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Latino
Latino
(/læˈtiːnoʊ, lə-/)[1] is a term often used in the United States to refer to people with cultural ties to Latin
Latin
America, in contrast to Hispanic
Hispanic
which is a demonym that includes Spaniards and other speakers of the Spanish language.[2][3][4][5] "Latino" as a category used in the United States
United States
may be understood as a shorthand for the Spanish word latinoamericano ( Latin
Latin
American in English) or the Portuguese phrase latino americano, thus excluding speakers of Spanish or Portuguese from Europe.[6] Both Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino
Latino
are generally used to denote people living in the United States,[7][8] so much so that "Outside the United States, we don't speak of Latinos; we speak of Mexicans, Colombians, Peruvians, and so forth."[9][10] In Latin
Latin
America, the term latino is not a common endonym and its usage in Spanish as a demonym is restricted to the Latin
Latin
American-descended population of the United States. The U.S. government's Office of Management and Budget
Office of Management and Budget
has defined Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino
Latino
people as being those who "trace their origin or descent to Mexico, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Central, and South America
South America
(other than Guyana, French Guiana, and Suriname), and other Spanish cultures".[11] The United States
United States
Census uses the ethnonym Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino
Latino
to refer to "a person of Dominican, Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race".[12] The Census Bureau also explains that "[o]rigin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person’s ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race."[13] Hence the U.S. Census and the OMB are using the terms differently. The U.S. Census and the OMB use the terms interchangeably, where both terms are synonyms. According to a study by the Pew Research Center, the majority (51%) of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans prefer to identify with their families' country of origin, while only 24% prefer the term Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino.[14] The AP Stylebook's recommended usage of Latino
Latino
in Latin
Latin
America includes not only persons of Spanish-speaking
Spanish-speaking
ancestry, but also more generally includes persons "from — or whose ancestors were from — . . . Latin
Latin
America, including Brazilians". However, in the recent past, the term Latinos was also applied to people from the Caribbean region, including those from former Dutch and British colonies.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Use in the United States 3 Similar and related terms 4 Criticism 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Etymology[edit] In English, the terms latino and latina are sometimes shortened forms of American Spanish "latinoamericano" and "latinoamericana" which are New World expansions of the Old World terms "latino" and "latina" which are ultimately from the Latin
Latin
terms latīnus and latīna meaning Latin. Latino
Latino
The oldest use of the term Latino
Latino
has been used in the United States
United States
since at least 1946 and means "a Latin
Latin
male in the United States". ( Latin
Latin
American).[15][16] The etymology of Latin America
Latin America
dates to the 19th century. French intellectuals postulated that this region of the Americas was inhabited by people of a " Latin
Latin
race", and that it could, therefore, ally itself with " Latin
Latin
Europe". The term was adopted since France, a great power at that time, had political ambitions in the region and cultural connections were established. In Spanish, as used in Spain, the usage of latino is frequently not correlative to its primary usage in the United States. According to the Real Academia Española, the primary use of latino in Spanish is to refer to the people of the Lazio
Lazio
(Latium) region of Italy.[17] The fifth definition listed is for the grouping of Romance language-speaking people of Europe and the Americas.[17] Portuguese use and definitions of the word is similar. Its use is, therefore, more similar to the English adjective "Latin" (like in the case of describing " Latin
Latin
People"). Use in the United States[edit]

Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino
Latino
Americans

National origin groups

Argentine Americans Bolivian Americans Brazilian Americans Chilean Americans Colombian Americans Costa Rican Americans Cuban Americans Dominican Americans Ecuadorian Americans Guatemalan Americans Honduran Americans Mexican Americans Nicaraguan Americans Panamanian Americans Paraguayan Americans Peruvian Americans Puerto Ricans (stateside) Salvadoran Americans Spanish Americanss Uruguayan Americans Venezuelan Americans

History

History of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino
Latino
Americans History of Mexican Americans

Colonial casta system

castizo cholo criollo mestizo mulato pardo/moreno zambo

Political movements

Chicano
Chicano
Movement Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino
Latino
American politics

Organizations

Association of Hispanic
Hispanic
Arts Congressional Hispanic
Hispanic
Caucus Congressional Hispanic
Hispanic
Conference LULAC MALDEF MEChA NALEO NALFO National Council of La Raza National Hispanic
Hispanic
Institute RNHA SHPE UFW USHCC

Culture

Literature Music Religion Studies

Related national groups

Belizean Americans Brazilian Americans Filipino Americans Guyanese Americans Haitian Americans Portuguese Americans Spanish Americans Surinamese Americans

Languages

English Spanglish Spanish Cuban Spanish

United States

New Mexican Puerto Rican

Ethnic groups

Californio Chicano Hispano Isleño Nuevomexicano Nuyorican Tejano

Lists

Communities with Hispanic
Hispanic
majority Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino
Latino
Americans Puerto Rico Related topics

v t e

Main article: Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino
Latino
Americans The term Latino
Latino
was officially adopted in 1997 by the United States Government in the ethnonym Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino, which replaced the single term Hispanic: "Because regional usage of the terms differs – Hispanic
Hispanic
is commonly used in the eastern portion of the United States, whereas Latino
Latino
is commonly used in the western portion."[18] U.S. official use of the term "Hispanic" has its origins in the 1970 census. The Census Bureau attempted to identify all Hispanics by use of the following criteria in sampled sets:[19]

Spanish speakers and persons belonging to a household where Spanish was spoken Persons with Spanish heritage by birth location Persons who self-identify with Latin
Latin
America, excluding Brazil

Neither "Hispanic" nor "Latino" refers to a race, as a person of Latino/ Hispanic
Hispanic
ethnicity can be of any race.[20][21] Like non-Latinos, a Latino
Latino
can be of any race or combination of races: White/Caucasian, Black/African American, Asian, Native American, Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander American, or two or more races. While Brazilian Americans
Brazilian Americans
are not included with Hispanics and Latinos in the government's census population reports, any Brazilian American can report as being Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino
Latino
since Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino
Latino
origin is, like race, a matter of self-identification.[20][22] Other federal and local government agencies and non-profit organizations include Brazilians and Portuguese in their definition of Hispanic. The U.S. Department of Transportation defines Hispanic Americans as, "persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race".[23] This definition has been adopted by the Small Business Administration
Small Business Administration
as well as by many federal, state, and municipal agencies for the purposes of awarding government contracts to minority owned businesses. The Congressional Hispanic Caucus and the Congressional Hispanic
Hispanic
Conference include representatives of Spanish and Portuguese descent. The Hispanic Society of America is dedicated to the study of the arts and cultures of Spain, Portugal, and Latin
Latin
America. Each year since 1997 the International Latino
Latino
Book Award is conferred to the best achievements in Spanish or Portuguese literature at BookExpo America, the largest publishing trade show in the United States. The Hispanic
Hispanic
Association of Colleges and Universities, which proclaims itself the champion of Hispanic
Hispanic
success in higher education, has member institutions in the U.S., Puerto Rico, Latin
Latin
America, Spain, and Portugal. Some authorities of American English
American English
maintain a distinction between the terms "Hispanic" and "Latino":

Though often used interchangeably in American English, Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino
Latino
are not identical terms, and in certain contexts the choice between them can be significant. Hispanic, from the Latin
Latin
word for "Spain," has the broader reference, potentially encompassing all Spanish-speaking
Spanish-speaking
peoples in both hemispheres and emphasizing the common denominator of language among communities that sometimes have little else in common. Latino—which in Spanish means "Latin" but which as an English word is probably a shortening of the Spanish word latinoamericano—refers more exclusively to persons or communities of Latin
Latin
American origin. Of the two, only Hispanic
Hispanic
can be used in referring to Spain
Spain
and its history and culture; a native of Spain residing in the United States
United States
is a Hispanic, not a Latino, and one cannot substitute Latino
Latino
in the phrase the Hispanic
Hispanic
influence on native Mexican cultures without garbling the meaning. In practice, however, this distinction is of little significance when referring to residents of the United States, most of whom are of Latin
Latin
American origin and can theoretically be called by either word.[24]

The AP Stylebook
AP Stylebook
also distinguishes between the terms Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino. The Stylebook limits the term "Hispanic" to persons "from - or whose ancestors were from - a Spanish-speaking
Spanish-speaking
land or culture". It provides a more expansive definition, however, of the term "Latino". The Stylebook definition of Latino
Latino
includes not only persons of Spanish-speaking
Spanish-speaking
ancestry, but also more generally includes persons "from -- or whose ancestors were from -- . . . Latin
Latin
America". The Stylebook specifically lists "Brazilian" as an example of a group which can be considered Latino. There were 28 categories tabulated in the 2000 United States
United States
Census: Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican Republic; Central American: Costa Rican, Guatemalan, Honduran, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Salvadoran, Other Central American; South American: Argentinian, Bolivian, Chilean, Colombian, Ecuadorian, Paraguayan, Peruvian, Uruguayan, Venezuelan, Other South American; Other Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino: Spaniard, Spanish, Spanish American, All other Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino.[25] Similar and related terms[edit] In English, "Latino" is used interchangeably with "Latin American".[26][27] As an English demonym "Latin" has other meanings:[28][29]

an ancient Italic people entering the Italian peninsula around 1200 BCE in ancient Rome an inhabitant of Old Latium
Latium
( Latium
Latium
vetus), later extended to New Latium
Latium
( Latium
Latium
adiectum) as well a member of any population of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
engaging in Roman culture and speaking Latin, regardless of their ethnicity a member of the Latin
Latin
Church, or Roman Catholic Church.

Attempts have been made to introduce gender neutral language into Spanish by changing the ending of Latino. Terms like Latinx, Latin@, and Latine are just a few examples of the various ways in which members of the Latino
Latino
community have tried to be more inclusive of women and gender nonbinary individuals through language. Latinx
Latinx
was first introduced in 2004 by members of the queer community online.[30] Criticism[edit] Further information: Hispanic/ Latino
Latino
naming dispute The use of the term Latino, despite its increasing popularity, is still highly debated among those who are called by the name.[31][32] Since the adoption of the term by the U.S. Census Bureau[33] and its subsequent widespread use, there have been several controversies and disagreements, especially in the United States
United States
and, to a lesser extent, in Mexico
Mexico
and other Spanish-speaking
Spanish-speaking
countries. Since it is an arbitrary generic term, many Latin
Latin
American scholars, journalists, and indigenous rights organisations have objected to the mass media use of the word "Latino", pointing out that such ethnonyms are optional and should be used only to describe people involved in the practices, ideologies, and identity politics of their supporters.[34][35][36][37] Journalist Rodolfo Acuña
Rodolfo Acuña
writes:

When and why the Latino
Latino
identity came about is a more involved story. Essentially, politicians, the media, and marketers find it convenient to deal with the different U.S. Spanish-speaking
Spanish-speaking
people under one umbrella. However, many people with Spanish surnames contest the term Latino. They claim it is misleading because no Latino
Latino
or Hispanic nationality exists since no Latino
Latino
state exists, so generalizing the term Latino
Latino
slights the various national identities included under the umbrella.[38]

See also[edit]

Latin
Latin
American Australians Latin
Latin
American Canadians Latino
Latino
diaspora Latino
Latino
studies Hispanic– Latino
Latino
naming dispute Latin
Latin
Union Race and ethnicity in the United States
United States
Census Racial and ethnic demographics of the United States

References[edit]

^ "the definition of Latino". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ "Latino: People with roots in the Spanish speaking Americas. This term is sometimes used as a replacement for Hispanic. ^ "Defining "Hispanic" as meaning those with Spanish-speaking
Spanish-speaking
roots in the Americas and "Latino" as meaning those with both Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking roots in Latin
Latin
America". Americanhistory.si.edu. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ Anderson, Kevin (2008-10-18). "US elections 2008 (News),New Mexico (News),US politics". The Guardian. London.  ^ "Herald Style Guide". Sites.google.com. Retrieved 6 April 2012.  ^ "Latino". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2012-12-09.  ^ "The concept of "Latino" is an American concept" (ms powerpoint). Psfaculty.ucdavis.edu. Retrieved 2012-12-09.  ^ Thomas, Jeffrey (December 8, 2006). "New Survey Paints Vivid Portrait of U.S. Latinos". USINFO. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-09. Being Latino
Latino
is an American identity  ^ Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo; Páez, Mariela, eds. (2008). Latinos: Remaking America. University of California Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-520-25827-4. The very term Latino
Latino
has meaning only in reference to the U.S. experience. Outside the United States, we don't speak of Latinos; we speak of Mexicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, and so forth. Latinos are made in the USA.  ^ Grande, Michael (May 7, 2005). " Latino
Latino
& Hispanic? It's Time to Rethink these Terms!". globalpolitician.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-09.  ^ Office of Management and Budget. "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997". Retrieved 2008-01-11.  ^ "The Hispanic
Hispanic
Population: 2010 Census Briefs" (PDF). Census.gov. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-01-19. Retrieved 2016-01-19.  ^ Taylor, Paul; Lopez, Mark Hugo; Martínez, Jessica; Velasco, Gabriel (4 April 2012). "When Labels Don't Fit: Hispanics and Their Views of Identity". Pew Research Center's Hispanic
Hispanic
Trends Project.  ^ "Define Latino
Latino
at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ " Latino
Latino
- Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ a b "Latino". Real Academia Española. Retrieved 14 June 2017.  ^ Office of Management and Budget. "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997". Retrieved 2008-01-11. Terminology for Hispanics.--OMB does not accept the recommendation to retain the single term "Hispanic". Instead, OMB has decided that the term should be " Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino". Because regional usage of the terms differs – Hispanic
Hispanic
is commonly used in the eastern portion of the United States, whereas Latino
Latino
is commonly used in the western portion – this change may contribute to improved response rates.  (Boldface in the original.) ^ Gibson, Campbell; Jung, Kay (September 2002). "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Working Paper Series No. 56. Retrieved 2006-12-07.  ^ a b United States
United States
Census Bureau (March 2001). "Overview of Race and Hispanic
Hispanic
Origin". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-12-30. Retrieved 2007-07-15.  ^ U.S. Census Bureau. "U.S. Census Bureau Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic
Hispanic
Origin Data". Retrieved 2007-03-18. Race and Hispanic
Hispanic
origin are two separate concepts in the federal statistical system. People who are Hispanic
Hispanic
may be of any race. People in each race group may be either Hispanic
Hispanic
or Not Hispanic. Each person has two attributes, their race (or races) and whether or not they are Hispanic.  ^ "B03001. Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino
Latino
Origin by Spedific Origin". 2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-20.  ^ U.S. Department of Transportation, "Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Program Administration Reference Manual For Division Office Civil Rights Personnel", Fhwa.dot.gov ^ "American Heritage Dictionary". Retrieved 2018-01-26.  ^ "American FactFinder Help; Spanish/Hispanic/Latino". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2010-03-31. Retrieved 2009-03-02.  ^ Douglas Harper. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ Oboler, Suzanne. Ethnic Labels, Latino
Latino
Lives: Identity and the Politics of (Re) Presentation.  ^ " Latin
Latin
– Definitions from Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2008-01-28.  ^ " Latin
Latin
– Definition from the Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
Online Dictionary; Latin[2,noun]". M-w.com. Retrieved 2008-01-28.  ^ OED Online. ""X, n."". Retrieved April 19, 2017.  ^ ALEMAN, EVELYN G. (10 April 1999). "The Term 'Latino' Describes No One". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ " Latino
Latino
or Hispanic
Hispanic
Panic: Which Term Should We Use?" (PDF). Crossculturecommunications.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 August 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ Fisher, Celia B. and Lerner, Richard M. Encyclopedia of Applied Developmental Science SAGE, 2004, ISBN 0-7619-2820-0 Page 634 ^ "Global Politician". Globalpolitician.com. Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ "Latino? Hispanic? Quechua? No, American; Take Your Pick". The New York Times. 18 November 1992. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ "Gregory Rodriguez: Look beyond the 'Latino' label". Los Angeles Times. 12 November 2006. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ Hispanic
Hispanic
magazine, December 2000 ^ Acuña, Rodolfo, U.S. Latino
Latino
issues, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003 ISBN 0-313-32211-2

Further reading[edit]

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States, 4 Vols., Oxford University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-19-515600-5 Miguel A. De La Torre
Miguel A. De La Torre
(ed.), Hispanic
Hispanic
American Religious Cultures, 2 Vols., ABC-CLIO Publishers, 2009, ISBN 978-1-59884-139-8

External links[edit]

Latino
Latino
Cultural Heritage Digital Archives What's in a name? Yale University – Understanding Ethnic Labels and Puerto Rican Identity Chicano/ Latino
Latino
Studies University of California, Irvine Latino
Latino
news for

.