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Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
(/ləkˈʃɑːdwiːp/,  Lakṣadvīp (help·info), Lakshadīb), formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi
Aminidivi
Islands (/ˌlækədaɪv ˌmɪnɪkɔɪ ... ˌæmɪnˈdiːvi/),[2] is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, 200 to 440 km (120 to 270 mi) off the south western coast of India. The archipelago is a Union Territory and is governed by the Union Government of India. They were also known as Laccadive Islands, although geographically this is only the name of the central subgroup of the group. Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
comes from Lakshadwipa, which means "one hundred thousand islands" in Sanskrit.[3][4] The islands form the smallest Union Territory of India: their total surface area is just 32 km2 (12 sq mi). The lagoon area covers about 4,200 km2 (1,600 sq mi), the territorial waters area 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi) and the exclusive economic zone area 400,000 km2 (150,000 sq mi). The region forms a single Indian district
Indian district
with 10 subdivisions. Kavaratti serves as the capital of the Union Territory and the region comes under the jurisdiction of Kerala
Kerala
High Court. The islands are the northernmost of the Lakshadweep-Maldives- Chagos
Chagos
group of islands, which are the tops of a vast undersea mountain range, the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge.[5] As the islands do not have any aboriginal groups, different views have been postulated by the scholars about the history of habitation on these islands. Archaeological evidence supports the existence of human settlement in the region around 1500 BC. The islands have long been known to sailors, as indicated by an anonymous reference from the first century AD to the region in Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. The islands were referenced also in the Buddhist Jataka stories of the sixth century BC. The arrival of Muslim missionaries around the seventh century led to the advent of Islam
Islam
in the region. During the medieval period, the region was ruled by the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
and Kingdom of Cannanore. The Portuguese arrived around 1498 and were upstaged by 1545. The region was then ruled by the Muslim house of Arakkal, followed by Tipu Sultan. On his death in 1799, most of the region passed on to the British and with their departure, the Union Territory was formed in 1956. Ten of the islands are inhabited. At the 2011 Indian census, the population of the Union Territory was 64,473. The majority of the indigenous population is Muslim and most of them belong to the Shafi school of the Sunni sect. The islanders are ethnically similar to the Malayali
Malayali
people of the nearest Indian state
Indian state
of Kerala. Most of the population speaks Malayalam
Malayalam
with Mahi (or Mahl) being the most spoken language in Minicoy
Minicoy
island. The islands are served by an airport on the Agatti
Agatti
island. The main occupation of the people is fishing and coconut cultivation, with tuna being the main item of export.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Independent India

2 Geography

2.1 India's Coral
Coral
Islands 2.2 Flora and fauna

3 Government and administration 4 Demographics 5 Religion 6 Languages 7 Economy

7.1 Fisheries 7.2 Tourism 7.3 Desalination

8 Transport and tourism 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

History[edit] A mention of the region in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, by an anonymous author, is one of the earliest references.[6] There are references to the control of the islands by the Cheras in the Sangam Patiṟṟuppattu. Local traditions and legends attribute the first settlement on these islands to the period of Cheraman Perumal, the last Chera king of Kerala.[7] The oldest inhabited islands in the group are Amini, Kalpeni
Kalpeni
Andrott, Kavaratti, and Agatti. Archaeological evidence suggests that Buddhism
Buddhism
prevailed in the region during the fifth and sixth centuries AD.[6] According to popular tradition, Islam
Islam
was brought to Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
by an Arab named Ubaidulla in AD 661. His grave is located on the island of Andrott.[8] During the 11th century, the islands came under the rule of the Late Cholas[6] and subsequently the Kingdom of Cannanore.[9] In the 16th century, the Portuguese ruled the seas between Ormuz and the Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
and south to Ceylon. As early as 1498, they took control of the archipelago (called Laquedivas by them), later on to exploit coir production, until the islanders expelled them in 1545. In the 17th century, the islands came under the rule of Ali Rajahs/Arakkal Bheevi of Kannur, who received them as a gift from the Kolathiris. The islands are also mentioned in great detail in the stories of the Arab traveller Ibn Batuta.[10] The Aminidivi
Aminidivi
group of islands (Androth, Amini, Kadmat, Kiltan, Chetlath, and Bitra) came under the rule of Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
in 1787. They passed to British control after the Third Anglo-Mysore War
Third Anglo-Mysore War
and were attached to South Canara. The rest of the islands came under the suzerainty of the Arakkal family of Cannanore in return for a payment of annual tribute. The British took over the administration of those islands for nonpayment of arrears. These islands were attached to the Malabar district
Malabar district
of the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
during the British Raj.[11] Independent India[edit] On 1 November 1956, during the reorganization of Indian states, the Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
islands were separated from Madras organized into a separate union territory for administrative purposes. The new territory was called Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands before adopting the Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
name on 1 November 1973.[12] To safeguard India's vital shipping lanes to the Middle East, and the growing relevance of the islands in security considerations, an Indian Navy base, INS Dweeprakshak, was commissioned on Kavaratti
Kavaratti
island.[13] A DX-pedition
DX-pedition
(VU7AG) by amateur radio operators was run on Agatti Island during November 2013. Geography[edit]

Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Islands map

One of the uninhabited islands in Bangaram
Bangaram
Atoll, Lakshadweep

Satellite picture showing the atolls of the Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
except for Minicoy

Worms-eye view of the lighthouse in Minicoy
Minicoy
Island

Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
is an archipelago of twelve atolls, three reefs and five submerged banks, with a total of about thirty-nine islands and islets. The reefs are in fact also atolls, although mostly submerged, with only small unvegetated sand cays above the high-water mark. The submerged banks are sunken atolls. Almost all the atolls have a northeast-southwest orientation with the islands lying on the eastern rim, and a mostly submerged reef on the western rim, enclosing a lagoon. It has 10 inhabited islands, 17 uninhabited islands, attached islets, 4 newly formed islets and 5 submerged reefs.[14] The main islands are Kavaratti, Agatti, Minicoy, and Amini. The total population of the territory is 60,595 according to the 2001 census. Agatti
Agatti
has an airport with direct flights from Kochi. India's Coral
Coral
Islands[edit] The Aminidivi
Aminidivi
subgroup of islands (consisting of Amini, Keltan, Chetlat, Kadamat, Bitra, and Perumal Par) and the Laccadive subgroup of islands (comprising mainly Androth, Kalpeni, Kavaratti, Pitti, and Suheli Par), both subgroups having a submarine connection between them through Pitti
Pitti
Bank. Together with Minicoy
Minicoy
Island, a lonely atoll located at the southern end of the 200-km-broad Nine Degree Channel, they form the Coral
Coral
Islands of India
India
in the Arabian Sea. All these islands have been built up by corals and have fringing coral reefs very close to their shores.[15] Two banks further north are not considered part of the group:

Angria Bank Adas Bank

The atolls, reefs, and banks are listed from north to south in the table:

Atoll/Reef/Bank (alternate name) type Land Area (km2) Lagoon Area (km2) No. of islets Pop. Census 2001 Location

Aminidivi
Aminidivi
Islands

Cora Divh bank - 339.45 - - 13°42′N 72°11′E / 13.700°N 72.183°E / 13.700; 72.183 (Cora Divh)

Sesostris Bank bank - 388.53 - - 13°08′N 72°00′E / 13.133°N 72.000°E / 13.133; 72.000 (Sesostris Bank)

Bassas de Pedro (Munyal Par, Padua Bank) bank - 2474.33 - - 13°07′N 72°25′E / 13.117°N 72.417°E / 13.117; 72.417 (Bassas de Pedro)

Cherbaniani Reef
Reef
(Beleapani Reef) reef 0.01 172.59 2 - 12°18′N 71°53′E / 12.300°N 71.883°E / 12.300; 71.883 (Cherbaniani Reef)

Byramgore Reef
Reef
(Chereapani) reef 0.01 57.46 1 - 11°54′N 71°49′E / 11.900°N 71.817°E / 11.900; 71.817 (Byramgore Reef)

Chetlat Island atoll 1.14 1.60 1 2,289 11°42′N 72°42′E / 11.700°N 72.700°E / 11.700; 72.700 (Chetlat Island)

Bitrā Island atoll 0.10 45.61 2 264 11°33′N 72°09′E / 11.550°N 72.150°E / 11.550; 72.150 (Bitrā Island)

Kiltān Island atoll 2.20 1.76 1 3,664 11°29′N 73°00′E / 11.483°N 73.000°E / 11.483; 73.000 (Kiltān Island)

Kadmat Island
Kadmat Island
(Cardamom) atoll 3.20 37.50 1 5,319 11°14′N 72°47′E / 11.233°N 72.783°E / 11.233; 72.783 (Kadmat Island)

Elikalpeni Bank bank - 95.91 - - 11°12′N 73°58′E / 11.200°N 73.967°E / 11.200; 73.967 (Elikalpeni Bank)

Perumal Par reef 0.01 83.02 1 - 11°10′N 72°04′E / 11.167°N 72.067°E / 11.167; 72.067 (Perumal Par)

Amini Island
Amini Island
1) atoll 2.59 155.091) 1 7,340 11°06′N 72°45′E / 11.100°N 72.750°E / 11.100; 72.750 (Amini Island)

Laccadive Islands

Agatti
Agatti
Island (Agatti) 2) atoll 2.70 4.84 1 8,000 10°50′N 73°41′E / 10.833°N 73.683°E / 10.833; 73.683 ( Agatti
Agatti
Island)

Bangaram
Bangaram
Island (Bangaram) 2) atoll 2.30 4.84 1 61 10°50′N 73°41′E / 10.833°N 73.683°E / 10.833; 73.683 ( Bangaram
Bangaram
Island)

Pitti
Pitti
Island 1) islet 0.01 155.09 1 - 10°50′N 72°38′E / 10.833°N 72.633°E / 10.833; 72.633 ( Pitti
Pitti
Island)

Androth Island (Andrott) atoll 4.90 4.84 1 10,720 10°50′N 73°41′E / 10.833°N 73.683°E / 10.833; 73.683 (Androth Island)

Kavaratti
Kavaratti
Island atoll 4.22 4.96 1 10,113 10°33′N 72°38′E / 10.550°N 72.633°E / 10.550; 72.633 ( Kavaratti
Kavaratti
Island)

Kalpeni
Kalpeni
Island atoll 2.79 25.60 7 4,319 10°05′N 73°38′E / 10.083°N 73.633°E / 10.083; 73.633 ( Kalpeni
Kalpeni
Island)

Suheli Par
Suheli Par
3) atoll 0.57 78.76 2 - 10°05′N 72°17′E / 10.083°N 72.283°E / 10.083; 72.283 (Suheli Par)

Minicoy
Minicoy
Atoll

Investigator Bank bank - 141.78 - - 08°32′N 73°17′E / 8.533°N 73.283°E / 8.533; 73.283 (Investigator Bank)

Minicoy
Minicoy
Island 4) atoll 4.80 30.60 2 9,495 08°17′N 73°02′E / 8.283°N 73.033°E / 8.283; 73.033 ( Minicoy
Minicoy
Island)

Viringili Island 4) islet 0.02 30.60 1 - 08°27′N 73°01′E / 8.450°N 73.017°E / 8.450; 73.017 (Viringili (Maliku Atoll))

Lakshadweep   32.69 4203.14 32 60,595 08°16'-13°58'N, 71°44°-74°24'E

1) Amini Island
Amini Island
and Pitti
Pitti
Island are both on Pitti
Pitti
Bank, a largely sunken atoll with a lagoon area of 155.09 km2

2) Bangaram
Bangaram
and Agatti
Agatti
Islands are connected by a shallow submarine ridge

3) new international tourist resort, otherwise uninhabited, but with a population 61 at the 1990 census

4) Minicoy
Minicoy
Island and Viringili Island are both on Maliku Atoll

Flora and fauna[edit]

Ducks on a beach at Kavaratti, Lakshadweep

The Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Archipelago
Archipelago
forms a terrestrial ecoregion together with the Maldives
Maldives
and the Chagos.[16] It has over 600 species of marine fishes, 78 species of corals, 82 species of seaweed, 52 species of crabs, 2 species of lobsters, 48 species of gastropods, 12 species of bivalves, 101 species of birds.[17][18] It is one of the four coral reef regions in India.[19] The corals are a major attraction for the tourist. Pitti
Pitti
Island, is an important breeding place for sea turtles and for a number of pelagic birds such as the brown noddy (Anous stolidus), lesser crested tern (Sterna bengalensis) and greater crested tern (Sterna bergii).[20] The island has been declared a bird sanctuary.[21] Cetacean
Cetacean
diversity off the Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Islands and in adjacent areas is higher than other areas although a lack of scientific study results in poor understanding and conservation promoting. These include various whales (e.g. pygmy blue, Bryde's,[22] sperm[23]), smaller cetaceans (e.g. orca,[24] pilot whale[25]) and dolphins.[26][27][28][29] The region does not have a rich flora and almost all the plants can be found on the mainland of India. There is also an absence of forest in the region. Nearly 400 species of flowering plants have been documented, including three species of sea grasses Cymodocia isoetifolia, Syringodium isoetifolium and Thalassia hemprichii, other angiosperms as Pandanus, Heliotropium foertherianum, Tournefortia argentea and Pemphis acidula
Pemphis acidula
as well as fungi, algae, lichens are also found. The common flora of the coral sands include coconut groves and coastal shrubs as Pemphis acidula, Cordia subcordata, Scaevola taccada, Thespesia populnea, Suriana maritima, Dodonaea viscosa, Guettarda speciosa
Guettarda speciosa
and seaweeds such as sea lettuces, Codium
Codium
and Hypena.[17][30] Government and administration[edit]

Plate in Western Script is from the Laccadive Islands

Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
forms a single Indian district
Indian district
and is governed by an administrator appointed by the President of India
India
under article 239 of the constitution. The present administrator is Mr. Farooq Khan IPS[31] There are 10 Sub Divisions of the territory. In Minicoy
Minicoy
and Agatti
Agatti
the Sub Division is under a Deputy Collector while in the remaining 8 islands developmental activities are coordinated by Sub Divisional Officers. The Collector cum Development Commissioner who is also the District Magistrate oversees matters coming under District Administration, such as revenue, land settlement, law and order. The District Magistrate is assisted by one Additional District Magistrate and Ten Executive Magistrates with respect to enforcement of law and order. Administrator in his capacity as Inspector General of Lakshadweep Police has command and control of the Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Police. Administration Secretariat is in Kavaratti.[32] The union territory comes under the jurisdiction of the Kerala High Court
Kerala High Court
at Kochi
Kochi
along with a system of lower courts.[33] The territory elects one member to the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
(lower house of the Parliament of India).[34] Demographics[edit]

NASA picture of Maliku Atoll
Atoll
with Minicoy
Minicoy
Island

According to the 2011 census Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
has a population of 64,429,[35] roughly equal in number to that of the Marshall Islands.[36] This gives it a ranking of 627th among the 640 districts in India.[35] The district has a population density of 2,013 inhabitants per square kilometre (5,210/sq mi).[35] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 6.23%.[35] Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
has a sex ratio of 946 females for every 1000 males,[35] and a literacy rate of 92.28%.[35] Most people of Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
are descendants of migrants from the Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
of southwest India
India
and the islanders are ethnically similar to coastal Kerala's Malayali
Malayali
people. More than 93% of the population who are indigenous, are Muslims and the majority of them belong to the Shafi School of the Sunni Sect. The southernmost and second largest island of Minicoy
Minicoy
has an ethnically Mahls population that are native to the Maldives.[14][37] Religion[edit]

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Religion in State (2011)[38]    Islam
Islam
(96.57%)    Hinduism
Hinduism
(2.77%)    Christianity
Christianity
(0.49%)    Sikhism
Sikhism
(0.01%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(0.01%)    Jainism
Jainism
(0.01%)   Other Religions (0.02%)   Atheism (0.02%)

The inhabitants of Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
were known to practice different religious customs. Then Islam
Islam
was propounded by the Sheikh Ubaidullah.[39] The spread of Islam
Islam
has contributed to the religious identity of Lakshadweep. Eid-ul-Fitr, Muharram, Eid-ul-Adha and Milad-un-Nabi are the prominent occasions when the people of the island gather in various mosques. Religious observance in Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
is characterized by certain festivals that are found in its core ethnic groups. Moulood is one such religious event when the islanders offer prayers to the divine power and eat in groups. The festival of Ratheeb is another uncommon occasion which originated in the Kavaratti
Kavaratti
region of Lakshadweep. The grave of Sheikh Kasim, one of the respected saints is praised during Ratheeb by the people of the island to gather his holy blessings. The Sunni branch of Islam
Islam
is the predominant faith. Languages[edit]

Languages of Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
in 2001[40]    Malayalam
Malayalam
(85.00%)   Others (15.00%)

The principal languages of Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
are Malayalam, Jeseri (Dweep Bhasha) and Mahl.[41] The people of all the northern islands speak a dialect of Malayalam
Malayalam
with the influence of Tamil and Arabic
Arabic
similar to Arwi. The people of Minicoy, the southernmost atoll, speak Mahl, a variant of Divehi language
Divehi language
spoken in the Maldives. Malayalam
Malayalam
with Malayalam
Malayalam
script was introduced as the official language of Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
during the British raj. Previously a type of Arabic
Arabic
script (Arabi Malayalam) was used for the language. The policy was continued by the Indian government. Malayalam
Malayalam
serves as a link language on the islands including on the Mahl dominated Minicoy Island.[42] The dances here include:-Lava Dance, Kolkali dance & Parichakli Dance. Economy[edit]

A beach side resort at Kadmat Island, Lakshadweep

Lakshadweep's gross territorial domestic product for 2004 is estimated at US$
US$
60 million at current prices. There is little economic inequality in Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
and the poverty index is low. Coconut fibre extraction and production of fibre products is Lakshadweep's main industry. There are five coir fibre factories, five production demonstration centres and seven fibre curling units run by the government of India. These units produce coir fibre, coir yarn, curled fibre and corridor mattings.[43] Fisheries[edit] Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
comprises the only coral atolls of the country. With a vast lagoon of 4,200 km2 (1,600 sq mi), it has territorial waters of 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi), Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 4 lakh (400,000 km2 [150,000 sq mi]) and coastal line of about 132 kilometres (82 mi). There is an estimation of about one lakh tonnes (100,000 tonnes [110,000 tons]) of tuna and tuna-like fishes and about an equal quantity of shark in the sea around Lakshadweep. Fishing
Fishing
is the main livelihood of the islanders.[44] Freshly caught tuna is processed by drying it in the sun after cooking and smoking. The resultant product, known as 'mas', are popular products exported from these islands to southeast Asian countries.[45] Eleven workshops in islands and two boat building yards cater to the needs of fishermen. There are 375 boats in operation in Lakshadweep.[46] Tourism[edit]

Agatti
Agatti
island, Lakshadweep

Due to its isolation and scenic appeal, Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
was already known as a tourist attraction for Indians since 1974.[47] This brings in significant revenue, which is likely to increase. Since such a small region cannot support industries, the government is actively promoting tourism as a means of income in Bangaram
Bangaram
and Kadmat islands. Bangaram is projected to become a major destination for international tourism.[48] Marine fauna are plentiful. Water sports activities such as scuba diving, wind surfing, snorkelling, surfing, kayaking, canoeing, water skiing, sportfishing, yachting and night sea voyages are popular activities among tourists. Tourists flock to these islands throughout the year, except during the South-west monsoon
South-west monsoon
months when seas are extremely rough. The government has also proposed to set up two customs clearance check-in offices so that tourists can enter directly instead of getting permission from the nearest customs office in Kochi, which is 260 nautical miles (300 mi; 480 km) from these islands. These will be the smallest customs offices in India. Tourism is expected to get a big boost after these offices open as the islands lie on one of the busiest cruise ways. Desalination[edit]

Local symbols of Lakshadweep

Animal Butterfly fish[49][50]

Bird Noddy tern[49][50]

Tree Bread fruit[49][50]

Flower Not designated

A low-temperature thermal desalination plant opened on Kavaratti
Kavaratti
in 2005, at a cost of ₹50 million (€922,000). The experimental plant, which uses the temperature difference between warm surface seawater and much colder seawater at 500m depth to generate potable water as well as energy, was slated to produce 100,000 litres/day of potable water from seawater.[51][52] Production costs in 2005 were ₹220-250/m³ (€4.1-4.6/m³); the cost was supposed to drop to ₹30-60/m³ (€0.55-1.11/m³) with increased capacity.[53] The technology was developed by the National Institute of Ocean Technology. It can be used to produce drinking water and also for power generation and air conditioning. In addition, the deep seawater contains extra nutrients for fish, an important source of food and income for the local population. The government plans to set up desalination plants with a capacity of 10 million litres/per day on all islands and coastal areas.[51] In 2009, the NIOT announced plans to build plants on Minicoy, Agatti
Agatti
and Andrott.[54] Transport and tourism[edit]

Agatti
Agatti
Airstrip

Passenger ship MV Aminidivi
Aminidivi
of the Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Islands administration docked at Old Mangalore port

Agatti Aerodrome
Agatti Aerodrome
on Agatti
Agatti
Island is the only airport in Lakshadweep. Alliance Air, a subsidiary of the state-owned carrier, serves Agatti and flies to Kochi
Kochi
and Bengaluru
Bengaluru
on the mainland. Kingfisher Airlines, had flights connecting Kochi
Kochi
and Bangalore
Bangalore
to Agatti
Agatti
before the airline ceased operations. The other islands are linked by the Pawan Hans helicopter or boat service.[55] Six ships connect Kochi, Calicut(Beypore) and Lakshadweep: MV Kavaratti, MV Aminidivi, MV Minicoy, MV Arabian Sea, MV Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Sea and MV Bharath Seema.[56] Tourists need a permit to visit the islands; foreign nationals are not permitted to visit certain islands.[57] According to the current alcohol laws of India, alcoholic beverage consumption is not permitted in the Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Archipelago
Archipelago
except on Bangaram
Bangaram
Island.[58]

See also[edit]

Geography portal Asia
Asia
portal South Asia
Asia
portal India
India
portal

Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
( Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituency) Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Police Coral
Coral
reefs in India

References[edit]

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Minicoy
and Aminidivi
Aminidivi
Islands (Alteration Of Name Act), 1973". The Indian Lawyer. 26 August 1973. Retrieved 9 May 2012.  ^ "Lakshadweep". encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 27 January 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2012.  ^ "About Lakshadweep". lakshadweeptourism.nic.in. Retrieved 1 August 2012.  ^ Ashalatha, B.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Singh, R.N. (1991-07-31). "Origin and compensation of Chagos-Laccadive ridge, Indian ocean, from admittance analysis of gravity and bathymetry data". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 105: 47–54. Bibcode:1991E&PSL.105...47A. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(91)90119-3. Retrieved 2015-02-25.  ^ a b c "Marine investigations in the Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Islands, India". thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 1 August 2012.  ^ “ Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
& It's People 1992-1993” Planning Department, Govt. Secretariat, Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Administration, Kavaratti. Page: 12. ^ "History". lakshadweep.nic.in. Retrieved 1 August 2012.  ^ "Lakshadweep". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 2 August 2012.  ^ Forbes, Andrew D.W. (1979). "South Asia : Journal of South Asian Studies : Volume 2 : Sources towards a history of the Laccadive Islands". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. Tandfonline.com. 2: 130. doi:10.1080/00856407908722989. Retrieved 25 February 2015.  ^ Logan, William (1887). Malabar Manual. New Delhi: Asian Education Services. p. 2. ISBN 81-206-0446-6.  ^ "Lakshadweep". World Statesmen. Retrieved 8 October 2016.  ^ "Navy commissions full-scale station in Lakshadweep". The Hindu. 1 May 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012.  ^ a b "Location, Area and Population". lakshadweep.nic.in. Retrieved 1 August 2012.  ^ 'INDIA: A Physical Geography' (ISBN 81-230-0656-X), 1968, Publications Dn, Ministry of I&B, Govt. of India. page:74. ^ "Maldives-Lakshadweep- Chagos
Chagos
Archipelago
Archipelago
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Further reading[edit]

R. C. Majumdar : The History of Ancient Lakshadweep, Calcutta, 1979

External links[edit]

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