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Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
can mean either of two related concepts:

the particular form of biological classification (taxonomy) set up by Carl Linnaeus, as set forth in his Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
(1735) and subsequent works. In the taxonomy of Linnaeus
Linnaeus
there are three kingdoms, divided into classes, and they, in turn, into orders, genera (singular: genus), and species (singular: species), with an additional rank lower than species. a term for rank-based classification of organisms, in general. That is, taxonomy in the traditional sense of the word: rank-based scientific classification. This term is especially used as opposed to cladistic systematics, which groups organisms into clades. It is attributed to Linnaeus, although he neither invented the concept of ranked classification (it goes back to Plato
Plato
and Aristotle) nor gave it its present form. In fact, it does not have an exact present form, as "Linnaean taxonomy" as such does not really exist: it is a collective (abstracting) term for what actually are several separate fields, which use similar approaches.

Linnaean name also has two meanings: depending on the context, it may either refer to a formal name given by Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(personally), such as Giraffa camelopardalis
Giraffa camelopardalis
Linnaeus, 1758, or a formal name in the accepted nomenclature (as opposed to a modernistic clade name).

Contents

1 The taxonomy of Linnaeus

1.1 Classification for plants 1.2 Classification for animals 1.3 Classification for minerals

2 Rank-based scientific classification

2.1 Alternatives

3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External links

The taxonomy of Linnaeus[edit] In his Imperium Naturae, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
established three kingdoms, namely Regnum Animale, Regnum Vegetabile and Regnum Lapideum. This approach, the Animal, Vegetable and Mineral
Mineral
Kingdoms, survives today in the popular mind, notably in the form of the parlour game question: "Is it animal, vegetable or mineral?". The work of Linnaeus
Linnaeus
had a huge impact on science; it was indispensable as a foundation for biological nomenclature, now regulated by the nomenclature codes. Two of his works, the first edition of the Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
(1753) for plants and the tenth edition of the Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
(1758), are accepted as part of the starting points of nomenclature; his binomials (names for species) and generic names take priority over those of others. However, the impact he had on science was not because of the value of his taxonomy. Classification for plants[edit] His classes and orders of plants, according to his Systema Sexuale, were never intended to represent natural groups (as opposed to his ordines naturales in his Philosophia Botanica) but only for use in identification. They were used for that purpose well into the nineteenth century.[1] Within each class were several orders.

Key to the Sexual System (from the 10th, 1758, edition of the Systema Naturae)

Kalmia
Kalmia
is classified according to Linnaeus' sexual system in class Decandria, order Monogyna, because it has 10 stamens and one pistil

The Linnaean classes for plants, in the Sexual System, were:

Classis 1. Monandria: flowers with 1 stamen Classis 2. Diandria: flowers with 2 stamens Classis 3. Triandria: flowers with 3 stamens Classis 4. Tetrandria: flowers with 4 stamens Classis 5. Pentandria: flowers with 5 stamens Classis 6. Hexandria: flowers with 6 stamens

Hexandria monogynia pp. 285–352[2] Hexandria polygynia pp. 342–343[3]

Classis 7. Heptandria: flowers with 7 stamens Classis 8. Octandria: flowers with 8 stamens Classis 9. Enneandria: flowers with 9 stamens Classis 10. Decandria: flowers with 10 stamens Classis 11. Dodecandria: flowers with 12 stamens Classis 12. Icosandria: flowers with 20 (or more) stamens, perigynous Classis 13. Polyandria: flowers with many stamens, inserted on the receptacle Classis 14. Didynamia: flowers with 4 stamens, 2 long and 2 short Classis 15. Tetradynamia: flowers with 6 stamens, 4 long and 2 short Classis 16. Monadelphia; flowers with the anthers separate, but the filaments united, at least at the base Classis 17. Diadelphia; flowers with the stamens united in two separate groups Classis 18. Polyadelphia; flowers with the stamens united in several separate groups Classis 19. Syngenesia; flowers with 5 stamens, the anthers united at their edges Classis 20. Gynandria; flowers with the stamens united to the pistils Classis 21. Monoecia: monoecious plants Classis 22. Dioecia: dioecious plants Classis 23. Polygamia: polygamodioecious plants Classis 24. Cryptogamia: the "flowerless" plants, including ferns, fungi, algae, and bryophytes

The classes based on the number of stamens were then subdivided by the number of pistils, e.g. Hexandria monogynia with six stamens and one pistil.[4] Index to genera p. 1201[5] Classification for animals[edit]

The 1735 classification of animals

Only in the Animal
Animal
Kingdom is the higher taxonomy of Linnaeus
Linnaeus
still more or less recognizable and some of these names are still in use, but usually not quite for the same groups. He divided the Animal Kingdom into six classes, in the tenth edition, of 1758, these were:

Classis 1. Mammalia Classis 2. Aves Classis 3. Amphibia Classis 4. Pisces Classis 5. Insecta Classis 6. Vermes

Classification for minerals[edit] His taxonomy of minerals has long since dropped from use. In the tenth edition, 1758, of the Systema Naturae, the Linnaean classes were:

Classis 1. Petræ Classis 2. Mineræ Classis 3. Fossilia Classis 4. Vitamentra

Rank-based scientific classification[edit] Main article: Taxonomy (biology) This rank-based method of classifying living organisms was originally popularized by (and much later named for) Linnaeus, although it has changed considerably since his time. The greatest innovation of Linnaeus, and still the most important aspect of this system, is the general use of binomial nomenclature, the combination of a genus name and a second term, which together uniquely identify each species of organism within a kingdom. For example, the human species is uniquely identified within the animal kingdom by the name Homo
Homo
sapiens. No other species of animal can have this same binomen (the technical term for a binomial in the case of animals). Prior to Linnaean taxonomy, animals were classified according to their mode of movement. Linnaeus's use of binomial nomenclature was anticipated by the theory of definition used in Scholasticism. Scholastic logicians and philosophers of nature defined the species man, for example, as Animal rationalis, where animal was considered a genus and rationalis (Latin for "rational") the characteristic distinguishing man from all other animals. Treating animal as the immediate genus of the species man, horse, etc. is of little practical use to the biological taxonomist, however. Accordingly, Linnaeus's classification treats animal as a class including many genera (subordinated to the animal "kingdom" via intermediary classes such as "orders"), and treats homo as the genus of a species Homo
Homo
sapiens, with sapiens (Latin for "knowing" or "understanding") playing a differentiating role analogous to that played, in the Scholastic system, by rationalis (the word homo, Latin for "human being", was used by the Scholastics to denote a species, not a genus). A strength of Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
is that it can be used to organize the different kinds of living organisms, simply and practically. Every species can be given a unique (and, one hopes, stable) name, as compared with common names that are often neither unique nor consistent from place to place and language to language. This uniqueness and stability are, of course, a result of the acceptance by working systematists (biologists specializing in taxonomy), not merely of the binomial names themselves, but of the rules governing the use of these names, which are laid down in formal nomenclature codes. Species
Species
can be placed in a ranked hierarchy, starting with either domains or kingdoms. Domains are divided into kingdoms. Kingdoms are divided into phyla (singular: phylum) — for animals; the term division, used for plants and fungi, is equivalent to the rank of phylum (and the current International Code of Botanical Nomenclature allows the use of either term). Phyla (or divisions) are divided into classes, and they, in turn, into orders, families, genera (singular: genus), and species (singular: species). There are ranks below species: in zoology, subspecies (but see form or morph); in botany, variety (varietas) and form (forma), etc. Groups of organisms at any of these ranks are called taxa (singular: taxon) or taxonomic groups. The Linnaean system has proven robust and it remains the only extant working classification system at present that enjoys universal scientific acceptance. However, although the number of ranks is unlimited, in practice any classification becomes more cumbersome the more ranks are added. Among the later subdivisions that have arisen are such entities as phyla, families, and tribes, as well as any number of ranks with prefixes (superfamilies, subfamilies, etc.). The use of newer taxonomic tools such as cladistics and phylogenetic nomenclature has led to a different way of looking at evolution (expressed in many nested clades) and this sometimes leads to a desire for more ranks. An example of such complexity is the scheme for mammals proposed by McKenna and Bell. Alternatives[edit] Over time, the understanding of the relationships between living things has changed. Linnaeus
Linnaeus
could only base his scheme on the structural similarities of the different organisms. The greatest change was the widespread acceptance of evolution as the mechanism of biological diversity and species formation, following the 1859 publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species. It then became generally understood that classifications ought to reflect the phylogeny of organisms, their descent by evolution. This led to evolutionary taxonomy, where the various extant and extinct are linked together to construct a phylogeny. This is largely what is meant by the term 'Linnaean taxonomy' when used in a modern context. In cladistics, originating in the work of Willi Hennig, 1950 onwards, each taxon is grouped so as to include the common ancestor of the group's members (and thus to avoid polyphyly). Such taxa may be either monophyletic (including all descendants) such as genus Homo, or paraphyletic (excluding some descendants), such as genus Australopithecus. Originally, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
established three kingdoms in his scheme, namely for Plants, Animals and an additional group for minerals, which has long since been abandoned. Since then, various life forms have been moved into three new kingdoms: Monera, for prokaryotes (i.e., bacteria); Protista, for protozoans and most algae; and Fungi. This five kingdom scheme is still far from the phylogenetic ideal and has largely been supplanted in modern taxonomic work by a division into three domains: Bacteria and Archaea, which contain the prokaryotes, and Eukaryota, comprising the remaining forms. These arrangements should not be seen as definitive. They are based on the genomes of the organisms; as knowledge on this increases, classifications will change.[6] Representing presumptive evolutionary relationships, especially given the wide acceptance of cladistic methodology and numerous molecular phylogenies that have challenged long-accepted classifications, within the framework of Linnaean taxonomy, is sometimes seen as problematic. Therefore, some systematists have proposed a PhyloCode to replace it. See also[edit]

History of plant systematics Phylogenetic tree – a way to express insights into evolutionary relationships Zoology mnemonic
Zoology mnemonic
for a list of mnemonic sentences used to help people remember the list of Linnaean ranks.

References[edit]

^ Comstock, J.L. (1837). An introduction to the study of botany: including a treatise on vegetable physiology, and descriptions of the most common plants in the middle and northern states. Robinson, Pratt & Co.  ^ Linnaeus
Linnaeus
1753, Hexandria monogynia pp. 285–352. ^ Linnaeus
Linnaeus
1753, Hexandria polyynia pp. 342–343. ^ " Linnaeus
Linnaeus
Sexual System". CronkLab. Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia. Retrieved 26 January 2015.  ^ Linnaeus
Linnaeus
1753, Index generum p. 1201. ^ Embley, T. A. & Martin, W. (2006). "Eukaryotic evolution, changes and challenges". Nature. 440. pp. 623–630. doi:10.1038/nature04546. 

Bibliography[edit]

Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species
Species
Plantarum. Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii. Retrieved 18 April 2015.  Dawkins, Richard. 2004. The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-00583-8 Ereshefsky, Marc. 2000. The Poverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy: A Philosophical Study of Biological Taxonomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fara, Patricia (2003). Sex, Botany and Empire: The Story of Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
and Joseph Banks. Cambridge: Icon Books. ISBN 9781840464443. Retrieved 22 February 2015.  George, Sam (June 2005). "'Not Strictly Proper For A Female Pen': Eighteenth-Century Poetry and the Sexuality of Botany". Comparative Critical Studies. 2 (2): 191–210. doi:10.3366/ccs.2005.2.2.191. Retrieved 23 February 2015.  Gould, Stephen Jay. 1989. Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-02705-8 Pavord, Anna. The Naming of Names: The Search for Order in the World of Plants. Bloomsbury. ISBN 0-7475-7952-0

External links[edit]

Wikispecies International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
(Saint Louis Code), Electronic version International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code, 2011), Electronic version ICZN website, for zoological nomenclature Text of the ICZN, Electronic version ZooBank: The World Register of Animal
Animal
Names International Committee on Systematics
Systematics
of Prokaryotes for bacteria International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 4th Edition. By the International Union of Biological Sciences ICTVdB website, for virus nomenclature by the International Union of Microbiological Societies Tree of Life European Species
Species
Names in Linnaean, Czech, English, German and French

v t e

List of systems of plant taxonomy

Pre-Linnaean

John Ray
John Ray
system (1686–1704)

A discourse on the seeds of plants Methodus plantarum nova De Variis Plantarum Methodis Dissertatio Brevis Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta

Pre-Darwinian

Linnaean system (1735–51)

Systema Naturae Species
Species
Plantarum Genera Plantarum Philosophia Botanica

Adanson system (1763)

Familles naturelles des plantes

De Jussieu system (1789)

Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam

De Candolle system (1819–24)

Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l'art de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta

Berchtold and Presl system (1820–1823)

O Prirozenosti Rostlin

Agardh system (1825)

Classes Plantarum

Gray system (1821)

The Natural Arrangement of British Plants

Dumortier
Dumortier
system (1829)

Analyse des familles des plantes

Lindley system (1830–45)

An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany The Vegetable Kingdom

Don system (1834)

General History of Dichlamydious Plants.

Bentham & Hooker system (1862–83)

Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita.

Baillon system (1867–94)

Histoire des plantes

Post- Darwinian
Darwinian
(Phyletic)

Nineteenth century

Eichler system (1875–1886)

Blüthendiagramme: construirt und erläutert Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde

Engler system
Engler system
(1886–1924)

Führer durch den Königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien Das Pflanzenreich

van Tieghem system (1891)

Traité de botanique

Twentieth century

Dalla Torre & Harms system (1900–07)

Genera Siphonogamarum, ad systema Englerianum conscripta

Warming system (1912)

Haandbog i den systematiske botanik

Hallier system (1912)

L'origine et le système phylétique des angiospermes

Bessey system (1915)

The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants

Wettstein system (1901–35)

Handbuch der systematischen Botanik

Lotsy system (1907–11)

Vorträge über botanische Stammesgeschichte, gehalten an der Reichsuniversität zu Leiden. Ein Lehrbuch der Pflanzensystematik.

Hutchinson system (1926–73)

The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny

Calestani system (1933)

Le origini e la classificazione delle Angiosperme

Kimura system (1956)

Système et phylogénie des monocotyledones

Emberger system (1960)

Traité de Botanique systématique

Melchior system (1964)

Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien

Takhtajan system (1966–97)

A system and phylogeny of the flowering plants Flowering plants: origin and dispersal Diversity and classification of flowering plants

Cronquist system
Cronquist system
(1968–81)

The evolution and classification of flowering plants An integrated system of classification of flowering plants

Goldberg system (1986–89

Classification, Evolution
Evolution
and Phylogeny
Phylogeny
of the Families of Dicotyledons

Dahlgren system (1975–85)

The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy

Thorne system (1968–2000)

An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants

Kubitzki system (1990–)

The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants

Reveal system (1999)

Reveal System of Angiosperm Classification

Angiosperm Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Group System (1998–2009)

An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants (APG I) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV Angiosperm Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Website

See also

Plantae at Wikispecies

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli, Batsch
Batsch
and Grisebach.

v t e

Carl Linnaeus

Published works

Linnaeus
Linnaeus
bibliography The Study of Instinct
The Study of Instinct
(book) Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
(1735) Fundamenta Botanica
Fundamenta Botanica
(1736) Bibliotheca Botanica
Bibliotheca Botanica
(1736) Musa Cliffortiania (1736) Critica Botanica
Critica Botanica
(1737) Flora Lapponica
Flora Lapponica
(1737) Genera Plantarum
Genera Plantarum
(1737)

General

Taxonomy (biology) Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
(Linnaean classification) Botanical nomenclature Zoological nomenclature Binomial nomenclature Taxa named by Linnaeus‎ Natural history History of biology History of botany Historical race concepts

Related people

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
the Younger Elisabeth Christina von Linné Apostles of Linnaeus Students of Linnaeus Pre-Linnaean botanists Gaspard Bauhin Johann Bauhin Peter Artedi Herman Boerhaave

Recognitions

Commemoration of Carl Linnaeus Expedition Linné Linnaea Linnaean Garden Linnaeite Linnaemya Linnaemyini 7412 Linnaeus Linnaeus
Linnaeus
Arboretum The Linnaeus
Linnaeus
Museum Linnaeus
Linnaeus
University Linnaeus' Hammarby Linné (crater) Linnéa Linnean Medal Linnean Society of London Swedish Linnaeus
Linnaeus
Society Linnean Society of New South Wales Linnean Tercentenary Medal Linneus, Maine Linneus, Missour

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