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Linz
Linz
(/lɪnts/; German pronunciation: [ˈlɪnt͡s]; Czech: Linec) is the third-largest city of Austria
Austria
and capital of the state of Upper Austria
Austria
(German: Oberösterreich). It is in the north centre of Austria, approximately 30 kilometres (19 miles) south of the Czech border, on both sides of the River Danube. The population of the city is 200,839, and that of the Greater Linz
Linz
conurbation is about 271,000. In 2009 Linz, together with the Lithuanian capital Vilnius, was chosen as the European Capital of Culture. Since 1 December 2014 Linz
Linz
is a member of the UNESCO
UNESCO
Creative Cities (UCCN) network as a City of Media Arts. Cities receive this title for enriching the urban lifestyle through the sponsorship and successful integration of media art and involving society in these electronic art forms.[2] Linz
Linz
is well known for the Linzer torte, which is said to be the oldest cake in the world, with its first recipe dating from 1653.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Districts

2 History 3 Population 4 Climate 5 Tourism 6 Economy

6.1 Shopping 6.2 Markets

7 Transport 8 Public safety 9 Media 10 Points of interest 11 Architecture

11.1 Cemetery

12 Culture

12.1 Museums 12.2 Music 12.3 Cinema 12.4 Libraries 12.5 Culinary specialties 12.6 Regular events 12.7 Other cultural institutions and venues

13 Colleges and universities 14 Leisure activities

14.1 Parks and gardens 14.2 Donausteig 14.3 Harbor tour

15 Sports 16 Born in Linz 17 International relations

17.1 Twin towns — sister cities

18 See also 19 Notes 20 Bibliography 21 External links

Geography[edit] Linz
Linz
is in the centre of Europe, lying on the Paris–Budapest west–east axis and the Malmö– Trieste
Trieste
north–south axis. The Danube
Danube
is the main tourism and transport connection that runs through the city. Approximately 29.27% of the city’s 96 km2 (37 sq mi) wide area are grassland. Further 17.95% are covered with forest. All the rest areas fall on water (6.39%), traffic areas and land.[3] Districts[edit] Since January 2014 the city is divided into 16 statistical districts:[4]

no. district inhabitants area

1. Innere Stadt 24,785 278.9

2. Urfahr 23,581 426.8

3. Pöstlingberg 4,527 851.1

4. St. Magdalena 11,890 655.3

5. Dornach-Auhof 7,283 682.6

6. Kaplanhof 9,753 243.2

7. Franckviertel 7,216 120.7

8. Bulgariplatz 14,993 260.3

9. Froschberg 11,654 452.8

10. Bindermichl-Keferfeld 19,875 412.0

11. Spallerhof 12,021 297.1

12. Neue Heimat 13,095 413.2

13. Kleinmünchen-Auwiesen 22,209 645.1

14. Industriegebiet-Hafen 138 1,277.4

15. Ebelsberg 10,763 1,291.2

16. Pichling 7,812 1,290.0

Before 2014 Linz
Linz
was divided into 9 districts and 36 statistical quarters. They were:

Ebelsberg Innenstadt: Altstadtviertel, Rathausviertel, Kaplanhofviertel, Neustadtviertel, Volksgartenviertel, Römerberg-Margarethen Kleinmünchen: Kleinmünchen, Neue Welt, Scharlinz, Bergern, Neue Heimat, Wegscheid, Schörgenhub Lustenau: Makartviertel, Franckviertel, Hafenviertel Pöstlingberg: Pöstlingberg, Bachl-Gründberg St. Magdalena: St. Magdalena, Katzbach, Elmberg St. Peter Urfahr: Alt-Urfahr, Heilham, Hartmayrsiedlung, Harbachsiedlung, Karlhofsiedlung, Auberg Waldegg: Freinberg, Froschberg, Keferfeld, Bindermichl, Spallerhof, Wankmüllerhofviertel, Andreas-Hofer-Platz-Viertel

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Linz

A depiction of the town in 1594

The central part of the town.

The city was founded by the Romans, who called it Lentia.[5] The name Linz
Linz
was first recorded in AD 799. It was a provincial and local government city of the Holy Roman Empire, and an important trading point connecting several routes, on either side of the River Danube
River Danube
from the east to the west and Bohemia and Poland
Poland
from north to the Balkans
Balkans
and Italy
Italy
to the south. Being the city where the Habsburg
Habsburg
Emperor
Emperor
Friedrich III spent his last years, it was, for a short period of time, the most important city in the empire.[6] It lost its status to Vienna
Vienna
and Prague
Prague
after the death of the Emperor
Emperor
in 1493. One important inhabitant of the city was Johannes Kepler, who spent several years of his life in the city teaching mathematics. He discovered, on 15 May 1618, the distance-cubed-over-time-squared — or 'third' — law of planetary motion. The local public university, Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
University, is named after him. Another famous citizen was Anton Bruckner, who spent the years between 1855 and 1868 working as a local composer and organist in the Old Cathedral, Linz. The Brucknerhaus
Brucknerhaus
is named after him. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
was born in the border town of Braunau am Inn
Braunau am Inn
but moved to Linz
Linz
in his childhood. Hitler
Hitler
spent most of his youth in the Linz area, from 1898 until 1907, when he left for Vienna. The family lived first in the village of Leonding
Leonding
on the outskirts of town, and then on the Humboldtstrasse in Linz. After elementary education in Leonding, Hitler
Hitler
was enrolled in the Realschule (school) in Linz, as was the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Notorious Holocaust
Holocaust
architect Adolf Eichmann also spent his youth in Linz. To the end of his life, Hitler considered Linz
Linz
to be his "home town",[7] and envisioned extensive architectural schemes for it, wanting it to become the main cultural centre of the Third Reich.[8] In order to make the city economically vibrant, Hitler
Hitler
initiated a major industrialisation of Linz
Linz
shortly before, and during, the Second World War. In addition to an ordnance depot, Linz
Linz
has a benzol (oil) plant which was bombed during the Oil Campaign[9] on 16 October 1944. What was once the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp
Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp
is 20 km (12 miles) east of the city of Linz. Processing of the Nazi-Past In 1996, the Council of the city decided to account for its Nazi past. The widespread scientific workup, which was implemented by the municipal archives, covered the period prior 1938 and the denazification after 1945. Linz
Linz
became the first city in Austria
Austria
to deal intensively with its own Nazi past. In May 2001, seven scientific publications, online presentations, and numerous lectures were made public as a result of these efforts. The culture of remembrance extended to the construction of monuments for the victims of National Socialism. Especially since 1988, numerous memorials have been created in public spaces. The confrontation with the Nazi past resulted in the renaming of many streets. In 1945, immediately after the end of the Nazi dictatorship, 39 streets in Linz
Linz
were renamed, whereas from 1946 to 1987, only two streets were renamed. However, since 1988, 17 new traffic areas were named after victims of National Socialism or resistance fighters. In the recent past a number of Nazi victims and activists who fought Nazism
Nazism
were honored by the city. Simon Wiesenthal, who founded the first Jewish Documentation Center in Linz in 1945, received an award for his work in remembrance of victims of the Second World War. Coat of arms The coat of arms of Linz
Linz
developed from the seal image, which was used as emblem since 1242. It showed the open city gate flanked by two crenelated towers on rocky ground. From 1288 on, the gate was shown standing on water. The coat of arms shows a red plate on which stands a castle with twin towers. Those towers are crowned with three crenelations. The towers include an open door; above the door the red-white-red shield of Austria
Austria
is attached. The gate and towers symbolise the medieval fortified city. The wavy bars indicate the position of the city near the Danube. The Austrian shield is a reference to the former territorial city. Population[edit] The urban area includes (parts of) 13 other municipalities with together 271,000 inhabitants. Linz
Linz
is also part of the Linz-Wels-Steyr metropolitan area of Upper Austria, home to around one third of the state's population (460,000 people) and second-largest urban area in Austria.[10][11] Linz
Linz
has a total number of about 157,000 jobs. However, only half of vacant jobs can be covered by its inhabitants. This enormous job surplus causes a correspondingly high rate of commuters from the surrounding communities of Linz, resulting in enormous traffic problems.

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1900 83,356 —    

1951 184,685 +121.6%

1961 195,978 +6.1%

1971 204,889 +4.5%

1981 199,910 −2.4%

1991 203,044 +1.6%

2001 183,504 −9.6%

2006 188,968 +3.0%

2011 189,845 +0.5%

2015 197,427 +4.0%

2016 200,843 +1.7%

Largest groups of foreign residents[12]

Nationality Population (2018)

 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,283

 Romania 4,614

 Turkey 3,547

 Germany 3,264

 Croatia 2,720

 Kosovo 2,270

 Serbia 2,123

 Hungary 2,069

 Afghanistan 1,855

 Syria 1,818

 Russia 1,413

 Macedonia 1,264

 Poland 968

 Slovakia 959

 Bulgaria 812

Climate[edit] Linz
Linz
has a continental climate (Dfb) with warm summers and quite cold winters.

Climate data for Linz

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14.8 (58.6) 17.0 (62.6) 23.5 (74.3) 28.0 (82.4) 31.0 (87.8) 34.2 (93.6) 36.2 (97.2) 36.2 (97.2) 31.4 (88.5) 25.3 (77.5) 22.7 (72.9) 13.4 (56.1) 36.2 (97.2)

Average high °C (°F) 2.0 (35.6) 4.3 (39.7) 9.9 (49.8) 14.6 (58.3) 20.4 (68.7) 22.7 (72.9) 24.8 (76.6) 24.5 (76.1) 19.7 (67.5) 14.1 (57.4) 6.6 (43.9) 3.1 (37.6) 13.9 (57)

Daily mean °C (°F) −0.7 (30.7) 0.7 (33.3) 5.1 (41.2) 9.3 (48.7) 14.6 (58.3) 17.3 (63.1) 19.1 (66.4) 18.7 (65.7) 14.4 (57.9) 9.4 (48.9) 3.8 (38.8) 0.6 (33.1) 9.4 (48.9)

Average low °C (°F) −2.8 (27) −1.7 (28.9) 1.7 (35.1) 5.1 (41.2) 9.8 (49.6) 12.6 (54.7) 14.4 (57.9) 14.2 (57.6) 10.7 (51.3) 6.3 (43.3) 1.7 (35.1) −1.2 (29.8) 5.9 (42.6)

Record low °C (°F) −22.0 (−7.6) −18.0 (−0.4) −18.7 (−1.7) −2.4 (27.7) −0.7 (30.7) 4.1 (39.4) 7.3 (45.1) 6.1 (43) 1.6 (34.9) −4.5 (23.9) −10.6 (12.9) −17.6 (0.3) −22.0 (−7.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 59.7 (2.35) 48.4 (1.906) 64.2 (2.528) 63.8 (2.512) 70.9 (2.791) 91.2 (3.591) 107.0 (4.213) 83.9 (3.303) 63.2 (2.488) 52.3 (2.059) 62.1 (2.445) 65.7 (2.587) 832.4 (32.773)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 17.5 (6.89) 13.1 (5.16) 6.0 (2.36) 0.6 (0.24) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 4.9 (1.93) 12.0 (4.72) 54.1 (21.3)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.8 9.7 10.7 10.5 10.2 12.0 12.1 10.3 9.2 7.7 10.4 11.5 125.1

Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 14.8 10.0 3.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.9 9.1 40.4

Mean monthly sunshine hours 49.3 93.5 119.3 171.4 234.7 222.6 238.6 236.2 172.6 110.3 49.2 43.4 1,741.1

Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics[13]

Tourism[edit] The hotel business is equipped with 4,544 beds – 2,302 are located in the ten four star hotels of the city. Nine hotels have three stars and count 1,226 beds. The seven two and one star hotels are equipped with 472 beds. 544 beds are not categorised for commercial businesses. Five star hotels are not available. In 2004 Linz
Linz
counted 647,428 nights’ stay. In 2013 the number increased to 775,396. 363,425 of the overnight stays were located in the four star hotels, 226,647 in the three star hotels, 67,593 in the two and one star hotels and 53,194 stays can be counted to other accommodation. Overnight stays in 5/4-star hotels increased by more than 5% from 20.590 to 21.655 between February 2017 and February 2018. During the same period, overnight stays in 3-star hotels increased by 22%, from 13.383 to 16.330. The number of overnight stays in non-categorized hotels dropped by almost 10%, from 4.177 to 3.763. 544 gastronomy businesses are located in the city. In 2017 Germans were the most frequent guests (165,851), followed by tourists from China, Hong Kong and Macao (26,161), making Italians 3rd in comparison with the years before – the ranking is equal to the overnight stays ranking which is listed in the following.

Overnight stay

Rank State Number of overnight stays

1.  Germany 165,851

2.  China 26,161

3.  Italy 23,900

4.   Switzerland,  Liechtenstein 16,220

5.  United States 14,005

6.  United Kingdom 11,853

7.  Netherlands 11,431

8.  Hungary 11,180

9.  Czech Republic 10,026

10.  France 9,021

Economy[edit]

The container terminal at the harbour.

Linz
Linz
is one of the main economic centres of Austria. The Voestalpine AG is a large steel concern (founded as the "Hermann-Göring-Werke" during the Second World War), which is known for the LD- ("Linz-Donawitz") procedure for the production of steel. The former "Chemie Linz" chemical group has been split up into several companies. These companies have made Linz
Linz
one of Austria's most important economic centres. About 190,000 people are employed in Linz, which is almost twice as many employed persons who live in Linz. Therefore, Linz
Linz
has to deal with a lot of commuter traffic. At a workday around 100,000 employed persons commute to Linz
Linz
and about 18,500 out of Linz. Furthermore, due to the fact that one of the four Donau-Harbors (Donauhäfen) in Austria
Austria
is located in Linz, it constitutes an attractive location in regards to logistic and trading enterprises. Nonetheless manufacturing plants can – for instance - be found at the waterfront as well. The economic importance of Linz
Linz
was founded over centuries in trade. Moreover, the long-standing image of Linz
Linz
as an industrial city was a result of the National Socialism. As a result of this large industrial enterprises are still located in Linz nowadays. Great examples in regards to this are Voestalpine AG
Voestalpine AG
or “Chemie Linz” – as already mentioned above. From an economical perspective they represent a large number of jobs and of course industry related enterprises. The Meeting Industry Report Austria
Austria
(mira) ranks Linz
Linz
as the third most important destination for congresses in Austria, with a share of 7,4 % in the total number of congresses, conferences and seminars held in Austria.[14] Linz
Linz
has more than 60 congress and event venues. With the Blue Meeting® concept, the local tourism association has developed a conference format which focuses on individual needs of participants and adapts to the idea of green meetings, therefore supporting waste prevention, energy efficiency, climate-neutral travel and regional added value. [15] Shopping[edit]

The eastern end of Pfarrplatz.

Linz
Linz
offers many different shopping possibilities, which include various shopping centres or popular shopping streets. Shopping centres Thirteen malls can be found in Linz, three of them are situated in the city centre. The total List of shopping centres in Linz:

Arkade Arkade Atrium City Center Shopping Mall Auwiesen Shopping Mall Biesenfeld Shopping Mall Industriezeile Shopping Mall Kleinmünchen Shopping Mall Muldenstraße EuroCenter Oed Shopping Mall Wegscheid Infra Center Lentia City Passage PRO-Kaufland

Shopping streets According to a study of Infrapool in Oktober 2010, the Linzer Landstraße is the busiest shopping street outside of Vienna. The weekly frequency is noted between 240,500 (Monday-Saturday, 8 a.m. until 7 p.m.) and 228,400 (8 a.m. until 6 p.m.) passers-by, which is the second highest value - only in 2005 more passers-by were detected. Further shopping streets in Linz: Linz
Linz
north:

Alturfahr West Hauptstraße Urfahr

Linz
Linz
centre:

City Altstadt Pfarrplatz Promenade Eisenhandstraße Südbahnhofmarkt

Linz
Linz
south:

Einkaufsviertel Wiener Straße Franckviertel Bindermichl Kleinmünchen Ebelsberg

Close to Linz:

Plus City shopping center

Markets[edit] There are eleven farmer’s markets as well as one weekly flea market and two Christmas markets in Linz. One of the most popular ones is the “Urfahraner Markt“, which takes place in spring and fall every year. Visitors can enjoy a mix of leisure facilities, stalls and party tents. Furthermore, there are annually Christmas and New Year’s Markets. The aim of the market administration is to provide the population with a wide range of products, as well as operating the markets in an economical, suitable and customer oriented manner. Additionally, the annual market called “Linzer Marktfrühling” sets further accents and lures new customers with attractive offers. Transport[edit]

The central Nibelungenbrücke

The Pöstlingbergbahn, a part of the tram network.

Linz
Linz
serves as an important transport hub for the region of both Upper Austria
Austria
and, to a lesser degree, southern Bohemia. The "Blue Danube" Linz Airport
Linz Airport
lies about 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) southwest of the town centre, in the municipality of Hörsching. The airport can be reached easily via federal highways B139 and B1. The bus line 601 connects the airport within 20 minutes with the centre of Linz. There is also a free shuttle service from Hörsching
Hörsching
railway station. Direct flights include Frankfurt, Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
and Vienna
Vienna
with additional seasonal routes added during the summer and winter months, like for example Antalya, Kos, Ibiza or Korfu. Ryanair
Ryanair
flies to London Stansted Airport and Tenerife. The city also has a central railway station (German: Hauptbahnhof) on Austria's main rail axis, the West railway, linking Vienna
Vienna
with western Austria, Germany
Germany
and Switzerland. There are also varying types of river transport on the Danube, from industrial barges to tourist cruise ships. Local public transport comprises the city tram network, the city trolleybus network and the city bus network, all operated by the Linz Linien division of Linz
Linz
AG.[16] The city tram network includes the Pöstlingbergbahn, a steeply graded tramway which climbs a small mountain at the northwest edge of the town. Public safety[edit] Police The National Police Directorate forms the security authority for the city. The city’s police commands function as law enforcement agencies. Fire brigade In Linz, one of six Austrian professional fire brigades is located. Four volunteer fire brigades (Ebelsberg, Pichling, Pöstlingberg, St. Magdalena) and nine company fire brigades complement Linz’ firemanship. Additionally, the national school of firemanship, which is subjected to the Upper Austrian fire-brigade federation, is located in Linz. In this school, all members of Upper Austrian fire brigades are being educated. Media[edit] The newspaper Oberösterreichische Nachrichten
Oberösterreichische Nachrichten
has its head office in Linz. Points of interest[edit]

The new cathedral.

A close up of the neogotic new cathedral.

The trinity column at the main square.

The main street "Landstraße" leads from the "Blumauerplatz" to "Taubenmarkt" (Pigeonmarket) near the main square. In the middle of the main square the high "Pestsäule" ("plague column", also known as "Dreifaltigkeitssäule" (Dreifaltigkeit means Holy Trinity)) was built to remember the people who died in the plague epidemics.[17][18] Near the Schloss/castle, being the former seat of Friedrich the III — the oldest Austrian church is located: Sankt/Saint Martins church. It was built during early medieval Carolingian
Carolingian
times.[19] Other points of interest include:

St. Mary's Cathedral (Mariä-Empfängnis-Dom), Roman Catholic.,[20] in Gothic-Revival style. With a total height of 134,8 meters, the cathedral is the tallest church in Austria. Constructed in the years of 1862 and 1924, it is fully built of sandstone with unfinished front details. Mozarthaus: birthplace and house of the famous Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, which was constructed at the end of the 16th century. During 3 days in November 1783, being a resident of the house, he composed the “Linzer Sinfonie” and “Linzer Sonate”. Today, it is allowed to visit the backyard of the house but prohibited to enter the house itself. Pöstlingberg-Kirche: pilgrimage church on the Pöstlingberg
Pöstlingberg
hill. The basilica is the city’s landmark and was built from 1738 until 1774, located on 537m sea level. Pöstlingbergbahn
Pöstlingbergbahn
is the steepest mountain rail in the world which was built in 1898 and operates gear-wheel free (functional grip between wheel and rail: gradient of 10.5%) Linzer Grottenbahn: A grotto railway is based up on the hill of Pöstling Brucknerhaus
Brucknerhaus
— the concert hall named after the composer Anton Bruckner, who was born in Ansfelden, a small town next to Linz.[21] The modern Concert Hall owes its unique acoustics to its wood paneling. The Great Hall of the Bruckner House, also called Brucknersaal, is the architectural jewel hosting an organ consisting of more than 4,200 pipes and 51 registers. The spacious stage in particular was designed for 220 performers.[22] In 2017 the life and works of Anton Bruckner
Anton Bruckner
were the focus of the Bruckner Festival held under the motto “Bruckner elementar”. Bruckner’s works were the focus of the festival presented by national and international artists.[23] Gugl Stadium, is home to the LASK (Linzer Athletik Sport Klub), which is claimed to be the third oldest football club in Austria.[24] Linzer Landestheater[25][26] Kremsmünsterer Haus: is to find at the „Alter Markt“, located in the inner city of Linz
Linz
where, as legends say, emperor Friedrich III. had died. Landhaus: The country house was built in the 16th century and is the headquarters of the governor, the Bavarian parliament and the government of upper Austria. Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
used to teach here for more than 14 years.

Architecture[edit]

The former townhouse of Kremsmünster Abbey.

A historic suburban villa at Freinberg

The old town hall

As many central European cities, the cityscape of Linz
Linz
is characterised by small and several sacred buildings. The Mariä Empfängnis Dom or New Cathedral is the biggest church in Austria, not by height (it is roughly 2 metres shorter than the St. Stephen's Cathedral (Stephansdom) in Vienna), but by capacity. The historic centre is characterised by its medieval architectural style, whereas in those parts of the city that border with the historic centre the architecture is of neoclassical, neo-baroque and neo-renaissance styles. Even further from the historic centre there are living areas, such as Franckviertel, Froschberg, Bindermichl and Kleinmünchen southern of the Danube
Danube
and Alt-Urfahr northern of the Danube. These areas are where residential buildings can be found that are still referred to as "Hitlerbauten" or " Hitler
Hitler
buildings", because they were built during the interwar period and the time of Nazi dictatorship. The residential area called Gugl became a well liked living area among the wealthy at around 1900, which is why there are numerous villas still there today. Amongst the newer buildings is the new Central Station, which was designed by Wilhelm Holzbauer
Wilhelm Holzbauer
and added the Terminal Tower skyscraper as part of a mixed-use complex. Between 2005 und 2011 it was voted Austria’s most beautiful railway station seven times in a row by the Verkehrsclub Österreich. The Wissensturm ("Tower of knowledge") with a height of about 63 metres, houses the public library and the Volkshochschule, an adult education centre. It was designed by Franz Kneidinger and Heinz Stögmüller and opened in 2007. Lentos Art Museum, which opened in 2003, was designed by Zürich-based architects Weber & Hofer and the Musiktheater (music theatre), which opened in 2013, was designed by Terry Pawson. Cemetery[edit] Linz
Linz
has 13 cemeteries, four of them are supervises by the LINZ AG.[27]

Friedhof der Israelitischen Kultusgemeinde Friedhof Ebelsberg Friedhof Pöstlingberg Friedhof St. Margarethen Friedhof St.Magdalena Friedhof Urfahr Soldatenfriedhof beim Petrinum St. Barbarafriedhof Stadtfriedhof Linz
Linz
/ St. Martin Urnenhain Feuerhalle Urnenhain Kleinmünchen Urnenhain Neue Verabschiedungshalle Urnenhain Urfahr

Culture[edit]

The Ars electronica museum

The city is now home to a vibrant music and arts scene that is well-funded by the city and the state of Upper Austria. Between Lentos Art Museum and the "Brucknerhaus", is the "Donaulände", which is also referred to as "Kulturmeile" ("culture mile"). This is a park alongside the river, which is used mainly by young people to relax and meet in summer. It is also used for the Ars Electronica Festival in early September and the " Linz
Linz
Fest", which takes place annually in May.[28] In June, July and August the "Musikpavillon" is placed in the park where musical groups of different styles perform on Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays free of charge. Linz
Linz
has other culture institutions, such as the Posthof, which is near the harbour,[29] and the Stadtwerkstatt, which is by the River Danube.[30] The Pflasterspektakel, an international street art festival, takes place each year in July in and around the Landstraße and the main square.[31] Linz
Linz
was the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in 2009, along with Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania.[32] On 1 December 2014 Linz
Linz
was accepted into the international network of UNESCO
UNESCO
Creative Cities (UCCN) as a City of Media Arts. Currently 69 cities worldwide are members of the Creative Cities network, which is divided into seven thematic categories: literature, film, music, folk art, design, media art and gastronomy. The title goes to cities which enrich urban life and successfully involve society in electronic art forms through the sponsorship and integration of media art.[2] Seven more cities can call themselves City of Media Arts: Enghien-les-Bains, Lyon, Sapporo, Dakar, Gwangju, Tel Aviv-Jaffa
Tel Aviv-Jaffa
and York.[33] The aim is therefore to maintain and represent the cultural diversity.[34] The 69 cities share their experiences and think about ways to cope with globalization. To create the most intensive discourse possible with the other creative cities, Linz
Linz
has to do a self-evaluation after a few years. After three years the UNESCO evaluated whether Linz
Linz
has fulfilled certain measures in the field of media art and may continue to use the title.[35] The Ars Electronica Center can be considered as the centre of media art and attracts every year during its festival national and international guests to Linz. The latest project developed by Linz
Linz
in the context of the City of Media Arts project is the Valie Export
Valie Export
Center, which is located in the Tabakfabrik (tobacco factory) and carried out in cooperation with the University of Art and Design Linz. It serves as an international research hub for media and performance art. Beyond that, it comprises the legacy as well as the archives of the most renowned media artist coming from Linz, Valie Export, who has received numerous national as well as international prizes.[36] Along with the Ars Electronica archives, Linz
Linz
hosts two internationally renowned archives for media art.[37] These archives serve as a starting point for an artistic and a scientific interaction with media and performance art both in Austria
Austria
and around the world. Since 2009, the Open Commons Linz
Linz
initiative has made available a wide variety of “free” data: geo-data and statistical information having to do with city life, local government, recreation and tourism. An associated effort is the Hotspot initiative that has installed 202 hotspots providing free WLAN, as well as Public Server, the municipal cloud available to all citizens registered in Linz. Linz
Linz
is thus at the forefront in Europe when it comes to universal access to open data.[38] Linz
Linz
houses 43 galleries and exhibit rooms, 13 cultural centres, one club centre, as well as four educational institutes. Museums[edit]

The recently built Lentos (2003) is a modern art gallery, presenting art from the 20th and 21st centuries. It is situated on the south banks of the River Danube. The building can be illuminated at night from the inside with blue, pink, red and violet, due to its plastic casing. Ars Electronica Center
Ars Electronica Center
(AEC) is a museum and research facility on the north bank of the Danube
Danube
(in the Urfahr district), across the river from the Hauptplatz (main square). The AEC is a significant world centre for new media arts, attracting a large gathering of technologically oriented artists every year for the Ars Electronica Festival. The AEC museum is home to one of the few public 2D CAVEs in Europe. City Museum Nordico houses an art collection as well as a historical and an archeological collection, all of which relate to the city of Linz. About 16,000 people visited the museum in 2013. Upper Austrian Regional Museum (Oberösterreichisches Landesmuseum) has three main locations that focus on different aspects of the regional history: The Landesgalerie (regional gallery) exhibits modern and contemporary art, the Schlossmuseum houses archeological findings all of which retrace Upper Austria’s cultural history whereas the aim of the Biologiezentrum Linz-Dornach (centre of biology) is to retrace the region’s natural history with an exhibition of about 16 million objects (which makes it the second biggest museum for natural history in Austria).[39] At the headquarters of the Upper Austrian art association (Oberösterreichischer Kunstverein) in the Ursulinenhof in Linz
Linz
there are regular exhibitions of contemporary art. Upper Austrian museum of literature (Oberösterrreischisches Literaturmuseum), the Adalbert Stifter
Adalbert Stifter
Institute for literature and linguistics and the Upper Austrian house of literature (Oberösterreichisches Literaturhaus) all are situated in the StifterHaus, where Austrian writer, painter and educationalist Adalbert Stifter
Adalbert Stifter
lived from 1848 to his death in 1868. Upper Austrian forum for architecture (Architekturforum Oberösterreich) in the house of architecture (Haus der Architektur) attracts about 6,000 visitors annually. The forum organises lectures, exhibitions, conferences and competitions. Upper Austrian open house of culture (Offenes Kulturhaus Oberösterreich, acronym: OK) is an art institution focusing on contemporary art. Museum of Dentistry (Zahnmuseum) shows an exhibition of equipment used in dentistry from the early 18th century to the recent past. Cowboy-Museum Fatsy presents cowboy culture, showing original pieces from the United States.

Music[edit]

Brucknerhaus

Musiktheater Linz

The Brucknerhaus, a famous concert hall in Linz
Linz
is named after Anton Bruckner. It is situated just some 200 metres away from the "Lentos". It is home to the "Bruckner Orchestra", and is frequently used for concerts, as well as balls and other events. It is also the venue of the " Linz
Linz
Fest" which takes place annually in May as well as one of the venues during the Ars Electronica Festival in early September. In June, July and August the "Musikpavillon" is placed in the park where musical groups of different styles perform on Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays free of charge.[40] The Musiktheater (music theatre) was opened in April 2013 and is considered to be one of the most modern opera houses in Europe. It offers five stages of varying sizes; the big hall ("Großer Saal") with 1,200 seats, the BlackBox with up to 270 seats, the BlackBoxLounge with up to 150 seats, the orchestra hall ("Orchestersaal") with up to 200 seats and another stage in the foyer ("FoyerBühne"). Performances at the Musiktheater include operas and typically Austrian operettas, ballets and musicals.[41] The ensemble of the Landestheater (regional theatre) Linz
Linz
used to perform musical productions as well as theatre productions at a venue located on the "Promenade" in the inner city of Linz
Linz
(this venue is still referred to simply as "Landestheater"). Since the opening of the new Musiktheater, only theatre performances take place at the "Promenade" venue, whereas musical productions are shown in the Musiktheater. The Landestheater Linz
Linz
is especially renowned for its theatre for young audiences called uhof:. The Kapu is a venue for various contemporary music styles, such as hip hop, noise rock and crust and also houses a cinema and a recording studio.[42] The Posthof is one of the biggest event centres in Linz
Linz
with three rooms offering up to 630 seats or standing room for about 1,200 people respectively in the big hall. The programme focuses on contemporary art and covers concerts, theatre, cabaret, dance and literature. Artists from Linz
Linz
are regularly invited in order to improve the local cultural scene; e.g. bands from Linz
Linz
get the opportunity to play as pre-bands alongside nationally and internationally known artists. Altogether a total of about 250 events take place at the Posthof each year with a total number of visitors of about 80.000.[43] The Stadtwerkstatt
Stadtwerkstatt
is an independent association for culture and was founded in 1979. Its headquarters is located in the Urfahr district on the north bank of the Danube
Danube
close to the Ars Electronica Centre and serves as venue for music events and other artistic and cultural activities. Situated at the same address is the Stadtwerkstatt’s own Café Strom, a café/bar popular amongst young adults.[44] Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
wrote his Symphony No. 36 (1783) in Linz
Linz
for a concert to be given there, and the work is known today as the Linz Symphony. He reportedly also composed his Piano Sonata 13 in B flat while in Linz, although it was published in Vienna. The first version of Anton Bruckner's Symphony No. 1 in C minor is known as the Linz version. Anton Bruckner
Anton Bruckner
was born in Ansfelden
Ansfelden
near Linz
Linz
and spent several years working as a conductor and organist in Linz, where he also started to compose. The first version of Anton Bruckner's Symphony No. 1 in C minor is known as the Linz
Linz
version. The Brucknerhaus, a concert hall in Linz
Linz
as well as its annual international Brucknerfest are named after him. The musician and DJ Marcus Füreder, better known by his stage name Parov Stelar
Parov Stelar
was born in Linz. Cinema[edit] The history of cinema and film begins in Linz
Linz
in September 1896, when, as part of a variety programme, a film programme was shown in "Roithner's vaudeville" for the first time in Upper Austria. Until the next screening of a film it took until 20 March 1897, when Johann Bläser’s travelling cinema guested in the "Hotel of the Golden Ship”. Until the opening of the first cinemas with regular programme, it took till the end of the year 1908. At that time, Karl Lifka opened his "Lifka's Grand Théâtre électrique" in that building, where already the very first film showing took place. Subsequently, the second cinema of Linz
Linz
was opened a few months later. As the owner of travelling cinemas, Johann Bläser, got settled in Linz, he bought the “Hotel of the Golden Ship”, and installed a cinema in it, the “Bio-Kinematograph”. The third stationary cinema, called “Kino Kolloseum”, in town was founded around 1910 by the vaudeville operator Karl Roithner. Its first location was the former festival hall at Hessenplatz. Libraries[edit] In September 2007 the “Wissensturm”, next to the central station, was completed. There the Main Library and the adult education centre are housed. In the same year the expansion of the National Library on Schillerplatz began.

Main Library and 10 branches: 1,159,212 borrowings (2013)[45] National library: 86,262 Borrowings (2005)

The Main Library is the largest public library in Upper Austria. The library has a stock of 220,000 media, of which approximately 60,000 audiovisual media, as well as numerous magazines. The library also offers public Internet access and computers for surfing. The public library focuses on supporting reading. Thus in addition, regularly events such as readings, workshops or reading consultations take place.[46] Culinary specialties[edit] In Linz
Linz
you can find both traditional restaurants and old wine taverns, as well as modern and exotic cuisine. The influence of 140 nations can be felt in Linz's culinary offerings. A coalition of over 40 restaurants, cafes and among other locations bars are called “hotspots”. Moreover, Linz
Linz
has several à la carte restaurants and Gault Millau gourmet restaurants. Typical dishes in Linz
Linz
include not only the famous Linzer torte
Linzer torte
but also knödel and strudel in all different kind of variations. Another specialty is the erdäpfelkäs, a spread made from mashed potatoes and cream. Some well-known chefs from Linz
Linz
are Lukas Erich, who cooks in the Verdi and Georg Essig from the Der neue Vogelkäfig.[47] Regular events[edit]

Ars Electronica Festival: the Ars Electronica Festival is a festival for media art which has been taking place annually in Linz
Linz
since 1986 and includes exhibitions, concerts, performances, symposia and interventions on changing themes that take place in public settings such as churches and industrial halls. The events focus on art, technology and society and the nexus among them. In 2015 about 92,000 visitors attended the Ars Electronica Festival.[48] The topic in 2016 was “RADICAL ATOMS and the alchemists of our time“.[49] In 2017 the festival took place under the theme “Artificial Intelligence – The Alter Ego”.[50] The festival takes place in different public spaces and is considered to be a confrontation with and in the public sphere.[51] Black Humour Festival: Every two years in May, the Festival of Black Humour with guests from all over Europe takes place in the Posthof in Linz. The latest festival was in May, 2017 (04.-24.May) representing performances from Italy, Sweden, Germany
Germany
and Spain.[52] Bubble Days: the Bubble Days have been taking place annually in June since 2011 and are hosted by local creative collective LI.K.I.DO. During the event a number of extreme sports shows, such as aviation performances and a wake boarding contest, the Red Bull WAKE OF STEEL, take place in the harbour of Linz. Additionally there are a number of art exhibitions and live music acts and visitors can explore the harbour on boat tours, in paddle boats or kayaks. In 2013 the Bubble Days reached a total number of 12,000 visitors.[53] Crossing Europe Film Festival: Since 2004 this festival takes place annually in Linz. Starting at a total number of 9,000 visitors in the first year, the tenth edition of the Crossing Europe Film Festival in 2014 attracted over 20,000 people; 184 feature films, documentaries and short films from 37 countries were shown. The film screenings are accompanied by exhibitions, talks and live music acts ("Nightline"). There are currently eight different awards to be won at the Crossing Europe Film Festival in categories such as "CROSSING EUROPE Audience Award", the "FEDEORA AWARD for European Documentaries" and the "CROSSING EUROPE AWARD Local Artist".[54] Donau in Flammen ( Danube
Danube
in Flames): Annual music fireworks from June to August in Upper Austria
Austria
on the banks of the Danube, accompanied by a broad supporting program.[55] Festival der Regionen (Festival of the regions): The festival of the regions focuses on contemporary local art and culture and takes place every second year in varying locations across Upper Austria. It took place for the first time in 1993 and has been dedicated to different themes such as "the other", "marginal zones" or "normality".[56] International Brucknerfest: Following the opening of the "Brucknerhaus" concert hall in Linz
Linz
three years earlier, the international Brucknerfest took place for the first time in 1977. Whereas the first two editions were only dedicated to classical music in general and Anton Bruckner’s pieces in particular, this changed in 1979 when the international Brucknerfest, the Ars Electronica festival and the "Klangwolke" (sound cloud), which now marks the beginning of the Brucknerfest, were merged to create a festival worthy of competing with those in Vienna
Vienna
and Salzburg. Taking place annually for three weeks in September/October it closes the Austrian festival season.[57][58] Kinderfilmfestival (Kid’s Film Festival): The international children's film festival is organized by the Kinderfreunde Oberösterreich. Films are shown in the original version while being live synchronised by an actor. The 29th festival will supposedly take place in November 2017.[59] Kinderkulturwoche (Children’s Week of Culture): The children's culture week has been taking place regularly since 2013 with plays, workshops, intro courses for children and teenagers.[60] Klangwolke (Cloud of sound): Created as a link between the Ars Electronica Festival and the international Brucknerfest, this open-air multimedia musical event takes place annually at the beginning of September at the riverside Donaupark in Linz. It is free of charge and attracted about 110,000 people in 2013. Today there are three different "Clouds of sound", the visualised Klangwolke, in which modern music (mostly commissioned works) is staged with lasers, video projections, fireworks, ships, cranes, balloons, etc., the Klangwolke for children (since 1998) and the classical Klangwolke. Linzfest: This open air festival has taken place in Linz
Linz
since 1990. It is financed by the city of Linz
Linz
and several sponsors and organised for the broad public of all ages in cooperation with partners such as local cultural institutions. The festival is dedicated to a different theme every year (the last one in 2014 was "Old is the new new") and includes concerts, theatre, dance, comedy, art in the public space, culinary art, literature and parties, all of which are in line with the general theme of the event. It is held in the "Donaupark", a wide park area next to the Danube, also referred to as "Donaulände" or "Kulturmeile".[61] Linz
Linz
Marathon is held annually in April and attracted over 15,000 participants and about 100,000 spectators in 2013.[62] Pflasterspektakel: The festival takes place annually since 1986 in the city centre of Linz
Linz
and includes musical acts, juggling, acrobatics, pantomime, improvisational theatre, clownery, fire dancing, painting, samba parades, as well as a programme for children. With about 250,000 visitors (2014) the festival is one of the biggest street art festivals in Europe; its 28th edition featured 300 artists from 36 different nations.[63] The Stadtfest (City festival) is held annually in August in the inner city of Linz. The three-day festival features live music acts of different styles, with each music style being represented on a different stage. The concerts are held by national and international artists. Every year about 100,000 people take part in this event. Urfahraner Märkte: These fairs are held twice every year (once in spring, once in autumn) in Urfahr on the northern side of the Danube. They include a fun park (with roller coasters and a Ferris wheel) and a market (with food products from local and regional farmers) and attract about 500,000 people.

Other cultural institutions and venues[edit]

Archive of the city of Linz: collection of important documents of the city of Linz, presenting Linz‘ town history Atelierhaus Salzamt: living and working space for artists, featuring continuous exhibitions. Botanic garden: about 100,000 visitors every year; featuring a summer programme of music acts, readings and dance performances in the garden pavilion Donaupark Linz: contains sculptures by national and international artists such as Herbert Bayer, Max Bill
Max Bill
and David Rabinowitch. The original idea of this project, called 'forum metall', by Helmuth Gsöllpointner and Peter Baum, was to set an example of Linz
Linz
as an art metropolis with sculptures symbolizing a fusion of art and economy. Design Centre Linz: modern congress and exhibition centre Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
Observatory: opened in 1983 Kinderkulturzentrum Kuddelmuddel: theatre for children which includes a kindergarten KUBA Jugendkultur: cultural institution for teenagers and young adults, founded by the Verein Jugend und Freizeit, which is an association for teenagers and young adults interested in culture Kulturhaus Reiman: venue for concerts, young theatre and cabaret Kulturzentrum Hof: cultural institution featuring concerts of different music styles, cabaret performances, theatre, readings and various workshops. The Kulturzentrum Hof tries to appeal to non-mainstream artistic styles. Kunstraum Goethestrasse: founded in 1998, it is a location for temporary art Landeskulturzentrum Ursulinenhof: The Ursulinenhof houses cultural institutions and is a cultural venue (presenting e.g. exhibitions and hosting readings and theatre performances) and a press and event centre. Tabakfabrik: location for exhibitions and musical events. For about four decades Gerhard Haderer, a cartoonist from Linz, has been criticizing and unmasking the obedient ones in our society. His most recent project titled “Schule des Ungehorsams” (“School of Disobedience”) is an appeal to all the people interfering in order to contribute to shaping our society which makes us ponder on disobedience in a playful way. It will be hosted in the Tabakfabrik (tobacco factory) in Linz
Linz
and Haderer himself will be the janitor. The planned activities will include exhibitions, public readings, publications, lectures and workshops.[64]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Anton Bruckner
Anton Bruckner
Private University for Music, Drama, and Dance (private) for music (approx. 800 students) Catholic-Theological Private University Linz
Catholic-Theological Private University Linz
(private) for Catholic theology (approx. 400 students), which has been a Papal
Papal
faculty since 1978 The Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
University is situated in the north-east of Linz, and hosts law, business, social sciences, engineering and science faculties; about 13,416 students (October 2007) are enrolled. A spin-off of the university, as well as a Fachhochschule for various computer-related studies, (polytechnic) is located 20 miles (32 km) north of Linz
Linz
in the small town of Hagenberg im Mühlkreis. Linz
Linz
also hosts three other universities: University of Arts and Industrial Design Linz, public, for arts and industrial design (approx. 800 students).

Amongst the many "Gymnasien" (high schools) in Linz, is Linz International School Auhof (LISA), which is one of four IB (International Baccalaureate) schools in Austria, and uses English as main language for instruction. Leisure activities[edit] Parks and gardens[edit]

A sculpture at the Bauernberg park.

Linz
Linz
offers many parks and holiday areas: Lakes and public swimming pools: Pichlinger See, Pleschinger See, Weikerlsee, Biesenfeldbad, Hummelhofbad, Parkbad, Schörgenhubbad. One of the first public swimming pools was the former “Fabriksarm”, a Danube
Danube
branch stream (from Parkbad to Winterhafen) that was filled up in 1890. Afterwards a makeshift at the “Obere Donaulände” was built, which existed until a flood in 1954. In 1901 the “Städtische Schwimmschule” (city swimming school) was built at the place of the former Parkbad.

Botanischer Garten: About 100,000 visitors are attracted by Botanischer Garten, which makes it one of the most visited sights of the city since 1952. Situated at Bauernberg, and comprising 4.2 hectares, the arrangement distinguishes by its harmonious design, its abundance of plant species (about 8,000 different types in culture) and the multifaceted cultural and event programme. Donaulände or "Lände": public park on the Danube
Danube
between Lentos and the Brucknerhaus. In summer, the Donaulände is a popular meeting point among young people living in Linz. It also hosts the Linzer Klangwolke. Freinberg: public park, very well frequented by families and joggers. One of the most beautiful residential districts of Linz. Pfenningberg: Pfenningberg is a part of the northeastern green belt directioning to Steyregg. It offers stunning views of the port facilities and the grounds of the VÖEST. Wasserwald: Big Park (approximately 1 km²) in the south of Linz. The park is located in the district of Kleinmünchen, where large waterworks are situated. The most frequent visitors are walkers, joggers, Nordic walkers and dog owners, who enjoy the idyllic atmosphere of the park. The park is equipped with well-maintained sidewalks, playgrounds, two toboggan hills, a fitness trail, a running track and a senior park with chess. Furthermore, two public toilets are available. Stadtpark: On 22 August 2003, the new Linz
Linz
City Park between Huemer-, Museum-, Noßberger- and Körnerstraße was officially opened. With 10,807 square metres of green area, it is the second largest inner-city park. The city of Linz
Linz
has acquired this area due to a barter with the Austrian postal service. Since Schiller Park in 1909, there has been no newly openend park of this magnitude in the centre of Linz. Landschaftspark Bindermichl-Spallerhof: In the first phase of the establishment of the 8.3 -hectare sized area, which reconnects the boroughs Bindermichl and Spallerhof, the province of Upper Austria
Austria
was responsible for the expansion of the park. The park replaces the urban motorway, which runs subterranean in this area since 2006. Old paths were re-established and until mid 2007 city gardener designed prethe new parkland with 550 trees and various shrubs, perennials and flower beds that give the park a varied and beautiful boroughs appearance. Linzer Zoo: Linz
Linz
Zoo is located at Pöstlingsberg and is home to around 600 animals from 110 different species on 4 acres (2 ha). In recent years, the zoo was able to increase its visitor numbers continuously. In 2014, about 132,000 visitors visited Linz
Linz
Zoo. Kirchschlag ski resort is located 15 km north of Linz
Linz
and has three ski lifts: The Hauslift, the Waldlift or the Babylift. The special features of the ski area include the "How fast am I - route" which automatically measures the time or the night skiing. The ski area also has a 2 km long cross-country ski run, a curling ground and a nature ice rink.[65][66]

Especially in densely built-up inner-city areas smaller parks are highly important for the inhabitants of Linz, the parks act as green oases. Along the main axis of the city centre of Linz, the highway, several such small gardens are located. These are on the one handside the Landhaus Park, which has been redesigned as part of an underground car park construction until 2009, whereby the old trees have been preserved. In addition, Hessenplatz or – park is located in the city centre of Linz. Hessenplatz was the centre of Neustadtviertel in 1884. Just off the highway Schiller Park is located, which replaced the Trainkaserne in 1909, and the Volksgarten, which was created in 1829 by an entrepreneur and bought up in 1857 by the city. Donausteig[edit] The Donausteig is a non Alpine Austrian- Bavarian long-distance hiking trail, which is 450 kilometres (280 miles) long and is divided into 23 stages. Since the summer of 2010 it mainly leads alongside both banks of the Danube, from Passau
Passau
through Linz
Linz
and St. Nikola to Grein. The trail mainly runs through nature and leads to popular landscapes and viewpoints. Harbor tour[edit] From the end of April until the beginning of October the Design- Ship „MS Linzerin“ offers a harbor tour of 100 Minutes – three times a day (Tuesday until Sunday). Starting point of the tour is the Linzer Donaupark and the tour goes along the Linzer Kulturmeile, passes the Brucknerhaus
Brucknerhaus
and ends at the waterfront mouth of ÖSWAG Schiffswerft Linz. Sports[edit] There are 302 Sport Clubs in Linz. 224 of those are a part of the three major umbrella organizations ASKÖ (108 Clubs with about 48,500 members), UNION (67 clubs with about 40,500 members) and ASVÖ (49 clubs with about 19,000 members). One of the more well-known clubs is „LASK” – they moved to Paschinger Waldstadion in the meantime – as well as “SK VÖEST Linz” – now called “FC Blau- Weiß Linz”. Furthermore, the popularity of the ice hockey club “EHC Black Wings Linz” has increased, in particular after they won the championship in the seasons 2002/03 and 2011/12. The EHC Black Wings Linz
EHC Black Wings Linz
play professional ice hockey in the Erste Bank Eishockey Liga. Generali Ladies Linz is annual WTA Tour tennis tournament held in city. Born in Linz[edit]

Mary Anne of Austria
Austria
around 1729

Alois Riegl
Alois Riegl
around 1890

A detailed view of the monument for Adalbert Stifter
Adalbert Stifter
at Promenade.

Mary Anne of Austria
Austria
(1683–1754), Queen consort of Portugal Hermann Bahr
Hermann Bahr
(1863–1934), writer, playwright, director and critic Sybille Bammer
Sybille Bammer
(born 1980), tennis player Waltraut Cooper
Waltraut Cooper
(born 1937), artist, pioneer of digital art Fritz Eckhardt
Fritz Eckhardt
(1907–1995), actor, director and writer Frank Elstner
Frank Elstner
(born 1942), presenter on German television Valie Export
Valie Export
(born 1940), artist Marcus Füreder (born 1974), producer, DJ Igo Hofstetter (1926–2002), composer Irene Kepl
Irene Kepl
(born 1982), Austrian violinist and composer Anton Koschany (born 1953), Canadian news producer, W5 Mateo Kovačić
Mateo Kovačić
(born 1994), Croatian footballer Marco Krainer (born 1981), Austrian specialty and TV chef with connections to the United States Hans Kronberger (1920–1970), nuclear physicist Richard Link (born 1951), Canadian space scientist Vera Lischka
Vera Lischka
(born 1977), breaststroke swimmer and politician Birgit Minichmayr
Birgit Minichmayr
(born 1977), actress Ida Pellet
Ida Pellet
(1838–1863), actress Alois Riegl
Alois Riegl
(1858–1905), art historian Shlomo Sand
Shlomo Sand
(born 1946), professor of history at Tel Aviv University and author of the controversial book The Invention of the Jewish People Franz Schumann (born 1960), professional wrestler Herwig van Staa
Herwig van Staa
(born 1942), former governor of Tyrol Christina Stürmer
Christina Stürmer
(born 1982), Austrian pop/rock singer Richard Tauber
Richard Tauber
(1891–1948), tenor Elisabeth Theurer
Elisabeth Theurer
(born 1956), equestrienne Fritz von Thurn und Taxis
Fritz von Thurn und Taxis
(born 1950), Austrian sportscaster Franz Welser-Möst
Franz Welser-Möst
(born 1960), music director of the Cleveland Orchestra and the Vienna
Vienna
State Opera

Living in Linz:

Doug Hammond (born in Tampa, Florida, 1942) musician.[67] Andrew Edge
Andrew Edge
(born in Leeds, England, 1956) musician.[68] Adalbert Stifter, (1805, Oberplan - 1868, Linz) writer

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Austria Twin towns — sister cities[edit] Linz
Linz
is twinned with:[69]

Charlottenburg, Berlin, Germany, since 1995 České Budějovice, Czech Republic, since 1987 Chengdu, China, since 1983 Gabès, Tunisia, since 1977 Halle, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, since 1975 Kansas
Kansas
City, Kansas, United States, since 1988

Gwangyang, South Korea, since 1991 Linköping, Sweden, since 1995 Linz
Linz
am Rhein, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, since 1987 Modena, Modena, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, since 1992 Albufeira, Algarve, Portugal, since 2008 Sumgait, Azerbaijan, since 2009[70][71] Brașov, Romania, since 2012[72]

Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, since 1993 Norrköping, Sweden, since 1995 San Carlos, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
since 1988 Zaporizhia, Ukraine, since 1983[73] Tampere, Finland, since 1995 Eskişehir, Turkey, since 2012

See also[edit]

Linzer torte List of mayors of Linz Oberösterreich

Notes[edit]

^ Statistik Austria
Austria
- Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn 2002-2016 nach Gemeinden, Erstellt am 14.06.2016 (Last accessed 13.12.2016) for Linz. ^ a b "LINZ - UNESCO
UNESCO
City of Media Arts" (in German). Retrieved 10 January 2015.  ^ Stadtplanung Linz
Linz
mit der Aufteilung der Flächennutzung, Mai 2014 ^ http://www.linz.at/zahlen/010_Stadtgebiet/.  Missing or empty title= (help); External link in website= (help); Missing or empty url= (help) ^ Paul Hofmann (5 April 1987). "Letting Linz
Linz
Castle cast a spell". The New York
York
Times. Retrieved 2 December 2008.  ^ Lundy, Darryl. "A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe". The Peerage. Retrieved 15 April 2008.  ^ Kershaw, Ian. Hitler: 1889–1936: Hubris. New York: Norton, 1998. p.15 ^ "Adolf Hitler's hometown in Austria
Austria
has opened an exhibition...", BBC ^ Samuel W. Mitcham (2007). Eagles of the Third Reich. Stackpole. p. 261. ISBN 9780811734059. Retrieved 27 September 2015.  ^ City of Linz
Linz
Website statistik.at – Retrieved 31 October 2007 ^ Population linz.at/zahlen – Retrieved 31 October 2007 ^ " Linz
Linz
in Zahlen". Stadt Linz. Retrieved 30 March 2015.  ^ "Klimadaten von Österreich 1971-2000 -Linz" (in German). Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics. Retrieved 6 September 2012.  ^ "LINZ AUCH IM KONGRESSBEREICH AUF ÜBERHOLSPUR" (in German). Retrieved 29 January 2015.  ^ "Tagungshandbuch 2014 web" (in German). Retrieved 29 January 2015.  ^ Linz
Linz
Linien GmbH for Local Transport. Linz
Linz
AG. Retrieved 29 August 2010. ^ The Plague Column liwest.at – Retrieved 31 October 2007 ^ The top of the column Archived 23 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine. linz.at – Retrieved 31 October 2007 ^ "St. Martin's Church, Linz
Linz
(in English)". Linz
Linz
City Tourist Board. Retrieved 6 April 2008.  ^ "Mariendom (New Cathedral in Linz)". Mariendom. Archived from the original on 28 January 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2008.  ^ Brucknerhaus
Brucknerhaus
andreas-praefcke.de – Retrieved 31 October 2007 ^ "Great Hall". Retrieved 29 January 2018.  ^ "PK Internationales Brucknerfest 2017" (in German). Retrieved 29 January 2018.  ^ "LASK". LASK. Archived from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 6 April 2008.  ^ George Tabori. "Mein Kampf: Farce in fünf Akten" (in German). Landestheater. Retrieved 6 April 2008.  ^ "Die Spielzeit 2007/2008". Landestheater. Retrieved 6 April 2008.  ^ "Denkmäler" (in German). Retrieved 20 July 2016.  ^ The Lentos homepage lentos.at – Retrieved 10 November 2007 ^ "Welcome Posthof 04 2008". Posthof. Retrieved 6 April 2008.  ^ "Stadtwerkstadt". Stadtwerkstadt. Retrieved 6 April 2008.  ^ " Pflasterspektakel
Pflasterspektakel
Festival". Magistrat der Landeshauptstadt Linz. Archived from the original on 8 August 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2010.  ^ "European Capital of Culture". Linz
Linz
Tourist Board. Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 6 April 2008.  ^ "Creative Cities Network". Retrieved 20 January 2015.  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
Creative Cities Beijing Summit". Retrieved 30 June 2015.  ^ "Linz, UNESCO
UNESCO
City of Media Arts". Retrieved 30 June 2015.  ^ " Valie Export
Valie Export
Center in der Tabakfabrik". Retrieved 29 January 2018.  ^ " Linz
Linz
& Media Arts". Retrieved 29 January 2018.  ^ "Open Commons Linz". Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ "Biologiezentrum Linz
Linz
– größte naturkundliche Sammlung des Landes Oberösterreich" (in German). Archived from the original on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.  ^ "Musikpavillon im Donaupark, Nähe Brucknerhaus" (in German). Retrieved 25 September 2014.  ^ "Das Musiktheater am Volksgarten- Linz
Linz
hat ein neues kulturelles Wahrzeichen" (in German). Retrieved 27 August 2014.  ^ "About". Retrieved 27 August 2014.  ^ "Posthof" (in German). Retrieved 27 August 2014.  ^ "Chronologie" (in German). Retrieved 27 August 2014.  ^ "2013 mehr als eine Million Entlehnungen in der Stadtbibliothek" (in German). Retrieved 19 July 2016.  ^ "Stadtbibliothek Linz" (in German). Retrieved 19 July 2016.  ^ "Linzer Gastronomie" (in German). Retrieved 20 July 2016.  ^ "Ars Electronica Festival 2015". Retrieved 29 January 2018.  ^ "2016 Ars Electronica Festival at the PostCity". Retrieved 29 January 2018.  ^ "Fallout Shelter, Conveyer Belts, Spiral Packet Chutes and Lots of Media Art: Highlights of the 2017 Ars Electronica Festival in POSTCITY". Retrieved 29 January 2018.  ^ "Ars Electronica Festival – About". Retrieved 25 September 2014.  ^ "Black Humour Festival". Retrieved 15 September 2017.  ^ "Bubble Days – das etwas andere Linzer Hafenfest" (in German). Retrieved 4 November 2014.  ^ "CROSSING EUROPE Festival History 2004-2014". Retrieved 25 September 2014.  ^ "Das sagenhafte Musikfeuerwerk auf der Donau". Retrieved 15 September 2017.  ^ "THE FESTIVAL OF REGIONS". Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.  ^ "Brucknerfest – The Idea". Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2014.  ^ "Festivals in Linz
Linz
– Brucknerfest Linz" (in German). Retrieved 25 September 2014.  ^ "Willkommen beim Internationalen Kinderfilmfestival!". Retrieved 15 September 2017.  ^ "Kinderkulturwoche Linz
Linz
2017". Retrieved 15 September 2017.  ^ "Mission Statement" (in German). Retrieved 4 November 2014.  ^ "Der 12. Borealis Linz
Linz
Donau Marathon sprengt alle Teilnehmerrekorde" (in German). Retrieved 4 November 2014.  ^ " Pflasterspektakel
Pflasterspektakel
2014". Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.  ^ "Haderers "Schule des Ungehorsams" eröffnet" (in German). Retrieved 29 January 2018.  ^ " Kirchschlag bei Linz
Kirchschlag bei Linz
- Schilifte Kirchschlag GmbH" (in German). Retrieved 28 April 2014.  ^ "Skigebiet Kirchschlag nördlich von Linz" (in German). Retrieved 28 April 2014. [permanent dead link] ^ " Doug Hammond biog". Doug Hammond. Retrieved 6 April 2008.  ^ "Andrew Edge". Andrew Edge. Retrieved 6 April 2008.  ^ "Sister Cities of Linz". Retrieved 27 October 2011.  ^ " Sumgait
Sumgait
to be twinned with Austria`s Linz" (in eng). AzerTac. 6 June 2009. Archived from the original on 23 January 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.  ^ News Report concerning the Twinning with Linz
Linz
Archived 4 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Міста-побратими м. Запоріжжя [Twin Cities Zaporozhye]. City of Zaporizhia (in Ukrainian). Шановні відвідувачі і користувачі сайту. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Linz

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Linz.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia
Collier's Encyclopedia
article Linz.

Linz
Linz
travel guide from Wikivoyage  "Linz". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  LinzGenesis and Museum of the History of Dentistry in Upper Austria StifterHaus Landesgalerie (Provincial gallery) Nordico – Museum of the City of Linz O.K Center for Contemporary Art Linz
Linz
Picture tour through Linz 360° Panoramic Photos from Linz University of Arts and Industrial Design Linz Official homepage of Linz
Linz
— The Capital of Culture 2009 Independent Platform of Linz
Linz
European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
2009 Comprehensive independent travel guide to Linz
Linz
written by a local LISA — Linz
Linz
International School Auhof Ars Electronica Centre Lentos Art Museum Brucknerhaus
Brucknerhaus
concert hall Linzforum (in German) Linz
Linz
web site (in German) Data about the city (in German) Anton Bruckner
Anton Bruckner
Private University for Music, Drama, and Dance (in German) Catholic-Theological Private University Linz

Articles and topics related to Linz

v t e

Principal cities of Austria

Bregenz Feldkirch Graz Innsbruck Klagenfurt Leoben Lienz Linz Salzburg Sankt Pölten Steyr Vienna Villach Wels Wiener Neustadt

v t e

Cities and districts (Bezirke) of Upper Austria

Cities

Linz Steyr Wels

Districts

Braunau am Inn Eferding Freistadt Gmunden Grieskirchen Kirchdorf an der Krems Linz-Land Perg Ried im Innkreis Rohrbach Schärding Steyr-Land Urfahr-Umgebung Vöcklabruck Wels-Land

v t e

Administrative seats of Austrian states

Bregenz Eisenstadt Graz Innsbruck Klagenfurt Linz Salzburg Sankt Pölten Vienna

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City
Luxembourg City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

v t e

The Danube

Countries

Germany Austria Slovakia Hungary Croatia Serbia Bulgaria Romania Moldova Ukraine

Cities

Ulm Ingolstadt Regensburg Passau Linz Vienna Bratislava Győr Budapest Vukovar Ilok Novi Sad Belgrade Ruse Brăila Galați Izmail Tulcea

Tributaries

Iller Lech Regen Isar Inn Morava Váh Hron Ipeľ/Ipoly Drava Tisza/Tisa Sava Timiș/Tamiš Great Morava Timok Jiu Iskar Olt Osam Yantra Vedea Argeș Ialomița Siret Prut

See also

List of islands in the Danube List of crossings of the Danube

v t e

Adolf Hitler

Politics

Führer Political views Political directives Speeches Mein Kampf Zweites Buch Last will and testament Books Nazism

Events

Military career Rise to power Hitler
Hitler
Cabinet Nazi Germany World War II The Holocaust Assassination attempts Death

Places of residence

Führer
Führer
Headquarters

Berghof (Kehlsteinhaus) Reich Chancellery Wolf's Lair Werwolf Adlerhorst Special
Special
train (Führersonderzug) Führerbunker Wolfsschlucht I Wolfsschlucht II Anlage Süd Felsennest

Civilian residences

Braunau am Inn Linz Vienna
Vienna
(Meldemannstraße dormitory) Munich
Munich
(16 Prinzregentenplatz)

Personal life

Health Wealth and income Religious views Sexuality Vegetarianism Staff Bodyguard August Kubizek Stefanie Rabatsch Psychopathography Hitler's Table Talk Paintings 50th birthday

Personal belongings

Hitler's Globe Personal standard Private library

Perceptions

Books In popular culture The Victory of Faith Triumph of the Will Hitler: The Last Ten Days The Meaning of Hitler Hitler
Hitler
"Diaries" Moloch Hitler: The Rise of Evil Downfall

Family

Eva Braun
Eva Braun
(wife) Alois Hitler
Hitler
(father) Klara Hitler
Hitler
(mother) Johann Georg Hiedler (grandfather) Maria Schicklgruber (grandmother) Angela Hitler
Hitler
(half-sister) Paula Hitler
Hitler
(sister) Leo Rudolf Raubal Jr. (half-nephew) Geli Raubal
Geli Raubal
(half-niece) William Patrick Stuart-Houston (half-nephew) Heinz Hitler
Hitler
(half-nephew) Pets: Blondi
Blondi
(dog)

Other

Hitler's possible monorchism Conspiracy theories about Hitler's death Streets named after Hitler Mannerheim recording

Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 450145424561886830301 GND: 4074255-6 BNF:

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