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This article is a partial list of selected Jewish ghettos created by the Nazis for the purpose of isolating, exploiting and finally, eradicating Jewish population (and sometimes Gypsies) on territories they controlled. Most of the prominent ghettos listed here were set up by the Third Reich and its allies in the course of World War II. In total, according to USHMM archives, "The Germans established at least 1,000 ghettos in German-occupied and annexed Poland and the Soviet Union alone." Therefore, the examples are intended only to illustrate their scope across Eastern and Western Europe.[2]

Contents

1 In Europe

1.1 German-occupied Poland 1.2 Other occupied countries

2 See also 3 References 4 Bibliography

In Europe[edit] Main article: Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe Large Nazi ghettos in which Jews were confined existed across the continent. These ghettos were liquidated mostly by Holocaust transports to concentration and extermination camps built by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland.[1] German-occupied Poland[edit] Main article: Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland Following the 1939 Invasion of Poland, the new ghetto system had been imposed by Nazi Germany roughly between October 1939 and July 1942 in order to confine Poland's Jewish population of 3.5 million for the purpose of persecution, terror, and exploitation.[3] The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest ghetto in all of Nazi occupied Europe, with over 400,000 Jews crammed into an area of 1.3 square miles (3.4 km2), or 7.2 persons per room.[4] The Łódź Ghetto was the second largest, holding about 160,000 inmates.[5] A more complete list of over 270 ghettos with approximate number of prisoners, dates of creation and liquidation, as well as known deportation routes to Extermination camps, is available at Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland. Below, selected Nazi German designations, in brackets.

Part of a series on

The Holocaust

Jews on selection ramp at Auschwitz, May 1944

Responsibility

Nazi Germany

People

Major perpetrators Adolf Hitler Heinrich Himmler Reinhard Heydrich Adolf Eichmann Odilo Globocnik Theodor Eicke Richard Glücks Ernst Kaltenbrunner Rudolf Höss Christian Wirth Joseph Goebbels

Organizations

Nazi Party Gestapo Schutzstaffel (SS) Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV) Einsatzgruppen Sturmabteilung (SA) Verfügungstruppe (SS-VT) Wehrmacht

Collaborators during World War II

Nazi ideologues

Early policies

Racial policy Nazi eugenics Nuremberg Laws Haavara Agreement Madagascar Plan Forced euthanasia

Victims

Jews during World War II

Europe Germany

Romani people (Gypsies) Poles Soviet POWs Slavs in Eastern Europe Homosexuals People with disabilities Freemasons Jehovah's Witnesses

Ghettos

Białystok Budapest Kaunas Kraków Łódź Lublin Lwów Minsk Riga Warsaw Vilnius

Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland

List of selected ghettos

Atrocities

Pogroms

Kristallnacht Bucharest Dorohoi Iaşi Izieu Szczuczyn Jedwabne Kaunas Lviv (Lvov) Marseille Tykocin Vel' d'Hiv Wąsosz

Einsatzgruppen

Babi Yar Bydgoszcz Częstochowa Kamianets-Podilskyi Ninth Fort Odessa Piaśnica Ponary Rumbula Erntefest

"Final Solution"

Wannsee Conference Operation "Reinhard" Holocaust trains Extermination camps

End of World War II

Wola massacre Death marches

Camps

Nazi extermination camps

Auschwitz-Birkenau Bełżec Chełmno Jasenovac Majdanek Maly Trostenets Sajmište Sobibór Treblinka

Nazi concentration camps

Bergen-Belsen Bogdanovka Buchenwald Dachau Dora Gonars (Italy) Gross-Rosen Herzogenbusch Janowska Kaiserwald Mauthausen-Gusen Neuengamme Rab Ravensbrück Sachsenhausen Salaspils Stutthof Theresienstadt Uckermark Warsaw

Transit and collection camps

Belgium

Breendonk Mechelen

France

Gurs Drancy

Italy

Bolzano

Netherlands

Amersfoort Westerbork

Divisions

SS-Totenkopfverbände Concentration Camps Inspectorate Politische Abteilung Sanitätswesen

Extermination methods

Gas van Gas chamber Extermination through labour Einsatzgruppen Human medical experimentation

Resistance

Jewish partisans Bricha

Ghetto uprisings

Warsaw Białystok Łachwa Częstochowa

Allied response

Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations

Auschwitz bombing debate Nuremberg trials Denazification

Aftermath

Bricha Displaced persons Central Committee of the Liberated Jews

Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany

Lists

Holocaust survivors

Deportations of French Jews to death camps

Survivors of Sobibór Timeline of Treblinka extermination camp Victims of Nazism Rescuers of Jews

Resources

Bibliography List of books about Nazi Germany

The Destruction of the European Jews

Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos

Functionalism versus intentionalism

Auschwitz Protocols Vrba–Wetzler report

Remembrance

Days of remembrance Memorials and museums

v t e

Baranowicz Ghetto Będzin Ghetto, site of Będzin Ghetto Uprising Białystok Ghetto, site of Białystok Ghetto uprising Brześć (Brest-Litovsk) Ghetto Buczacz Ghetto Częstochowa Ghetto, site of Częstochowa Ghetto uprising Czortków Ghetto Drohobycz Ghetto Grodno Ghetto Izbica Ghetto Kielce Ghetto Kolomyja Ghetto Kraków (Krakau) Ghetto Łachwa Ghetto, site of Łachwa Ghetto uprising Lida Ghetto Łódź (Litzmannstadt) Ghetto Łomża Ghetto Lubartów Ghetto Lublin Ghetto Łuck Ghetto, site of Łuck Ghetto uprising and massacre Lwów (Lemberg) Ghetto, site of Lviv pogroms Marcinkance (Marcinkonys) Ghetto Międzyrzec Podlaski (Mezritsh) Ghetto Mińsk Mazowiecki (Novominsk) Ghetto Mizocz Ghetto Nowogródek Ghetto Nowy Sącz Ghetto (20 Jews assigned to one room) Opatów Ghetto in Opatów Pińsk (Pinsk) Ghetto Piotrków Trybunalski (Petrikau) Ghetto Radom Ghetto Sambor Ghetto, see rescue by Franciscan Sisters of the Family of Mary Siedlce Ghetto, see the November 1942 massacre at Gęsi Borek Słonim Ghetto, site of Słonim Ghetto uprising Sosnowiec (Sosnowitz) Ghetto, site of Sosnowiec Ghetto uprising Stanisławów (Stanislau) Ghetto, site of Bloody Sunday massacre Stryj Ghetto Tarnopol Ghetto with satellite labour camps Tarnów Ghetto Trochenbrod (Zofiówka) Ghetto Vilna (Wilno, Vilnius) Ghetto, site of Ponary massacre Warsaw (Warschau) Ghetto, site of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Zdzięcioł (Djatlowo) Ghetto, site of Dzyatlava massacre

Other occupied countries[edit]

Baia Mare Ghetto Bistrița Ghetto Budapest Ghetto Bytom (Beuthen) Ghetto Bobruisk Ghetto Borisov Ghetto Berdichev Ghetto Borshchiv Ghetto Cehei Ghetto Czernowitz Ghetto, Romanian-operated Cluj (Kolozsvár) Ghetto Daugavpils (Dvinsk) Ghetto Dej Ghetto Gomel Ghetto Karlovac Ghetto, Croatia Kovno (Kaunas) Ghetto Liepāja Ghetto Minsk Ghetto Mogilev Ghetto Monastir Ghetto, Bulgarian-operated Olyka Ghetto, Ukraine Oradea Ghetto Polotsk Ghetto Pruzhany Ghetto Reghin Ghetto Riga Ghetto Salonika Ghetto Satu Mare Ghetto Sfântu Gheorghe Ghetto Šiauliai Ghetto, Lithuania Sighet Ghetto Slutsk Ghetto Smolensk Ghetto Švenčionys Ghetto Theresienstadt Ghetto (concentration camp, sometimes referred to as a ghetto) Vitebsk Ghetto Zagreb Ghetto, Ustaše-operated Zhitomir Ghetto

See also[edit]

Outside Europe: Shanghai Ghetto (1942/43 - 1945, by the Japanese Administration; no transfers to German concentrationcamps)[6]

References[edit]

^ a b The Ghettos. Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority ^ Types of Ghettos. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C. ^ The statistical data compiled on the basis of "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland" Archived 2016-02-08 at the Wayback Machine. by Virtual Shtetl Museum of the History of the Polish Jews  (in English), as well as "Getta Żydowskie," by Gedeon,  (in Polish) and "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters at www.deathcamps.org/occupation/ghettolist.htm  (in English). Accessed June 21, 2011. ^ Warsaw Ghetto, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), Washington, D.C. ^ Ghettos, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum ^ Shanghai Jewish History Archived 2010-05-29 at the Wayback Machine., Proclamation Concerning Restriction of Residence and Business of Stateless Refugees. (Shanghai Jewish Center)

Bibliography[edit]

Megargee, Geoffrey P., ed. (2012). Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945. in association with United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253355997.  Spector, Shmuel; Wigoder, Geoffrey, eds. (2001). The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 978

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