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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE

Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE

Demotic 7 c. BCE

Meroitic 3 c. BCE

Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE

Ugaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE

Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

Phoenician 12 c. BCE

Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE

Samaritan 6 c. BCE

Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE

Tifinagh

Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE

Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE

Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)

E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE

Canadian syllabics 1840

Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCE

Avestan 4 c. CE

Palmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCE

Nabataean 2 c. BCE

Arabic 4 c. CE

N'Ko 1949 CE

Sogdian 2 c. BCE

Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE

Old Hungarian c. 650 CE

Old Uyghur

Mongolian 1204 CE

Mandaic 2 c. CE

Greek 8 c. BCE

Etruscan 8 c. BCE

Latin
Latin
7 c. BCE

Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

Runic 2 c. CE Ogham
Ogham
(origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

Coptic 3 c. CE Gothic 3 c. CE Armenian 405 CE Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE Glagolitic 862 CE Cyrillic
Cyrillic
c. 940 CE

Old Permic 1372 CE

Hangul
Hangul
1443 (probably influenced by Tibetan) Thaana
Thaana
18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals)

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Calligraphy

Arabic Chinese Georgian Indian Islamic Japanese Korean Mongolian Persian Tibetan Western

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The Latin
Latin
alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin
Latin
language. By way of its use throughout Europe
Europe
in English, French, and Germanic variants, Romanized writing has grown to become the preferred alphabet globally (see Latin
Latin
script), being used officially in China (separate from its ideographic writing), and being semi-adopted by Slavic (Russia) and Baltic states. The Latin
Latin
alphabet evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, which was itself descended from the Phoenician abjad, which in turn was derived from Egyptian hieroglyphics.[1] The Etruscans
Etruscans
who ruled early Rome adopted the Cumaean Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
which was modified over time to become the Etruscan alphabet, which was in turn adopted and further modified by the Romans to produce the Latin
Latin
alphabet. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the Latin
Latin
alphabet was used (sometimes with modifications) for writing Romance languages, direct descendants of Latin, as well as Celtic, Germanic, Baltic, and some Slavic languages. With the age of colonialism and Christian evangelism, the Latin
Latin
script spread beyond Europe, coming into use for writing indigenous American, Australian, Austronesian, Austroasiatic, and African languages. More recently, linguists have also tended to prefer the Latin script
Latin script
or the International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(itself largely based on Latin
Latin
script) when transcribing or creating written standards for non-European languages, such as the African reference alphabet. The term Latin
Latin
alphabet may refer to either the alphabet used to write Latin
Latin
(as described in this article), or other alphabets based on the Latin
Latin
script, which is the basic set of letters common to the various alphabets descended from the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet, such as the English alphabet. These Latin-script alphabets may discard letters, like the Rotokas alphabet, or add new letters, like the Danish and Norwegian alphabets. Letter shapes have evolved over the centuries, including the development in Medieval Latin
Latin
of lower-case, forms which did not exist in the Classical period alphabet.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins

1.1.1 Old italic alphabet 1.1.2 Archaic Latin
Latin
alphabet 1.1.3 Old Latin
Latin
alphabet 1.1.4 Classical Latin
Latin
alphabet

1.2 Medieval and later developments 1.3 Spread

2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of the Latin
Latin
script Origins[edit] It is generally believed that the Romans adopted the Cumae alphabet, a variant of the Greek alphabet, in the 7th century BC from Cumae, a Greek colony in Southern Italy. ( Gaius Julius Hyginus in Fab. 277 mentions the legend that it was Carmenta, the Cimmerian Sibyl, who altered fifteen letters of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
to become the Latin alphabet, which her son Evander introduced into Latium, supposedly 60 years before the Trojan War, but there is no historically sound basis to this tale.) The Ancient Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
was in turn based upon the Phoenician abjad. From the Cumae alphabet, the Etruscan alphabet
Etruscan alphabet
was derived and the Romans eventually adopted 21 of the original 27 Etruscan letters: Old italic alphabet[edit]

The Duenos Inscription, dated to the 6th century BC, shows the earliest known forms of the Old Latin
Latin
alphabet.

Old Italic alphabet

Letters 𐌀 𐌁 𐌂 𐌃 𐌄 𐌅 𐌆 𐌇 𐌈 𐌉 𐌊 𐌋 𐌌 𐌍 𐌎 𐌏 𐌐 𐌑 𐌒 𐌓 𐌔 𐌕 𐌖 𐌗 𐌘 𐌙 𐌚

Transliteration A B C D E V Z H Θ I K L M N Ξ O P Ś Q R S T Y X Φ Ψ F

Archaic Latin
Latin
alphabet[edit]

Archaic Latin
Latin
alphabet

As Old Italic 𐌀 𐌁 𐌂 𐌃 𐌄 𐌅 𐌆 𐌇 𐌉 𐌊 𐌋 𐌌 𐌍 𐌏 𐌐 𐌒 𐌓 𐌔 𐌕 𐌖 𐌗

As Latin A B C D E F Z H I K L M N O P Q R S T V X

Old Latin
Latin
alphabet[edit] Latin
Latin
included 22 different characters. The letter ⟨C⟩ was the western form of the Greek gamma, but it was used for the sounds /ɡ/ and /k/ alike, possibly under the influence of Etruscan, which might have lacked any voiced plosives. Later, probably during the 3rd century BC, the letter ⟨Z⟩ – unneeded to write Latin
Latin
properly – was replaced with the new letter ⟨G⟩, a ⟨C⟩ modified with a small vertical stroke, which took its place in the alphabet. From then on, ⟨G⟩ represented the voiced plosive /ɡ/, while ⟨C⟩ was generally reserved for the voiceless plosive /k/. The letter ⟨K⟩ was used only rarely, in a small number of words such as Kalendae, often interchangeably with ⟨C⟩.

Old Latin
Latin
alphabet

Letter A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T V X

Classical Latin
Latin
alphabet[edit]

The apices in this first-century inscription are very light. (There is one over the ó in the first line.) The vowel I is written taller rather than taking an apex. The interpuncts are comma-shaped, an elaboration of a more typical triangular shape. From the shrine of the Augustales at Herculaneum.

After the Roman conquest of Greece
Roman conquest of Greece
in the 1st century BC, Latin adopted the Greek letters ⟨Y⟩ and ⟨Z⟩ (or readopted, in the latter case) to write Greek loanwords, placing them at the end of the alphabet. An attempt by the emperor Claudius
Claudius
to introduce three additional letters did not last. Thus it was during the classical Latin
Latin
period that the Latin
Latin
alphabet contained 23 letters:

Classical Latin
Latin
alphabet

Letter A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T V X Y Z

Latin
Latin
name (majus) á bé cé dé é ef gé há í ká el em en ó pé qv́ er es té v́ ix í graeca zéta

Latin
Latin
name ā bē cē dē ē ef gē hā ī kā el em en ō pē qū er es tē ū ix ī Graeca zēta

Latin
Latin
pronunciation (IPA) aː beː keː deː eː ɛf ɡeː haː iː kaː ɛl ɛm ɛn oː peː kuː ɛr ɛs teː uː iks iː ˈɡraɪka ˈdzeːta

The Latin
Latin
names of some of these letters are disputed[by whom?]. In general the Romans did not use the traditional (Semitic-derived) names as in Greek: the names of the plosives were formed by adding /eː/ to their sound (except for ⟨K⟩ and ⟨Q⟩, which needed different vowels to be distinguished from ⟨C⟩) and the names of the continuants consisted either of the bare sound, or the sound preceded by /e/. The letter ⟨Y⟩ when introduced was probably called "hy" /hyː/ as in Greek, the name upsilon not being in use yet, but this was changed to "i Graeca" (Greek i) as Latin
Latin
speakers had difficulty distinguishing its foreign sound /y/ from /i/. ⟨Z⟩ was given its Greek name, zeta. This scheme has continued to be used by most modern European languages that have adopted the Latin
Latin
alphabet. For the Latin sounds represented by the various letters see Latin
Latin
spelling and pronunciation; for the names of the letters in English see English alphabet. Diacritics were not regularly used, but they did occur sometimes, the commonest being the apex used to mark long vowels, which had previously sometimes been written double. However, in place of taking an apex, the letter i was written taller: ⟨á é ꟾ ó v́⟩. For example, what is today transcribed Lūciī a fīliī was written ⟨lv́ciꟾ·a·fꟾliꟾ⟩ in the inscription at right. The primary mark of punctuation was the interpunct, which was used as a word divider, though it fell out of use after 200 AD. Old Roman cursive
Old Roman cursive
script, also called majuscule cursive and capitalis cursive, was the everyday form of handwriting used for writing letters, by merchants writing business accounts, by schoolchildren learning the Latin
Latin
alphabet, and even emperors issuing commands. A more formal style of writing was based on Roman square capitals, but cursive was used for quicker, informal writing. It was most commonly used from about the 1st century BC to the 3rd century, but it probably existed earlier than that. It led to Uncial, a majuscule script commonly used from the 3rd to 8th centuries AD by Latin
Latin
and Greek scribes. New Roman cursive
New Roman cursive
script, also known as minuscule cursive, was in use from the 3rd century to the 7th century, and uses letter forms that are more recognizable to modern eyes; ⟨a⟩, ⟨b⟩, ⟨d⟩, and ⟨e⟩ had taken a more familiar shape, and the other letters were proportionate to each other. This script evolved into the medieval scripts known as Merovingian and Carolingian minuscule. Medieval and later developments[edit]

De chalcographiae inventione (1541, Mainz) with the 23 letters. J, U and W are missing.

Jeton
Jeton
from Nuremberg, ca. 1553

It was not until the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
that the letter ⟨W⟩ (originally a ligature of two ⟨V⟩s) was added to the Latin
Latin
alphabet, to represent sounds from the Germanic languages
Germanic languages
which did not exist in medieval Latin, and only after the Renaissance
Renaissance
did the convention of treating ⟨I⟩ and ⟨U⟩ as vowels, and ⟨J⟩ and ⟨V⟩ as consonants, become established. Prior to that, the former had been merely allographs of the latter. With the fragmentation of political power, the style of writing changed and varied greatly throughout the Middle Ages, even after the invention of the printing press. Early deviations from the classical forms were the uncial script, a development of the Old Roman cursive, and various so-called minuscule scripts that developed from New Roman cursive, of which the Carolingian minuscule
Carolingian minuscule
was the most influential, introducing the lower case forms of the letters, as well as other writing conventions that have since become standard. The languages that use the Latin script
Latin script
today generally use capital letters to begin paragraphs and sentences and proper nouns. The rules for capitalization have changed over time, and different languages have varied in their rules for capitalization. Old English, for example, was rarely written with even proper nouns capitalized; whereas Modern English of the 18th century had frequently all nouns capitalized, in the same way that Modern German is written today, e.g. Alle Schwestern der alten Stadt hatten die Vögel gesehen ("All of the sisters of the old city had seen the birds"). Spread[edit]

This map shows the countries in the world that use only language(s) predominantly written in a Latin
Latin
alphabet as the official (or de facto official) national language(s) in dark green. The lighter green indicates the countries that use a language predominantly written in a Latin
Latin
alphabet as a co-official language at the national level.

Main article: Spread of the Latin
Latin
script The Latin
Latin
alphabet spread, along with the Latin
Latin
language, from the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
to the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
with the expansion of the Roman Empire. The eastern half of the Empire, including Greece, Turkey, the Levant, and Egypt, continued to use Greek as a lingua franca, but Latin
Latin
was widely spoken in the western half, and as the western Romance languages
Romance languages
evolved out of Latin, they continued to use and adapt the Latin
Latin
alphabet. With the spread of Western Christianity
Western Christianity
during the Middle Ages, the script was gradually adopted by the peoples of northern Europe
Europe
who spoke Celtic languages
Celtic languages
(displacing the Ogham
Ogham
alphabet) or Germanic languages (displacing earlier Runic alphabets), Baltic languages, as well as by the speakers of several Uralic languages, most notably Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian. The Latin
Latin
alphabet came into use for writing the West Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and several South Slavic languages, as the people who spoke them adopted Roman Catholicism. Later, it was adopted by non-Catholic countries. Romanian, most of whose speakers are Eastern Orthodox, was the first major language to switch from Cyrillic
Cyrillic
to Latin
Latin
script, doing so in the 19th century, although Moldova
Moldova
only did so after the Soviet collapse. It has also been increasingly adopted by majority Muslim Turkic-speaking countries, beginning with Turkey
Turkey
in the 1920s. After the Soviet collapse, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
all switched from Cyrillic
Cyrillic
to Latin. The Kazakh government
Kazakh government
announced in 2015 that the Latin
Latin
alphabet will replace Cyrillic
Cyrillic
as the writing system for the Kazakh language by 2025.[2] Asian countries see the lowest proportion of people using Latin
Latin
script relative to alternative scripts. The spread of the Latin
Latin
alphabet among previously illiterate peoples has inspired the creation of new writing systems, such as the Avoiuli alphabet in Vanuatu, which replaces the letters of the Latin
Latin
alphabet with alternative symbols. See also[edit]

Calligraphy Euboean alphabet Latin script
Latin script
in Unicode ISO basic Latin
Latin
alphabet Latin-1 Legacy of the Roman Empire Palaeography Phoenician alphabet Pinyin Roman letters used in mathematics Typography Western Latin
Latin
character sets (computing)

References[edit]

^ Michael C. Howard (2012), Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies. p. 23. ^ Kazakh language to be converted to Latin
Latin
alphabet – MCS RK. Inform.kz (30 January 2015). Retrieved on 2015-09-28.

Library resources about Latin
Latin
alphabet

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading[edit]

Jensen, Hans (1970). Sign Symbol and Script. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. ISBN 0-04-400021-9.  Transl. of Jensen, Hans (1958). Die Schrift in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart. Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften. , as revised by the author Rix, Helmut (1993). "La scrittura e la lingua". In Cristofani, Mauro (hrsg.). Gli etruschi – Una nuova immagine. Firenze: Giunti. pp. S.199–227.  Sampson, Geoffrey (1985). Writing systems. London (etc.): Hutchinson.  Wachter, Rudolf (1987). Altlateinische Inschriften: sprachliche und epigraphische Untersuchungen zu den Dokumenten bis etwa 150 v.Chr. Bern (etc.). : Peter Lang. Allen, W. Sidney (1978). "The names of the letters of the Latin alphabet (Appendix C)". Vox Latina – a guide to the pronunciation of classical Latin. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22049-1.  Biktaş, Şamil (2003). Tuğan Tel. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Latin
Latin
alphabet.

Lewis and Short Latin
Latin
Dictionary on the letter G Latin-Alphabet

v t e

Latin
Latin
script

History Spread Romanization Roman numerals

Alphabets (list)

Classical Latin
Latin
alphabet ISO basic Latin
Latin
alphabet phonetic alphabets

International Phonetic Alphabet X-SAMPA

Spelling alphabet

Letters (list)

Letters of the ISO basic Latin
Latin
alphabet

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

Multigraphs

Digraphs

ch cz dž dz gh ij ll ly nh ny sh sz th

Trigraphs

dzs eau

Tetragraphs

ough

Pentagraphs

tzsch

Keyboard layouts (list)

QWERTY QWERTZ AZERTY

Standards

ISO/IEC 646 Unicode Western Latin
Latin
character sets

Lists

precomposed Latin
Latin
characters in Unicode letters used in mathematics

Diacritics Palaeography

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Types of writing systems

Overview

History of writing Grapheme

Lists

Writing systems

undeciphered inventors constructed

Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

Types

Abjads

Numerals

Aramaic

Hatran

Arabic Pitman shorthand Hebrew

Ashuri Cursive Rashi Solitreo

Tifinagh Manichaean Nabataean Old North Arabian Pahlavi Pegon Phoenician

Paleo-Hebrew

Proto-Sinaitic Psalter Punic Samaritan South Arabian

Zabur Musnad

Sogdian Syriac

ʾEsṭrangēlā Serṭā Maḏnḥāyā

Teeline Shorthand Ugaritic

Abugidas

Brahmic

Northern

Asamiya (Ôxômiya) Bānglā Bhaikshuki Bhujinmol Brāhmī Devanāgarī Dogri Gujarati Gupta Gurmukhī Kaithi Kalinga Khojki Khotanese Khudawadi Laṇḍā Lepcha Limbu Mahajani Meitei Mayek Modi Multani Nāgarī Nandinagari Odia 'Phags-pa Newar Ranjana Sharada Saurashtra Siddhaṃ Soyombo Sylheti Nagari Takri Tibetan

Uchen Umê

Tirhuta Tocharian Zanabazar Square Zhang-Zhung

Drusha Marchen Marchung Pungs-chen Pungs-chung

Southern

Ahom Balinese Batak Baybayin Bhattiprolu Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Grantha Goykanadi Hanunó'o Javanese Kadamba Kannada Karen Kawi Khmer Kulitan Lanna Lao Leke Lontara Malayalam Maldivian

Dhives Akuru Eveyla Akuru Thaana

Mon Old Makassarese Old Sundanese Pallava Pyu Rejang Rencong Sinhala Sundanese Tagbanwa Tai Le Tai Tham Tai Viet Tamil Telugu Thai Tigalari Vatteluttu

Kolezhuthu Malayanma

Visayan

Others

Boyd's syllabic shorthand Canadian syllabics

Blackfoot Déné syllabics

Fox I Ge'ez Gunjala Gondi Japanese Braille Jenticha Kayah Li Kharosthi Mandombe Masaram Gondi Meroitic Miao Mwangwego Sorang Sompeng Pahawh Hmong Thomas Natural Shorthand

Alphabets

Linear

Abkhaz Adlam Armenian Avestan Avoiuli Bassa Vah Borama Carian Caucasian Albanian Coorgi–Cox alphabet Coptic Cyrillic Deseret Duployan shorthand

Chinook writing

Early Cyrillic Eclectic shorthand Elbasan Etruscan Evenki Fox II Fraser Gabelsberger shorthand Garay Georgian

Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Mkhedruli

Glagolitic Gothic Gregg shorthand Greek Greco-Iberian alphabet Hangul Hanifi IPA Kaddare Latin

Beneventan Blackletter Carolingian minuscule Fraktur Gaelic Insular Kurrent Merovingian Sigla Sütterlin Tironian notes Visigothic

Luo Lycian Lydian Manchu Mandaic Medefaidrin Molodtsov Mongolian Mru Neo-Tifinagh New Tai Lue N'Ko Ogham Oirat Ol Chiki Old Hungarian Old Italic Old Permic Orkhon Old Uyghur Osage Osmanya Pau Cin Hau Runic

Anglo-Saxon Cipher Dalecarlian Elder Futhark Younger Futhark Gothic Marcomannic Medieval Staveless

Sidetic Shavian Somali Tifinagh Vagindra Visible Speech Vithkuqi Wancho Zaghawa

Non-linear

Braille Maritime flags Morse code New York Point Semaphore line Flag semaphore Moon type

Ideograms/Pictograms

Adinkra Aztec Blissymbol Dongba Ersu Shaba Emoji IConji Isotype Kaidā Míkmaq Mixtec New Epoch Notation Painting Nsibidi Ojibwe Hieroglyphs Siglas poveiras Testerian Yerkish Zapotec

Logograms

Chinese family of scripts

Chinese Characters

Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script

large small bird-worm

Hanja Idu Kanji Chữ nôm Zhuang

Chinese-influenced

Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut

Cuneiform

Akkadian Assyrian Elamite Hittite Luwian Sumerian

Other logo-syllabic

Anatolian Bagam Cretan Isthmian Maya Proto-Elamite Yi (Classical)

Logo-consonantal

Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs

Numerals

Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman

Semi-syllabaries

Full

Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom

Redundant

Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin fuhao

Somacheirograms

ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation

Syllabaries

Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji

Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun

v t e

Braille
Braille
 ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

Braille
Braille
cell

1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode
Unicode
braille patterns

Braille
Braille
scripts

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

Devanagari
Devanagari
(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

Algerian Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Frequency-based scripts

American Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Independent scripts

Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese

Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

Braille
Braille
music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code

Braille
Braille
technology

Braille
Braille
e-book Braille
Braille
embosser Braille
Braille
translator Braille
Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo

Persons

Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait

Organisations

Braille
Braille
Institute of America Braille
Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Braille
Library National Braille
Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
Braille
literacy RoboBraille

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Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

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Internet slang
Internet slang
dialects

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktio

.