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This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries,[1] which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also be descriptive, however, while maintaining (but not imposing) a standard spelling. Many language academies are private institutions, although some are governmental bodies in different states, or enjoy some form of government-sanctioned status in one or more countries. There may also be multiple language academies attempting to regulate the same language, sometimes based in different countries and sometimes influenced by political factors. Many world languages have one or more language academies. However, the degree of control that the academies exert over these languages does not render the latter controlled natural languages in the sense that the various kinds of "simple English" (e.g. Basic English, Simplified Technical English) or George Orwell's fictional Newspeak
Newspeak
are. They instead remain natural languages to a considerable extent and are thus not formal languages such as Attempto Controlled English. They have a degree of standardization that allows them to function as standard languages (e.g. standard French). The English language
English language
has never had a formal regulator anywhere.

Contents

1 Natural languages 2 Auxiliary languages

2.1 Esperanto

2.1.1 Other constructed languages

2.2 Interlingua

3 See also 4 References

Natural languages[edit]

Language Territory Regulator(s)

Amis  Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) Council of Indigenous Peoples

Afrikaans  South Africa Die Taalkommissie

Akan  Ghana Akan Orthography Committee (AOC)

Albanian  Albania  Kosovo Academy of Sciences of Albania, Tirana

Arabic

 Arab League Academy of the Arabic Language (مجمع اللغة العربية) Arabic Language International Council

 Algeria Supreme Council of the Arabic language in Algeria

 Egypt Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo

 Iraq Iraqi Academy of Sciences

 Jordan Jordan
Jordan
Academy of Arabic

 Libya Academy of the Arabic Language in Jamahiriya

 Morocco Academy of the Arabic Language in Morocco

 Saudi Arabia Academy of the Arabic Language in Riyadh

 Somalia Academy of the Arabic Language in Mogadishu

 Sudan Academy of the Arabic Language in Khartum

 Syria Academy of the Arabic Language in Damascus

 Tunisia Beit Al-Hikma Foundation

 Israel  Palestine Academy of the Arabic Language in Israel
Israel
(مجمع اللغة العربية)

Aragonese  Aragon Academia de l'Aragonés, Aragon, Spain

Armenian  Armenia Armenian National Academy of Sciences
Armenian National Academy of Sciences
(Հայաստան)

Assamese Assam Asam Sahitya Sabha
Asam Sahitya Sabha
(অসম সাহিত্য সভা)

Asturian  Asturias Academy of the Asturian Language
Academy of the Asturian Language
(Academia de la Llingua Asturiana)

Azerbaijani  Azerbaijan  Iran Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
National Academy of Sciences

Basque Basque Country Navarre French Basque Country Euskaltzaindia, often translated as Royal Academy of the Basque language

Belarusian  Belarus The Jakub Kolas and Janka Kupala Institute of Language and Literature[2] at the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

Bengali (Bangla)  Bangladesh Bangla Academy
Bangla Academy
(বাংলা একাডেমি)

West Bengal Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi
Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi
(পশ্চিমবঙ্গ বাংলা আকাদেমি)

Berber  Morocco Royal Institute of Amazight Culture

 Algeria Haut-Conseil à l'amazighité

Algerian Academy of Amazigh Language

Central Bikol  Philippines Academia Bicolana defunct

Bosnian  Bosnia and Herzegovina Sandžak University of Sarajevo

Bulgarian  Bulgaria Institute for Bulgarian Language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Burmese  Myanmar Myanmar
Myanmar
Language Commission

Cantonese  Hong Kong Official Language Division Civil Service Bureau Government
Government
of Hong Kong

 Macau Departamento dos Assuntos Linguísticos Public Administration and Civil Service Bureau(zh) Government
Government
of Macau

Catalan  Catalonia Institute of Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans)

  Valencian
Valencian
Community Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua
Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua
(for the Valencian
Valencian
standard)

Cebuano  Philippines Visayan Academy of Arts and Letters (Akademyang Bisaya)

Cherokee  Cherokee Nation Council of the Cherokee Nation
Cherokee Nation
(ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ)

Standard Chinese  People's Republic of China State Language Work Committee (国家语言文字工作委员会)

 Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) National Languages Committee
National Languages Committee
(國語推行委員會)

 Singapore Promote Mandarin Council (讲华语运动理事会)

 Malaysia Chinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia (马来西亚华语规范理事会)

Cornish  Cornwall Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek)

Croatian   Croatia
Croatia
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics
Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics
(Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje)

Czech  Czech Republic Institute of the Czech Language (of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) (Ústav pro jazyk český (Akademie věd České republiky))

Danish  Denmark Dansk Sprognævn (Danish Language Council)

Dalecarlian Dalarna County Ulum Dalska

Dari  Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan

Divehi  Maldives Dhivehi Academy

Dutch  Netherlands  Belgium  Suriname Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)

Dzongkha  Bhutan Dzongkha
Dzongkha
Development Commission (རྫོང་ཁ་གོང་འཕེལ་ལྷན་ཚོགས)

Estonian  Estonia Emakeele Seltsi keeletoimkond (Language Board at the Mother Tongue Society) sets rules and standards, authoritative advice is given by the Institute of the Estonian Language (Eesti Keele Instituut)

Faroese  Faroe Islands Faroese Language Council (Málráðið)

Filipino  Philippines Commission on the Filipino Language
Commission on the Filipino Language
(Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino)

Finnish  Finland Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

French  France Académie française
Académie française
(French Academy)

 Quebec Office québécois de la langue française
Office québécois de la langue française
( Quebec
Quebec
Office of the French Language)

Galician  Galicia Royal Galician Academy
Royal Galician Academy
(Real Academia Galega)

German  Germany  Austria   Switzerland  South Tyrol  Belgium  Liechtenstein  Luxembourg Council for German Orthography
Council for German Orthography
(Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung)

Greenlandic  Greenland The Greenland
Greenland
Language Secretariat (Oqaasileriffik)

Greek  Greece  Cyprus Center for the Greek language
Greek language
(Κέντρον Ελληνικής Γλώσσας)

Guarani  Paraguay Guarani Language Academy (Guarani Ñe’ ẽ Rerekuapavẽ)

Hakka  Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) Hakka Affairs Council(客家委員會)

Haitian Creole  Haiti Akademi Kreyòl Ayisyen ( Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
Academy)

Hebrew  Israel Academy of the Hebrew Language
Academy of the Hebrew Language
(האקדמיה ללשון העברית)

Hindi  India Central Hindi Directorate
Central Hindi Directorate
(regulates use of Devanagari
Devanagari
script and Hindi spelling in India)

Hmar  India Hmar Literature Society (Manipur, India)[citation needed]

Hungarian  Hungary Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelvtudományi Intézete)

Icelandic  Iceland Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies

Igbo  Nigeria Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture

Indonesian  Indonesia Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa

Irish  Ireland  Northern Ireland Foras na Gaeilge

Italian  Italy  San Marino   Switzerland   Vatican City Accademia della Crusca
Accademia della Crusca
(Academy of the bran)

Japanese  Japan No official centralized regulation, but de facto regulations by Agency for Cultural Affairs (文化庁) at the Ministry of Education of Japan (文部科学省)

Kannada Karnataka Various academies and Government
Government
of Karnataka

Kashubian  Poland Commission of the Kashubian Language [1]

Kazakh  Kazakhstan Ministry of Culture of Kazakhstan

Khmer  Cambodia Ministry of culture and fine arts of Cambodia

Korean  South Korea National Institute of the Korean Language (국립국어원/國立國語院)

 North Korea The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science (사회과학원 어학연구소/社會科學院 語學研究所)

 People's Republic of China China
China
Korean Language Regulatory Commission (중국조선어규범위원회/中国朝鲜语规范委员会)

Kven  Norway Kainun institutti – kvensk institutt

Kyrgyz  Kyrgyzstan National Committee for State Language under the President of the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасынын Президентине караштуу Мамлекеттик тил боюнча улуттук комиссия)

Latin  Holy See Pontifical Academy for Latin
Latin
(Pontificia Academia Latinitatis) (ecclesiastical Latin)[3]

International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
(of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy: botanical Latin)

International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: zoological Latin)

Latvian  Latvia Latvian State Language Center (Valsts Valodas Centrs)

Lithuanian  Lithuania Commission of the Lithuanian Language (Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija)

Lusoga  Uganda Lusoga Language Authority (LULA)

Macedonian  Macedonia Macedonian Language Institute "Krste Misirkov"
Macedonian Language Institute "Krste Misirkov"
(Институт за македонски јазик "Крсте Мисирков", Institut za makedonski jazik "Krste Misirkov")

Malay  Malaysia  Brunei Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka
(The Institute of Language and Literature)

Malayalam Kerala Kerala
Kerala
Sahitya Akademi (കേരള സാഹിത്യ പരിശീലന സ്ഥാപനം) and Government
Government
of Kerala

Maltese  Malta National Council for the Maltese Language (www.kunsilltalmalti.gov.mt)

Manx  Isle of Man Coonceil ny Gaelgey

Māori  New Zealand Māori Language Commission

Mirandese  Portugal Anstituto de la Lhéngua Mirandesa (Institute of the Mirandese Language)

Mixtec  Mexico Academy of the Mixtec Language (Ve'e Tu'un Sávi)

Khalkha Mongolian  Mongolia Council of the official state language (Төрийн хэлний зөвлөл). Decisions have to be confirmed by the Mongolian government.[4]

Chakhar Mongolian  People's Republic of China Council for Language and Literature Work

Nepali    Nepal Language Academy of Nepal

Norwegian (Riksmål/Bokmål)  Norway Norwegian Academy

Norwegian Bokmål Norwegian Nynorsk  Norway Norwegian Language Council

Occitan  Occitania  France  Spain  Monaco  Italy Lo Congrès Permanent de la lenga occitana (the permanent congress of occitan language) [2] Conselh de la Lenga Occitana

Pashto  Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan

 Pakistan Pashto Academy

Persian  Iran  Tajikistan  Afghanistan  Uzbekistan Academy of Persian Language and Literature
Academy of Persian Language and Literature
(فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی)

Paiwan  Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) Council of Indigenous Peoples

Polish  Poland Polish Language Council (Rada Języka Polskiego)

Portuguese  Portugal Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras

 Brazil Academia Brasileira de Letras
Academia Brasileira de Letras
(Brazilian Literary Academy)

 Galicia Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language
Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language
(Academia Galega da Lingua Portuguesa)

Quechua  Peru High Academy of the Quechua Language (Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur)

Romanian  Romania Institutul de Lingvisticǎ al Academiei Române (Institute for Linguistics of the Romanian Academy)

 Moldova Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei

Russian  Russian Empire Russian Academy (1783–1841)

 Russia Russian Language Institute
Russian Language Institute
of the Russian Academy of Sciences (since 1944)

Scots  Scotland The Scots Language Centre supports the Scots language.[5] Scottish Language Dictionaries
Dictionaries
record and analyse the language as it is spoken and written throughout Scotland
Scotland
and Ulster today.[6]

Secwepemctsín  Canada Stk'wemiple7s re Secwepemctsin, are the group of people supported by the Secwepemc Cultural Education Society who develop new words.

Serbian and Montenegrin  Serbia  Montenegro Board for Standardization
Standardization
of the Serbian Language

Sindhi  Pakistan Sindhi Language Authority
Sindhi Language Authority
[3]

Sinhala  Sri Lanka Hela Havula
Hela Havula
(හෙළ හවුල)

Slovak  Slovakia Ľudovít Štúr Institute of Linguistics (Jazykovedný ústav Ľudovíta Štúra) at Slovak Academy of Sciences
Slovak Academy of Sciences
(Slovenská akadémia vied)

Slovene  Slovenia Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts

Somali  Djibouti  Ethiopia  Somalia Regional Somali Language Academy

Sorbian  Germany  Czech Republic  Poland Serbski institut [4]

Spanish  Spain  Colombia  Ecuador  Mexico  El Salvador  Venezuela  Chile  Peru  Guatemala  Costa Rica  Philippines  Panama  Cuba  Paraguay  Bolivia  Dominican Republic  Nicaragua  Argentina  Uruguay  Honduras  Puerto Rico  United States  Equatorial Guinea  Israel Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española (constituted by the Real Academia Española
Real Academia Española
plus 22 other separate national academies in the Spanish-speaking world and an Israel-based committee for Judaeo-Spanish.)

Swahili  Tanzania Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa

 Kenya Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa

Swedish  Sweden Swedish Language Council (semi-official) Swedish Academy

 Finland Swedish Language Department of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland
Finland
(Svenska språkbyrån)

Tamil Tamil Nadu Thanjavur Tamil University and Official Language Commission of Government
Government
of Tamil Nadu

 Sri Lanka Department of Official Languages, Sri Lanka

Taiwanese Hokkien  Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) Ministry of Education (Taiwan)

Tatar  Tatarstan Institute of Language, Literature and Arts of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan

Telugu Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Telangana Telugu Academy and Official Language Commission of Government
Government
of Andhra Pradesh

Tetum  Timor-Leste National Institute of Linguistics at the National University of East Timor

Thai  Thailand Royal Society of Thailand
Thailand
(ราชบัณฑิตยสภา)

Tibetan  Tibet  People's Republic of China  India Committee for the Standardisation of the Tibetan Language

Turkish  Turkey  Cyprus  Northern Cyprus Turkish Language Association

Ukrainian  Ukraine National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Urdu  Pakistan National Language Authority, Pakistan

 India National Council for Promotion of Urdu
Urdu
Language, India

Urhobo  Nigeria Urhobo Studies Association

Võro  Estonia Võro Institute

Waray  Philippines Sanghiran san Binisaya ha Samar ug Leyte (Academy of the Visayan Language of Samar and Leyte) defunct

Welsh  Wales Welsh Language Commissioner (Meri Huws) — The Welsh Government (previously the Welsh Language Board
Welsh Language Board
Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg)(Principally, however, the role of the Welsh Language Commissioner is that of language planning and policy regulator and enforcer. The role also includes corpus planning.)

West Frisian  Friesland Fryske Akademy
Fryske Akademy
(Frisian Academy)

Wolof  Senegal Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar (Center of Applied Linguistics of Dakar at the Cheikh Anta Diop University)

Yiddish  United States  Sweden  Russia YIVO
YIVO
[5]

Yoruba  Nigeria Yoruba Academy

Auxiliary languages[edit] Esperanto[edit] Apart from the Akademio de Esperanto, most auxiliary languages, also known as constructed languages (Conlangs) have no true linguistic regulators, language academies.[7] Esperanto
Esperanto
and Ido have been constructed (or planned) by a person or small group, before being adopted and further developed by communities of users through natural language evolution. Bodies such as the Akademio de Esperanto
Akademio de Esperanto
look at questions of usage in the light of the original goals and principles of the language. See also : International auxiliary languages

Language Regulator(s)

Esperanto Akademio de Esperanto

Ido Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido

Lojban Logical Language Group

Volapük Kadäm Volapüka

Other constructed languages[edit]

Language Regulator(s)

Klingon Marc Okrand

Talossan Comità per l'Útzil del Glheþ

Snehék Blád The Democratic Conlang

Interlingua[edit] The auxiliary language Interlingua
Interlingua
has no regulating body, as its vocabulary, grammar, and orthography are viewed as a product of ongoing social forces. In theory, Interlingua
Interlingua
therefore evolves independent from any human regulator. Interlingua's vocabulary is verified and recorded by dynamically applying certain general principles to an existing set of natural languages and their etymologies. The International Auxiliary Language Association ceased to exist in 1954, and according to the secretary of Union Mundial de Interlingua
Interlingua
" Interlingua
Interlingua
doesn't need its Academy".[7] See also[edit]

Language policy Language revival Language planning Linguistic purism Languages in censuses

References[edit]

^ Thomas, George (1991) Linguistic purism
Linguistic purism
p.108, quotation:

Whereas a number of the puristically motivated language societies have assumed de facto responsibility for language cultivation, the decisions of the academies have often had the force of law. ... Since academies are so closely associated with the notion of purism, a brief word on their history may not be out of place. The first academy to deal expressly and exclusively with language matters was the Accademia della Crusca ... Its orientation was essentially conservative, favouring a return to the Tuscan language as cultivated in the fourteenth century over the innovations of contemporary renaissance poets such as Torquato Tasso. ... One of its first tasks -- as with so many academies to follow -- was to produce a large-scale prescriptive dictionary of Italian

^ "Organizations Attached to the Department of Humanitarian Sciences and Arts". National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Retrieved 8 June 2012. Field of Activities: ... compilation of the Belarusian language dictionaries including Belarusian – the other Slavonic languages and the other Slavonic languages – Belarusian dictionaries; ...  ^ "Pontificia Academia Latinitatis" (in Latin). Vatican.va. 2012-11-10. Retrieved 2013-08-19.  ^ "Хуулийн нэгдсэн портал сайт". Legalinfo.mn (in Mongolian). Archived from the original on 2015-09-14.  ^ "Scots Language Centre". Scotslanguage.com. Retrieved 2015-08-11.  ^ "Scottish Language Dictionaries
Dictionaries
- Home". Scotsdictionaries.org.uk. 2015-08-03. Retrieved 2015-08-11.  ^ a b Johan Derks, Prilingvaj institutoj de 18 naciaj lingvoj (Language Institutes of eighteen states), Interlingvistikaj Studoj, UAM, 2014/17, Esperanta

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