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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Le Havre
Le Havre
(UK: /lə ˈhɑːvrə/;[3] French: [lə ɑvʁ] ( listen)), historically called in English Newhaven, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime
Seine-Maritime
department in the Normandy
Normandy
region of northwestern France. It is situated on the right bank of the estuary of the river Seine
Seine
on the Channel southwest of the Pays de Caux. Modern Le Havre
Le Havre
remains deeply influenced by its employment and maritime traditions. Its port is the second largest in France, after that of Marseille, for total traffic, and the largest French container port. The name Le Havre
Le Havre
means "the harbour" or "the port". Its inhabitants are known as Havrais or Havraises.[4] Administratively the commune is located in the Normandy
Normandy
region and, with Dieppe, is one of the two sub-prefectures of the Seine-Maritime department. Le Havre
Le Havre
is the capital of the canton and since 1974 has been the see of the diocese of Le Havre. Le Havre
Le Havre
is the most populous commune of Upper Normandy, although the total population of the greater Le Havre
Le Havre
conurbation is smaller than that of Rouen. It is also the second largest subprefecture in France (after Reims). The city and port were founded by the King Francis I of France
France
in 1517. Economic development in the Early modern period
Early modern period
was hampered by religious wars, conflicts with the English, epidemics, and storms. It was from the end of the 18th century that Le Havre
Le Havre
started growing and the port took off first with the slave trade then other international trade. After the 1944 bombings the firm of Auguste Perret
Auguste Perret
began to rebuild the city in concrete. The oil, chemical, and automotive industries were dynamic during the Trente Glorieuses (postwar boom) but the 1970s marked the end of the golden age of ocean liners and the beginning of the economic crisis: the population declined, unemployment increased and remains at a high level today. Changes in years 1990–2000 were numerous. The right won the municipal elections and committed the city to the path of reconversion, seeking to develop the service sector and new industries (Aeronautics, Wind turbines). The Port 2000
Port 2000
project increased the container capacity to compete with ports of northern Europe, transformed the southern districts of the city, and ocean liners returned. In 2005 UNESCO
UNESCO
inscribed the central city of Le Havre
Le Havre
as a World Heritage Site. The André Malraux
André Malraux
Modern Art Museum is the second of France
France
for the number of impressionist paintings. The city has been awarded two flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom.[5]

Le Havre, the City Rebuilt by Auguste Perret

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Criteria Cultural: ii, iv

Reference 1181

Inscription 2005 (29th Session)

Area 133 ha

Buffer zone 114 ha

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Location 1.2 Geology and terrain 1.3 Climate 1.4 Environment

2 Transport

2.1 Urban transport

3 Urbanism

3.1 The Lower City

3.1.1 City rebuilt after 1945 3.1.2 Neighbourhoods in the old centre of town 3.1.3 The southern districts

3.2 The Upper Town

4 Toponymy 5 History

5.1 Heraldry

6 Politics and administration

6.1 Political trends and results 6.2 Municipal administration 6.3 Mayors of Le Havre 6.4 Public institutions and services 6.5 Twinning

7 Demographics 8 Education

8.1 Schools 8.2 Special
Special
schools and higher education

9 Sports

9.1 Sports facilities 9.2 Sporting events

10 Media

10.1 Religion

11 Economy

11.1 General 11.2 Port 11.3 Industry 11.4 Services sector

12 Culture

12.1 Cultural events and festivals 12.2 Cultural heritage and architecture 12.3 Churches 12.4 Museums 12.5 Theatres, auditoriums and concerts 12.6 Libraries and archives 12.7 Le Havre
Le Havre
in visual arts 12.8 Cinema 12.9 Literature 12.10 Music 12.11 Board Game 12.12 The Norman language

13 Notable people linked to Le Havre 14 See also 15 References

15.1 Notes 15.2 Footnotes

16 Further reading 17 External links

Geography[edit] Location[edit] Further information: Agglomeration community of Le Havre and Baie de la Seine Le Havre
Le Havre
is a major French city located some 50 kilometres (31 miles) west of Rouen
Rouen
on the shore of the English Channel
English Channel
and at the mouth of the Seine. Numerous roads link to Le Havre
Le Havre
with the main access roads being the A29 autoroute
A29 autoroute
from Amiens
Amiens
and the A13 autoroute
A13 autoroute
from Paris linking to the A131 autoroute.

Map of Le Havre: to the south the Seine
Seine
estuary; to the west the English Channel.

Administratively, Le Havre
Le Havre
is a commune in the Normandy
Normandy
region in the west of the department of Seine-Maritime. The urban area of Le Havre corresponds roughly to the territory of the Agglomeration community of Le Havre
Le Havre
(CODAH)[6] which includes 17 communes and 250,000 people.[7] It occupies the south-western tip of the natural region of Pays de Caux where it is the largest city. Le Havre
Le Havre
is sandwiched between the coast of the Channel from south-west to north-west and the estuary of the Seine
Seine
to the south.

Neighbouring communes and towns[8]

Channel; Sainte-Adresse Octeville-sur-Mer Montivilliers

Channel

Le Havre

Gonfreville-l'Orcher

Channel Villerville
Villerville
(left bank) Honfleur
Honfleur
(left bank)

Geology and terrain[edit] Further information: Pays de Caux Le Havre
Le Havre
belongs to the Paris Basin
Paris Basin
which was formed in the Mesozoic period. The Paris Basin
Paris Basin
consists of sedimentary rocks. The commune of Le Havre
Le Havre
consists of two areas separated by a natural cliff edge: one part in the lower part of the town to the south including the harbour, the city centre and the suburbs. It was built on former marshland and mudflats that were drained in the 16th century.[9] The soil consists of several metres of alluvium or silt deposited by the Seine.[9] The city centre was rebuilt after the Second World War
Second World War
using a metre of flattened rubble as a foundation.[10][11] The upper town to the north, is part of the cauchois plateau: the neighbourhood of Dollemard is its highest point (between 90 to 115 metres (295 to 377 feet) above sea level). The plateau is covered with a layer of flinty clay and a fertile silt.[12] The bedrock consists of a large thickness of chalk measuring up to 200 m (656 ft) deep.[13] Because of the slope the coast is affected by the risk of landslides.[14] Climate[edit]

Climatic Graph for Le Havre

Due to its location on the coast of the Channel, the climate of Le Havre is temperate oceanic. Days without wind are rare. There are maritime influences throughout the year. According to the records of the meteorological station of the Cap de la Heve (from 1961 to 1990), the temperature drops below 0 °C (32 °F) on 24.9 days per year and it rises above 25 °C (77 °F) on 11.3 days per year. The average annual sunshine duration is 1,785.8 hours per year.[15] Precipitation
Precipitation
is distributed throughout the year, with a maximum in autumn and winter. The months of June and July are marked by some thunderstorms on average 2 days per month.[15] One of the characteristics of the region is the high variability of the temperature, even during the day.[16] The prevailing winds are from the southwest sector for strong winds and north-north-east for breezes,[17] snowstorms occur in winter, especially in January and February.[15]

Le Havre
Le Havre
under snow

The absolute speed record for wind at Le Havre
Le Havre
– Cap de la Heve was recorded on 16 October 1987 at 180 kilometres per hour (112 miles per hour).[15] The main natural hazards are floods, storms, and storm surges. The lower town is subject to a rising water table.[18] The lack of watercourses within the commune prevents flooding from overflows. Le Havre's beach may rarely experience flooding known as "flooding from storms". These are caused by the combination of strong winds, high waves, and a large tidal range.

Comparison of local Meteorological data with other cities in France[19]

Town Sunshine

(hours/yr) Rain

(mm/yr) Snow

(days/yr) Storm

(days/yr) Fog

(days/yr)

National Average 1,973 770 14 22 40

Le Havre[15] 1,786 709 11 13 53

Paris 1,661 637 12 18 10

Nice 2,724 767 1 29 1

Strasbourg 1,693 665 29 29 56

Brest 1,605 1,211 7 12 75

Weather Data for Le Havre

Climate data for Le Havre
Le Havre
(located in Cap de la Heve, 1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14.9 (58.8) 20.0 (68) 21.6 (70.9) 25.4 (77.7) 30.0 (86) 33.1 (91.6) 36.1 (97) 36.3 (97.3) 33.6 (92.5) 28.5 (83.3) 20.0 (68) 16.4 (61.5) 36.3 (97.3)

Average high °C (°F) 7.2 (45) 7.7 (45.9) 10.1 (50.2) 12.5 (54.5) 16.0 (60.8) 18.5 (65.3) 20.7 (69.3) 21.0 (69.8) 18.9 (66) 15.4 (59.7) 11.0 (51.8) 7.9 (46.2) 13.9 (57)

Average low °C (°F) 3.4 (38.1) 3.3 (37.9) 5.3 (41.5) 6.9 (44.4) 10.0 (50) 12.7 (54.9) 14.9 (58.8) 15.3 (59.5) 13.4 (56.1) 10.5 (50.9) 6.9 (44.4) 4.0 (39.2) 8.9 (48)

Record low °C (°F) −13.8 (7.2) −12.5 (9.5) −7.8 (18) −1.0 (30.2) 1.2 (34.2) 4.4 (39.9) 8.0 (46.4) 8.4 (47.1) 3.3 (37.9) −0.2 (31.6) −8.5 (16.7) −8.6 (16.5) −13.8 (7.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 70.0 (2.756) 51.8 (2.039) 57.2 (2.252) 54.4 (2.142) 59.4 (2.339) 61.0 (2.402) 52.3 (2.059) 56.9 (2.24) 67.2 (2.646) 86.4 (3.402) 85.5 (3.366) 88.2 (3.472) 790.3 (31.114)

Average precipitation days 12.4 10.2 10.8 10.1 9.8 8.5 8.2 8.5 9.4 12.3 13.5 13.9 127.6

Average snowy days 2.3 3.0 2.1 1.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.5 11.0

Average relative humidity (%) 87 85 84 81 81 83 83 82 82 85 86 87 83.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 62.9 87.7 136.2 179.5 214.6 224.4 237.8 218.5 168.3 124.5 74.7 56.7 1,785.8

Source #1: Météo France[20][21]

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, snowy days and sun, 1961–1990)[15]

Environment[edit]

Saint-Roch Square.

A study by Aphekom comparing ten large French cities showed that Le Havre is the least polluted urban commune of France.[22] Le Havre
Le Havre
is also the third best city in France
France
with more than 100,000 inhabitants for air quality.[23] A Carbon accounting
Carbon accounting
showed in 2009 that the municipality ejected some 32,500 tonnes of CO2 per year.[24] In 2011 the average annual emissions of sulfur dioxide by industry was between three micrograms per cubic metre in the centre of Le Havre
Le Havre
to twelve micrograms per cubic metre in the district of Caucriauville.[25] The municipality has set a target to reduce emissions of CO2 by 3% per year.[24] To achieve this solar panels have been installed on several municipal buildings (city hall, hanging gardens).[26] Since 2008, Le Havre has been part of the network of Energy Cities
Energy Cities
and, in this context, it applies the steps of Agenda 21
Agenda 21
and an Environmental Approach to Urban Planning. The city has received many awards of eco-labels several times (Energy of the Future label in 2009–2011, sustainable Earth label in 2009). Since 1998, Le Havre's beach has received the Blue Flag yearly thanks to its range of facilities, which extend over 30,000 Sq. M.[27] Le Havre
Le Havre
has kept extensive green areas (750 hectares or 41 Sq. M per inhabitant[26]): the two largest areas are the Montgeon Forest and Rouelles Park which are both located in the upper town. The gardens of the Priory of Graville and the hanging gardens offer views of the lower city. In the city centre, Saint-Roch Square and the City Hall Gardens provide the people with urban recreation areas. Various ecosystems are represented in the Beach Gardens and the Hauser Park (caves). Finally, the Plateau
Plateau
of Dollemard was classified as a "Sensitive Natural Area" of the department in 2001 to protect its landscape and ecosystems on the cliff.[26] The streets are lined with 13,000 trees of 150 different varieties.[28] Transport[edit] Further information: Transport in Le Havre
Transport in Le Havre
and Gare du Havre

Le Havre
Le Havre
Railway Station

For a long time Le Havre
Le Havre
has exploited the strengths of its coastal location but also suffered from its relative isolation. This is why the accessibility of the city has been improved with the harbour highway A131 (E05) which links Le Havre
Le Havre
to the A13 autoroute
A13 autoroute
over Tancarville
Tancarville
Bridge. The city is one hour from Rouen
Rouen
and one and a half-hour from Île-de-France.[29] More recently the A29 autoroute (E44) has connected Le Havre
Le Havre
to the north of France
France
and passes over the Normandy
Normandy
Bridge which makes Amiens
Amiens
(in the north-east) two hours away and Caen
Caen
(in the south-west) one hour. The TER network was modernized with the creation of the LER line in 2001 and direct services to Fécamp
Fécamp
in 2005. Thirteen Corail trains of the Paris- Le Havre
Le Havre
line link stations at Bréauté-Beuzeville, Yvetot, and Rouen, with Paris
Paris
Saint-Lazare station.[29] In addition there is a TGV
TGV
daily service to Le Havre: it has connected the city to Marseille since December 2004 serving Rouen, Mantes-la-Jolie, Versailles, Massy, Lyon, Avignon, Aix-en-Provence, and Saint Charles station in Marseilles.[29] No direct rail link connects Le Havre
Le Havre
and Caen
Caen
yet many projects – known as the "Southwest Line" – to link Le Havre
Le Havre
to the left bank of the Seine
Seine
downstream from Rouen, near the estuary of the river, were studied in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century but none have been realized. By public transport it is necessary to go to Rouen
Rouen
by train or bus (using No. 20 Green Bus). There is a Gray Coach to Etretat
Etretat
and Fécamp
Fécamp
and there is VTNI for destinations in the Seine
Seine
valley and Rouen
Rouen
who provide inter-urban services on behalf of the Department of Seine-Maritime. Finally, the company AirPlus provides a shuttle service to the train stations and airports of Paris.

A Ferry (LD Lines) in the port of Le Havre.

For air transport, there is Le Havre Octeville Airport
Le Havre Octeville Airport
which is located 5 km (3 mi) north of Le Havre
Le Havre
at the town of Octeville-sur-Mer
Octeville-sur-Mer
and managed by CODAH. The main destination is the Transport hub
Transport hub
of Lyon. Many holiday destinations are offered each year (Tunisia, Balearic Islands, Portugal, Greece, Bulgaria, etc.) through local travel agencies that charter aircraft.[verification needed] There is also the Flying club Jean Maridor at the airport. The Channel maritime links with Portsmouth
Portsmouth
in southern England with P&O Ferries ended on 30 September 2005 to be taken over by LD Lines who have changed the configuration. Two services to Portsmouth are provided daily[29] from the Terminal de la Citadelle. The link to Ireland was moved to the port of Cherbourg. Crossing times to Portsmouth
Portsmouth
vary from five hours and thirty minutes to eight hours.[30] Popular alternative routes going to areas close to Le Havre
Le Havre
include Newhaven to Dieppe, and Poole
Poole
to Cherbourg. Urban transport[edit] Further information: Le Havre
Le Havre
tramway, Funiculaire du Havre, and Transport in Le Havre

Mercedes-Benz Citaro
Mercedes-Benz Citaro
of the CTPO

Tramway du Havre

The city and the metropolitan area has a dense transport network. This solves the problem of a break between the lower town and the upper town and the two parts of the city are connected by long boulevards, winding roads, many stairs, a funicular, and finally the Jenner tunnel. The CODAH transport network is called Lia[31] and is operated by the Ocean Port Transport company (CTPO), a subsidiary of Veolia Transport. The overhaul of the bus network in 2008 helped to ensure a better service for all the towns in the metropolitan area. The CTPO operates a bus network consisting of 19 regular urban routes and six evening routes called the "Midnight Bus".[31] The Le Havre
Le Havre
urban area is served by 165 vehicles and 41 regular bus routes with an average of 100,000 passengers per day.[31] From January 2011 there has been a regular shuttle service specific to the Industrial Zone and Port of Le Havre, thus adding to the cross-estuary service of VTNI.[29] Since 1890 the funicular has provided a link between the upper town and the lower town in four minutes with a cable car.[32] Le Havre
Le Havre
had a tramway system from 1894 until it closed in 1957. More recently a new tramway system, with 23 stations and 13 km (8 mi) of route,[33] was built, and opened on 12 December 2012. The first part of the line connects the beach to the station climbing to the upper town through a new tunnel near the Jenner tunnel then it splits into two: one link going to Mont-Gaillard, the other to Caucriauville. Finally, since 2001 Le Havre
Le Havre
agglomeration has operated the LER, a TER line connecting the Le Havre
Le Havre
station to Rolleville
Rolleville
passing through five other SNCF
SNCF
railway stations of the urban area. From 2005, development work for Segregated cycle facilities
Segregated cycle facilities
have increased including a connection to the Greenway which promises to be an important network of quality. Between 2007 and 2011, the total length of cycle paths has doubled to 46 km (29 mi) in total length.[26] It is possible to rent bicycles through agencies of the Océane bus or from the town hall (Vel-H)[32] which has them on hand. Finally, 140 taxis work in Le Havre
Le Havre
and serve 25 stations.[34] Urbanism[edit]

Le Havre
Le Havre
skyline in 2005

The Lower City[edit] City rebuilt after 1945[edit]

Plan of Le Havre
Le Havre
and its town centre rebuilt after the Second World War

Largely destroyed during the Second World War, the city was rebuilt according to the plans of the architect Auguste Perret
Auguste Perret
between 1945 and 1964. Only the town hall and the Church of Saint Joseph (107m high) were personally designed by Auguste Perret. In commending the reconstruction work UNESCO
UNESCO
listed the city of Le Havre
Le Havre
on 15 July 2005 as a World Heritage Site.[35] This area of 133 hectares is one of the few inscribed contemporary sites in Europe.[35] The architecture of the area is characterized by the use of precast concrete using a system of a modular frame of 6.24 metres and straight lines.[35][36] Another notable architectural work of the central city is that of the House of Culture built in 1982 by the Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer and nicknamed "the Volcano" because of the shape of the building.[37] In 2012, this place was being refurbished both inside and outside with fairly significant changes approved by the architect including greater openness to the outside of the plaza. The Notre Dame and Perrey neighbourhoods are mainly residential. Les Halles is one of the commercial hubs of the city. The Saint Francis neighborhood was also rebuilt after 1945[citation needed] but in a radically different architectural style: the buildings are brick and have pitched slate roofs. This is the restaurant district and the fish market. Neighbourhoods in the old centre of town[edit]

The neighborhood of the church of Saint-Vincent extending toward the coast

To the east and north of the rebuilt central city are a stretch of old neighbourhoods (Danton, Saint-Vincent, Graville, Massillon, etc.) which were spared the bombings of World War II. The buildings, usually in brick, dated to the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries. The shops are concentrated along several major roads in the Rond-Point neighbourhood. During the 1990s and 2000s, these neighborhoods have seen major redevelopments, particularly in the context of an OPAH: improvement of habitat by rehabilitation or reconstruction, creation of public facilities, and revitalization of business.[38] At the end of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st century, the area around the railway station has undergone a major transformation. As the station is the gateway to the city with the main avenues intersecting here. New buildings have sprung up (University of Le Havre, the conservatory, headquarters of the SPB (Provident Society Bank), and of CMA CGM, Novotel, Matmut, new CCI) some of which were designed by renowned architects. The bus station, certified NF since 2005, has been refurbished. North of the station, another construction project in place of the dilapidated island of Turgot-Magellan will be opened in 2013,[39] including 12,500 m2 (135,000 sq ft) of office space and an eight-storey hotel, complete with shops on the ground-floor. The southern districts[edit]

Commercial area of the south side of the Vauban Docks in 2009

The southern districts of Le Havre
Le Havre
are mainly used for industrial and port activities. There are buildings in brick from the 19th century, large developments (Chicago, Les Neiges), worker estates, SMEs, warehouses, dock and port facilities, and transport infrastructure.[citation needed] The southern districts have for some years experienced profound change due to European funding. It is revitalizing areas neglected by industrial and port activities by developing tertiary activities. Thus, the docks have been completely transformed into sports and entertainment complexes (Dock Océane), a mall (Docks Vauban), and an exhibition hall (Docks Café). Les Bains Des Docks
Les Bains Des Docks
was designed by the architect Jean Nouvel. At the end of 2012 students from Sciences-Po Europe Asia and from INSA integrated new buildings next to the ISEL (Higher Institute of logistics studies) and the future ENSM (Ecole Nationale Supérieure Maritime).[40] The new medical axis around the new Clinic des Ormeaux was built in the neighbourhoods where many homes are planned with the aim of promoting social mix. The City of the Sea and of Sustainable Development (Odyssey 21) will be organized around a metal tower one hundred metres high designed by Jean Nouvel: the project was suspended in 2007 but the work should finally begin in 2013.[41] The municipality has to attract some 300,000 visitors per year.[42] The Upper Town[edit]

The cemetery of Sainte-Marie

The upper town is composed of three parts: the "coast", the suburban districts of the plateau, and large peripheral housing estates. The neighbourhoods on the "coast" (the Dead Cliff) are residential – more prosperous in the western part (Les Ormeaux, Rue Felix Faure) and more modest to the east (St. Cecilia, Aplemont). The Jenner tunnel passes under the "coast" and connects the upper town to the lower town. It is also on the coast that there are two fortifications of the city, Forts Sainte-Adresse
Sainte-Adresse
and Tourneville, and the main cemetery (Sainte-Marie cenetery). With the demise of the military functions of the city, the forts are gradually being converted: Fort Sainte-Adresse houses the Hanging Gardens and Fort Tourneville hosted the Tetris project in 2013 – an axis of contemporary music with concert halls and rehearsal studios.[43] To the north of the "coast" suburban districts such as Rouelles, Sainte-Cecile, la Mare au Clerc, Sanvic, Bleville, and Dollemard were developed during the first half of the 19th century.[44] In their extension North-west between Bleville and Octeville airport a new area is being developed: "Les Hauts de Bleville". This eco-district made up of housing units to HQE standards, a Joint Development Area (ZAC), and a school should have a total of 1,000 housing units.[45] The peripheral suburbs of the commune grew in the postwar period. These are large housing estates in Caucriauville, Bois de Bleville, Mont-Gaillard, and Mare-rouge where a disadvantaged population is concentrated. In October 2004 the National Agency for Urban Renewal (ANRU) signed with the municipality of Havre the first agreement to finance the rehabilitation of these areas. This finance agreement provides more than 340 million euros for the housing estates in the northern districts, where about 41,000 people reside. This development extends the budget for the Grand Projet de Ville (GPV). It allows the demolition and rebuilding of more than 1,700 homes. Toponymy[edit] The name of the town was attested in 1489, even before it was founded by François I
François I
in the form le Hable de Grace then Ville de Grace in 1516, two years before its official founding.[46] The learned and transient name of Franciscopolis in tribute to the same king, is encountered in some documents then that of Havre Marat, referring to Jean-Paul Marat
Jean-Paul Marat
during the French Revolution
French Revolution
but was not imposed. However it explains why the complementary determinant -de-Grace was not restored.[46] This qualifier undoubtedly referred to the Chapel of Notre Dame located at the site of the cathedral of the same name. It should be noted that the chapel faced the Chapel Notre Dame de Grace of Honfleur
Honfleur
across the estuary.[46] The common noun havre meaning "port" was out of use at the end of the 18th or beginning of the 19th centuries but is still preserved in the phrase havre de paix meaning "safe haven". It is generally considered a loan from Middle Dutch from the 12th century.[47] A Germanic origin can explain the "aspiration" of the initial h. New research however focuses on the fact that the term was attested very early (12th century) and in Norman texts in the forms Hable, hafne, havene, havne, and haule makes a Dutch origin unlikely. By contrast, a Scandinavian etymology is relevant given the old Scandinavian höfn (genitive hafnar) or hafn meaning "natural harbour" or "haven" and the phonetic evolution of the term étrave which is assuredly of Scandinavian origin is also attested in similar forms such as estable and probably dates back to the ancient Scandinavian stafn.[48] History[edit] Main articles: History of Le Havre
History of Le Havre
and Timeline of Le Havre Heraldry[edit]

Current arms of Le Havre
Le Havre
(The lion is from the Belgian coat of arms; it replaced a fleur-de-lis in 1926 to remember the Belgian government in exile in Le Havre
Le Havre
during the First World War). Gules, a salamander argent crowned in Or enflamed the same, in chief azure with 3 fleurs de lis of Or cantoned sable with a lion of Or armed and langued in gules.

Arms of Le Havre
Le Havre
under the First French Empire Gules, a salamander argent crowned in Or enflamed the same, in chief azure with 3 mullets of Or quartered azure with a letter N surmounted by a mullet of Or.

Politics and administration[edit] Le Havre
Le Havre
is one of two sub-prefectures of Seine-Maritime
Seine-Maritime
and the second largest subprefecture in France
France
after Reims. It is also the capital of the Arrondissement of Le Havre
Arrondissement of Le Havre
which includes 20 Cantons and 176 communes.[49] It is also the largest member of the Agglomeration community of Le Havre (CODAH).

The Sub-préfecture

The city of Le Havre
Le Havre
is divided into nine Cantons as shown in the following table with the councillors in 2011:[50]

Councillor Canton Cantonal Code Population (1999)

Annie Guillemet Canton of Havre-1 76 27 14,739

Jean-Louis Jégaden Canton of Havre-2 76 29 24,245

Gérard Heuzé Canton of Havre-3 76 30 23,320

Agnès Firmin-Le Bodo Canton of Havre-4 76 31 15,376

Anita Giletta Canton of Havre-5 76 32 28,712

Brigitte Dufour Canton of Havre-6 76 56 24,966

Nathalie Nail Canton of Havre-7 76 57 27,642

Mireille Garcia Canton of Havre-8 76 58 15,186

Michel Barrier Canton of Havre-9 76 59 24,602

For the parliamentary elections, Le Havre
Le Havre
spans two constituencies: the seventh (cantons I, V, VI, and VII) and the eighth (cantons II, III, IV, VIII, IX).[51] Political trends and results[edit] Several politicians have spent part of their lives in the city: Jules Lecesne (1818–1878), Jules Siegfried (1837–1922), and Félix Faure (1841–1899) who was elected municipal councilor and MP. A pool, a shopping centre and a street have been named after René Coty
René Coty
from Le Havre who served as President of the French Republic
President of the French Republic
from 1954 to 1959. Christine Lagarde
Christine Lagarde
(born 1956) did part of her studies in Le Havre before becoming Minister of the Economy and Director-General of the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
in 2011. Since 23 October 2010 the mayor has been Édouard Philippe (UMP). He also holds the presidency of the CODAH and has held a seat in the National Assembly for the 7th district of Seine-Maritime
Seine-Maritime
since 2012.[52] He succeeded Antoine Rufenacht (UMP) as the head of the municipality who was mayor of Le Havre
Le Havre
for fifteen years before resigning. The city of Le Havre
Le Havre
has long been the largest bastion of the Communist Party of France, who directed it from 1956 to 1995.[53] Overall, the inhabitants of Le Havre
Le Havre
in the 7th electoral district (city centre and west) vote right while those of the 8th electoral district (neighbourhoods) choose the candidate of the left. So, in the presidential election of 2007, the 7th electoral district elected Nicolas Sarkozy (UMP) by 55.05% against 44.95% for Ségolène Royal (PS) while the 8th electoral district preferred the Socialist candidate by 55.02%.[54][55] In revenge however, the results of the 2012 presidential elections gave the PS wins in both districts with a small difference in the 7th (Hollande: 51.71% / Sarkozy: 48.29%) than in the 8th (Hollande 64.21% / Sarkozy: 35.79%).[54][55] Municipal administration[edit] The number of inhabitants in Le Havre
Le Havre
is between 150,000 and 199,999 so the number of councilors is 59 members. The mayor, 41 aldermen and 17 deputies form the council of Le Havre
Le Havre
elected in 2008.[56] It meets on average once a month at the town hall. The debates are generally public except for certain proceedings.[56] Le Havre
Le Havre
has experienced many territorial extensions by annexing neighbouring communes:

1852: Ingouville
Ingouville
and parts of Graville-l' Eure
Eure
and Sanvic 1919: all of Graville-Sainte-Honorine 1953: Bleville 1955: all of Sanvic 1971: part of Harfleur
Harfleur
(a district of Caucriauville) 1973: Rouelles (with the status of associated commune, 3,184 inhabitants in 2006)

Mayors of Le Havre[edit] List of Successive Mayors of Le Havre
Le Havre
from the French Revolution
French Revolution
to 1940[57]

From To Mayor Party Position

1790 1790 Pierre Duval

1790 1791 Jean-Jacques Christinat

1791 1791 Frédéric Heroult

1791 1793 Jacques-Ambroise Rialle

1793 1794 Jean-Marc Belot

1794 1794 François Bayle

1794 1795 Louis Lemesle

1795 1797 Jean-Martin Gregoire

1797 1797 Jacques Ambroise Rialle

1797 1797 Marie Glier

1797 1799 Alexandre Lacorne

1799 1800 Marie Glier

1800 1800 Pierre Fortin

1800 1821 Guillaume-Antoine Sery

1821 1830 André Begouen-Demeaux

1830 1830 Lahoussaye

1830 1831 Michel Delaroche

1831 1848 Adrien Lemaistre

1848 1849 Jules Ancel

1849 1849 Alexandre Bertin

1849 1849 Frédéric Perquer

1849 1853 Adrien Lemaistre

1853 1853 Isidore Maire

1853 1855 Jules Ancel

1855 1858 Edouard Larue

1858 1864 Just Viel

1864 1870 Edouard Larue

1870 1874 Ulysee Guillemard

1874 1874 Emmanuel Bigot de la Robillardiere

1874 1878 Jules Masurier

1878 1878 Ulysee Guillemard

1878 1886 Jules Siegfried

1886 1890 Paul Marion

1890 1896 Louis Brindeau

1896 1904 Théodule Marais

1904 1908 Théodore Maillart

1908 1914 Henry Genestal

1914 1919 Pierre-François Morgand

1919 1940 Léon Meyer

Mayors from 1940

From To Mayor Party Position

1940 1941 Jean Risson

1941 1941 Patrimonio

1941 1944 Pierre Courant

1944 1947 Pierre Voisin PCF

1947 1947 Albert le Clainche

1947 1947 Pierre Adolphe Jean Voisin

1947 1954 Pierre Courant

1954 1954 Eugène Gas

1954 1956 Léopold Abadie

1956 1959 René Cance PCF

1959 1965 Robert Monguillon SFIO

1965 1971 René Cance PCF

1971 1994 André Duromea PCF

1994 1995 Daniel Colliard PCF

1995 2010 Antoine Rufenacht RPR, UMP

2010 2017 Edouard Philippe UMP, LR

2017 2020 Luc Lemonnier LR

Public institutions and services[edit]

The Palace of Justice

The Le Havre
Le Havre
Palace of Justice is located on the Boulevard de Strasbourg. With its annex, it includes a high court, a juvenile court, and a commercial court. The city also has a Labour Court and District Court. Among the legal services offered there are legal aid services and the application of penalties. Le Havre
Le Havre
depends on the Court of Appeal of Rouen. The prison, which dates from the Second Empire, was completely destroyed in 2012. The new prison for Le Havre was completed in 2010 at Saint-Aubin-Routot
Saint-Aubin-Routot
east of the Le Havre agglomeration. It has an area of 32,000 m2 on a site of 15 hectares and can accommodate 690 people.[58] The Hospital Group of Havre is a public health facility managed by a Supervisory Board chaired by the Mayor of Le Havre. Its main structures are Flaubert Hospital (the oldest, located downtown), the Monod Hospital (in Montivilliers), the Pierre Janet Hospital (psychiatry), the house for adolescents, day hospitals, and seniors' residences. It is the largest employer in the CODAH. Built in 1987, the Jacques Monod Hospital offers a full range of care in medicine, surgery, gynecology, obstetrics, pediatrics, geriatrics, mental health follow-up care, rehabilitation, reintegration, and public health. Finally, there are several private clinics that offer complete care: the private clinic of the Estuary
Estuary
groups together the old clinics of Petit Colmoulins and François I. The private clinic of Ormeaux is located in the neighbourhood of Eure. During the first half of the 20th century, the 129th regiment of infantry of the line was stationed at Le Havre
Le Havre
and left an important mark on the city so a street was named after them. The 74th Infantry Regiment of commandos was present from 1963 to 1976. Finally, Le Havre is the godmother city for BPC Mistral. The ceremony was held at the City Hall on 15 November 2009, during a stopover at the Building.[59] Twinning[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Le Havre
Le Havre
has twinning associations with:

Magdeburg, Germany[60] Dalian, China
China
since 1985[61] Port of Amsterdam, Netherlands
Netherlands
since 2005[61] Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
since 1984[61]

Southampton, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
since 1973[62] Tampa, USA since 1993[63] Saint-Louis Region, Senegal
Senegal
since 2007[61]

Demographics[edit]

Downtown Le Havre

Le Havre
Le Havre
experienced a population boom in the second half of the 19th century. Subsequently, the population drain of the First World War
First World War
was offset by the annexation of the town of Graville (the city gained 27,215 people between 1911 and 1921). During the Second World War
Second World War
the population decreased significantly (a loss of 57,149 people between 1936 and 1946) because of the exodus and bombings. After the war the commune saw its population increase until 1975. Since then population has decreased again, especially between 1975 and 1982: during these years of industrial crisis the population fell by 18,494 people. The trend continued in the 1980s although at a slower pace. The current policy of the municipality is to build new housing to attract new residents with the goal of exceeding 200,000 inhabitants, a level that was reached in the 1960s. The population of the commune of Le Havre was 191,000 inhabitants in 1999 which placed the city at 12th place among the most populated cities in France
France
and in the first place in Normandy. In 2009 INSEE counted 177,259 people lived in the commune of Le Havre[64] while the urban area of Le Havre
Le Havre
had 242,474 people[65] (25th place nationally) and the Metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
of Havre ahd 293,361 inhabitants.[66] In 2009, the commune had 177,259 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]

Population change (See database)

1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851

20,620 19,000 19,482 20,768 23,816 25,618 27,154 31,325 56,964

1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896

64,137 74,336 60,055 85,825 92,068 105,867 112,074 116,369 119,470

1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954

130,196 132,430 136,159 163,374 158,022 165,076 164,083 106,934 139,810

1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2010 -

185,029 205,236 217,882 199,388 195,854 190,924 183,900 177,259 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)

Population of Le Havre

In 2009, the birth rate was 14.2 per thousand and the mortality rate was 9.4 per thousand: even though the Rate of natural increase
Rate of natural increase
is positive it does not compensate for the clearly negative Net migration rate.[44] In 2009 19% of Le Havre's population was under 15 years old and 40% were under 29 years old which was above the average for metropolitan France.[67] 18.4% of men and 25.6% of women were over 60 years old.[67] The population is mainly concentrated in the city centre and Côte-Ormeaux.[44] The foreign population is estimated at 8,525 persons or 4.8% of the population.[68] 12,148 immigrants live in Havre, or 6.8% of the urban population.[69] Most have North African (5060) or African (3114) origins.[70] With the economic changes that have affected the city, the Professions and Socio-professional categories (PCS) have changed dramatically since the 1980s: between 1982 and 1999, the number of workers has declined by about a third (−10,593), their share of the active labour force was 16% in 1982 and 12.5% in 1999.[71] The population of workers is concentrated in the southern suburbs close to the port and the industrial zone.[44] At the same time the numbers of executives and intellectual professions increased by 24.5%, which is explained in part by the creation and development of the University of Le Havre. In 2009 the city had a lower proportion of managers and intellectual occupations than the national average (4.2% against 6.7%).[72] The proportion of workers (15.9%) was one point higher than the national average.[72] Going from 13.5% to 11.7% of the labour force, the rate of unemployment has decreased between 1999 and 2009. However, it remains higher than in the rest of the country.[73] The proportion Le Havre people in short-term employment (CDD and interim work) is higher than the national average.[74] Finally, the proportion of Le Havre people with a degree from higher education dramatically increased from about 21% in 1999 to 32.1% in 2009[67] against 24.5% for metropolitan France.[75] However, this proportion has increased since 2009. Education[edit] Schools[edit] Le Havre
Le Havre
is located in the Academy of Rouen. The city operates 55 kindergartens (254 classes) and 49 communal primary schools (402 classes).[76] The department manages 16 colleges and the region of Normandy
Normandy
manages 9 schools.[77] The Jules Valles collage in Caucriauville is classified as a sensitive institution and eleven colleges are in a priority education zone (ZEP). A boarding school of excellence, the Claude Bernard college, opened in 2011. The first college in Le Havre
Le Havre
dates to the 16th century, the high school François I
François I
was founded during the Second Empire and is the oldest in Le Havre. The philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(1905–1980) and Raymond Aron (1905–1983) taught there. The writer Armand Salacrou (1899–1989) studied in this institution. List of public junior high schools (collèges) in Le Havre

Collège Claude Bernard Collège des Acacias Collège Descartes Collège Eugène Varlin Collège Gérard Philipe Collège Guy Moquet Collège Henri Wallon Collège Irène Joliot-Curie Collège Jacques Monod Collège Jean Moulin Collège Jules Vallès Collège Léo Lagrange Collège Raoul Dufy Collège Romain Rolland Collège Théophile Gautier Collège Marcel Pagnol

Private junior high schools

Collège du Sacré Cœur Collège Saint-Joseph Collège Les Ormeaux Collège Montesquieu

List of Public Sixth-form Colleges/Senior High Schools in Le Havre

Lycée Claude Monet[78][79] Lycée général et technologique Porte-Océane[80] Lycée François I Lycée général et technologique Robert Schuman[81] Lycée Jules Siegfried[82]

Private Sixth-form Colleges/Senior High Schools

Lycée Saint-Joseph

Public Vocational High Schools

Lycée technique et professionnel Françoise de Grâce[83] Lycée professionnel Jules Lecesne (Hotel trades and services)[84] Lycée professionnel Jules Siegfried (Electronic and Mechanical trades)[82] Lycée professionnel Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier (Transport and Logistics – Metallic structures – automobiles)[85] Lycée professionnel Auguste Perret
Auguste Perret
(Housing trades)[86] Lycée professionnel Claude Monet
Claude Monet
(Accounting – Secretarial)[87] Lycée professionnel Porte Océane (Accounting – Secretarial)[80] Lycée professionnel Robert Schuman (Industry)[81]

Private Vocational High Schools

Lycée professionnel Germaine Coty Lycée professionnel Saint Vincent de Paul Lycée professionnel Jeanne d'Arc

Special
Special
schools and higher education[edit]

The interior of the University of Le Havre
University of Le Havre
library

The Vauban Basin and the ISEL building (right)

In 2011 there were approximately 12,000 students in all disciplines in Le Havre.[88] Opened in 1986, the University of Le Havre
University of Le Havre
is recent, medium-sized and well located: the largest campus is virtually in the centre of the city near railway and tram stations.[89] The campus includes a University Library (2006), a gym, several dining halls with student housing, a structure incorporating a theatre, an orientation service, and student associations. In 2010–2011, 6,914 students were enrolled including 5,071 undergraduates, 1,651 Masters students, and 192 postgraduate students.[90] The university also trains 317 engineering students[90] including the Logistical Studies Higher Education Institute (ISEL). It offers 120 Diplomas of State prepared by the Faculty of Science and Technology, Faculty of International Affairs, and the Faculty of Arts and Humanities. Many courses are offered are related to the port operations, logistics, industry, and sustainable development. Twelve languages are taught and 17% of students are foreigners.[91] The University of Le Havre
University of Le Havre
is also a research centre with nine laboratories. It works in partnership with other higher education institutions (INSA Rouen, IEP, IUFM, and Normandy
Normandy
University). The University Institutes of Technology
University Institutes of Technology
of Le Havre occupies two main sites: one in the upper town in the Caucriauville-Rouelles district which was opened in 1967 and another in the Eure
Eure
district since 2011. The IUT has a total of 1,881 students divided into ten departments preparing for the DUT.[90] There is also a branch of the teacher training institute of Rouen
Rouen
(IUFM) for two courses (CAPET of technology and CRPE school teacher). In addition there is a large number of specialized higher education institutions covering a wide range of different areas. Founded in 1871,[92] the Ecole Superieure de Commerce du Havre, one of the oldest in France, has merged with Sup Europe and l'IPER to create the Normandy
Normandy
Business School in 2006. This School had over 2,800 students on its five campuses (Le Havre, Caen, Deauville, Oxford
Oxford
and Paris
Paris
) in 2015.[93] Since the 2007 school year, the Institute of Political Studies of Paris
Paris
opened a Euro-Asia cycle[94] in Le Havre. The National School of The Merchant Marine trains Officers of the First Class for the Merchant Marine: currently located at Sainte-Adresse, it will move to the Bassin Vauban in 2015 in a building that will house 1,000 students.[95] The National Higher School of Petrol and Motors (ENSPM) is a school for specialist petroleum engineers, petrochemists, and engine makers. The ITIP (National Institute for International Transportation and Ports) prepares students for careers in the multimodal transport and port business. The (Institut national des sciences appliquéesNational Institute of Applied Sciences of Rouen) (INSA) opened a branch in Le Havre
Le Havre
in 2008 with a civil engineering and sustainable construction department. The SPI (Axis of Science for the Engineer) is expected to reopen in 2012 in a new building in the Eure
Eure
district.[96] In the arts, the Conservatory of Departmental Radiance Arthur Honegger is attended by 1,680 students (music, dance and drama).[97] The Graduate School of Art of Le Havre
Le Havre
(ESAH) offers several degrees and preparation for competition. Finally 800 people study in paramedical and social schools mostly in the IFSI (Institute of Training in Nursing) which has approximately 600 students.[90][98] Sports[edit]

Port Vauban

The city of Le Havre
Le Havre
has some of the oldest sports clubs in France: the Le Havre
Le Havre
Rowing Society (1838),[99] the Regatta
Regatta
Society of Le Havre (1838), and Le Havre Athletic Club
Havre Athletic Club
(1872), doyen of French football and rugby clubs.[100][101][102] The city also hosted the sailing events for the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics, respectively. Le Havre
Le Havre
is dominated by three professional sports teams: the first is the Le Havre AC
Le Havre AC
football team who played in Ligue 1
Ligue 1
for the last time in 2008–2009 and is currently in Ligue 2. Its training centre, which is well-reputed for having trained international French players Vikash Dhorasoo, Julien Faubert, Jean-Alain Boumsong, Lassana Diarra, and also Steve Mandanda
Steve Mandanda
who is consistently ranked in the top ten in France. The second major sports team is Saint Thomas Basketball who represent the city in LNB Pro A. Thirdly the HAC women's team who play in the first division with many international players in its ranks. The team won their first major national title, the Coupe de France
France
for women's handball in 2006. Le Havre
Le Havre
Rugby athletic club plays in Fédérale 3 (equivalent to 5th division). The Hockey Club of Le Havre played at the fourth level nationally (Division 3) for the 2008–2009 season. The team is nicknamed the "Dock's du Havre".[103] The maritime side of the city is found in many sports: for example, the tradition of sailing is old. On 29 July 1840 the first French pleasure boat regatta was held. Today, Le Havre
Le Havre
is known as a water sports and Seaside resort. The marina can host deepwater vessels around the clock in any weather. Built in the Interwar period, it is now the largest in Seine-Maritime
Seine-Maritime
with about 1,300 moorings[104] additional moorings were installed in the Vauban basin in 2011–2012.[105] The Havraise Rowing Society has trained many rowers to a high level as Thierry Renault. The Club Nautique Le Havrais (CNH) is the centre of mixed swimming, synchronized swimming, and men's water polo. The Centre Nautique Paul Vatine is the fifth largest club in the country for the number of sports licenses it holds; it ranks second in the Division 1 of the Championship France
France
for Catamaran Clubs.[106] Several major local sportsmen began their career at Le Havre: the swimmer Hugues Duboscq
Hugues Duboscq
was an Olympic medallist several times. In judo the French team has two members from Le Havre: Dimitri Dragin and Baptiste Leroy. Jerome Le Banner
Jerome Le Banner
is a professional kick-boxer at world level who participates in the K-1
K-1
championship. Finally the navigator Paul Vatine, who was lost at sea in 1999, won the Transat Jacques Vabre several times. Sports facilities[edit]

The Stade Océane

The skatepark

The city has 99 sports facilities including 46 gymnasiums, 23 sports fields, and 5 swimming pools.[107] The Stade Océane
Stade Océane
(Ocean Stadium), inaugurated in July 2012, replaced the Stade Jules Deschaseaux. With 25,000 seats, it can host football matches as well as other sporting and cultural events.[108] Basketball and Handball matches are playued in the Dock Océane hall (3600 seats) while ice hockey is played at the ice hockey rink (900 seats). Of the five swimming pools in the city, two are operated by the municipality: the CNH (which has an Olympic pool for competitions) and Les Bains Des Docks
Les Bains Des Docks
(which was designed by the architect Jean Nouvel). Le Havre
Le Havre
has the largest free outdoor skatepark in France
France
with approximately 7,000 m2 allocated to the urban Boardsport.[109] The port infrastructure allows for many water activities such as sailing, fishing, canoeing, and rowing. Finally, the beach is a place for kitesurfing, windsurfing and surfing. Sporting events[edit] Le Havre
Le Havre
has been and is still the venue of major sports events: the Tour de France
France
has passed a dozen times by the Ocean Gate, the last stage took place here in 2015. Sailing events are often held and the Transat Jacques Vabre
Transat Jacques Vabre
transatlantic race has been held every two years since 1993 linking Le Havre
Le Havre
to Latin
Latin
America. The course of the Solitaire du Figaro
Solitaire du Figaro
was partly in Le Havre
Le Havre
in 2010. Since 2006, weekends of freestyle board sports have been popular (skateboarding, rollerblading, funboard, kiteboarding, skydiving etc.). Every summer roller blade events are organized in the city on Friday evening every fortnight and have great success. The first International Triathlon was held in 2012.[110] Finally, there are several opportunities for runners with ten kilometres (6.2 miles) in Le Havre
Le Havre
or the strides of Montgeon. Media[edit] Five newspapers cover the Le Havre
Le Havre
agglomeration: the dailies Le Havre libre, Le Havre
Le Havre
Presse, Paris
Paris
Normandie in its Le Havre
Le Havre
edition in collaboration with Le Havre
Le Havre
Presse and Liberté-Dimanche (communal Sunday edition of the previous three) are part of the Hersant group which is currently in serious financial trouble and looking for a buyer. A free weekly of information, Le Havre
Le Havre
Infos (PubliHebdo group[111]) has been published since 2010 every Wednesday and is available in many places in the city.[112][113] Several magazines provide local information: LH Océanes (Municipal magazine) and Terres d'Agglo (Agglomeration Area magazine) to which must be added several free magazines: Aux Arts (cultural information more focused on the Basse-Normandie
Basse-Normandie
region) Bazart (cultural events in Le Havre
Le Havre
but now with circulation across all of Normandy), and HAC Magazine (news about HAC). Several newspapers are also available on the Internet: Infocéane, Le Havre
Le Havre
on the Internet. A local televised edition on France
France
3, France
France
3 Baie de Seine, is broadcast every evening then again on France
France
3 Haute Normandie. Radio Albatros is a local station installed in the Sanvic du Havre district transmitting on FM frequency 88.2.[114] Radio Vallée de la Lézarde, based in Épouville, RESONANCE on 98.9, and RCF Le Havre
Le Havre
are other radio stations. It was in Le Havre
Le Havre
radio stations that the journalist and television host Laurent Ruquier, who was born in Le Havre
Le Havre
in 1963, began his career. Several national and regional radio stations are relays for Le Havre: local information on France
France
Bleu Haute Normandie, local relay from 12 noon to 4pm on Virgin radio Normandie 101.8 FM, local relay for Information from 6am to 9am and from 4pm to 8pm on NRJ Le Havre
Le Havre
92.5 FM. Associations like LHnouslanuit and Only-Hit have tried to develop alternative and cultural local radio by featuring local community associations (Papa's Production, Ben Salad Prod, Asso6Sons, Agend'Havre, Pied Nu, I Love LH).[115] Religion[edit]

The nave of Le Havre
Le Havre
Cathedral.

At the request of Monsigneur André Mulch, Archbishop of Rouen, Pope Paul VI decided on 6 July 1974 through the papal bull Quae Sacrosanctum on the creation of the diocese of Le Havre
Le Havre
(Portus Gratiae in Latin
Latin
meaning "Port of Grace"). The diocese was created from part of the parishes of the Archdiocese of Rouen
Rouen
to the west of a line joining Norville
Norville
to Sassetot-le-Mauconduit. Monseigneur Michel Saudreau, its first bishop, was ordained on 22 September 1974. The church of Notre Dame was promoted to Cathedral Notre Dame du Havre. Today, the commune of Le Havre
Le Havre
is divided into eight parishes[116] and 24 places of worship (churches and chapels). The oldest chapel is Saint-Michel d' Ingouville
Ingouville
which dates back to the 11th century. The Church of Saint Joseph du Havre, built by Auguste Perret, dominates the city with its spire 107m high. There are several monastic establishments (Carmel of the Transfiguration, Franciscan
Franciscan
Monastery, Little Sisters of the Poor, etc.). The Protestant Church of Le Havre
Le Havre
was built in the city centre in 1862. Bombed in 1941, it lost its pediment, its bell tower, and roof. Rebuilt in 1953 by the architects Jacques Lamy and Gérard Dupasquier,[117] who worked in the Auguste Perret
Auguste Perret
office, is the only building in Le Havre
Le Havre
uniting the original architecture of the 19th century with the architecture of the Perret school. Le Havre
Le Havre
also has seven evangelical Protestant churches: Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist, Apostolic Church, Assembly of God, Baptist Church, Good News Church, et Church of Le Havre
Le Havre
as well as several Protestant churches of African origin. The city also has seven Muslim places of worship: the socio-cultural association of Muslims in Upper Normandy, En-Nour Mosque on Rue Paul Claudel, El Fath Mosque on rue Victor Hugo, Bellevue mosque on rue Gustavus Brindeau, and three prayer rooms located on rue Audran, Boulevard Jules Durant, and rue Lodi. The synagogue, located in the rebuilt central city, was visited by President Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
in April 2002.[118] It is the seat of the association consistoriale israélite du Havre whose president is Victor Elgressy. Economy[edit] General[edit] In 2006 the median household income tax was 14,667 euros, which put Le Havre at 22,251th place among the 30,687 communes of more than 50 households in France.[119] Although well developed and diversified, the local economy relies heavily on industrial sites, international groups, and subcontracted SMEs. The Le Havre
Le Havre
economy is far from decision centres which are located mainly in Paris
Paris
and major European economic cities. There is therefore a low representation of head offices in the city with the exception of some local economic successes such as the Sidel Group (now a subsidiary of Tetra Pak) – a distributor of interior furniture, and the ship-owner Delmas which was recently acquired by the CMA-CGM
CMA-CGM
group.

Major employers in the Le Havre
Le Havre
area

Name Commune Sector

Renault Sandouville Sandouville Automobile

Centre Hospitalier Général Le Havre Health

Le Havre
Le Havre
Commune Le Havre Administration publique

Total S.A. Gonfreville Raffinage

Port Authority of Le Havre Le Havre Port Services

Aircelle Gonfreville Aeronautical Construction

Total Petrochemicals Gonfreville Petrochemicals

SNCF Le Havre Transport

Dresser-Rand Le Havre Mechanical Equipment

Chevron Gonfreville Petrochemicals

Port[edit] Main article: Port of Le Havre

Container Terminal, near the François I
François I
lock.

Fishing Port

With 68.6 million tons of cargo in 2011, the port of Le Havre
Le Havre
is the second largest French seaport in trade volume behind that of Marseille
Marseille
and 50th largest port in the world.[120] It represents 60% of total French container traffic with nearly 2.2 million Twenty-foot equivalent unitEVP]s in 2011.[121][122] At the European level, it is 8th largest for container traffic and 6th largest for total traffic. The Port receives a large number of oil tankers that transported 27.5 million tonnes of crude oil and 11.7 million tonnes of refined product in 2011.[121] Finally, 340,500 vehicles passed through the Roll-on/roll-off
Roll-on/roll-off
terminal in 2010.[122] 75 regular shipping lines serve 500 ports around the world.[122] The largest trading partner of the port of Le Havre
Le Havre
is the Asian continent which alone accounts for 58% of imports by container and 39.6% of exports.[121] The rest of the traffic is distributed mainly to Europe and America. Le Havre
Le Havre
occupies the north bank of the estuary of the Seine
Seine
on the Channel. Its location is favourable for several reasons: it is on the most frequented waterway in the world; it is the first and last port in the North Range of European ports – the largest in Europe which handles a quarter of all global maritime trade.[123] As a deepwater port, it is accessible to all types of ships whatever their size around the clock.[123] At the national level, Le Havre
Le Havre
is 200 kilometres (124 mi) west of the most populous and richest region in France: Île-de-France. Since its founding in 1517 on the orders of François I, Le Havre
Le Havre
has continued to grow: today it measures 27 km (17 mi) from east to west, about 5 km (3 mi) from north to south with an area of 10,000 hectares (24,711 acres).[123] The last big project called Port 2000
Port 2000
increased the handling capacity for containers. The port provides 16,000 direct jobs[122] to the Le Havre
Le Havre
region, to which must be added indirect jobs in industry and transport. With approximately 3,000 employees in 2006, the activities of distribution and warehousing provide more jobs,[124] followed by road transport (2,420 jobs) and handling (2,319 jobs).[124] In 2011, 715,279 passengers passed through the port of Le Havre[121] and there were 95 visits by cruise ships carrying 185,000 passengers.[125] The port expects 110 cuise ship calls in 2012. Created in 1934, the leisure boat harbour of Le Havre
Le Havre
is located to the west and is the largest French boat harbour in the Channel with a capacity of 1,160 moorings.[126] Finally, there is a small fishing port in the Saint-François district and a Hawker centre. Industry[edit]

The EDF Thermal power plant of Le Havre.

Most industries are located in the industrial-port area north of the estuary and east of the city of Le Havre. The largest industrial employer (2,400 employees[127]) of the Le Havre
Le Havre
region is the Renault public company in the commune of Sandouville. The second important sector for the industrial zone is petrochemicals. The Le Havre
Le Havre
region has more than a third of French refining capacity. It provides about 50% of the production of basic plastics and 80% of additives and oils[128] with more than 3,500 researchers working in private and public laboratories. Large firms in the chemical industry are mainly in the communes of Le Havre
Le Havre
(Millenium Chemicals Le Havre), Montivilliers
Montivilliers
(Total S.A., Yara, Chevron Oronite SA, Lanxess, etc.) and Sandouville
Sandouville
(Goodyear Chemicals Europe). A total of 28 industrial establishments manufacture plastics in the Le Havre
Le Havre
area many of which are classed as SECESO.[citation needed] There are several firms in the aerospace industry: the Aircelle-Safran Group, a sub-contractor of Airbus
Airbus
making with thrust reversers, is located in Harfleur
Harfleur
and employs 1,200 people from the Le Havre area.[129] Finally, Dresser-Rand SA manufactures equipment for the oil and gas industry and employs about 700 people.[130] In the energy field, the EDF thermal power plant of Le Havre
Le Havre
has an installed capacity of 1,450MW and operates using coal with 357 employees.[131] The AREVA
AREVA
group announced the opening of a factory for building wind turbines: installed in the port of Le Havre, it should create some 1,800 jobs.[132] The machines are designed for Offshore wind power
Offshore wind power
in Brittany, the UK, and Normandy. Other industries are dispersed throughout the Le Havre
Le Havre
agglomeration: the Brûlerie du Havre, which belongs to Legal-Legoût, located in the district of Dollemard that roasts coffee, Sidel located both in the industrial area of Port of Le Havre
Port of Le Havre
and Octeville-sur-Mer
Octeville-sur-Mer
designs and manufactures blow moulding machines and complete filling line machines for plastic bottles. Services sector[edit] The two largest employers in the service sector are the Groupe Hospitalier du Havre with 4,384 staff[133] and the City of Le Havre with 3,467 permanent employees.[134] The city has long been home to many service companies whose activity is related to port operations: primarily the ship-owning companies and also the marine insurance companies. The headquarters of Delmas (transport and communications, 1,200 employees) and SPB (Provident Society Banking, insurance, 500 employees) have settled recently at the entrance to the city. The head office of Groupama Transport (300 employees) is also present. The transport sector is the largest economic sector in Le Havre
Le Havre
with 15.5% of employment. Logistics occupies a large part of the population and the ISEL trains engineers in this field. Since September 2007 the ICC has welcomed local students in their first year in the relocated Europe-Asia campus of the Institute of Political Studies of Paris. Higher Education is represented by the University of Le Havre
University of Le Havre
which employs 399 permanent professors and 850 lecturers[135] as well as by engineering companies like Auxitec and SERO. There are many growth factors in the tourist industry: blue flag rating, World Heritage status from UNESCO, the label French Towns and Lands of Art and History, cruise ship development, a policy of value-creation from heritage, and the City of the Sea project. In early 2010 the city had 22 hotels with a total of 1,064 rooms.[136] Le Havre
Le Havre
is the seat of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Le Havre. It manages the Le Havre
Le Havre
Octeville Airport. Culture[edit] Cultural events and festivals[edit]

Breton Festival in the Saint-François district

Le Havre's festival calendar is punctuated by a wide range of events. In spring a Children's Book Festival was recently created. In May there is the Fest Yves, a Breton festival in the Saint-François district. On the beach of Le Havre
Le Havre
and Sainte-Adresse
Sainte-Adresse
there is a jazz festival called Dixie Days in June. In July, detective novels are featured in the Polar room at the Beach hosted by The Black Anchors. Between the latter also in the context of Z'Estivales is an event offering many shows of street art throughout the summer supplemented by the festival of world music MoZaïques at the fort of Sainte-Adresse
Sainte-Adresse
in August since 2010. In mid-August there is a Flower parade which passes through the streets of the central city. In the first weekend of September the marine element is highlighted in the Festival of the Sea. This is a race between Le Havre
Le Havre
and Bahia
Bahia
in Brazil. Also every November there is a fair held in the Docks Café. The Autumn Festival in Normandy, organized by the departments of Seine-Maritime
Seine-Maritime
and Eure, and the Region of Normandy, runs from September to November and offers numerous concerts throughout the region as well as theatre performances and dance. In late October, since 2009, there is rock music festival which has been at the fort of Tourneville since the moving of the Papa's Production association site there. The West Park Festival, after its inauguration in 2004, has been held in the park of the town hall of Harfleur. Since 1 June 2006 a Biennale of contemporary Art has been organized by the group Partouche.[137] Cultural heritage and architecture[edit]

View of the rebuilt central city: the belfry of the town hall and the bell tower of the Church of Saint-Joseph du Havre.

Graville Abbey

Many buildings in the city are classified as "historical monuments", but the 2000s marked the real recognition of Le Havre's architectural heritage. The city received the label "City of Art and History" in 2001, then in 2005 UNESCO
UNESCO
inscribed the city of Le Havre
Le Havre
as a World Heritage Site.[138] The oldest building still standing in Le Havre
Le Havre
is the Graville Abbey. The other medieval building in the city is the Chapel of Saint-Michel of Ingouville. Because of the bombing in 1944, heritage from the modern era is rare: Le Havre
Le Havre
Cathedral, the Church of Saint Francis, the Museum of the Hotel Dubocage of Bleville, the House of the ship-owner and the old palace of justice (now the Natural History Museum) are concentrated in the Notre-Dame and Saint-François areas. The buildings of the 19th century testify to the maritime and military vocations of the city: the Hanging Gardens, the Fort of Tourneville, Vauban docks, and the Maritime Villa. The heritage of the 1950s and 1960s which were the work of the Auguste Perret
Auguste Perret
workshop forms the most coherent architecture: the Church of Saint Francis and the Town Hall are the centrepieces. The all curved architecture of the "Volcano", designed by Oscar Niemeyer, contrasts with that of the rebuilt centre. Finally, the reconstruction of many districts is a showcase for the architecture of the 21st century. Among the achievements by renowned architects are the Chamber of Commerce and Industry (René and Phine Weeke Dottelond), Les Bains Des Docks
Les Bains Des Docks
(Jean Nouvel).[138] ° Churches[edit]

Le Havre
Le Havre
Cathedral: the first stone of the building was laid in 1536. It is the seat of the Bishop of Le Havre. Church of Saint Joseph, one of the most recognized symbols of the city. The belltower is one of the tallest in France, rising to a height of 107 metres. It was designed by Auguste Perret. Church of Saint Michel[139] Church of Saint Vincent[140] Church of Saint François[141] Church of St. Anne[142] Church of Saint Marie[143] Chapel of Saint Michel d' Ingouville
Ingouville
(15th century)[144] Graville Abbey, a monastery dedicated to Sainte Honorine, set in grounds on the northern bank of the Seine
Seine
River.[145] Presbyterian Reform Church (Eglise Réformée), 47 rue Anatole France, built in 1857, bombed in 1941, the roof and ceiling were rebuilt in 1953 by two architects from the famous Auguste Perret
Auguste Perret
office: Jacques Lamy and Gérard Dupasquier, The only building in town offering both ancient and the new Perret school of architecture in the same building. Holy Office each Sunday morning at 10.30.

Museums[edit] Five Museums in Le Havre
Le Havre
have the distinction of being classified as Musées de France
France
(Museums of France)[146] an official label granted only to museums of a high status. The five museums are:

Museum of modern art André Malraux
André Malraux
– MuMa

Overview of the Museum of modern art André Malraux
André Malraux
- MuMa

The most important of the five, Museum Malraux was built in 1955 by the Atelier LWD
Atelier LWD
and was opened in 1961 by André Malraux.[147] This museum houses a collection of art from the late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
until the 20th century. The impressionist paintings collections are the second most extensive in France
France
after those of the Orsay Museum
Orsay Museum
in Paris. The museum houses some paintings of Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, Raoul Dufy, Edgar Degas...[148] I.

Musée du Vieux Havre (Museum of old Le Havre)

An old house in Le Havre, now Musée du Vieux Havre

A Museum dedicated to the history of Le Havre
Le Havre
with many objects from the Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
and the 19th century: furniture, old maps, statues, and paintings.

Musée d'histoire naturelle (Museum of Natural History).

Founded in 1881 but heavily damaged during World War II, the Museum of Natural History is housed in Le Havre’s former law courts, built in the mid-18th century; the façade and monumental staircase are listed as historical monuments. The museum houses mineralogy, zoology, ornithology, palaeontology and prehistory departments as well as 8,000 early 19th-century paintings from the collection of local naturalist and traveller Charles-Alexandre Lesueur
Charles-Alexandre Lesueur
(1778–1846).[149] The museum was destroyed during Allied bombings on 5 September 1944. The library was lost, along with its collections of photographs, scientific instruments and archives. The mineral and geological collections were all destroyed, including a rare collection of local mineral specimens of Normandy. The destruction of the museum was so intense, that all the catalogues, lists of donations, lists of purchases and other archives prevented even a precise inventory of all that was lost."[150]

The Shipowner's house

From the 18th century; like the Museum of Old Havre it is dedicated to the History of Le Havre
History of Le Havre
and contains many relics from the Ancien Régime as well as furniture, old maps, statues, and paintings.

Museum of the Priory of Graville

The Museum at the Priory of Graville displays many items of religious art including statues, madonnas, and other religious objects many of which are classified by the Ministry of Culture. It also houses the Gosselin collection of 206 model houses created by Jules Gosselin in the 19th century.[151] Other less important museums reflect the history of Le Havre
Le Havre
and its maritime vocation. The apartment-control (Apartement-Temoine) was a standard apartment designed by in 1947–1950 and shows a place of daily life in the 1950s. The maritime museum displays objects related to the sea and the port. Finally, there are numerous exhibitions in the city such as the SPOT, a centre for contemporary art,[152] art galleries, and Le Portique – a contemporary art space opened in 2008; the municipal library of Le Havre
Le Havre
regularly organizes exhibitions.

Saint Roch Square

Other attractions include:

The former tribunal (18th century) The Town Hall: the modern belfry which now contains offices The "Volcan" cultural centre built by Oscar Niemeyer Square St. Roch Japanese Garden

Theatres, auditoriums and concerts[edit] There are two main cultural axes in Le Havre: the central city and the Eure
Eure
district. The Espace Oscar Niemeyer
Oscar Niemeyer
consists of a part of the "Great Volcano", a national theatre seating 1,093[153] (which houses the National Choreographic Centre of Le Havre
Le Havre
Haute-Normandie directed by Hervé Robbe) and secondly the "Little Volcano" with a 250-seat multi-purpose hall[153] for live performances. The whole Espace Oscar Niemeyer has been worked on since 2011: the little volcano will be transformed into a multimedia library. As for the performances at the Great Volcano, they are now taking place in the old ferry terminal until the end of construction. Other cultural institutions of the city centre are being transformed: the cinema of art and a trial of Le Sirius facing the University will reopen in 2013. Le Tetris at the fort of Tourneville will, in 2013, be a place devoted to contemporary music. Other cultural venues are scattered in the city centre: the cinema Le Studio, the theatre of the City Hall (700 seats),[154] the Little Theatre (450 seats),[155] the Théâtre des Bains Douches (94 seats), Akté theatre (60 seats), and the Poulailler (Henhouse)) (associative theatre with 50 seats) host numerous shows each year. The National Choreographic Centre of Le Havre
Le Havre
Haute-Normandie specialises in the creation and production of dance shows. Other shows and performances are given in other places and at the Conservatory Arthur Honegger. The second cultural centre of the city is in the Eure
Eure
district near the Basin Vauban. Docks Océane is a multi-purpose hall (concerts, shows, and sporting events) which can accommodate up to 4,700 spectators in 1,800 square metres (19,000 sq ft).[156] The largest cinema in Le Havre
Le Havre
is located on the Docks Vauban (2,430 seats).[157] The Docks Café is an exhibition centre of 17,500 square metres (188,000 sq ft) used for shows, fairs, and exhibitions. The Magic Mirrors offers many concerts managed by the city and leased to private organizers. Following the closure of Cabaret Electric which was located in the Espace Oscar Niemeyer
Oscar Niemeyer
in 2011 a new auditorium, Le Tetris, is under construction at the Fort of Tourneville. It was scheduled to open in September 2013 with a large festival free-of-charge.[citation needed] It will consist of two halls with 800 and 200 seats, exhibition space, housing for artists in residence, a restaurant etc. Le Tetris will be a venue for contemporary music as well as theatre, dance, and visual arts. An "expectation" outside the walls was held on the site of the fort during 2012 and early 2013.[citation needed] Libraries and archives[edit] The main library is located in the city centre, named after the writer Armand Salacrou. It has branches in all districts. A new multimedia library at the "Volcano" is being refurbished for 2014. Thousands of references are available in specialized libraries in the Higher School of Art, the Museum of André Malraux, and the Natural History Museum. Of medieval manuscripts and Incunables are conserved at the public library. The archives of the city, at the Fort of Tourneville, possesses documents from the 16th to the 20th centuries.[158] Le Havre
Le Havre
in visual arts[edit]

Claude Monet, Impression, Sunrise, 1872, painted in the Port of Le Havre.

The Port of Le Havre
Port of Le Havre
and the light on the estuary of the Seine inspired many painters: Louis-Philippe Crepin
Louis-Philippe Crepin
(1772–1851), Jean-Baptiste Corot
Jean-Baptiste Corot
(1796–1875), Eugène Isabey
Eugène Isabey
(1803–1886), Theodore Gudin
Theodore Gudin
(1802–1880), Adolphe-Felix Cals
Adolphe-Felix Cals
(1810–1880), Jean-François Millet
Jean-François Millet
(1814–1875) in 1845,[159] Gustave Courbet (1819–1877) etc.. It is to Eugène Boudin
Eugène Boudin
(1824–1898) who created many representations of Le Havre
Le Havre
in the 19th century. The artist lived for a time in the city. Thanks to its proximity to Honfleur, Le Havre was also represented by foreign artists such as William Turner, Johan Barthold Jongkind, Alfred Stevens, and Richard Parkes Bonington.

Camille Pissarro, The Outer Harbour of Le Havre, Morning, Sun, Tide, 1902, Museum of modern art André Malraux
André Malraux
- MuMa

Claude Monet
Claude Monet
(1840–1926), a resident of Le Havre
Le Havre
from the age of five, in 1872 painted Impression soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), a painting that gave its name to the impressionist movement. In 1867–1868, he painted many seascapes in the Le Havre
Le Havre
region (Terrasse a Sainte-Adresse
Sainte-Adresse
(Garden at Sainte-Adresse), 1867 Bateaux quittant le port (Boats Leaving the Port), 1874). The Musée Malraux houses some of his paintings : Waterlilies, London Parliament et Winter Sun at Lavacourt. Two other Impressionists, Camille Pissarro (1830–1903) and Maxime Maufra
Maxime Maufra
(1861–1918) also represented the port of Le Havre
Le Havre
which also inspired Paul Signac
Paul Signac
(1863–1935), Albert Marquet (1875–1947), and Maurice de Vlaminck
Maurice de Vlaminck
(1876–1958). Then came the school of Fauvism
Fauvism
in which many artists did their training at Le Havre: Othon Friesz
Othon Friesz
(1879–1949), Henri de Saint-Delis (1876–1958), Raoul Dufy
Raoul Dufy
(1877–1953), Georges Braque
Georges Braque
(1882–1963), Raymond Lecourt (1882–1946), Albert Copieux (1885–1956), who followed the course of the School of Fine Arts of Le Havre
Le Havre
in the time of Charles Lhuillier. They left a number of paintings on the theme of the city and the port. In 1899, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864–1901) painted La serveuse anglaise du Star (The English waitress of Star) (Museum Toulouse-Lautrec, Albi) of a girl he met in a bar in the city. Other painters who painted Le Havre
Le Havre
and/or its surroundings such as Sainte-Adresse
Sainte-Adresse
can be cited in particular: Frédéric Bazille, John Gendall, Thomas Couture, Ambroise Louis Garneray, Pablo Picasso (Souvenir du Havre). Jean Dubuffet
Jean Dubuffet
studied at the School of Art in Le Havre. Cinema[edit] With nearly 70 films, Le Havre
Le Havre
is one of the provincial cities most represented in the cinema.[160] Several directors have chosen the port facilities as part of their movie:

L'Atalante
L'Atalante
by Jean Vigo
Jean Vigo
(1934) Le Quai des brumes by Marcel Carné
Marcel Carné
(1938) Un homme marche dans la ville by Marcello Pagliero took place in the port and the Saint-François district after the Second World War.[160] Ce qu'ils imaginent by Anne Théron (2004)

The city has also hosted the filming of several comedies such as:

Le Cerveau
Le Cerveau
by Gérard Oury
Gérard Oury
(1968) La Beuze (2002) Disco (2008) La Fée, also presented at the Directors' Fortnight
Directors' Fortnight
in 2011.

The film by Sophie Marceau, La Disparue de Deauville, made in 2007, contains many scenes around the port of Le Havre, in the Coty shopping centre of Coty and in the streets of the central city. The film Le Havre
Le Havre
by Aki Kaurismaki
Aki Kaurismaki
received two prizes at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival and also the Louis Delluc Prize.[161] It was nominated three times for the 37th César Awards. Literature[edit]

Statue of the writer Bernardin de Saint-Pierre
Bernardin de Saint-Pierre
in front of the before the Law Courts in Le Havre.

Le Havre
Le Havre
appears in several literary works as a point of departure to America: in the 18th century, Father Prevost embarked Manon Lescaut and Des Grieux for French Louisiana. Fanny Loviot departed from Le Havre in 1852, as an emigrant to San Francisco and points further west, and recounted her adventures in Les pirates chinois (A Lady's Captivity among Chinese Pirates in the Chinese Seas, 1858). In the 19th century, Le Havre
Le Havre
was the setting for several French novels: Honoré de Balzac
Honoré de Balzac
described the failure of a Le Havre
Le Havre
merchant family in Modeste Mignon. Later, the Norman writer Guy de Maupassant located several of his works at Le Havre
Le Havre
such as Au muséum d'histoire naturelle (At the Museum of Natural History) a text published in Le Gaulois on 23 March 1881 and again in Pierre et Jean. Alphonse Allais located his intrigues at Le Havre
Le Havre
too. La Bête humaine
La Bête humaine
(The Human Beast) by Émile Zola
Émile Zola
evokes the world of the railway and runs along the Paris- Le Havre
Le Havre
railway. Streets, buildings, and public places in Le Havre
Le Havre
pay tribute to other famous Le Havre
Le Havre
people from this period: the writer Casimir Delavigne (1793–1843) has a street named after him and a statue in front of the palace of justice alongside another man of letters, Bernardin de Saint-Pierre
Bernardin de Saint-Pierre
(1737–1814). In the 20th century, Henry Miller
Henry Miller
located part of the action in Le Havre in his masterpiece Tropic of Cancer, published in 1934. Bouville was the commune where the writer lived who wrote his diary in La Nausée (The Nausea) (1938) by Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
who was inspired by Le Havre city where he wrote his first novel. There are also the testimonies of Raymond Queneau
Raymond Queneau
(1903–1976), born in Le Havre, the city served as a framework for his novel Un rude hiver (A harsh winter) (1939). The plot of Une maison soufflée aux vents (A house blown to the winds) by Emile Danoën, winner of the Popular Novel Prize in 1951, and its sequel Idylle dans un quartier muré (Idyll in a walled neighbourhood) were located in Le Havre
Le Havre
during the Second World War. Under the name Port de Brume Le Havre
Le Havre
is the setting for three other novels by this author: Cerfs-volants (Kites), L'Aventure de Noël (The Adventure at Christmas), and La Queue à la pègre (Queue to the underworld). Michel Leiris
Michel Leiris
wrote De la littérature considérée comme une tauromachie (Of literature considered like a bullfight) in December 1945. Diana Gabaldon
Diana Gabaldon
set the second novel in her Outlander series, Dragonfly in Amber (1992), partly in Le Havre. Two mystery novels take place in Le Havre: Le Bilan Maletras (The Maletras Balance) by Georges Simenon
Georges Simenon
and Le Crime de Rouletabille (Crime at the Roulette table) by Gaston Leroux. In Rouge Brésil (Red Brazil), winner of the Goncourt Prize in 2001, Jean-Christophe Rufin describes Le Havre
Le Havre
in the 16th century as the port of departure of French expeditions to the New World: the hero Villegagnon
Villegagnon
leaves of the port to conquer new lands for the French crown which become Brazil. Martine–Marie Muller tells the saga of a clan of Stevedores from Le Havre
Le Havre
in the 1950s to the 1970s in Quai des Amériques (Quay of the Americas). Benoît Duteurtre
Benoît Duteurtre
published in 2001, Le Voyage en France
France
(Travel in France), for which he received the Prix Médicis: the main character, a young American impassioned by France, lands at Le Havre
Le Havre
which he describes in the first part of the novel. In 2008, Benoît Duteurtre publishes Les pieds dans l'eau (Feet in the water), a highly autobiographical book in which he describes his youth spent between Le Havre and Etretat. The city hosted writers such as Emile Danoën (1920–1999) who grew up in the district of Saint-François, Yoland Simon (born 1941), and Philippe Huet (born 1955). Canadian poet Octave Crémazie (1827–1879) died at Le Havre
Le Havre
and was buried in Saint Marie Cemetery. The playwright Jacques-François Ancelot
Jacques-François Ancelot
(1794–1854) was also a native of Le Havre. Two famous historians, Gabriel Monod (1844–1912) and André Siegfried
André Siegfried
(1875–1959) were from the city. Le Havre
Le Havre
also appears in comic books: for example, in L'Oreille cassée (The Broken Ear) (1937), Tintin embarks on the vessel City of Lyon
Lyon
sailing to South America. The meeting between Tintin and General Alcazar in Les Sept Boules de cristal (The Seven Crystal Balls) (1948) is in Le Havre, according to notes by Hergé
Hergé
in the margins of Le Soir, the first publisher of this adventure. The first adventure of Ric Hochet
Ric Hochet
(1963), the designer Tibet and André-Paul Duchâteau, Traquenard au Havre (Trap at Le Havre) shows the seaside and the port. Similarly, in 1967, for the album Rapt sur le France
France
(Rapt on France), the hero passes by the ocean port. Frank Le Gall, in Novembre toute l'année (November all year) (2000) embarks Theodore Poussin at Le Havre on the Cap Padaran. Music[edit]

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Le Havre
Le Havre
is the birthplace of many musicians and composers such as Henri Woollett (1864–1936), André Caplet
André Caplet
(1878–1925) and Arthur Honegger (1892–1955). There was also Victor Mustel (1815–1890) who was famous for having perfected the harmonium. Le Havre
Le Havre
has long been regarded as one of the cradles of French rock and blues. In the 1980s many groups have emerged after a first dynamic development in the 1960s and 1970s. The most famous personality of Le Havre rock is Little Bob who began his career in the 1970s. The port tradition in many of the groups was repeated in the unused sheds of the port, such as Bovis hall which could hold 20,000 spectators. A blues festival, driven by Jean-François Skrobek, Blues
Blues
a Gogo existed for eight years from 1995 to 2002. Several artists have been produced such as: Youssou N'Dour, Popa Chubby, Amadou & Mariam, Patrick Verbeke etc. It was organized by the Coup de Bleu association whose former president was head of music Café L'Agora
L'Agora
in the Niemeyer Centre which produced the new Le Havre
Le Havre
scene. During these same years, the Festival of the Future, the local version of the Fête de l'Humanité (Festival of Humanity), attracted a large audience. Currently, the musical tradition continues in the Symphony Orchestra of the city of Le Havre, the orchestra of Concerts André Caplet, the conservatory, and music schools such as the Centre for Vocal and Musical Expression (rock) or the JUPO (mainly jazz), associations or labels like Papa's Production (la Folie Ordinaire, Mob's et Travaux, Dominique Comont, Souinq, Your Happy End etc.). The organization by the association of West Park Festival since the 2000s in Harfleur
Harfleur
and since 2004 at the Fort of Tourneville is a demonstration. Moreover, since 2008, the association I Love LH was started and promotes Le Havre culture and especially its music scene by organizing original cultural events as well as the free distribution of compilation music by local artists. Board Game[edit] Main articles: Le Havre
Le Havre
(board game) Le Havre
Le Havre
is a board game about the development of the town of Le Havre. It was inspired by the games Caylus and Agricola and was developed in December 2007. The Norman language[edit] Main articles: Norman language
Norman language
and Cauchois dialect. The legacy of the Norman language
Norman language
is present in the language used by the people of Le Havre, part of which is identified as speaking cauchois. Among the Norman words most used in Le Havre
Le Havre
there are: boujou (hello, goodbye), clenche (door handle), morveux (veuse) (child), and bezot (te) (last born). Notable people linked to Le Havre[edit] Le Havre
Le Havre
was the birthplace of:

Charles Alexandre Leseur in 1818

Georges de Scudéry

Georges de Scudéry
Georges de Scudéry
(1601–1667), novelist, dramatist and poet Madeleine de Scudéry
Madeleine de Scudéry
(1607–1701), writer Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre
Bernardin de Saint-Pierre
(1737–1814), writer and botanist Charles Alexandre Lesueur
Charles Alexandre Lesueur
(1778–1846), naturalist, artist and explorer Casimir Delavigne (1793–1843), poet and dramatist Gabriel Monod (1844–1912), historian Alfred-Louis Brunet-Debaines
Alfred-Louis Brunet-Debaines
(1845–c. 1935), artist Louis Bachelier (1870–1946), mathematician Raoul Dufy
Raoul Dufy
(1877–1953), painter André Caplet
André Caplet
(1878–1925), composer and conductor René Coty
René Coty
(1882–1962), French president (1954–1959) Arthur Honegger
Arthur Honegger
(1892–1955), composer, a member of Les Six Thomas Roberts (1893–1976), Roman Catholic archbishop Jean Dubuffet
Jean Dubuffet
(1901–1985), artist Jean Mallon (1904–1982), palaeographer Raymond Queneau
Raymond Queneau
(1903–1976), poet and novelist Jacques Leguerney (1906–1997), composer Bénédicte Pesle
Bénédicte Pesle
(1927–2018), arts patron Tristan Murail (born 1947), composer Laurent Ruquier
Laurent Ruquier
(born 1963), journalist Jérôme Le Banner
Jérôme Le Banner
(born 1972), K-1
K-1
Fighter Olivier Durand (born 1967), guitarist for Elliott Murphy Eugenia DeLamare (1824–1907) – Guilherme Schüch – Wife – Baron Von Capanema Elvire Murail (born 1958), writer for children Vikash Dhorasoo, (born 1973), International footballer Gueïda Fofana, footballer Olivier Davidas, footballer Dimitri Dragin, judoka Sylvain Poirier, mathematician Julien Faubert, footballer Fouleymata Camara, handball player Kevin Anin, footballer govy, (born 1981), artist

Others linked to the city

Rex Cherryman, died here in 1925 Patrick Demarchelier, fashion photographer, born in Le Havre Christine Lagarde, IMF managing director, grew up in Le Havre Jean-Paul Sartre, philosopher, taught at the François-I high school

See also[edit]

Normandy
Normandy
portal France
France
portal

Pierre-Marie Poisson, Le Havre
Le Havre
War Memorial Jean-Marie Baumel, sculpture of several bas-reliefs in Le Havre

References[edit]

(in French) Michel de Boüard, History of Normandy, Toulouse, 2001, ISBN 2-7089-1707-2 (in French) Pierre Gras, The Time of Ports, Decline and Recovery of Port Cities (1940–2010), Tallandier, 2010, 298 pages, ISBN 978-2-84734-675-6 (in French) Claire Étienne-Steiner, Le Havre. City, Port, and Agglomeration, Connaissance du patrimoine de Haute-Normandie, Rouen, 1999, ISBN 2-910316-19-X

Notes[edit]

^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002 [1] Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" which allow, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For municipalities with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these municipalities is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force on 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

Footnotes[edit]

^ INSEE 2010 Urban Area (76701) (in French) ^ INSEE 2010 Metro Area (032) (in French) ^ "Le Havre". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.  ^ Inhabitants of Seine-Maritime
Seine-Maritime
(in French) ^ Le Havre
Le Havre
in the Competition for Towns and Villages in Bloom Archived 10 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine. (in French) ^ Rezoning of Urban areas: seeking urban expansion, Assemblée des Communautés de France, consulted on 19 July 2012 (in French) ^ Editorial, CODAH, consulted on 19 July 2012 (in French) ^ Google Maps ^ a b Claire Étienne-Steiner, Frédéric Saunier, Le Havre
Le Havre
a port with new towns, Paris, éditions du patrimoine, 2005, p. 21 (in French) ^ C. Étienne-Steiner, Le Havre. City, Port, and agglomeration, Rouen, édition du patrimoine, 1999, p. 15 (in French) ^ Isabelle Letélié, Le Havre, unusual itineraries, Louviers, Ysec éditions, 2010, p. 14 (in French) ^ J. Ragot, M. Ragot, Guide to Nature in the Pays de Caux, 2005, p. 6 (in French) ^ P. Auger, G. Granier, The Guide to Pays de Caux, 1993, p. 33 (in French) ^ Information on Nature and scenery in the estuary of the Seine, Carmen, Haute-Normandie, consulted on 19 July 2012 (in French) ^ a b c d e f Infoclimat for Le Havre
Le Havre
– Cape Hève (76) 110m altitude (in French) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Infoclimat" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). ^ P. Auger, G. Granier, The Guide to Pays de Caux, 1993, p. 42 (in French) ^ Currents, flows, and tides: The movements of water, Pierre Le Hir, Ricardo Silva Jacinto, Ifremer, 2001, consulted on 31 July 2012 (in French) ^ Nature and Scenic information the estuary of the Seine, Carmen, Haute-Normandie, consulted on 19 July 2012 (in French) ^ Paris, Nice, Strasbourg, Brest ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Cap De La Hève" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 5, 2016.  ^ "Climat Haute-Normandie" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 5, 2016.  ^ It is difficult to mobilise politician on air pollution problems, Gaëlle Dupont, consulted on 20 July 2012 (in French) ^ Laurence Perrin, The hour of reckoning for carbon, Océanes Le Havre, No. 152, December 2011 – January 2012, p. 31 (in French) ^ a b Fight against Changing Climate, Ville du Havre, consulted on 20 July 2012 (in French) ^ Results of Measurements in 2011, Air Normand, consulted on 20 July 2012 (in French) ^ a b c d Annual Report on sustainable development for the city of Le Havre 2010–2011, Ville du Havre, consulted on 20 July 2012 (in French) ^ The Beach at Le Havre
Le Havre
has nothing new in being certified Pavillon bleu Archived 19 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine., consulted on 20 July 2012 (in French) ^ Preservation of biodiversity, ecosystems and natural environments, consulted on 12 March 2015 (in French) ^ a b c d e Communication Network, Le Havre
Le Havre
Development, consulted on 20 July 2012 (in French) ^ Le Havre
Le Havre
Portsmouth
Portsmouth
Timetables , Cross Channel Ferry, LD Lines, consulted on 12 Match 2013 ^ a b c Who are we?, CODAH, consulted on 27 July 2012 (in French) ^ a b Mobility Guide 2011, Ville du Havre, consulted on 20 July 2012 (in French) ^ The Key Numbers (French), accessed on 20 July 2012 ^ Océanes Le Havre, n°156, mai 2012, p.14 ^ a b c Le Havre, the city rebuilt by Auguste Perret, UNESCO, consulted on 20 July 2012 ^ Isabelle Letélié, Le Havre, unusual itineraries, Louviers, Ysec éditions, 2010, p. 31 (in French) ^ Isabelle Letélié, Le Havre, unusual itineraries, Louviers, Ysec éditions, 2010, p. 32 (in French) ^ An old centre in course of renovation, Ville du Havre, consulted on 20 July 2012 (in French) ^ Ilot Turgot Magellan by the architects Paumier (in French) ^ Parks and Gardens of Le Havre
Le Havre
Archived 18 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine., Sciences Po
Sciences Po
and INSA, consulted on 20 July 2012 (in French) ^ Pierre Gras, The time of ports. Decline and recovery of port cities (1940–2010), Tallandier, 2010, 298 p. ISBN 978-2-84734-675-6 p. 238 (in French) ^ Pierre Gras, The time of ports. Decline and recovery of port cities (1940–2010), Tallandier, 2010, 298 p. ISBN 978-2-84734-675-6 p. 239 (in French) ^ Tourneville Fort, Ville du Havre, consulted on 20 July 2012 (in French) ^ a b c d Le Havre
Le Havre
and its Districts: Key Data, INSEE. Consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "chiffres clés quartiers" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). ^ The eco-district "Les Hauts de Bléville", Ville du Havre, consulted on 31 July 2012 (in French) ^ a b c François de Beaurepaire (pref. Marianne Mulon), The names of Communes and former parishes of Seine-Maritime, Paris, A. et J. Picard, 1979, 180 p., ISBN 2-7084-0040-1, OCLC 6403150, p. 92-93 (in French) ^ Lexicographic definitions and etymologies of Havre, TLFi, on the CNRTL website (in French) ^ Elisabeth Ridel, The Vikings and the words: The contribution of old Scandinavian to the French language, éditions errance, Paris, 2009, p. 203, 226, 227, 228. (in French) ^ INSEE Arrondissement du Havre (in French) ^ Council Members, General Council of Seine-Maritime, consulted on 24 July 2012 Conseil général de Seine-Maritime ^ Research on constituencies by commune or by canton, National Assembly, consulted on 24 July 2012 (in French) ^ Edouard Philippe, Ville du Havre, consulted on 24 July 2012 (in French) ^ Pierre Gras, The time of Ports. Declin and recovery of Port Cities (1940–2010), Tallandier, 2010, 298 p. (ISBN 978-2-84734-675-6), p. 47 (in French) ^ a b Results of Legislative Elections for 2012 Seine-Maritime
Seine-Maritime
7th electoral district, L'Express, consulted on 24 July 2012 (in French) ^ a b Results of Legislative Elections for 2012 Seine-Maritime
Seine-Maritime
8th electoral district, L'Express, consulted on 24 July 2012 (in French) ^ a b The Municipal Council, Ville du Havre, consulted on 24 July 2012 (in French) ^ List of Mayors of France ^ Le Havre, Ministry of Justice, consulted on 24 July 2012 (in French) ^ Le Havre, Marine city of Mistral, November 2009, Océanes Le Havre (in French) ^ Zachert, Uwe; Annica Kunz. "Twin cities". Landeshauptstadt Magdeburg [City of Magdeburg]. Archived from the original on 1 September 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2013.  ^ a b c d National Commission for Decentralised cooperation (in French) ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.  ^ " Le Havre
Le Havre
sister city agreement from City of Tampa
Tampa
website" (PDF). Tampagov.net. Retrieved 26 January 2014.  ^ 76351 Le Havre, INSEE, 2009, consulted on 25 July 2012 (in French) ^ Result of the Population Census – 2009 – Le Havre[permanent dead link], INSEE, consulted on 25 July 2012 (in French) ^ Results of the Population census – 2009 – Le Havre[permanent dead link], INSEE, consulted on 25 July 2012 (in French) ^ a b c Evolution and Structure of the Population 2009, INSEE (in French) ^ Le Havre
Le Havre
(76351 – Commune) – Nationality[permanent dead link], INSEE, 2009, consulted on 25 July 2012 (in French) ^ Le Havre
Le Havre
(76351 – Commune) – Immigration[permanent dead link], INSEE, consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ Le Havre
Le Havre
(76351 – Commune) – Immigration[permanent dead link], consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ Calculated from INSEE data: Population Census of 1999[permanent dead link], INSEE, 1999, consulted on 23 July 2007 (in French) ^ a b Results of the Census of the population – 2009 – Le Havre[permanent dead link], INSEE, consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ Employment – active population[permanent dead link], INSEE, consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ Characteristics of Employment[permanent dead link], INSEE, consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ Diplomas- Education[permanent dead link], INSEE, consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ The Schools, Ville du Havre, consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ Directory of public establishments (2009–2010), Academy of Rouen website, consulted on 5 July 2010 (in French) ^ Claude Monet
Claude Monet
School, Academy of Rouen
Rouen
website, consulted on 5 July 2010 (in French) ^ Twinned with Lincoln-Sudbury Regional High School
Lincoln-Sudbury Regional High School
in the state of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
in the United States. ^ a b Lycee Porte Océane, Academy of Rouen
Rouen
website, consulted on 5 July 2010 (in French) ^ a b Robert Schuman School, Academy of Rouen
Rouen
website, consulted on 5 July 2010 (in French) ^ a b Jules Siegfried School of Le Havre, Academy of Rouen
Rouen
website, consulted on 5 July 2010 (in French) ^ Françoise de Grâce School, Academy of Rouen, consulted on 5 July 2010 (in French) ^ Jules Lecesne Hotel Trades and Services School – Le Havre, Academy of Rouen, consulted on 5 July 2010 (in French) ^ Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier School – Le Havre, Academy of Rouen, consulted on 5 July 2010 (in French) ^ Auguste Perret
Auguste Perret
School, Academy of Rouen
Rouen
website, consulted on 5 July 2010 (in French) ^ Teaching Unit of the Vocational School, Academy of Rouen
Rouen
website, consulted on 5 July 2010 (in French) ^ Océanes Le Havre, April 2011, No. 145, p. 25 (in French) ^ A hospitable university, University of Le Havre, consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ a b c d Regional Atlas: Number of students in 2010–2011, Ministry of Higher Education and Research, consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ International, University of Le Havre, consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ Vocation, École de management de Normandie, consulted on 2 April 2008 (in French) ^ [2] EM Normandie website, consulted on 7 June 2015 (in English) ^ Welcome, Sciences Po, consulted on 2 August 2012 (in French) ^ The ENSM (ex-Hydro) moves to Le Havre
Le Havre
in 2015, Ville du Havre, consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ Océanes Le Havre, April 2011, No. 145, p. 29 (in French) ^ Conservatory Arthur Honegger
Arthur Honegger
Archived 19 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine., Ville du Havre, consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ Océanes Le Havre, April 2011, No. 145, p. 27 (in French) ^ Since 1838, Société française de l'Aviron, consulted on 2 August 2012 (in French) ^ Yachting Booklet, havredeveloppement.com, consulted on 21 November 2010 (in French) ^ Municipal Archives of Le Havre, Ville du Havre, consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ Coll., 1872–1972, Le Havre
Le Havre
Centenary Athletic Club, Le Havre, HAC, 1972, p. 19–23 (in French) ^ Presentation of the club, FFHG, consulted on 2 August 2012 (in French) ^ 200 Key Figures and Statistics, Le Havre
Le Havre
Development, consulted 2 April 2008 (in French) ^ Océanes Le Havre, April 2011, No. 145, p. 30 (in French) ^ Presentation, Centre nautique Paul Vatine, consulted on 25 July 2012 (in French) ^ Gymnasiums, grounds, and other municipal facilities, Ville du Havre, consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ Océane Stadium, Ville du Havre, consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ Extract from the Swiss website TSR sport dated 19 May 2006 Opening at Le Havre
Le Havre
of the largest free skatepark in France. ^ Océanes Le Havre, No. 157, Summer 2012, p. 17 (in French) ^ PubliHebdos, PubliHebdos, consulted on 8 June 2013 (in French) ^ Le Havre
Le Havre
Info with listings for Rouen, PubliHebdos, consulted on 8 June 2013 (in French) ^ Paris- Normandy
Normandy
with Rouen
Rouen
listings, Hersant, consulted on 8 June 2013 (in French) ^ Radio Albatros, Radio Albatros, consulted on 2 August 2012 (in French) ^ Only-Hit, Only-Hit, consulted on 5 July 2012 (in French) ^ Le Havre-Sainte-Adresse, diocèse of Le Havre, consulted on 4 April 2008 (in French) ^ C. Étienne-Steiner, Le Havre. City, Port, and conurbation, Rouen, édition du patrimoine, 1999, p. 114 (in French) ^ Declaration of the President of the Republic at the synagogue of Le Havre, Presidency of the Republic, consulted on 4 April 2008 (in French) ^ Statistical Summary by commune, department and sector of employment, INSEE, consulted on 9 September 2009 (in French) ^ World Port ranking 2010, AAPA website, consulted on 27 July 2012 ^ a b c d Definitive Statistics 2011[permanent dead link], Port du Havre, consulted on 27 December 2012 (in French) ^ a b c d The Port of Le Havre, Le Havre
Le Havre
développement, consulted on 30 July 2012 (in French) ^ a b c The Port today, Grand Port Maritime du Havre, consulted on 28 July 2012 (in French) ^ a b Employment linked to the Maritime and Port activities in the Le Havre area (excluding industry), Port du Havre, consulted on 29 July 2012 (in French) ^ Laurence Périn, The Cruises in vogue, in Océanes, No. 154, March 2012, p. 6 (in French) ^ The Leisure Boat Port[permanent dead link], Ville du Havre, consulted on 2 August 2012 (in French) ^ Renault/ Sandouville
Sandouville
Economy: non-working days, Le Figaro, consulted on 30 July 2012 (in French) ^ Petrochemical Chemistry, Le Havre
Le Havre
développement, consulted on 30 July 2012 (in French) ^ Aeronautic, Le Havre
Le Havre
développement, consulted on 30 July 2012 (in French) ^ Huge contract for Dresser-Rand Le Havre, L'usine nouvelle, 20 July 2007, consulted on 30 July 2012 (in French) ^ 2011 in brief, EDF, centrale du Havre, consulted on 30 July 2012 (in French) ^ Océanes Le Havre, No. 156, May 2012, p. 3 (in French) ^ Presentation and key data, Groupe Hospitalier du Havre, consulted on 30 July 2012 (in French) ^ The City recruits, Ville du Havre, consulted on 30 July 2012 (in French) ^ University of Le Havre
University of Le Havre
data Archived 11 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine., Université du Havre, consulted on 26 July 2012 (in French) ^ Tourism, INSEE, consulted on 30 July 2012 (in French) ^ Cultural Events, Ville du Havre, consulted on 9 October 2012 (in French) ^ a b UNESCO
UNESCO
List for France ^ Church of Saint-Michel, Le Havre
Le Havre
official website (in French) ^ Church of Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, Le Havre
Le Havre
website (in French) ^ Church of Saint-François, Le Havre
Le Havre
Official website (in French) ^ Church of Saint Anne, Le Havre
Le Havre
official website (in French) ^ Church of Saint Marie picture, Le Havre
Le Havre
Actif website (in French) ^ Chapel of Ingouville, Le Havre
Le Havre
Official website (in French) ^ Alley of Graville, Le Havre
Le Havre
official website (in French) ^ HAVRE MUSEOFILE Directory of French Museums, Ministry of Culture, consulted on 27 July 2012 (in French) ^ The MuMa Museum, MuMa, consulted on 18 July 2014 (in French) ^ Collections, MuMa, consulted on 18 July 2014 (in French) ^ Lesueur Collection, Ville du Havre, consulted on 2 August 2012 (in French) ^ "Les Collections Biologiques du Muséum avant le désastre du 5 Septembre 1944." Bulletin de la Société Géologique de Normandie et des Amis du Muséum du Havre. Tome 40. 1936–1950. Pages 12, 17, 22. (in French) ^ Collections of the Abbey of Graville, Le Havre
Le Havre
Official website (in French) ^ Centre of contemporary art, EVENE, consulted on 2 August 2012 (in French) ^ a b The Gallery, Le Volcan, consulted on 27 July 2012 (in French) ^ Auditoriums, Ville du Havre, consulted on 2 April 2008 (in French) ^ Auditoriums, Ville du Havre, consulted on 2 April 2008 (in French) ^ Welcome to the Docks Archived 15 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine., Les Docks, consulted on 2 April 2008 (in French) ^ Gaumont Docks Vauban-Le Havre, Gaumont, consulted on 27 July 2012 (in French) ^ Educational services in the cultural establishments of the Academy of Rouen, Academy of Rouen, consulted on 2 April 2008 (in French) ^ Alfred Sensier, The Life and works of J.-F Millet, A. Quantin, 1881. (in French) ^ a b The making of films in Le Havre[permanent dead link], Ville du Havre, consulted on 1 April 2008 (in French) ^ Aki Kaurismäki wins the Louis-Delluc Prize for Le Havre, Le Monde, 16 December 2011, consulted on 19 December 2011 (in French)

Further reading[edit] French

Joseph Abram, Le Havre: Modern City, 2011 Nathalie Castetz, Le Havre, Seine
Seine
Estuary, Paris, Héliopoles, 2012, ISBN 978-2-919006-10-6 Franck Godard and Olivier Bouteiller, Le Havre, Déclics, 2011, ISBN 978-2-84768-231-1 Unusual Le Havre, Renée Grimaud, Les beaux jours, 2012, ISBN 978-2-35179-101-1 Jean-François Massé, Le Havre, attached port, Acanthe, 2003, ISBN 2-84942-003-4 Tristan Gaston-Breton, Le Havre
Le Havre
1802–2002: Two centuries of economic adventure, Le Cherche midi, 2002, ISBN 2-7491-0028-3 E. Simon, A. Fiszlewicz, Le Havre: What an Estuary!, Petit à Petit, 2002, ISBN 2-914401-26-4 Madeleine Brocard, Atlas of the Estuary
Estuary
of the Seine, Rouen, Presses de l'université de Rouen, 1996 Emanuelle Real, The Industrial Landscape of Basse-Seine, Connaissance du patrimoine en Haute-Normandie, 2009, ISBN 2-910316-33-5, 264 pages Jacques Basile and Didier Guyot, Another Blue City, Editions Point de Vues, 2011, 120 pages, ISBN 978-2-915548-63-1

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Le Havre.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Le Havre.

Le Havre
Le Havre
Official website (in French) Official tourism website Le Havre
Le Havre
Information website (Archive) Le Havre
Le Havre
on Lion1906 Le Havre
Le Havre
on Google Maps Le Havre
Le Havre
on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute (IGN) website (in French) Le Havre
Le Havre
on the INSEE website (in French) INSEE (in French)  "Havre, Le". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (9th ed.). 1880.   "Havre". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. 

v t e

World Heritage Sites in France

Île-de-France

Palace and Park of Versailles Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
Palace and Park Paris: Banks of the Seine Provins

Parisian basin

Amiens
Amiens
Cathedral Belfries of Belgium and France1 Bourges Cathedral Champagne hillsides, houses and cellars Chartres Cathedral Climats and terroirs of Burgundy Reims: Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Abbey of Saint-Remi, Palace of Tau Abbey of Fontenay Le Havre Vézelay Church and hill

Nord-Pas-de-Calais

Belfries of Belgium and France1 Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin

East

Great Saltworks of Salins-les-Bains
Salins-les-Bains
and Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans Nancy: Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place d'Alliance Strasbourg: Grande Île, Neustadt Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3

West

Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
and its bay

South West

Episcopal city, Albi Port of the Moon, Bordeaux Prehistoric sites and decorated caves of the Vézère valley Pyrénées – Mont Perdu2 Saint-Émilion

Centre East

Chauvet Cave Lyon

Mediterranean

Roman and Romanesque monuments, Arles Carcassonne citadel Gulf of Porto: Calanches de Piana, Gulf of Girolata, Scandola Reserve Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble, Avignon Bridge Pont du Gard Orange: Roman Theatre and environs, Triumphal Arch

Multiple regions

The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier Canal du Midi Fortifications
Fortifications
of Vauban Loire Valley
Loire Valley
between Sully-sur-Loire
Sully-sur-Loire
and Chalonnes-sur-Loire Routes
Routes
of Santiago de Compostela in France

Overseas departments and territories

Lagoons of New Caledonia Pitons, cirques and remparts of Réunion Taputapuātea

1Shared locally with other region/s and with Belgium 2Shared with Spain 3Shared with Austria, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland

v t e

Communes of the Seine-Maritime
Seine-Maritime
department

Allouville-Bellefosse Alvimare Ambrumesnil Amfreville-la-Mi-Voie Amfreville-les-Champs Anceaumeville Ancourt Ancourteville-sur-Héricourt Ancretiéville-Saint-Victor Ancretteville-sur-Mer Angerville-Bailleul Angerville-la-Martel Angerville-l'Orcher Angiens Anglesqueville-l'Esneval Anglesqueville-la-Bras-Long Anneville-Ambourville Anneville-sur-Scie Annouville-Vilmesnil Anquetierville Anvéville Ardouval Arelaune-en-Seine Argueil Arques-la-Bataille Aubéguimont Aubermesnil-aux-Érables Aubermesnil-Beaumais Auberville-la-Manuel Auberville-la-Renault Auffay Aumale Auppegard Authieux-Ratiéville Les Authieux-sur-le-Port-Saint-Ouen Autigny Autretot Auvilliers Auzebosc Auzouville-l'Esneval Auzouville-sur-Ry Auzouville-sur-Saâne Avesnes-en-Bray Avesnes-en-Val Avremesnil Bacqueville-en-Caux Bailleul-Neuville Baillolet Bailly-en-Rivière Baons-le-Comte Bardouville Barentin Baromesnil Bazinval Beaubec-la-Rosière Beaumont-le-Hareng Beaurepaire Beaussault Beautot Beauval-en-Caux Beauvoir-en-Lyons Bec-de-Mortagne Belbeuf Bellencombre Bellengreville Belleville-en-Caux La Bellière Belmesnil Bénarville Bénesville Bénouville Bernières Bertheauville Bertreville Bertreville-Saint-Ouen Bertrimont Berville Berville-sur-Seine Beuzeville-la-Grenier Beuzeville-la-Guérard Beuzevillette Bézancourt Bierville Bihorel Biville-la-Baignarde Biville-la-Rivière Blacqueville Blainville-Crevon Blangy-sur-Bresle Blosseville Le Bocasse Bois-d'Ennebourg Bois-Guilbert Bois-Guillaume Bois-Héroult Bois-Himont Bois-l'Évêque Le Bois-Robert Boissay Bolbec Bolleville Bonsecours Boos Bordeaux-Saint-Clair Bornambusc Bosc-Bérenger Bosc-Bordel Bosc-Édeline Bosc-Guérard-Saint-Adrien Bosc-Hyons Bosc-le-Hard Bosc-Mesnil Bosville Boudeville Bouelles La Bouille Bourdainville Le Bourg-Dun Bourville Bouville Brachy Bracquetuit Bradiancourt Brametot Bréauté Brémontier-Merval Bretteville-du-Grand-Caux Bretteville-Saint-Laurent Buchy Bully Bures-en-Bray Butot Butot-Vénesville Cailleville Cailly Callengeville Calleville-les-Deux-Églises Campneuseville Canehan Canouville Canteleu Canville-les-Deux-Églises Cany-Barville Carville-la-Folletière Carville-Pot-de-Fer Le Catelier Catenay Caudebec-lès-Elbeuf Le Caule-Sainte-Beuve Cauville-sur-Mer Les Cent-Acres La Cerlangue La Chapelle-du-Bourgay La Chapelle-Saint-Ouen La Chapelle-sur-Dun La Chaussée Cideville Clais Clasville Claville-Motteville Cléon Clères Cleuville Cléville Cliponville Colleville Colmesnil-Manneville Compainville Conteville Contremoulins Cottévrard Crasville-la-Mallet Crasville-la-Rocquefort Cressy Criel-sur-Mer La Crique Criquebeuf-en-Caux Criquetot-l'Esneval Criquetot-le-Mauconduit Criquetot-sur-Longueville Criquetot-sur-Ouville Criquiers Critot Croisy-sur-Andelle Croixdalle Croix-Mare Cropus Crosville-sur-Scie Cuverville Cuverville-sur-Yères Cuy-Saint-Fiacre Dampierre-en-Bray Dampierre-Saint-Nicolas Dancourt Darnétal Daubeuf-Serville Dénestanville Déville-lès-Rouen Dieppe Doudeauville Doudeville Douvrend Drosay Duclair Écalles-Alix Écrainville Écretteville-lès-Baons Écretteville-sur-Mer Ectot-l'Auber Ectot-lès-Baons Elbeuf Elbeuf-en-Bray Elbeuf-sur-Andelle Életot Ellecourt Émanville Envermeu Envronville Épinay-sur-Duclair Épouville Épretot Épreville Ermenouville Ernemont-la-Villette Ernemont-sur-Buchy Esclavelles Eslettes Esteville Étaimpuis Étainhus Étalleville Étalondes Étoutteville Étretat Eu Fallencourt Fécamp Ferrières-en-Bray La Ferté-Saint-Samson Fesques La Feuillie Flamanville Flamets-Frétils Flocques Fongueusemare Fontaine-en-Bray Fontaine-la-Mallet Fontaine-le-Bourg Fontaine-le-Dun Fontaine-sous-Préaux La Fontelaye Fontenay Forges-les-Eaux Foucarmont Foucart Franqueville-Saint-Pierre Fréauville La Frénaye Freneuse Fresles Fresnay-le-Long Fresne-le-Plan Fresnoy-Folny Fresquiennes Freulleville Frichemesnil Froberville Fry Fultot La Gaillarde Gaillefontaine Gainneville Gancourt-Saint-Étienne Ganzeville Gerponville Gerville Goderville Gommerville Gonfreville-Caillot Gonfreville-l'Orcher Gonnetot Gonneville-la-Mallet Gonneville-sur-Scie Gonzeville Goupillières Gournay-en-Bray Gouy Graimbouville Grainville-la-Teinturière Grainville-sur-Ry Grainville-Ymauville Grand-Camp Grand-Couronne Grandcourt Les Grandes-Ventes Le Grand-Quevilly Graval Grèges Grémonville Greuville Grigneuseville Gruchet-le-Valasse Gruchet-Saint-Siméon Grugny Grumesnil Guerville Gueures Gueutteville Gueutteville-les-Grès La Hallotière Le Hanouard Harcanville Harfleur Hattenville Haucourt Haudricourt Haussez Hautot-l'Auvray Hautot-le-Vatois Hautot-Saint-Sulpice Hautot-sur-Mer Hautot-sur-Seine Le Havre La Haye Héberville Hénouville Héricourt-en-Caux Hermanville Hermeville Le Héron Héronchelles Heugleville-sur-Scie Heuqueville Heurteauville Hodeng-au-Bosc Hodeng-Hodenger Houdetot Le Houlme Houppeville Houquetot La Houssaye-Béranger Hugleville-en-Caux Les Ifs Illois Imbleville Incheville Ingouville Isneauville Jumièges Lamberville Lammerville Landes-Vieilles-et-Neuves Lanquetot Lestanville Lillebonne Limésy Limpiville Lindebeuf Lintot Lintot-les-Bois Les Loges La Londe Londinières Longmesnil Longroy Longueil Longuerue Longueville-sur-Scie Louvetot Lucy Luneray Malaunay Malleville-les-Grès Manéglise Manéhouville Maniquerville Manneville-ès-Plains Manneville-la-Goupil Mannevillette Maromme Marques Martainville-Épreville Martigny Martin-Église Massy Mathonville Maucomble Maulévrier-Sainte-Gertrude Mauny Mauquenchy Mélamare Melleville Ménerval Ménonval Mentheville Mésangueville Mesnières-en-Bray Le Mesnil-Durdent Le Mesnil-Esnard Mesnil-Follemprise Le Mesnil-Lieubray Mesnil-Mauger Mesnil-Panneville Mesnil-Raoul Le Mesnil-Réaume Le Mesnil-sous-Jumièges Meulers Millebosc Mirville Molagnies Monchaux-Soreng Monchy-sur-Eu Mont-Cauvaire Mont-Saint-Aignan Montérolier Montigny Montivilliers Montmain Montreuil-en-Caux Montroty Montville Morgny-la-Pommeraye Morienne Mortemer Morville-sur-Andelle Motteville Moulineaux Muchedent Nesle-Hodeng Nesle-Normandeuse Neufbosc Neufchâtel-en-Bray Neuf-Marché La Neuville-Chant-d'Oisel Neuville-Ferrières Néville Nointot Nolléval Normanville Norville Notre-Dame-d'Aliermont Notre-Dame-de-Bliquetuit Notre-Dame-de-Bondeville Notre-Dame-du-Bec Notre-Dame-du-Parc Nullemont Ocqueville Octeville-sur-Mer Offranville Oherville Oissel Omonville Orival Osmoy-Saint-Valery Ouainville Oudalle Ourville-en-Caux Ouville-l'Abbaye Ouville-la-Rivière Paluel Parc-d'Anxtot Pavilly Petit-Caux Petit-Couronne Le Petit-Quevilly Petiville Pierrecourt Pierrefiques Pierreval Pissy-Pôville Pleine-Sève Pommereux Pommeréval Ponts-et-Marais Port-Jérôme-sur-Seine La Poterie-Cap-d'Antifer Préaux Prétot-Vicquemare Preuseville Puisenval Quevillon Quévreville-la-Poterie Quiberville Quièvrecourt Quincampoix Raffetot Rainfreville Réalcamp Rebets La Remuée Rétonval Reuville Ricarville-du-Val Richemont Rieux Rives-en-Seine Riville Robertot Rocquefort Rocquemont Rogerville Rolleville Roncherolles-en-Bray Roncherolles-sur-le-Vivier Ronchois Rosay Rouen Roumare Routes Rouville Rouvray-Catillon Rouxmesnil-Bouteilles Royville La Rue-Saint-Pierre Ry Saâne-Saint-Just Sahurs Sainneville Saint-Aignan-sur-Ry Saint-André-sur-Cailly Saint-Antoine-la-Forêt Saint-Arnoult Saint-Aubin-Celloville Saint-Aubin-de-Crétot Saint-Aubin-Épinay Saint-Aubin-le-Cauf Saint-Aubin-lès-Elbeuf Saint-Aubin-Routot Saint-Aubin-sur-Mer Saint-Aubin-sur-Scie Saint-Clair-sur-les-Monts Saint-Crespin Saint-Denis-d'Aclon Saint-Denis-le-Thiboult Saint-Denis-sur-Scie Sainte-Adresse Sainte-Agathe-d'Aliermont Sainte-Austreberthe Sainte-Beuve-en-Rivière Sainte-Colombe Sainte-Croix-sur-Buchy Sainte-Foy Sainte-Geneviève Sainte-Hélène-Bondeville Sainte-Marguerite-sur-Duclair Sainte-Marguerite-sur-Mer Sainte-Marie-au-Bosc Sainte-Marie-des-Champs Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray Saint-Eustache-la-Forêt Saint-Georges-sur-Fontaine Saint-Germain-des-Essourts Saint-Germain-d'Étables Saint-Germain-sous-Cailly Saint-Germain-sur-Eaulne Saint-Gilles-de-Crétot Saint-Gilles-de-la-Neuville Saint-Hellier Saint-Honoré Saint-Jacques-d'Aliermont Saint-Jacques-sur-Darnétal Saint-Jean-de-Folleville Saint-Jean-de-la-Neuville Saint-Jean-du-Cardonnay Saint-Jouin-Bruneval Saint-Laurent-de-Brèvedent Saint-Laurent-en-Caux Saint-Léger-aux-Bois Saint-Léger-du-Bourg-Denis Saint-Léonard Saint-Lucien Saint-Maclou-de-Folleville Saint-Maclou-la-Brière Saint-Mards Saint-Martin-au-Bosc Saint-Martin-aux-Arbres Saint-Martin-aux-Buneaux Saint-Martin-de-Boscherville Saint-Martin-de-l'If Saint-Martin-du-Bec Saint-Martin-du-Manoir Saint-Martin-du-Vivier Saint-Martin-le-Gaillard Saint-Martin-l'Hortier Saint-Martin-Osmonville Saint-Maurice-d'Ételan Saint-Michel-d'Halescourt Saint-Nicolas-d'Aliermont Saint-Nicolas-de-la-Haie Saint-Nicolas-de-la-Taille Saint-Ouen-du-Breuil Saint-Ouen-le-Mauger Saint-Ouen-sous-Bailly Saint-Paër Saint-Pierre-Bénouville Saint-Pierre-de-Manneville Saint-Pierre-des-Jonquières Saint-Pierre-de-Varengeville Saint-Pierre-en-Port Saint-Pierre-en-Val Saint-Pierre-lès-Elbeuf Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux Saint-Pierre-le-Viger Saint-Rémy-Boscrocourt Saint-Riquier-en-Rivière Saint-Riquier-ès-Plains Saint-Romain-de-Colbosc Saint-Saëns Saint-Saire Saint-Sauveur-d'Émalleville Saint-Sylvain Saint-Vaast-d'Équiqueville Saint-Vaast-Dieppedalle Saint-Vaast-du-Val Saint-Valery-en-Caux Saint-Victor-l'Abbaye Saint-Vigor-d'Ymonville Saint-Vincent-Cramesnil Sandouville Sassetot-le-Malgardé Sassetot-le-Mauconduit Sasseville Sauchay Saumont-la-Poterie Sauqueville Saussay Sausseuzemare-en-Caux Senneville-sur-Fécamp Sept-Meules Serqueux Servaville-Salmonville Sévis Sierville Sigy-en-Bray Smermesnil Sommery Sommesnil Sorquainville Sotteville-lès-Rouen Sotteville-sous-le-Val Sotteville-sur-Mer Tancarville Terres-de-Caux Thérouldeville Theuville-aux-Maillots Thiergeville Thiétreville Thil-Manneville Le Thil-Riberpré Thiouville Le Tilleul Tocqueville-en-Caux Tocqueville-les-Murs Torcy-le-Grand Torcy-le-Petit Le Torp-Mesnil Tôtes Touffreville-la-Corbeline Touffreville-sur-Eu Tourville-la-Rivière Tourville-les-Ifs Tourville-sur-Arques Toussaint Le Trait Trémauville Le Tréport La Trinité-du-Mont Les Trois-Pierres Trouville Turretot Val-de-la-Haye Val-de-Saâne Valliquerville Valmont Varengeville-sur-Mer Varneville-Bretteville Vassonville Vatierville Vattetot-sous-Beaumont Vattetot-sur-Mer Vatteville-la-Rue La Vaupalière Veauville-lès-Baons Veauville-lès-Quelles Vénestanville Ventes-Saint-Rémy Vergetot Veules-les-Roses Veulettes-sur-Mer Vibeuf Vieux-Manoir Vieux-Rouen-sur-Bresle La Vieux-Rue Villainville Villers-Écalles Villers-sous-Foucarmont Villy-sur-Yères Vinnemerville Virville Vittefleur Wanchy-Capval Yainville Yébleron Yerville Ymare Yport Ypreville-Biville Yquebeuf Yvecrique Yvetot Yville-sur-Seine

v t e

Venues of the 1900 Summer Olympics

7th arrondissement of Paris Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Boulogne-Billancourt Compiègne Croix-Catelan Stadium Le Havre Meulan-en-Yvelines Neuilly-sur-Seine Puteaux Satory Seine Tuileries Garden Vélodrome de Vincennes

v t e

Venues of the 1924 Summer Olympics

Bagatelle Bassin d'Argentuil Camp de Châlons Fontainebleau Hippodrome d'Auteuil Issy-les-Moulineaux Le Havre Le Stade Olympique Reims Le Stand de Tir de Versailles Meulan-en-Yvelines Piscine des Tourelles Saint-Cloud Stade Bergeyre Stade de Colombes Stade de Paris Stade Pershing Vélodrome d'hiver Vélodrome de Vincennes

v t e

Olympic venues in sailing

1900: Meulan, Le Havre 1908: Ryde, Hunters Quay 1912: Nynäshamn 1920: Ostend, Buiten Y 1924: Le Havre, Meulan 1928: Buiten Y, Zuiderzee 1932: Los Angeles Harbor 1936: Kiel Bay 1948: Torbay 1952: Harmaja, Liuskasaari 1956: Port Phillip 1960: Gulf of Naples 1964: Enoshima 1968: Club de Yates de Acapulco 1972: Bay of Kiel 1976: Portsmouth
Portsmouth
Olympic Harbour 1980: Olympic Regatta
Regatta
in Tallinn 1984: Long Beach Shoreline Marina 1988: Busan Yachting Center 1992: Olympic Harbour 1996: Wassaw Sound 2000: Rushcutters Bay 2004: Agios Kosmas Olympic Sailing Centre 2008: Qingdao International Sailing Centre 2012: Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy 2016: Marina da Glória 2020: Enoshima 2024: Old Port of Marseille 2028: Belmont Veterans Memorial Pier

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 150850470 LCCN: n50077876 ISNI: 0000 0001 2184 7217 GND: 4111239-8 SUDOC: 026534371 BNF: cb15274937f

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