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Liverpool Street station, also known as London Liverpool Street,[4][5] is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station in the north-eastern corner of the City of London, in the ward of Bishopsgate. It is one of the busiest railway stations in London, serving as the terminus of the West Anglia Main Line
West Anglia Main Line
to Cambridge, the busier Great Eastern Main Line
Great Eastern Main Line
to Norwich, local and regional commuter trains serving east London and destinations in the East of England, and the Stansted Express
Stansted Express
service to Stansted Airport. The station opened in 1874 as a replacement for Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
station as the Great Eastern Railway's main London terminus. By 1895 it had the largest number of platforms on any terminal railway station in London. During the First World War, an air raid on the station in 1917 led to 162 deaths. In the build-up to the Second World War, the station served as the entry point for thousands of child refugees arriving in London as part of the Kindertransport
Kindertransport
rescue mission. The station was damaged by the 1993 Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
bombing, and during the 7 July 2005 terrorist attacks in the city seven passengers were killed when a bomb exploded aboard an Underground train just after it had departed from Liverpool Street. Liverpool Street was built as a dual-level station with provision for the Underground. A tube station opened in 1875 for the Metropolitan Railway, and the station today is served by the Central, Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines, and is in fare zone 1.

Contents

1 Main line station

1.1 Services 1.2 History

1.2.1 A new terminus for the City (1875) 1.2.2 Expansion (1895) 1.2.3 First World War and memorials (1917–1922) 1.2.4 "Big Four" (1923–1945) 1.2.5 World War II 1.2.6 Nationalisation (1946–91) 1.2.7 Recent history and privatisation (1991–present)

2 Underground station

2.1 Services 2.2 History

3 London Post Office Railway
London Post Office Railway
station 4 Future developments

4.1 Crossrail 4.2 London Underground

5 Cultural references 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Main line station[edit] Services[edit] Liverpool Street is the third-busiest railway station in the United Kingdom after Waterloo and Victoria, both also in London.[6] It served over 63.6 million passenger entries and exits in 2014–15 and is a popular destination for commuters; a report in 2015 ranked the route into Liverpool Street as the eighth busiest in London, running around 3.9% over capacity.[7] It is managed directly by Network Rail.[8] Trains depart from Liverpool Street main-line station for destinations across the east of England, including Norwich, Southminster, Ipswich, Clacton-on-Sea, Colchester, Chelmsford, Southend Victoria, Cambridge, Harlow Town, Hertford East, and many suburban stations in north and east London, Essex
Essex
and Hertfordshire. A few daily express trains to Harwich International provide a connection with the Dutchflyer
Dutchflyer
ferry to Hook of Holland. Stansted Express
Stansted Express
trains provide a link to Stansted Airport and Southend Victoria-bound services stop at Southend Airport.[9] Most passenger services on the Great Eastern Main Line
Great Eastern Main Line
are operated by Greater Anglia. Since 2015, the Shenfield "metro" service has been controlled by TfL Rail[10] and the Lea Valley Lines
Lea Valley Lines
to Enfield Town, Cheshunt (via Seven Sisters) and Chingford are operated by London Overground. A small number of late-evening and weekend services operated by c2c run via Barking.[11] The station is split into two-halves: the "west" side for the Lea Valley Lines
Lea Valley Lines
services and the "east" side for services via Stratford.[12] The typical off-peak weekday service pattern from Liverpool Street is:

Operator Line Intermediate stations Destination Rolling stock Frequency

TfL Rail GEML Stratford – Maryland – Forest Gate – Manor Park – Ilford – Seven Kings – Goodmayes – Chadwell Heath – Romford – Gidea Park – Harold Wood – Brentwood Shenfield Class 315,[13] Class 345[14] 6 per hour

Greater Anglia GEML Stratford – Shenfield – Billericay – Wickford – Rayleigh – Hockley – Rochford – Southend Airport – Prittlewell Southend Victoria Class 321[15] 2 per hour

Greater Anglia GEML Stratford – Romford – Shenfield – Billericay – Wickford – Rayleigh – Hockley – Rochford – Southend Airport – Prittlewell Southend Victoria Class 321[15] 1 per hour

Greater Anglia GEML Colchester – Manningtree – Ipswich – Diss Norwich Class 90[16] + Mark 3 Coaching Stock[16] 1 per hour

Greater Anglia GEML Stratford – Chelmsford – Colchester – Manningtree – Ipswich – Stowmarket – Diss Norwich Class 90 + Mark 3 Coaching Stock[16] 1 per hour

Greater Anglia GEML Stratford – Shenfield – Chelmsford – Hatfield Peverel – Witham – Kelvedon – Marks Tey – Colchester – Manningtree Ipswich Class 321,[15] Class 360 1 per hour

Greater Anglia GEML Stratford – Shenfield – Ingatestone – Chelmsford – Witham – Colchester – Wivenhoe – Thorpe-le-Soken Clacton-on-Sea Class 321,[15] Class 360 1 per hour

Greater Anglia GEML Stratford – Romford – Shenfield – Ingatestone – Chelmsford – Witham – Kelvedon – Marks Tey – Colchester Colchester Town Class 321,[15] Class 360 1 per hour

Greater Anglia GEML Stratford – Shenfield – Ingatestone – Chelmsford – Witham – White Notley – Cressing – Braintree Freeport Braintree Class 321[15] 1 per hour

London Overground WAML Bethnal Green – Hackney Downs – Clapton – St James Street – Walthamstow Central – Wood Street – Highams Park Chingford Class 315, Class 317[17] 4 per hour

London Overground WAML Bethnal Green – Cambridge
Cambridge
Heath – London Fields – Hackney Downs – Rectory Road – Stoke Newington – Stamford Hill – Seven Sisters – Bruce Grove – White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
– Silver Street – Edmonton Green – Southbury – Turkey Street – Theobald Grove Cheshunt Class 315, Class 317[17] 2 per hour

London Overground WAML Bethnal Green – Cambridge
Cambridge
Heath – London Fields – Hackney Downs – Rectory Road – Stoke Newington – Stamford Hill – Seven Sisters – Bruce Grove – White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
– Silver Street – Edmonton Green – Bush Hill Park Enfield Town Class 315, Class 317[17] 2 per hour

Greater Anglia/Stansted Express WAML Tottenham Hale – Bishops Stortford Stansted Airport Class 379[16] 2 per hour

Greater Anglia/Stansted Express WAML Tottenham Hale – Harlow Town – Stansted Mountfitchet (hourly) Stansted Airport Class 379[16] 2 per hour

Greater Anglia WAML Hackney Downs – Tottenham Hale – Ponders End – Brimsdown – Enfield Lock – Waltham Cross – Cheshunt – Broxbourne – Rye House – St Margarets – Ware Hertford East Class 317[18] 2 per hour

Greater Anglia WAML Tottenham Hale – Cheshunt – Broxbourne – Harlow Town – Sawbridgeworth – Bishops Stortford – Audley End – Whittlesford Parkway Cambridge Class 317, Class 379[18] 1 per hour

Greater Anglia WAML Tottenham Hale – Cheshunt – Broxbourne – Roydon – Harlow Town – Harlow Mill – Sawbridgeworth – Bishops Stortford – Stansted Mountfitchet – Elsenham – Newport – Audley End – Great Chesterford – Whittlesford Parkway – Shelford Cambridge
Cambridge
North Class 317, Class 379[18] 1 per hour

History[edit] A new terminus for the City (1875)[edit]

Plan of Liverpool Street and Broad Street (c.1888)

Liverpool Street station
Liverpool Street station
was built as the new London terminus of the Great Eastern Railway
Great Eastern Railway
(GER) which served Norwich
Norwich
and King's Lynn.[19] The GER had been formed from the merger of several railway companies, inheriting Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
as its London terminus. Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
was inadequate for the company's passenger traffic; its Shoreditch location was in the heart of one of the poorest slums in London and hence badly situated for the City of London
City of London
commuters the company wanted to attract.[20] Consequently, the GER planned a more central station.[21][22] In 1865, plans included a circa 1-mile (1.6 km) long line branching from the main line east of the company's existing terminus in Shoreditch, and a new station at Liverpool Street as the main terminus, with Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
station to be used for freight traffic. The station at Liverpool Street was to be built for the use of the GER and of the East London Railway
East London Railway
on two levels, with the underground East London line around 37 ft (11 m) below this, and the GER tracks supported on brick arches. The station was planned to be around 630 by 200 ft (192 by 61 m) in area, with its main façade onto Liverpool Street and an additional entrance on Bishopsgate-Street (now called Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
and forming part of the A10). The main train shed was to be a two-span wood construction with a central void providing light and ventilation to the lower station, and the station buildings were to be in an Italianate
Italianate
style to the designs of the GER's architect.[21] The line and station construction were authorised by the Great Eastern Railway (Metropolitan Station and Railways) Act 1864.[23][24] The station was built on a 10 acres (4.0 ha) site previously occupied by the Bethlem Royal Hospital, adjacent to Broad Street station, west of Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
and facing onto Liverpool Street to the south. The development land was compulsorily purchased, displacing around 3,000 residents of the parish of St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate.[25] Around 7,000 people living in tenements around Shoreditch
Shoreditch
were evicted to complete the line towards Liverpool Street, while the City of London Theatre and City of London
City of London
Gasworks were both demolished.[26] To manage the disruption caused by rehousing, the company was required by the 1864 Act to run daily low-cost workmen's trains from the station.[23]

Original trainshed cross-section (1875)

The station was designed by GER engineer Edward Wilson and built by Lucas Brothers; the roof was designed and constructed by the Fairburn Engineering Company.[25] The overall design was approximately Gothic, built using stock bricks and bath stone dressings. The building incorporated booking offices as well as the company offices of the GER, including chairman's, board, committee, secretary and engineers' rooms. The roof was spanned by four wrought iron spans, two central spans of 109 ft (33 m) and outer spans of 46 and 44 ft, 730 ft (220 m) in length over the eastern main lines, and 450 ft (140 m) long over the local platforms;[27] the station had 10 platforms, two of which were used for main-line trains and the remainder for suburban trains.[28]

Liverpool Street station, west elevation (1896)

The station was built with a connection to the sub-surface Metropolitan Railway, with the platform sunk below ground level; consequently there are considerable gradients leaving the station.[29] The Metropolitan Railway
Metropolitan Railway
used the station as a terminus from 1 February 1875 until 11 July 1875; their own underground station opened on 12 July 1875.[30][31] Local trains began serving the partially completed station from 2 October 1874,[22] and it was fully opened on 1 November 1875,[32] at a final cost of over £2 million.[33] The original City terminus at Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
closed to passengers and was converted for use as a goods station from 1881. This continued until it was destroyed by fire in 1964.[34] The Great Eastern Hotel adjoining the new Liverpool Street station opened in May 1884. It was designed by Charles Barry, Jr.
Charles Barry, Jr.
(son of the celebrated architect Charles Barry
Charles Barry
who designed the Houses of Parliament). Upon opening, it was the only hotel in the City of London. An extension called the Abercon Rooms was built in 1901, designed by Colonel Robert William Edis. The hotel includes the Hamilton Rooms, named after former GER chairman Lord Claud Hamilton.[35] Expansion (1895)[edit]

Ground plan of expanded station (1895). At the time, Liverpool Street had the largest number of platforms of any London terminus station.

Although initially viewed as an expensive white elephant,[36] within 10 years the station was working at capacity (about 600 trains per day) and the GER was acquiring land to the east of the station for expansion.[33] An Act of Parliament was obtained in 1888 and work started in 1890 on the eastward expansion of Liverpool Street by adding eight new tracks and platforms.[32][37] This gave the station the most platforms of any London terminus until Victoria station was expanded in 1908.[38] The main station was extended about 230 ft (70 m) eastwards; additional shops and offices were constructed east of the new train shed up to the parish boundary with Bishopsgate-Street Without.[39] A new roof was built over the new construction.[40][41] The outer wall was constructed with Staffordshire blue brick
Staffordshire blue brick
and Ruabon bricks.[42] The four train shed roofs were carried out by Messrs. Handyside and Co., supervised by a Mr Sherlock, the resident engineer; all the foundations, earthwork and brickwork were carried out by Mowlem
Mowlem
& Co. Electric power (for lighting) was supplied from an engine house north of the station.[43] Additional civil works included three iron bridges carrying road traffic over the railway on Skinner, Primrose and Worship Streets.[44] The bridge ironwork was supplied and erected by the Horseley Company.[45][46][47] John Wilson was chief engineer, with W. N. Ashbee
W. N. Ashbee
as architect.[32] As part of the works, the GER was obliged by Parliament to rehouse all tenants displaced by the works, with 137 put into existing property and the remaining 600 into tenements constructed at the company's expense.[48] By the turn of the 20th century, Liverpool Street had one of the most extensive suburban rail services in London, including branches to Southend Victoria and Woodford, and was one of the busiest in the world. In 1912, around 200,000 passengers used the station daily on around 1,000 separate trains.[49] First World War and memorials (1917–1922)[edit]

The 1922 Great Eastern Railway
Great Eastern Railway
War Memorial

The first World War I
World War I
air raid on London, Operation Turkenkreuz, took place on 13 June 1917, when 20 Gotha G.IV
Gotha G.IV
bombers attacked the capital. The raid struck a number of sites including Liverpool Street. Seven tons of explosives were dropped on the station, killing 162 people and injuring 432.[50][51] Three bombs hit the station, of which two exploded, having fallen through the train shed roof, near to two trains, causing multiple fatalities.[52] It was the deadliest single raid on Britain during the war.[53] Over 1,000 GER employees who died during the war were honoured on a large marble memorial installed in the booking hall, unveiled on 22 June 1922 by Sir Henry Wilson. On his return home from the unveiling ceremony, Wilson was assassinated by two Irish Republican Army members. He was commemorated by a memorial plaque adjoining the GER monument, unveiled one month after his death.[54][55] The GER memorial was relocated during the modification of the station and now incorporates both the Wilson and Fryatt memorials, as well as a number of railway related architectural elements salvaged from demolished buildings.[35] The station also has a plaque commemorating mariner Charles Fryatt
Charles Fryatt
who was executed in 1916 for ramming a German U-boat with the GER steamer SS Brussels.[35][56] "Big Four" (1923–1945)[edit] By the early 1900s, the success of deep-bore electric trains on the Underground suggested that local services out of London could also be electrified. Following the war, the GER needed more capacity out of Liverpool Street as it was at capacity (serving almost 230,000 passengers daily in 1921), but they could not afford electrification.[49] They considered high powered and high tractive steam locomotives including the GER Class A55
GER Class A55
as a possible alternative, but these were rejected because of high track loadings.[57] An alternative scheme was introduced, using a combination of automatic signalling and modifications to the layout at Liverpool Street. The station introduced coaling, watering, and other maintenance facilities directly at the station, as well as separate engine bays and a modified track and station layout that reduced turnaround times and increased productivity.[57][58] Services began on 2 July 1920 with trains to Chingford and Enfield running every 10 minutes. The cost of the modifications was £80,000 compared to an estimated £3 million for electrification.[59] The service was officially called the Intensive Service (as it allowed a 50% increase in capacity on peak services), but became popularly known as the Jazz Service.[49] It lasted until the General Strike of 1926, following which services generally declined.[60] The GER amalgamated with several other railways to form the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) as part of the reorganisation of railway companies in 1923. Liverpool Street came under ownership of the LNER, and suffered from a general lack of attention and neglect throughout the 1930s.[61] World War II[edit] Thousands of Jewish refugee children arrived at Liverpool Street in the late 1930s as part of the Kindertransport
Kindertransport
rescue mission to save them in the run up to World War II. The Für Das Kind Kindertransport Memorial sculpture by artist Flor Kent was installed at the station in September 2003 commemorating this event. It consisted of a specialised glass case with original objects and a bronze sculpture of a girl, a direct descendant of a child rescued by Nicholas Winton, who unveiled the work.[62] The objects included in the sculpture began to deteriorate in bad weather,[63] and a replacement bronze memorial, Kindertransport
Kindertransport
– The Arrival by Frank Meisler
Frank Meisler
was installed as a replacement at the main entrance in November 2006.[64] The child statue from the Kent memorial was re-erected separately in 2011.[65] During the war, the station's structure sustained damage from a nearby bomb, particularly the Gothic tower at the main entrance on Liverpool Street and its glass roof.[66] Nationalisation (1946–91)[edit] After the formation of the London Passenger Transport Board
London Passenger Transport Board
in 1933, work to electrify the line from Liverpool Street to Shenfield began in association with the LNER.[67] Progress had been halted by the war but work resumed after the end of hostilities. The line between Liverpool Street and Stratford was electrified from 3 December 1946, and the full electrification of the Shenfield line at 1500V DC was completed by late 1949.[67] At the same time electrification of London Underground services in Essex
Essex
and northeast and east London led to the withdrawal of some services from Liverpool Street, being replaced with LU operations. Electrification continued with the line to Chingford electrified by November 1960.[68]

The split-flap display board, which was replaced in 2007

In 1973 the British Railways Board, London Transport Executive, Greater London Council
Greater London Council
and the Department of the Environment
Department of the Environment
produced a report examining the modernisation of London transport. It recommended high priority given to reconstructing Liverpool Street and Broad Street stations and recommended financing this through property development on the site.[69] Liverpool Street had a number of design and access issues, many of which derived from the 1890 extension which had effectively created two stations on one site, with two concourses linked by walkways, multiple booking halls, and inefficient traffic flows within the station. Additionally the rail infrastructure presented limitations; only seven of the platforms could accommodate 12-carriage trains, and the track exit layout was a bottleneck.[70] In 1975 British Railways announced plans to demolish and redevelop both stations.[71] The proposed demolition met considerable public opposition and prompted a campaign led by the Poet Laureate
Poet Laureate
Sir John Betjeman, leading to a public inquiry from November 1976 to February 1977.[72] The inquiry recommended the western (1875) train shed roof should be retained in new development; consequently it was repaired and reinforced between 1982 and 1984, followed by repairs to the main roof completed in 1987.[73] Initial plans included the widening of the stations' exit by two tracks to make eight, with 22 platforms in a layout similar to that of Waterloo station; the combined Broad Street and Liverpool Street station
Liverpool Street station
was to be at the level of the latter, with relatively low-rise office developments.[74] Poor use of land value caused the development to be reassessed in 1983/4, when it was decided to retain the existing six-road exit throat and 18-platform layout, in combination with resignalling; this resulted in a station confined to the Liverpool Street site, with ground space released for development.[75] In 1985 British Railways signed an agreement with developers Rosehaugh Stanhope and work on the office development, known as Broadgate, began.[76] Railway work included the construction of a short link from the North London Line to the Cambridge
Cambridge
main line, allowing trains which had previously used Broad Street to terminate at Liverpool Street.[77] The station was reconstructed with a single concourse at the head of the station platforms, and entrances from Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
and Liverpool Street, as well as a bus interchange in the south west corner.[78] The Broadgate
Broadgate
development was constructed between 1985 and 1991, with 330,000 m2 (3,600,000 sq ft) of office space on the site of the former Broad Street station and above the Liverpool Street tracks.[79] Proceeds from the Broadgate
Broadgate
development were used to help fund the station modernisation.[80] In 1988, The Arcade above the underground station on the corner of Liverpool Street and Old Broad Street was due to be completely demolished by London Regional Transport and MEPC, who wanted to develop the site into a five-storey block of offices and shops. More than 6,000 people signed a petition to "Save the Arcade", and the historic Victorian building still stands today.[81] The campaign against the development was led by Graham Horwood, who owned an employment agency within the Arcade at the time.[82] In 1989, the first visual display unit-controlled signalling operation on British Rail
British Rail
(known as an Integrated Electronic Control Centre) became operational at Liverpool Street.[83]

Plaque commemorating the opening of the rebuilt station in 1991

The redeveloped Liverpool Street was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
on 5 December 1991.[84] At that time a giant departures board was installed above the concourse; it was one of the last remaining mechanical 'flapper' display boards at a British railway station until its replacement in November 2007.[85] Recent history and privatisation (1991–present)[edit]

A plaque commemorating the twinning of Liverpool Street and Amsterdam Centraal stations

In 1991, an additional entrance was constructed on the east side of Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
with a subway under the road.[86] The station was "twinned" with Amsterdam Centraal railway station
Amsterdam Centraal railway station
on 2 December 1993, with a plaque marking this close to the entrance to the Underground station.[87] The station was badly damaged on 24 April 1993 by the Bishopsgate bombing and was temporarily closed as a result.[88][89] About £250,000 of damage was caused to the station, primarily to the glass roof. The station re-opened on 26 April 1993.[90][91] In 2013, during excavation work for the Crossrail
Crossrail
project, a 2 acres (0.81 ha) mass burial ground dating from the 17th century was uncovered a few feet beneath the surface at Liverpool Street, the so-called Bedlam burial ground or New Churchyard. It contained the remains of several hundred people and it is thought that the interments were of a wide variety of people, including plague victims, prisoners and unclaimed corpses.[92] A 16th century gold coin, thought to have been used as a sequin or pendant, was also found.[93] In early 2015 full scale excavation of the burials began, then estimated at around 3,000 interments.[94] In advance of the full opening of Crossrail
Crossrail
in 2019, precursor operator TfL Rail
TfL Rail
took over from Greater Anglia the Liverpool Street-Shenfield stopping "metro" service from 2015.[10] At the same time, services on the Lea Valley Lines
Lea Valley Lines
out of Liverpool Street to Enfield Town, Cheshunt (via Seven Sisters) and Chingford transferred to London Overground.[95]

Underground station[edit]

Liverpool Street

Entrance from the main concourse at Liverpool Street

Location Bishopsgate

Local authority City of London

Managed by London Underground

Owner Transport for London

Number of platforms 4

Accessible Yes(Sub-surface eastbound platform only)[96]

Fare zone 1

Cycle parking Yes (platform 10 & external)[97]

London Underground
London Underground
annual entry and exit

2013 67.89 million[98]

2014 73.66 million[98]

2015 73.26 million[98]

2016 71.61 million[98]

Key dates

1 February 1875[99] Opened (using main line)

12 July 1875[99] Opened as Bishopsgate

1 November 1909[32] Renamed Liverpool Street

28 July 1912[100] Central line (London Underground)
Central line (London Underground)
opened (terminus)

4 December 1946 Central line extended (through)

Other information

Lists of stations

DLR Underground National Rail Tramlink

External links

TfL station info page

London Transport portal

Services[edit] Liverpool Street Underground station is served by the Central, Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines, and is the sixth-busiest on the London Underground
London Underground
network.[101] In common with other tube stations serving Central London termini, it is in fare zone 1. There is no wheelchair access to the tube lines.[102] History[edit] Liverpool Street had been designed to integrate with the expanding London Underground
London Underground
network, and served as the new terminus for the Metropolitan Railway
Metropolitan Railway
which extended east from Moorgate.[103] From 1874 to 1875 the Metropolitan Railway
Metropolitan Railway
used the Liverpool Street main-line station as a terminus; on 12 July 1875 the company opened their own station, initially called Bishopsgate.[32] Subsurface platforms 1 and 2, were opened in 1875.[104] A west-facing bay platform, Platform 3, was formerly located to the south of Platform 2.[105] This was used by terminating Metropolitan line
Metropolitan line
trains from the west.[106] It was in use by 1896,[107] and was still in use in 1974.[108] The platform was redundant by 1994.[109][106] The Metropolitan Railway
Metropolitan Railway
connection was closed in 1904[19] and the station was renamed Liverpool Street on 1 November 1909.[32][a] In 1912 Liverpool Street became the new terminus of the Central London Railway after the completion of an extension project from Bank.[111] The deep-level Central line platforms 4 and 5 opened on 28 July 1912 as the eastern terminus of the Central London Railway.[112][113] The tube station was one of the first to use the Moore Vacuum Tube, a new system of lighting that produced three times as much as a normal bulb.[114] The tube station became one of the principal shelters during the Blitz. Following heavy raids on the East End on 7 September 1940, many sought refuge underground, and staff opened the gates to everyone at Liverpool Street without asking for tickets. Though technically illegal, it remained the most practical and safe shelter for local residents.[115] On 4 December 1946 the passenger line was extended eastwards as part of the war-delayed London Passenger Transport Board's New Works Programme.[30][116][117] An Underground ticket hall was added in 1951.[111] During the 7 July 2005 terrorist attacks on London, a bomb was exploded aboard an Underground train that had departed Liverpool Street toward Aldgate. Seven passengers were killed.[118] London Post Office Railway
London Post Office Railway
station[edit] The Liverpool Street Post Office Railway station is a disused station that was operated by Royal Mail
Royal Mail
on the London Post Office Railway system. The station is between Mount Pleasant Mail Centre
Mount Pleasant Mail Centre
and Whitechapel Eastern District Post Office, and is situated at the south end of Liverpool Street under the Great Eastern Hotel. It opened in December 1927;[119] lifts on either side of the station as well as chutes enabled the transfer of mail to and from the main station.[37] Two 315-foot (96 m) parcel and letter bag conveyors were connected to platforms 10 and 11 (currently used by Greater Anglia); postal traffic reached 10,000 bags daily in the 1930s, with 690 Post Office services calling.[119] The system was discontinued in 2003.[120] In 2014, a team from the University of Cambridge
Cambridge
began conducting a study in a short, double track section of unused tunnel near the platforms where a newly built tunnel for Crossrail
Crossrail
is situated almost two metres beneath. The study is to establish how the original cast-iron lining sections, which are similar to those used for many miles of railway under London, resist possible deformation and soil movement caused by the developments.[121] Future developments[edit] Crossrail[edit] From 2019, Liverpool Street will accommodate Crossrail, which will be branded as the Elizabeth line, at new underground platforms to the south-west of the existing station building. Trains will run westward towards Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
or Reading via Paddington, and eastward to Abbey Wood or Shenfield via Whitechapel.[122] A new ticket hall with step-free access is under construction next to the Broadgate development, with a pedestrian link via the new platforms to the ticket hall of Moorgate, providing direct access to London Underground's Northern line
Northern line
and the Northern City Line
Northern City Line
at Moorgate. Thus, Liverpool Street will appear on the Tube map
Tube map
as an interchange with Moorgate.[123] The six off-peak trains per hour that currently form the TfL Rail "metro" service from Shenfield will be doubled in frequency and diverted into the Crossrail
Crossrail
tunnel after departing Stratford. Additionally a four train per hour peak main line service will be retained between Gidea Park and Liverpool Street and will continue to run into the existing terminus over the Great Eastern Main Line between Stratford and Liverpool Street. Once Crossrail
Crossrail
opens, platform 18 at the main Liverpool Street station
Liverpool Street station
will be decommissioned to allow platforms 16 and 17 to be extended, enabling them to accommodate longer trains.[124] London Underground[edit] The Central line runs directly below Shoreditch
Shoreditch
High Street station on the London Overground
London Overground
on the East London Line
East London Line
and an interchange has been desired locally in neighboring Shoreditch
Shoreditch
since it opened in 2010. The new platforms would lie between Bethnal Green and Liverpool Street on one of the longest gaps between stations in inner London. Although there would be benefits to this interchange, it was ruled out on grounds of cost, the disruption it would cause to the Central line while being built and because the platforms would be too close to sidings at Liverpool Street and will not be considered until after Crossrail
Crossrail
is fully operational in 2019.[125] Cultural references[edit] Liverpool Street is one of the four railway stations present on the British version of Monopoly, along with King's Cross, Fenchurch Street and Marylebone. All four stations were termini of LNER services when Victor Watson redesigned the game for the British market in 1936.[126] The station has been used several times as the site of fictionalised terrorist attacks: in Andy McNab's novel Dark Winter the station is the target of an attack; in London Under Attack, a 2004 Panorama docu-drama portrayal of a terrorist attack on London using chlorine gas;[127] and the drama Dirty War, (2004) portrayed a suicide terrorist attack using a "dirty bomb" near the Underground station.[128] The station has also been used as a backdrop for a number of other film and television productions, including espionage films Stormbreaker (2006)[129] and Mission Impossible (1996),[130] and crime drama The Shadow Line (2011),[131] as well as the site for staged flash mobs in the film St. Trinian's 2: The Legend of Fritton's Gold (2009),[132] and for a T-Mobile
T-Mobile
advert.[133] H. G. Wells' 1898 novel The War of The Worlds included a chaotic rush to board trains at Liverpool Street as the Martian machines overran military defences in the West End, and described the crushing of people under the wheels of the steam engines.[134] The station is the subject of the poem "Liverpool Street Station" by John Davidson.[135]

THROUGH crystal roofs the sunlight fell, And pencilled beams the gloss renewed On iron rafters balanced well On iron struts; though dimly hued. With smoke o'erlaid, with dust endued. The walls and beams like beryl shone; And dappled light the platforms strewed With yellow foliage of the dawn That withered by the porch of day's divan.

— John Davidson, Fleet Street
Fleet Street
and Other Poems (Extract).[136]

See also[edit]

Liverpool Street signal box

References[edit] Notes

^ An additional, smaller station called Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
(Low Level) existed on the main line just outside of Liverpool Street from 1872 until 1916.[110]

Citations

^ "London and South East" (PDF). National Rail. September 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2009.  ^ "Out of Station Interchanges" (XLS). Transport for London. May 2011. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h i "Station usage estimates". Rail statistics. Office of Rail Regulation.  Please note: Some methodology may vary year on year. ^ "Stations Run by Network Rail". Network Rail. Retrieved 23 August 2009.  ^ "Station facilities for London Liverpool Street". National Rail Enquiries. Retrieved 29 May 2013.  ^ Pigott 2012, p. 6. ^ "Revealed: Britain's most overcrowded train lines". Daily Telegraph. 9 September 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2016.  ^ "London Liverpool Street". Network Rail. Retrieved 2 March 2017.  ^ "London Liverpool Street timetables". Abellio Greater Anglia. Retrieved 26 September 2016.  ^ a b "Clean, reliable and integrated: all change for neglected rail services in London". The Guardian. 29 May 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2016.  ^ "Changes to late evening and Liverpool Street services". c2c. 2007. Archived from the original on 8 October 2007.  ^ Simmons & Biddle 1997, p. 290. ^ Rail Engineer 2016. ^ "First Elizabeth line train comes into service on Liverpool Street line". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 15 August 2017.  ^ a b c d e f "Ten Abellio Greater Anglia Class 321s to be fully refurbished". Abellio Greater Anglia. Retrieved 26 September 2016.  ^ a b c d e "Albelio Greater Anglia / Stansted Express". National Rail Enquiries. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ a b c TfL 2016, p. 4. ^ a b c "Refresh of Class 317/6 trains complete". Abelio Greater Anglia. 10 December 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2016.  ^ a b "History of Liverpool Street station". Network Rail. Archived from the original on 8 April 2013.  ^ Jackson 1984, p. 108. ^ a b The Engineer 1865, p. 266, col. 1. ^ a b "Liverpool Street Station, London". Network Rail
Network Rail
Virtual Archive. Network Rail. July 2012. Archived from the original on 6 May 2015.  ^ a b Kellett 2007, p. 52. ^ Rickards 1864, pp. 954–956. ^ a b Network Rail
Network Rail
2014, p. 2. ^ Jackson 1984, p. 109. ^ The Engineer 1875, p. 403, cols 1 & 2. ^ Campion 1987, pp. 97–98. ^ Burman & Stratton 2014, p. 175. ^ a b Rose 2007. ^ ICE 1987, p. 39. ^ a b c d e f Smith 2001, p. 177. ^ a b Ackworth 1900, pp. 410–411. ^ Smith 2001, p. 176. ^ a b c Network Rail
Network Rail
2014, p. 1. ^ Kellett 2007, p. 64. ^ a b Campion 1987, p. 98. ^ Weinreb et al. 2008, p. 491. ^ The Engineer 1894a, p. 495, col. 2; Plan and cross section. ^ The Engineer 1894a, p. 494. ^ The Engineer 1894b, p. 515, col. 2. ^ The Engineer 1894d, p. 314, col. 2. ^ The Engineer 1894c, p. 560, col. 2. ^ The Engineer 1894b, p. 515, col. 1. ^ The Engineer 1896a, p. 414, col. 3. ^ The Engineer 1896b, p. 188, col. 2. ^ The Engineer 1897, p. 215, col. 3. ^ Jackson 1984, p. 114. ^ a b c Jackson 1984, p. 119. ^ Murphy 2005, p. 66. ^ Sokolski 2004, pp. 19–20. ^ Hanson 2008, pp. 126–127. ^ "First World War – Spotlights on history". National Archives. Retrieved 25 August 2016.  ^ "Sir H. Wilson murdered. Shot on his doorstep. Two Irishmen captured. Running fight in London". The Times. London. 23 June 1922. p. 10.  ^ "Lest We Forget ( The Great Eastern Railway
Great Eastern Railway
Magazine June 1922)". What the papers said – excerpts from the railway press from the 1840s to the 1990s. Institute of Railway Studies and Transport History. p. 131. Archived from the original on 29 September 2002.  ^ "The case of Captain Fryatt". Institute of Railway Studies and Transport History – Railway readings. June 2003. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013.  ^ a b Duffy 2003, 6.1. The Great Eastern Railway
Great Eastern Railway
and the Liverpool Street Station experiment, pp. 73–5. ^ "GER The Last Word in Steam Operated Suburban Train Services". Railway Gazette. 1 October 1920.  ^ Stratton & Trinder 2000, p. 163. ^ Jackson 1984, p. 122. ^ Jackson 1984, p. 123. ^ Rothenberg, Ruth (19 September 2003). " Kindertransport
Kindertransport
statue unveiled". The Jewish Chronicle. London. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016.  ^ " Kindertransport
Kindertransport
monument derailed at Liverpool Street". Jewish Chronicle. 8 December 2005. Archived from the original on 10 November 2016.  ^ "New Kindertransport
Kindertransport
statue installed". The Association of Jewish Refugees. November 2006. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017.  ^ " Kindertransport
Kindertransport
Sculpture". Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum
collections. Retrieved 9 November 2016.  ^ "Liverpool Street Station". 20th Century London. Retrieved 25 August 2016.  ^ a b Duffy 2003, p. 271. ^ Powell 1966, pp. 47–63. ^ Campion 1987, p. 99. ^ Campion 1987, pp. 98–99, sections 6, 9–12. ^ "Window on the World". The Illustrated London News. 263 (2): 22.  ^ Thorne 1978, p. 7. ^ Campion 1987, p. 105-106. ^ Campion 1987, p. 102, sections 20–23. ^ Campion 1987, pp. 106–107, section 37-40. ^ Campion 1987, pp. 106–107, section 40. ^ Campion 1987, p. 107, section 43. ^ Campion 1987, p. 109, Fig. 4. ^ Sutcliffe 2006, pp. 204–5. ^ Campion 1987, p. 97. ^ "Petition addressed to the Lord Mayor, Aldermen and Commons of the City of London, requesting them to do all in their power to preserve the arcade & surrounding buildings at Liverpool Street and to oppose any redevelopment and to endeavour to have these buildings listed as of historic interest for the City and its heritage". Corporation of London Record Office. 1988.  ^ "Liverpool Street Arcade Still Standing... – Tai Chi Chuan". 30 April 2015.  ^ Beady, F.F.; Bartlett, P.J.N. (25–28 September 1989). New generation signalling control centre. International Conference on Main Line Railway Electrification. Institution of Electrical Engineers. pp. 317–321.  ^ "Main line Masterpiece". The Times (64196). London. 6 December 1991. pp. 4, 19.  ^ "Last of the Flapper Boards depart Liverpool Street". Network Media News. 7 November 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2016.  ^ Biddle 2016, p. 180. ^ "The Railway Magazine". 140. IPC. 1994: 13.  ^ "The Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
Bomb: One bomb: pounds 1bn devastation: Man dead after City blast – Two more explosions late last night". The Independent. 25 April 1993.  ^ Webster, Philip; Prynn, Jonathan; Dettmner, Jamie; Ford, Richard (26 April 1993). "Taxpayers foot IRA bomb bill". The Times (64628). p. 1, col. 1.  ^ "Liverpool St. reopens". The Times (64368). 16 April 1993. p. 2.  ^ Bennett, Neil (26 April 1993). "Shattered City defies the bombers". The Times (64628). p. 40.  ^ Blunden, Mark (8 August 2013). " Crossrail
Crossrail
dig unearths ancient burial site under Liverpool Street station". London Evening Standard.  ^ Smith, Hayden (8 August 2013). " Crossrail
Crossrail
project unearths prehistoric workshop and 16th-century burial ground". Metro.  ^ "Plague pit with 3,000 skeletons uncovered at new Liverpool Street station ticket hall". The Daily Telegraph. 9 March 2015.  ^ "TfL Confirms Takeover of West Anglia Rail Services". The Londonist. 19 August 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2016.  ^ "Step free Tube Guide" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 June 2015.  ^ "Liverpool Street Underground Station". Transport for London. Retrieved 25 August 2016.  ^ a b c d "Multi-year station entry-and-exit figures" (XLS). London Underground station passenger usage data. Transport for London. March 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2017.  ^ a b Jackson 1984, p. 112. ^ Jackson 1984, p. 117. ^ "The London Underground
London Underground
really is getting more crowded – here are the 10 busiest Tube stations". City AM. 23 July 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "Standard Tube Map" (PDF). Transport for London. Retrieved 2 October 2016.  ^ Bownes, Green & Mullins 2012, p. 37. ^ Menear 1983, p. 14. ^ Brown, Joe (2015). London Railway Atlas. Hersham: Ian Allan Publishing Limited. pp. 26, 90. ISBN 978 0 7110 3819 6.  ^ a b "Images of former Platform 3 at Liverpool Street underground station".  ^ Ordnance Survey Town Plan London scale 1:1056 dated 1896 ^ London Transport, Timetable Metropolitan Line, 1974 ^ Jacobs (ed), Gerald (1994). Railway Track Diagrams - England South and London Underground. Exeter: Quail Map Company. pp. 44B. ISBN 1 898319 07 3. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Patmore 1987, p. 195. ^ a b Historic England. "Liverpool Street underground station, Bishopgate underground station (502060)". PastScape. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ Menear 1983, p. 41. ^ ICE 1987, p. 40. ^ Long 2010, p. 50. ^ Bownes, Green & Mullins 2012, pp. 155–6. ^ ICE 1987, p. 42. ^ Day & Reed 2008, pp. 146–7. ^ "London Attacks: Liverpool Street". BBC News Channel. BBC News.  ^ a b Jackson 1984, p. 118. ^ Dangerfield, Andy (28 January 2014). "Mail Rail: What is it like on the 'secret' tube". BBC News. Retrieved 3 July 2015.  ^ "Bridging the Knowledge Gap in London's 'Secret Tube'". Cambridge Centre for Smart Infrastructure & Construction. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ "Liverpool Street station". Crossrail. Retrieved 25 August 2016.  ^ "Crossrail, As It May Appear on the Tube Map". The Londonist. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2016.  ^ "Anglia Route Study". Network Rail. p. 34. Archived from the original on 1 January 2017.  ^ Hawkins, John. "Meeting Reports: The East London Line
East London Line
Extension" (PDF). London Underground
London Underground
Railway Society.  ^ Moore 2003, pp. 158–159. ^ "London under attack". BBC News Online. London. 6 May 2004.  ^ "BBC drama to depict 'dirty bomb' in London". The Guardian. 28 July 2004. Retrieved 30 September 2016.  ^ "Stormbreaker". The Guardian. 21 July 2006. Retrieved 30 September 2016.  ^ "Filming on Network Rail
Network Rail
stations and property". Network Rail. Retrieved 30 September 2016.  ^ "The Shadow Line, Episode 4". BBC Two. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2016.  ^ "St Trinian's Liverpool Street station
Liverpool Street station
dance". London Evening Standard. 17 August 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2016.  ^ " T-Mobile
T-Mobile
Commercial Liverpool Street". Network Rail. Retrieved 30 September 2016.  ^ Wells 2015, p. 167. ^ Dow, 354.2, p. 108. ^ Davidson 1909, pp. 43–58.

Periodicals

"New station for the Great Eastern" (PDF). The Engineer. 20. 27 October 1865.  " Great Eastern Railway
Great Eastern Railway
Company's new station at Liverpool Street" (PDF). The Engineer. 39. 11 June 1875.  "The Enlargement of Liverpool-Street Station, Great Eastern Railway". The Engineer. 

"No.I" (PDF). 77. 8 June 1894a: 493–495.  "No.II" (PDF). 77. 15 June 1894b: 515–516.  "No.III" (PDF). 77. 29 June 1894: 559–560.  "No.IV" (PDF). 78. 12 October 1894: 313–315.  "No.V" (PDF). 78. 19 October 1894: 335–337.  "Bridge at Worship Street" (PDF). 81. 24 April 1896: 414–416.  "Extension of Primrose Street bridge" (PDF). 82. 21 August 1896: 186–188, illus. p. 183.  "Extension of Skinner Street bridge" (PDF). 83. 26 February 1897: 214–215; illus. pp. 222–223. 

Architectural mini guide – Liverpool Street (PDF) (Report). Network Rail. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2014.  "Signalling Crossrail". Rail Engineer. 8 January 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2016.  Pigott, Nick, ed. (June 2012). "Waterloo still London's busiest station". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 158 no. 1334. Horncastle, Lincs: Mortons Media Group.  Finance and Policy Committee : London Overground
London Overground
Train Operating Concession (PDF) (Report). Transport for London. 2 March 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 

Books

Ackworth, W.M. (1900). The Railways of England (5th. ed.). London: John Murray.  Biddle, Gordon (2016). Railways in the Landscape. Casemate Publishers. ISBN 978-1-473-86237-1.  Bownes, David; Green, Oliver; Mullins, Sam (2012). Underground : How the Tube Shaped London. Allen Lane. ISBN 978-1-846-14462-2.  Burman, Peter; Stratton, Michael (2014). Conserving the Railway Heritage. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-74493-8.  Campion, R.J. (1987). The Redevelopment of Liverpool Street Station. Urban Railways and the Civil Engineer: Conference Proceedings. Thomas Telford. ISBN 9780727713377.  Davidson, John (1909). Fleet Street
Fleet Street
and Other Poems.  Day, John R.; Reed, John (2008) [1963]. The Story of London's Underground (10th ed.). Harrow: Capital Transport. ISBN 978-1-85414-316-7.  Dow, Andrew (ed.). Dow's Dictionary of Railway Quotations.  Duffy, Michael C. (2003). Electric Railways 1880–1990. History of Technology Series. The Institute of Engineering and Technology. ISBN 0852968051.  Halliday, Stephen. Underground to Everywhere: London's Underground Railway in the Life of the Capital.  Hanson, Neil (2008). First Blitz.  Jackson, Alan A. (1984) [1969]. London's Termini. London: David & Charles. ISBN 0-330-02747-6.  Kellett, John R. (2007) [1969]. The Impact of Railways on Victorian Cities (digital reprint).  Long, David (2010). The Little Book of the London Underground. The History Press. ISBN 978-0-752-46236-3.  Menear, Laurence (1983). London's underground stations: a social and architectural study. Midas. ISBN 978-0-859-36124-8.  Moore, Tim (2003). Do Not Pass Go. Random House. ISBN 978-1-409-02216-9.  Murphy, Justin D. (2005). Military Aircraft, Origins to 1918: An Illustrated History of Their Impact.  Patmore, John Allan (1987). A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain: Greater London. David & Charles. ISBN 978-0-946-53739-6.  Powell, W.R., ed. (1966). "14. Metropolitan Essex
Essex
since 1919 – Suburban growth". A History of the County of Essex. Victoria County History. 5.  Rickards, George Kettilby (1864). The Statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 27 & 28 Victoria 1864.  Rose, Douglas (December 2007) [1980]. The London Underground: A Diagrammatic History (8th ed.). Harrow Weald: Capital Transport. ISBN 978-1-85414-315-0.  Simmons, Jack; Biddle, Gordon (1997). The Oxford Companion to British Railway History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-019-211697-0.  Smith, Denis (2001). London and the Thames Valley. Civil Engineering Heritage. Thomas Telford. ISBN 0727728768.  Sokolski, Henry D. (2004). Getting MAD: Nuclear Mutual Assured Destruction, Its Origins and Practice (PDF). ISBN 1584871725.  Stevenson, David (2004). 1914–1918 The History of the First World War. Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9208-5.  Stratton, Michael; Trinder, Barrie (2000). Twentieth Century Industrial Archaeology. E & FN Spon. ISBN 0419246800.  Sutcliffe, Anthony (2006). London: An Architectural History.  Thorne, Robert (1978). Liverpool Street Station. Academy Editions.  Weinreb, Ben; Hibbert, Christopher; Keay, Julia; Keay, John (2008). The London Encyclopedia. Pan MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-4050-4924-5.  Wells, H. G. (2015) [1898]. War of the Worlds.  Moving People in Tomorrow's World: Proceedings of a Conference Organized by the Institution of Civil Engineers and Held in London on 2 October 1986. Thomas Telford. Institution of Civil Engineers. 1987. ISBN 978-0-727-70391-0. 

Further reading[edit]

Derbyshire, Nick (1991). Liverpool Street : A station for the 21st Century. Granta. ISBN 0906782864. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Liverpool Street station.

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Farringdon Whitechapel Canary Wharf Custom House Woolwich Abbey Wood

Elizabeth line stations from Dec 2019

Reading Twyford Maidenhead Taplow Burnham Slough Langley Iver West Drayton

Proposed stations

Old Oak Common Ladbroke Grove Silvertown

Operations

MTR Crossrail/TfL Rail Transport for London London Rail

Rolling stock

Class 315 (2015-2018) Class 345 (2017-) Class 360 (2018)

Related routes

Crossrail
Crossrail
2 Great Eastern Main Line Great Western Main Line Heathrow Connect

Transport for London National Rail

London Transport portal

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London landmarks

Buildings and structures

Bridges

Albert Bridge Blackfriars Bridge Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges Lambeth Bridge London Bridge Millennium Footbridge Southwark Bridge Tower Bridge Vauxhall Bridge Waterloo Bridge Westminster Bridge

Entertainment venues

Cinemas

Empire, Leicester Square BFI IMAX Odeon, Leicester Square

Football stadia

Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
(national stadium) Craven Cottage
Craven Cottage
(Fulham) The Den
The Den
(Millwall) Emirates Stadium
Emirates Stadium
(Arsenal) Loftus Road
Loftus Road
(Queens Park Rangers) London Stadium
London Stadium
(West Ham United) Selhurst Park
Selhurst Park
(Crystal Palace) Stamford Bridge (Chelsea) The Valley (Charlton Athletic) White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
(Tottenham Hotspur)

Other major sports venues

All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club The Championship Course
The Championship Course
(rowing) Crystal Palace National Sports Centre Lord's
Lord's
(cricket) Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park The Oval
The Oval
(cricket) Twickenham Stadium
Twickenham Stadium
(rugby)

Theatres

Adelphi Apollo Victoria Coliseum Criterion Dominion Lyceum Old Vic Palladium Royal National Theatre Royal Opera House Shakespeare's Globe Theatre Royal, Drury Lane Theatre Royal Haymarket Vaudeville

Other

Alexandra Palace Brixton Academy ExCeL Hammersmith Apollo O2 Arena Royal Albert Hall Royal Festival Hall Wembley Arena

Government

10 Downing Street Admiralty Arch Bank of England City Hall County Hall Guildhall Horse Guards Mansion House National Archives Old Bailey Palace of Westminster Royal Courts of Justice Scotland Yard SIS Building

Museums and galleries

British Museum Cutty Sark Golden Hinde HMS Belfast Imperial War Museum Madame Tussauds Museum of London National Gallery National Maritime Museum Natural History Museum Royal Academy of Arts Royal Observatory Science Museum Tate Britain Tate Modern Tower of London Victoria and Albert Museum

Places of worship

All Hallows-by-the-Tower BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Bevis Marks Synagogue Methodist Central Hall Regent's Park
Regent's Park
Mosque St Martin-in-the-Fields St Mary-le-Bow St Paul's Cathedral Southwark Cathedral Westminster Abbey Westminster Cathedral

Retailing

Shops

Fortnum & Mason Hamleys Harrods Liberty Peter Jones Selfridges

Shopping centres and markets

Borough Market Brent Cross Burlington Arcade Kensington Arcade Leadenhall Market The Mall Wood Green One New Change Petticoat Lane Market Royal Exchange Westfield London Westfield Stratford City

Royal buildings

Partly occupied by the Royal Family

Buckingham Palace Clarence House Kensington Palace St James's Palace

Unoccupied

Banqueting House Hampton Court Palace Kew Palace The Queen's Gallery Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace

Skyscrapers

Broadgate
Broadgate
Tower 1 Canada Square 8 Canada Square 25 Canada Square 1 Churchill Place 20 Fenchurch Street Heron Tower Leadenhall Building The Shard St George Wharf Tower 30 St Mary Axe Tower 42

Structures

Albert Memorial ArcelorMittal Orbit Big Ben Cleopatra's Needle Crystal Palace transmitting station London Eye London Wall Marble Arch The Monument Nelson's Column Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
("Eros") Thames Barrier Wellington Arch

Transport

City Airport Heathrow Airport Charing Cross station Clapham Junction station Euston station King's Cross station Liverpool Street station London Bridge
London Bridge
station Paddington station St Pancras station Stratford station Victoria station Waterloo station Victoria Coach Station Emirates Air Line cable car

Other

Barbican Estate Battersea Power Station British Library BT Tower Kew Gardens Lambeth Palace Lloyd's building London Zoo Oxo Tower St Bartholomew's Hospital Smithfield Market Somerset House

Parks

Royal Parks

Bushy Park Green Park Greenwich Park Hampton Court Park Hyde Park Kensington Gardens Regent's Park Richmond Park St. James's Park

Other

Battersea Park Burgess Park Clapham Common College Green Epping Forest Finsbury Park Gunnersbury Park Hampstead Heath Holland Park Mitcham Common Osterley Park Trent Park Victoria Park Wandsworth Common Wimbledon Common

Squares and public spaces

Covent Garden Horse Guards Parade Leicester Square Oxford Circus Parliament Square Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus Sloane Square Trafalgar Square

Streets

Aldwych Baker Street Bishopsgate Bond Street Carnaby Street Chancery Lane Charing Cross Road Cheapside Cornhill Denmark Street Fenchurch Street Fleet Street Haymarket Jermyn Street Kensington High Street King's Road Lombard Street The Mall Oxford Street Park Lane Piccadilly Portobello Road Regent Street Shaftesbury Avenue Sloane Street Strand Tottenham Court Road Victoria Embankment Whitehall

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Major railway stations in Great Britain

Managed by Network Rail

Birmingham New Street Bristol Temple Meads Edinburgh Waverley Glasgow Central Leeds Liverpool Lime Street Manchester Piccadilly Reading

Managed by train operator

Aberdeen Birmingham Moor Street Brighton Cardiff Central Crewe Gatwick Airport Glasgow Queen Street Manchester Victoria Newcastle Nottingham Sheffield Southampton Central Swansea York

London

Managed by Network Rail
Network Rail
(termini)

Cannon Street Charing Cross Euston King's Cross Liverpool Street London Bridge Paddington St Pancras Victoria Waterloo

Managed by train operator

Termini

Fenchurch Street Marylebone Moorgate

Through stations

Blackfriars City Thameslink Clapham Junction Strat

.