast

Category Commons WikiProject

v t e

London
London
commuter belt

Home counties

Berkshire Buckinghamshire Essex Hertfordshire Kent Surrey

Urban areas

Greater London
Greater London
Built-up Area Reading/ Wokingham
Wokingham
Urban Area Southend Urban Area Farnborough/ Aldershot
Aldershot
Built-up Area Luton/ Dunstable
Dunstable
Urban Area High Wycombe
High Wycombe
Urban Area Medway
Medway
Towns Urban Area

Cities and towns (100k+)

Chelmsford Crawley Guildford High Wycombe London Luton Maidstone Reading Slough Southend-on-Sea

Towns (25k–99k)

Aldershot Ashford, Surrey Aylesbury Basildon Basingstoke Billericay Bishop's Stortford Borehamwood Bracknell Brentwood Burgess Hill Camberley Canvey Island Chatham Cheshunt Dartford Dunstable Epsom Ewell Earley Farnborough Farnham Fleet Gillingham Gravesend Grays Harlow Harpenden Hatfield Hemel Hempstead Horsham Hitchin Leighton Buzzard Letchworth Loughton Maidenhead Rayleigh Redhill Rochester Royal Tunbridge Wells Sittingbourne St Albans Stevenage Strood Sunbury-on-Thames Tonbridge Ware Watford Welwyn Garden City Wickford Windsor Woking Wokingham Woodley

Towns (10k–25k)

Addlestone Amersham Ashtead Baldock Beaconsfield Berkhamsted Broxbourne Buckhurst Hill Bushey Chertsey Chesham Chigwell Corringham Croxley Green Dorking East Grinstead East Malling Englefield Green Epping Frimley Frogmore Godalming Hadleigh Haywards Heath Hertford Hoddesdon Horley Houghton Regis Knaphill Marlow Potters Bar Reigate Rickmansworth Rochford Sandhurst Sevenoaks Snodland Shepperton South Benfleet Southborough, Kent Staines-upon-Thames Stanford-le-Hope Stanwell Swanley Thundersley Tilbury Tring Waltham Abbey Waltham Cross Yateley

Education

v t e

Universities and colleges in London

Education in London

Universities

University of London

Birkbeck Central School of Speech and Drama City Courtauld Institute of Art Goldsmiths Heythrop College Institute of Cancer Research King's College London London
London
Business School London
London
School of Economics London
London
School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Queen Mary Royal Academy of Music Royal Holloway Royal Veterinary College School of Advanced Study St George's SOAS University College London

Other

University of the Arts London BPP Brunel East London Greenwich Kingston Imperial College London University of Law London
London
Met London
London
South Bank Middlesex Regent's University London Richmond Roehampton Royal College of Art St Mary's Westminster West London

Other university-level colleges

London
London
School of Journalism New College of the Humanities Pearson College

Further education colleges

Barking
Barking
& Dagenham Barnet & Southgate Bexley Bromley Capel Manor Carshalton City & Islington City Lit City of Westminster Croydon Ealing, Hammersmith
Hammersmith
& West London Fashion Retail Greenwich Haringey, Enfield & North East London Harrow Havering Hillcroft Kensington
Kensington
& Chelsea Kingston Lambeth Lewisham
Lewisham
Southwark Marine Society Mary Ward Morley New City Newham North West London Richmond Adult Richmond upon Thames Sutton South Thames Stanmore Uxbridge Waltham Forest West Thames Westminster
Westminster
Kingsway Workers' Educational Working Men's

Sixth form colleges

Big Creative BSix Christ the King Coulsdon ELAM Haringey Harris Westminster Havering John Ruskin King's London
London
Maths Leyton London
London
Academy of Excellence Newham St Charles St Dominic's St Francis Xavier Sir George Monoux Tech City William Morris Woodhouse

List

London
London
in the European Union

v t e

Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

v t e

Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

Other topics

v t e

World's twenty most populous metropolitan areas

   

1 Tokyo-Yokohama 2 Shanghai 3 Jakarta 4 Delhi 5 Seoul-Incheon

  6 Karachi   7 Guangzhou   8 Beijing   9 Shenzhen   7 Mexico
Mexico
City

11 São Paulo 12 Lagos 13 Mumbai 14 Cairo 15 New York

16 Osaka 17 Moscow 18 Wuhan 19 Chengdu 20 Dhaka

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

v t e

Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
host cities

1896: Athens 1900: Paris 1904: St. Louis 1908: London 1912: Stockholm 1916: None[c1] 1920: Antwerp 1924: Paris 1928: Amsterdam 1932: Los Angeles 1936: Berlin 1940: None[c2] 1944: None[c2] 1948: London 1952: Helsinki 1956: Melbourne 1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Mexico
Mexico
City 1972: Munich 1976: Montreal 1980: Moscow 1984: Los Angeles 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona 1996: Atlanta 2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London 2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

[c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II

v t e

Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
host cities

1930: Hamilton 1934: London 1938: Sydney 1950: Auckland 1954: Vancouver

1958: Cardiff 1962: Perth 1966: Kingston 1970: Edinburgh 1974: Christchurch

1978: Edmonton 1982: Brisbane 1986: Edinburgh 1990: Auckland 1994: Victoria

1998: Kuala Lumpur 2002: Manchester 2006: Melbourne 2010: Delhi 2014: Glasgow

2018: Gold Coast 2022: Birmingham 2026: TBA

v t e

World Games
World Games
host cities

   

1981: Santa Clara 1985: London 1989: Karlsruhe 1993: The Hague 1997: Lahti

2001: Akita 2005: Duisburg 2009: Kaohsiung 2013: Cali 2017: Wrocław

v t e

Host cities of the IAAF World Championships in Athletics

1983: Helsinki 1987: Rome 1991: Tokyo 1993: Stuttgart 1995: Gothenburg 1997: Athens 1999: Seville 2001: Edmonton 2003: Saint-Denis 2005: Helsinki 2007: Osaka 2009: Berlin 2011: Daegu 2013: Moscow 2015: Beijing 2017: London 2019: Doha 2021: Eugene

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 261467287 LCCN: n79005665 GND: 4074335-4 SUDOC: 027922669 BNF: cb119861367 (data) HDS: 6594 NLA: 35311229 NDL: 0062

.