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Germany, Switzerland, Austria[2] [3]

Max. length 63 km (39 mi)[1]

Max. width 14 km (8.7 mi)[1]

Surface area 536 km2 (207 sq mi)[1]

Average depth 90 m (300 ft)

Max. depth 251 m (823 ft)[1]

Water volume 48 km3 (12 cu mi)[1]

Residence time 4.3 years

Shore length1 273 km (170 mi)[1]

Surface elevation 395 m (1,296 ft)

Frozen 1795, 1830, 1880 (partial), 1963

Islands

Mainau Reichenau Lindau and others

Sections/sub-basins

Obersee

Lake Überlingen
Lake Überlingen
(Überlinger See)

Seerhein Untersee

Gnadensee Zellersee Rheinsee

Settlements see list

References [1][2][3][4][5]

1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

Lake Constance
Constance
(German: Bodensee) is a lake on the Rhine
Rhine
at the northern foot of the Alps, and consists of three bodies of water: the Obersee or Upper Lake Constance, the Untersee or Lower Lake Constance, and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the Seerhein. These waterbodies lie within the Lake Constance
Constance
Basin (Bodenseebecken), which is part of the Alpine Foreland
Alpine Foreland
and through which the Rhine flows.[2][3] The lake is situated in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. Its shorelines lie in the German states of Bavaria
Bavaria
and Baden-Württemberg, the Austrian state of Vorarlberg, and the Swiss cantons of Thurgau, St. Gallen, and Schaffhausen. The Rhine
Rhine
flows into the lake from the south, with its original course forming the Austro-Swiss border, and has its outflow on the "Lower Lake" where — except for Schaffhausen — it forms the German-Swiss border until the city of Basel.[4][5]

Contents

1 Description 2 History

2.1 Name 2.2 Key facts 2.3 Historical maps

3 Geography

3.1 Divisions 3.2 Emergence and future 3.3 Tributaries 3.4 Outflows, evaporation, water extraction 3.5 Islands 3.6 Peninsulas 3.7 Shore 3.8 Climate 3.9 International borders 3.10 Floods

4 Ecology

4.1 Flora 4.2 Fauna

4.2.1 Birds

4.2.1.1 Songbirds 4.2.1.2 Waterfowl 4.2.1.3 Overwintering 4.2.1.4 Migration

4.2.2 Fish 4.2.3 Introduced species

4.2.3.1 Well-known non-native species

4.3 Wrecks on the lake bed

5 Tourism, leisure and sports

5.1 Sights and cultural heritage 5.2 Cultural Events 5.3 Biking 5.4 Hiking
Hiking
and pilgrim trails 5.5 Swimming 5.6 Diving 5.7 Boating, recreational boating

6 Settlements on the lake

6.1 Austria 6.2 Germany 6.3 Switzerland

7 Fishing 8 See also 9 Notes and references

9.1 Notes 9.2 References

10 Further readings 11 External links

Description[edit] Freshwater
Freshwater
Lake Constance
Constance
is central Europe's third largest, after Lake Balaton
Lake Balaton
(but only with respect to surface area!) and Lake Geneva. It is 63 km (39 mi) long, and at its widest point, nearly 14 km (8.7 mi) wide. It covers approximately 536 km2 (207 sq mi), and is 395 m (1,296 ft) above sea level. The greatest depth is 252 metres (827 ft), quite precisely in the middle of the Upper Lake. Its volume is approximately 48 km3 (12 cu mi).[1] The lake has two parts: the main east section, called Obersee or "Upper Lake", covers about 473 square kilometres (183 sq mi), to which also its northwestern arm, the Überlinger See
Überlinger See
(61 km2 (24 sq mi)), belongs, and the much smaller west section, summarizingly called Untersee or "Lower Lake", with an area of about 63 square kilometres (24 sq mi).[1][3] The connecting part between these two lake parts is the so-called and self-explanatory Seerhein
Seerhein
(lit.: "Lake Rhine"). Geographically, it is sometimes not considered to be part of the lake, but a river.[1][4] The Lower Lake Constance
Constance
is loosely divided into three sections around the Island
Island
of Reichenau: The two German parts, the Gnadensee
Gnadensee
(lit.: "Lake Mercy") north of the island and north of the peninsula of Mettnau
Mettnau
(the Markelfinger Winkel), and the Zeller See, south of Radolfzell
Radolfzell
and to the northwest of the Reichenau island, and the mainly Swiss Rheinsee
Rheinsee
(lit.: " Rhine
Rhine
Lake") – not to be mismatched with the Seerhein
Seerhein
at its start! – to the south of the island and with its southwestern arm leading to its effluent in Stein am Rhein.[1][3] The river water of the regulated Alpine Rhine
Rhine
flows into the lake in the southeast near Bregenz, Austria, then through the Upper Lake Constance
Constance
hardly targeting the Überlinger See, into the Seerhein
Seerhein
in the town of Konstanz, then through the Rheinsee
Rheinsee
virtually without feeding both German parts of the Lower Lake, and finally feeds the start of the High Rhine
Rhine
in Swiss town Stein am Rhein.[1][5][3] The lake itself is an important drinking water source for southwestern Germany. The culminating point of the lake's drainage basin is the Swiss peak Piz Russein
Piz Russein
of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps
Alps
at 3,613 metres (11,854 ft) above sea level. It starts with the creek Aua da Russein (lit.: "Water of the Russein").[6] Car ferries link Romanshorn, Switzerland, to Friedrichshafen, and Konstanz
Konstanz
to Meersburg, all in Germany.[2][3] History[edit] Lake Constance
Constance
was formed by the Rhine
Rhine
Glacier during the ice age and is a zungenbecken lake. After the end of the last glacial period, about 10,000 years ago, the Obersee and Untersee still formed a single lake. The downward erosion of the High Rhine
Rhine
caused the lake level to gradually sink and a sill, the Konstanzer Schwelle, to emerge. The Rhine, the Bregenzer Ach, and the Dornbirner Ach
Dornbirner Ach
carry sediments from the Alps
Alps
to the lake, thus gradually decreasing the depth and coastline extension of the lake in the southeast. In antiquity the two lakes still had different names; later, for reasons which are unknown, they came to have the same name. In the 19th century, there have been five different local time zones around Lake Constance. Constance, belonging to the Grand Duchy of Baden, adhered to the Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
time, Friedrichshafen
Friedrichshafen
used the time of the Duchy of Württemberg, in Lindau, the Bavarian Munich time was observed, and Bregenz
Bregenz
used the Prague time, while the Swiss shore used the Berne time. One would have needed to travel only 46 kilometers to visit five time zones. Given the amount of trade and traffic over Lake Constance, this led to serious confusion. Public clocks in harbors used three different clock faces, depending on the destinations offered by the boat companies. In 1892, all German territories used CET, the Austrian railways introduced CET already in 1891, and Switzerland
Switzerland
followed in 1894. Because traffic timetables had not been yet updated, CET became the sole valid time around and on Lake Constance
Constance
in 1895.[7] Name[edit] The Roman geographer, Pomponius Mela, was the first to mention the lake around 43 AD, calling it the Lacus Venetus and the Untersee (the lower portion) Lacus Acronius, the Rhine
Rhine
passing through both. Around 75 AD, The naturalist Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
called the entire Lake Constance, Lacus Raetiae Brigantinus after the main Roman town on the lake, Brigantium (later Bregenz). This name is associated with the Celtic Brigantii who lived here, although it is not clear whether the place was named after the tribe or the inhabitants of the region were named after their main settlement. Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
later used the form Lacus Brigantiae.[8] The current German name of Bodensee derives from the place name Bodman, which probably originally derived from the Old High German bodamon which meant "on the soils", indicating a place on level terrain by the lake.[9]:500 This place, situated at the west end of Lake Überlingen
Lake Überlingen
(Überlinger See), had a more supraregional character for a certain period in the early Middle Ages as a Frankish imperial palace (Königspfalz), Alamannian ducal seat and mint, which is why the name may have been transferred to the lake ("lake, by which Bodman is situated" = Bodmansee). From 833/834 AD, in Latin sources, the name appears in its Latinised form lacus potamicus.[10] Therefore, the name actually derived from the Bodman Pfalz (Latinized as Potamum) was wrongly assumed by monastic scholars like Walahfrid Strabo to be derived from the Greek word potamos for "river" and meant "river lake". They may also have been influenced by the fact that the Rhine flowed through the lake.[9]:501ff Wolfram von Eschenbach
Wolfram von Eschenbach
describes it in Middle High German
Middle High German
as the Bodemensee or Bodemsee[11] which has finally evolved into the present German name, Bodensee. The name may be linked to that of the Bodanrück, the hill range between Lake Überlingen
Lake Überlingen
and the Untersee, and the history of the House of Bodman. The German name of the lake, Bodensee, has been adopted by many other languages, for example: Dutch: Bodenmeer, Danish: Bodensøen, Norwegian: Bodensjøen, Swedish: Bodensjön, Islandic: Bodenvatn, Finnish: Bodenjärvi, Estonian: Bodeni järv, Lithuanian: Bodeno ežeras, Latvian: Bodenezers, Russian: Боденское озеро, Polish: Jezioro Bodeńskie, Czech: Bodamské jezero, Slovak: Bodamské jazero, Hungarian: Bodeni-tó, Bulgarian: Боденско езеро, Ukrainian: Боденське озеро, Croatian: Bodensko jezero, Albanian: Liqeni i Bodenit. Even in many Asiatic languages, the lake is called the Bodensee e.g. Azerbaijani: Boden gölü, Tatar: Боден күле, Marathi: बोडन से Bōdana sē, Mandarin: Chinese: 波登湖; pinyin: Bódēng-hú, Korean: 보덴 호 Boden-ho, Japanese: ボーデン湖 Bōden-ko.[citation needed]

Location of Lake Constance
Constance
within the Duchy of Swabia
Swabia
(yellow), 911–1268

After the Council of Constance
Council of Constance
in the 15th century, the alternative name Lacus Constantinus was used in the (Roman Catholic) Romance language area. This name, which had been attested as early as 1187 in the form Lacus Constantiensis,[8] came from the town of Konstanz
Konstanz
at the outflow of the Rhine
Rhine
from the Obersee, whose original name, Constantia, was in turn derived from the Roman emperor, Constantius Chlorus (around 300 AD). Hence the French: Lac de Constance, Italian: Lago di Costanza, Portuguese: Lago de Constança, Spanish: Lago de Constanza, Romanian: Lacul Constanța, Greek: Λίμνη της Κωνσταντίας – Limni tis Konstantias. The Arabic, بحيرة كونستانس buħaira Konstans and probably the Turkish, Konstanz
Konstanz
gölü, probably go back to the French form of the name. Even in Romance-influenced English the name "Lake Constance" gained a foothold and was then exported into other languages such as Hebrew: ימת קונסטנץ yamat Konstanz
Konstanz
and Swahili: Ziwa la Konstanz. In many languages both forms exist in parallel e.g. Romansh: Lai da Constanza and Lai Bodan, Esperanto: Konstanca Lago and Bodenlago.[citation needed] The poetic name, "Swabian Sea" was adopted by authors of the early modern era and the Enlightenment from ancient authors, possibly Tacitus. However, this assumption was based on an error (similar to that of the Teutoburg Forest
Teutoburg Forest
and the Taunus): the Romans sometimes used the name Mare Suebicum for the Baltic Sea, not Lake Constance. In times when the Romans had located the so-called "Suebi", then an Elbe Germanic tribe near a sea, this was understandable. The authors of the Early Modern Period
Early Modern Period
overlooked this and adopted the name for the largest lake in the middle of the former Duchy of Swabia, which also included parts of today's Switzerland.[12] Today the name Swabian Sea (Schwäbisches Meer) is only used jocularly as a hyperbolic term for Lake Constance.[13] Key facts[edit] No Paleolithic
Paleolithic
finds have been made in the immediate vicinity of the lake, because the region of Lake Constance
Constance
was covered for a long time by the Rhine
Rhine
Glacier. The discovery of stone tools (microliths) indicate that hunters and gatherers of the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
period (Middle Stone Age, 8,000-5,500 BC) frequented the area without settling, however. Only hunting camps have been confirmed. The earliest Neolithic
Neolithic
farmers, who belonged to the Linear Pottery culture, also left no traces behind, because the Alpine foreland lay away from the routes along which they had spread during the 6th century BC.[14] This changed only in the middle and late Neolithic
Neolithic
when shore settlements were established, the so-called pile dwelling and wetland settlements, which have now been uncovered mainly on Lake Überlingen, the Constance Hopper
Constance Hopper
and on the Obersee. At Unteruhldingen, such a pile dwelling village has been reconstructed and is now accessible as a museum. Grave finds from Singen am Hohentwiel
Singen am Hohentwiel
date to the beginning of the Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and shore settlements were repeatedly built during the Neolithic
Neolithic
Period and the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(up to 800 BC). During the following Iron Age
Iron Age
the settlement history is interrupted. The settlement of the shore of Lake Constance
Constance
during the Hallstatt period is attested by grave mounds, which today are usually found in forests where they have been protected from the destruction by agriculture. Since the late Hallstatt period, the peoples living on Lake Constance are referred to as the Celts. During the La Tène period
La Tène period
from 450 AD, the population density decreases, as can be deduced partly due from the fact that no more grave mounds were built. For the first time, we have written reports on Lake Constance
Constance
that have survived. Thus, we learn that the Helvetians
Helvetians
settled by the lake in the south, the Rhaetians
Rhaetians
in the area of the Alpine Rhine
Rhine
Valley and the Vindelici
Vindelici
in the northeast. The most important places on the lake were Bregenz (Celtic Brigantion) and today's Constance. In the course of the Roman Alpine campaign of 16/15 BC, the Lake Constance
Constance
region was integrated into the Roman Empire. During the campaign, there was also supposed to have been a battle on Lake Constance. The geographer, Pomponius Mela, makes the first mention in 43 AD of Lake Constance
Constance
as two lakes - the Lacus Venetus (Upper Lake) and the Lacus Acronius (Untersee) - with the Rhine
Rhine
flowing through both. Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
referred to Lake Constance
Constance
as Lacus Brigantinus for the first time. The most important Roman site was Bregenz, which soon became subject to Roman municipal law and later became the seat of the Prefect of the Lake Constance
Constance
fleet. The Romans were also in Lindau, but settled only on the hills around Lindau
Lindau
as the lakeshore was swampy. Other Roman towns were Constantia (Constance) and Arbor Felix (Arbon). After the borders of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
were drawn back to the Rhine boundary in the 3rd century BC, the Alemanni gradually settled on the north shore of Lake Constance
Constance
and, later, on the south bank as well. After the introduction of Christianity, the cultural significance of the region grew as a result of the founding of Reichenau Abbey
Reichenau Abbey
and the Bishopric of Constance. Under the rule of the Hohenstaufens, Imperial Diets (Reichstage) were held by Lake Constance. In Constance, too, a treaty was drawn up between the Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
emperor and the Lombard League. Lake Constance
Constance
also played an important role as a trading post for goods being traded between German and Italian states. During the Thirty Years' War, there were various conflicts over the control of the region during the Lake War
Lake War
(1632-1648). After the War of the Second Coalition
War of the Second Coalition
(1798-1802), which also affected the region and during which Austrian and French flotillas operated on Lake Constance, there was a reorganisation of state relationships. Historical maps[edit]

1540 map of the Lake Constance
Constance
region

1540: the map Lacus Constantiensis by Johannes Zwick and Thomas Blarer shows topographic names, towns and the Rhine.[citation needed] 1555: the map of the route of the Rhine
Rhine
(Rhinelaufkarte) by Caspar Vopel includes a topographical map of Lake Constance
Constance
with its larger towns, the tributaries and the course of the Rhine.[citation needed] 1633: the Swabian map by Johannes Janssonius, Amsterdam: Totius Sveviae novissima tabula shows Lake Constance
Constance
with islands, tributaries, towns and villages.[15] 1675: The Lake Constance
Constance
map, Lacos Acronianus sive Bodamicus, by Nikolaus David Hautt based on Andreas Arzet SJ shows Lake Constance with the adjacent lands.[16]

Geography[edit]

Complete lake from the Winterstaude

Divisions[edit] Lake Constance
Constance
is located in the foothills of the Alps. The shore length of both main lakes is 273 kilometres long. Of this, 173 kilometres are located in Germany
Germany
( Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
155 km, Bavaria
Bavaria
18 km), 28 kilometres run through Austria
Austria
and 72 kilometres through Switzerland.[17] If the Upper and Lower Lakes are combined, Lake Constance
Constance
has a total area of 536 km², the third largest lake in Central Europe
Central Europe
by area after Lake Balaton (594 km²) and Lake Geneva
Lake Geneva
(580 km²). It is also the second largest by water volume (48.5 km³[18]) after Lake Geneva (89 km³) and extends for over 69.2 kilometres between Bregenz and Stein am Rhein. Its catchment area is around 11,500 square kilometres, and reaching as far south as Lago di Lei
Lago di Lei
in Italy.[19] The area of the Obersee is 473 km². It extends from Bregenz
Bregenz
to Bodman-Ludwigshafen
Bodman-Ludwigshafen
for over 63.3 kilometres and is 14 kilometres wide between Friedrichshafen
Friedrichshafen
and Romanshorn. At its deepest point between Fischbach and Uttwil, it is 251.14 metres deep.

Lake Constance
Constance
with the Island
Island
of Lindau
Lindau
seen from Pfänder
Pfänder
in 2007

The three small bays on the Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
shore have their own names: the Bay of Bregenz, off Hard and Fußach
Fußach
is the Bay of Fussach
Fussach
and, west of that is the Wetterwinkel. Farther west, now in Switzerland, is the Bay of Rorschach. To the north, on the Bavarian side, is the Bay of Reutin. The railway embankment from the mainland to the island of Lindau
Lindau
and the motorway bridge over the lake border the so-called Little Lake (Kleiner See), which is located between the Lindau
Lindau
village of Aeschach and the island. The northwestern, finger-shaped arm of the Obersee is called Lake Überlingen. It is usually regarded as a separate lake, the boundary between the Obersee and Lake Überlingen
Lake Überlingen
runs approximately along the line between the southeast tip of Bodanrück
Bodanrück
(the Hörnle, which belongs to the town of Konstanz) and Meersburg. The Constance
Constance
Hopper lies between the German and Swiss shores east of Konstanz. The Obersee and Untersee are connected by the Seerhein. The Untersee, which is separated from the Obersee and from its north-west arm, Lake Überlingen, by the large peninsula of Bodanrück, has an area of 63 km². It is strongly characterised and divided into different areas by end moraines, various glacial snouts and medial moraines. These various areas of the lake have their own names. North of Reichenau Island
Reichenau Island
is the Gnadensee. West of the island of Reichenau, between the peninsula of Höri and the peninsula of Mettnau
Mettnau
is Lake Zell. North of the Mettnau
Mettnau
lies the Markelfinger Winkel. The drumlins of the southern Bodanrück
Bodanrück
continue along the bed of these northern parts of the lake. South of the Reichenau, from Gottlieben
Gottlieben
to Eschenz, stretches the Rheinsee
Rheinsee
(" Rhine
Rhine
Lake") with strong Rhine
Rhine
currents in places. Previously this lake part was named Lake Bernang after the village of Berlingen. On most of the maps the name of the Rheinsee
Rheinsee
is not shown, because this place is best suited for the name of the Untersee.[20] Emergence and future[edit] The present-day shape of Lake Constance
Constance
has resulted from the combination of several factors:

The tectonic Lake Constance
Constance
Basin between the Alps
Alps
and the Jura was created in the Jurassic
Jurassic
and Tertiary periods The current Alpine Rhine
Rhine
was initially a tributary of the Danube. Over time, the basin was captured by the High Rhine
Rhine
as a result of headward erosion (fluvial erosion).

The capture was not always only along the present Rhine
Rhine
valley; Lake Überlingen
Überlingen
marks part of an older valley course.

The river valleys were deepened during several cold periods by the Rhine
Rhine
Glacier from the valley of the Alpine Rhine
Rhine
(glacial erosion). Behind the present impressive traces of the Würm Ice Age, the effects of older cold periods can no longer be explored in any detail. Lake Constance
Constance
now represents, above all, a zungenbecken or glacial lake of the Würm Glaciation.[21] During a later phase of the ice age, only the Obersee was glaciated. As the glacier retreated further, the glacial meltwaters flowed out of the emerging Überlingen
Überlingen
lake through the older more northerly valley into the present High Rhine
Rhine
valley. Due to the advancing headward erosion, the present course of the High Rhine
Rhine
was finally (again) reconnected to Lake Constance.[22]

Like any glacial lake, Lake Constance
Constance
will also become silted up by sedimentation in the near future. This process can best be observed at the mouths of the larger rivers, especially that of the Alpine Rhine. The silting up process is accelerated by ever-increasing erosion by the Rhine
Rhine
and the associated reduction in the level of the lake. Tributaries[edit]

The estuary of the Alpine Rhine
Rhine
on Lake Constance

The main tributary of Lake Constance
Constance
is the Alpine Rhine. The Alpine Rhine
Rhine
and the Seerhein
Seerhein
do not mix greatly with the waters of the lake and flow through the lakes along courses that change relatively little. There are also numerous smaller tributaries (236 in all). The most important tributaries of the Obersee are (counterclockwise) the Dornbirner Ach, Bregenzer Ach, Leiblach, Argen, Schussen, Rotach, Seefelder Aach, Stockacher Aach, Salmsacher Aach, the Aach near Arbon, Steinach, Goldach and the Old Rhine. The outflow of the Obersee is the Seerhein, which in turn is the main tributary of the Untersee. The most important tributary of the Untersee is the Radolfzeller Aach.

The ten biggest tributaries of the Obersee by discharge volume[23] with its catchment areas:[24]

River Average discharge [m³/s] (1978–1990) Discharge in % Catchment [km²] Catchment in %

Alpine Rhine 233 61.1 6.119 56.1

Bregenzer Ach 48 12,6 832 7.6

Argen 19 5.3 656 6.0

Old Rhine ( Rhine
Rhine
Valley Canal) 12 3.1 360 3.3

Schussen 11 2.9 822 7.5

Dornbirner Ach 7.0 1.8 196 1.8

Leiblach 3,3 0.9 105 1.0

Seefelder Aach 3,2 0.8 280 2,6

Rotach 2.0 0.5 130 1.2

Stockacher Aach 1.6 0.4 221 2.0

Sum of the 10 main tributaries 340 89.6 9.721 89.2

Total inflow 381 100.0 10.903 100.0

Because the Alpine Rhine
Rhine
brings with it drift from the mountains and deposits this material as sediment, the Bay of Bregenz
Bregenz
will silt up in a few centuries time. The silting up of the entire Lake Constance
Constance
is estimated to take another ten to twenty thousand years. Outflows, evaporation, water extraction[edit] The outflow of the Untersee is the High Rhine
Rhine
with the Rhine
Rhine
Falls at Schaffhausen. Both the average precipitation of 0.45 km³/a and evaporation which averages 0.29 km³/a cause a net change in the level of Lake Constance
Constance
that is less when compared to the influence of the inflows and outflows.[25] Further quantities of lake water are extracted by municipal waterworks around the lake and the water company of Bodensee-Wasserversorgung. Islands[edit]

The island of Mainau

Main article: List of islands in Lake Constance In Lake Constance
Constance
there are ten islands that are larger than 2,000 m². By far the largest is the island of Reichenau in the Untersee, which belongs to the municipality of Reichenau. The former abbey of Reichenau is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
due to its three early and highly medieval churches. The island is also known for its intensive cultivation of fruit and vegetables. The island of Lindau
Lindau
is located in the east of the Obersee, and is the second largest island. On it is the old town and main railway station of Lindau. The third largest island is Mainau
Mainau
in the southeast of Lake Überlingen. The owners, the family of Bernadotte, have set up the island as a tourist attraction and created botanical gardens and wildlife enclosures. Relatively large, but uninhabited and inaccessible because of their status as nature reserves, are two islands off the Wollmatinger Ried: the Triboldingerbohl
Triboldingerbohl
which has an area of 13 ha and Mittler or Langbohl which is just 3 ha in area. Smaller islands in the Obersee are:

Dominican Island
Island
(Dominikanerinsel) separated by a six-metre-wide ditch from the old town of Constance
Constance
which is home to the Steigenberger Hotel (2 ha) The tiny island of Hoy near Lindau The ten artificial islands on the Rhine
Rhine
Causeway on the Fußach
Fußach
side The little island by the port of Romanshorn The Wollschweininsel (officially Wulesaueninsle) by the Seepark in Kreuzlingen

In the Untersee are:

the islands of Werd, Mittleres Werdli
Mittleres Werdli
and Unteres Werdli
Unteres Werdli
which together form the Werd Islands
Werd Islands
group are located at the outflow of the Rhine
Rhine
from the Untersee at Stein am Rhein
Stein am Rhein
into the High Rhine. The so-called Liebesinsel ("Love Island", 0.2  ha) southwest of the Mettnau
Mettnau
peninsula.

Peninsulas[edit] In Lake Constance
Constance
there are several peninsulas which vary greatly in size:

The Bodanrück, the largest peninsula, separates the Obersee (Lake Überlingen) from the Untersee. It covers an area of 112 km2. The Mettnau
Mettnau
in the Untersee, which extends towards the island of Reichenau, separates Lake Zell
Lake Zell
in the south from the Markelfinger Winkel in the north. It has a surface area of 1.7 km². The approximately 45-square-kilometre Höri, which also extends towards the island of Reichenau, separates Lake Zell
Lake Zell
to the north from the Rheinsee
Rheinsee
to the south. In the southeast, near the mouth of the new Rhine
Rhine
Canal, the Rohrspitz juts out about 1.2 km into the lake and forms the western perimeter of the Bay of Fußach. It has an area of approximately 50 hectares. The Wasserburg peninsula has a castle, Schloss Wasserburg, and the parish church of St. George. The peninsula is on the northeastern shore of the Obersee between the Bay of Nonnenhorn
Nonnenhorn
in the west and Bay of Wasserburg in the east. It has an area of 2.3 ha and was an island until 1720, when the Fuggers built a causeway. In March 2009, 27 people lived on the peninsula. The Galgeninsel
Galgeninsel
("Gallows Island") in the Bay of Reutin is also a peninsula that was formerly an island. It is only 0.16 hectares in area.

Shore[edit]

Sandy beach at the Marienschlucht

The shores of Lake Constance
Constance
consist mainly of gravel. In some places there are also sandy beaches, such as the Rohrspitz in the Austrian section of the lake, the Langenargen
Langenargen
and Marienschlucht. According to the data of the International Water Protection Commission for the Lake Constance, the approximate shore length is 273 km (see Coastline paradox). The inflow of water is constantly changing, mainly due to rain and the snow melt in the Alps. Its average surface area is approximately 395 m above NN (in Switzerland the absolute value is slightly higher in m above sea level). The more or less regular seasonal fluctuations in the water level also lead to slight variations in shore length and differences in the shore zone habitats (depending on high and low water). Climate[edit]

Summer storm – view of the Luitpold Barracks in Lindau

The climate of the Lake Constance
Constance
area is characterised by mild temperatures with moderate gradients, thanks to the balancing and retarding effect of the large body of water. However, due to the year-round influence of föhn winds which causes frequent fog in winter and close weather in summer, it is considered a stressful climate.

Waves raised by föhn winds on the lake

Frozen lake surface: skating in the Markelfinger Winkel

Lake Constance
Constance
is also considered to be a risky and challenging lake for water sports because of the danger of gusty winds which can whip up waves as the weather changes suddenly. The most dangerous wind is the föhn, a warm down-slope wind from the Alps, which spreads out across the water, especially through the Alpine Rhine
Rhine
Valley and can generate waves several metres high. Similarly dangerous for those unfamiliar with the area, are the sudden stormy gusts of wind during summer thunderstorms. They constantly claim victims from the water sports fraternity. During a thunderstorm in July 2006, waves reached heights of up to 3.50 metres. For these reasons, there is a storm warning system in all three neighbouring countries. For storm warning purposes, Lake Constance
Constance
is divided into three warning regions (west, centre and east). Warnings can be issued for each region independently. A "high winds" warning will be issued when squalls are expected of between 25 and 33 knots or registering force 6 to 8 on the Beaufort scale. A gale warning announces the likelihood of gale-force winds, i.e. those at speeds as of 34 knots or more or force 8 on the Beaufort scale. In order to issue these warnings, orange-coloured flashing lights are installed around the lake, which flash at a frequency of 40 times per minute for high winds or 90 times per minute for gales. It can happen that, due to the differently regulated responsibilities and assessments, a gale warning is issued on the Swiss side of the Obersee, but not on the German or Austrian shores, and vice-versa. Ships and ferries on Lake Constance
Constance
indicate a gale warning by hoisting a Sturmballon ("storm ball") up the mast. A one-hundred year event is the freezing over of Lake Constance, when the Untersee, Lake Überlingen
Lake Überlingen
and the Obersee are completely frozen over so that people can safely cross the lake on foot. The three last so-called Seegfrörne events were in 1963, 1880 and 1830. Certain parts of the lake freeze over more frequently, mainly due to their shallow depth of water and shelter, as is the case, for example, of the so-called Markelfinger Winkel
Markelfinger Winkel
between the municipality of Markelfingen
Markelfingen
and the Mettnau
Mettnau
peninsula. International borders[edit]

Lake Constance, seen from a vineyard

There is no legally binding agreement as to where the borders lie between Switzerland, Germany
Germany
and Austria.[26] However, Switzerland holds the view that the border runs through the middle of the lake, Austria
Austria
is of the opinion that the contentious area belongs to all the states on its banks, which is known as a "condominium", and Germany holds an ambiguous opinion.[27] Legal questions pertaining to ship transport and fishing are regulated in separate treaties. Naturally, disputes arise. One concerns a houseboat which was moored in two states (ECJ c. 224/97 Erich Ciola); another concerns the rights to fish in the Bay of Bregenz. In relation to the latter, an Austrian family was of the opinion that it alone had the right to fish in broad portions of the bay. However, this was accepted neither by the Austrian courts nor by the organs and courts of the other states.[28] Floods[edit]

A 100-year flood
100-year flood
around June 1999 (Pfingsthochwasser 1999) raised the level about 2 metres above normal, flooding harbors and many shoreline buildings and hotels. In late August 2005, heavy rain raised the level by more than 70 cm in a few days. The rains caused widespread flooding and washed out highways and railroads.

Flooding on the shore of Lake Constance, May 2013

Ecology[edit] Flora[edit] Until the 19th century, Lake Constance
Constance
was a natural lake. Since then, nature has been heavily influenced by clearing and the cultivation of much of the land around its shores. However, some near-natural areas have been largely conserved, especially in the nature reserves, or were re-naturalised. As a result, the Lake Constance
Constance
region has some unusual ecological features. These include the large forested area on the Bodanrück, the occurrence of marsh gentian and orchids of the genera Dactylorhiza
Dactylorhiza
and Orchis
Orchis
in the Wollmatinger Ried, and the Siberian iris
Siberian iris
(Iris sibirica) in the Eriskircher Ried, which was therefore given its own name.[29] One unique species among the local flora is the Lake Constance
Constance
forget-me-not (Myosotis rehsteineri), whose habitat is restricted to undisturbed beaches of lime trees. Fauna[edit] Birds[edit]

The Mettnau
Mettnau
Peninsula

Lake Constance
Constance
is also the home of numerous species of birds, many of which next in its nature reserves, such as the Wollmatinger Ried
Wollmatinger Ried
or the Mettnau
Mettnau
peninsula. 412 species have so far been recorded.[30] Songbirds[edit] The ten most common breeding bird species at Lake Constance
Constance
according to a 2000-2003 survey in descending order are the: blackbird, chaffinch, starling, robin, chiffchaff, greenfinch, and blue tit.[31] Waterfowl[edit]

Coot
Coot
in Hard am Bodensee

In spring, the Lake Constance
Constance
is an important breeding ground, especially for the coot and great crested grebe.[32] Typical waterfowl include the: shoveler , goldeneye, goosander, pochard, grey heron, pintail, tufted duck and mallard.[33] In December 2014, 1,389 cormorant were counted. The International Lake Constance
Constance
Fishery Association (IBF) estimates the food requirements of the cormorants on Lake Constance
Constance
at 150 tonnes of fish annually.[34] Overwintering[edit] Lake Constance
Constance
is an important overwintering area for around 250,000 birds.[35] annually. Bird species such as the dunlin, the curlew and the lapwing overwinter at Lake Constance.[36] In the middle of December 2014 there were 56,798 heron, 51,713 coot and 43,938 pochard.[34] In November/December are about 10,000 to 15,000 red-crested pochard and 10,000 great crested grebe on Lake Constance.[37] Migration[edit] During migration in late autumn there are also numerous loon on the lake (black-throated and red-throated loon, as well as a few great northern divers). Lake Constance
Constance
is also very important as a staging post during the bird migration. Bird migration
Bird migration
is often inconspicuous and most noticeable when there are special weather conditions that make day migration obvious. Only where there is a prolonged spell of widespread low-pressure is it common to observe the congestion of large groups of migratory birds. This can often be observed in autumn on the Eriskircher Ried on the northern shore of Lake Constance. This is where broad front migration converges on the lake and birds then try to move along the shore towards the northwest. The importance of Lake Constance
Constance
as an important area for resting and overwintering is underlined by the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology's Radolfzell Bird Observatory (Vogelwarte Radolfzell), which is the bird ringing centre for the German states of Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, Berlin, Rhineland-Palatinate and the Saarland as well as for Austria, and which researches bird migration.[38] Fish[edit] Around 45 species of fish live in Lake Constance. The annual haul from fishing is 1.5 million kg. Unusual species occurring here considering the location of the lake are the whitefish ( Coregonus
Coregonus
spec.) and the Arctic char
Arctic char
(Salvelinus alpinus). Fish that are important for the fishing industry are:

Bodenseefelchen
Bodenseefelchen
(German: also Blaufelchen, Lat.: Coregonus
Coregonus
wartmanni) Sandfelchen
Sandfelchen
(German: also Weißfelchen, Lat.: Coregonus
Coregonus
arenicolus) Gangfisch
Gangfisch
(Lat.: Coregonus
Coregonus
macrophthalmus) Lake Constance
Constance
whitefish (German: Kilch, Lat.: Coregonus
Coregonus
gutturosus) Grayling (German: Äsche, Lat.: Thymallus thymallus) Perch (German: Flussbarsch, Kretzer, Barschling, Swiss German: Egli, Lat.: Perca fluviatilis) Bream (German: Brachse, Brasse, Lat.: Abramis brama) Northern pike
Northern pike
(German: Hecht]] (Lat.: Esox lucius) Zander
Zander
(Lat.: Sander lucioperca) Burbot
Burbot
(German: Quappe, Trüsche, Lat.: Lota lota)[39] Eel (German: Aal, Lat.: Anguilla Anguilla) Bullhead (German: Groppe, Lat.: Cottus gobio) Tench
Tench
(German: Schleie, Lat.: Tinca tinca) Wels catfish
Wels catfish
(German: Wels, Lat.: Silurus glanis) Lake trout (German: Seeforelle, Lat.: Salmo trutta lacustris).

The Bodenseefelchen
Bodenseefelchen
( Coregonus
Coregonus
wartmanni), which was named after Lake Constance
Constance
due to the great numbers found there, is often prepared whole or as a fillet, in the style of the miller's wife (nach Müllerin Art), in local fish restaurants in a similar way to other trout[40] It is also often served smoked. The endemic species, formerly found in Lake Constance, the Bodensee-Kilch
Bodensee-Kilch
( Coregonus
Coregonus
gutturosus) and deepwater char (Salvelinus profundus) are now assumed to be extinct.[41] Introduced species[edit] For many years non-native species have settled in the Lake Constance ecosystem and, in some cases, endangered or threatened native flora and fauna. At Lake Constance, non-native species have been increasing annually. Several have been transported from other waterbodies as 'blind passengers' on the outside of boats, life jackets, anchor chains or ropes or diving gear.[42] Others have immigrated from the Black Sea
Black Sea
or the Danube
Danube
since the opening of the Main- Danube
Danube
Canal. Others have been deliberately introduced.[43] Well-known non-native species[edit] Even the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is not a native fish. It was introduced into Lake Constance
Constance
around 1880 for economic reasons to enhance the local fauna.[44] Among the foreign species of animal in Lake Constance
Constance
are the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) which, since the 18th century, has spread from the Black Sea
Black Sea
region across most of Europe and was carried into Lake Constance
Constance
between 1960 and 1965. After a huge increase in numbers during the 1980s in the Rhine
Rhine
and large lakes, this species is now in retreat today. The zebra mussel causes problems because, among other things, it blocks water extraction pipes. In addition, the species can be a disaster for domestic shellfish, because it competes for their food.[45] Today, according to the Institute for Lake Research (Institut für Seenforschung, ISF), the zebra mussel is also an important food for overwintering waterfowl. In fact, the number of overwinterers has more than doubled in around 30 years.[44] The killer shrimp (Dikerogammarus villosus) has spread since 2002 from two sections of shoreline near Hagnau and Immenstaad, over the whole Lake Überlingen
Lake Überlingen
(2004), the whole of the Obersee (2006) and almost the whole Lake Constance
Constance
and Rheinsee
Rheinsee
shore (2007) aus.[46] As its name implies, it is a voracious burglar of fish larvae and fish eggs.[44] The most recent example is the little opossum shrimp (Limnomysis benedeni), only six to eleven millimeters long, which was found in 2006 in the Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
region of Hard, and can now be found almost all over Lake Constance.[44] It comes from the waters around the Black Sea. It was presumably first transported by ships up the Danube
Danube
before it spread into the Rhine
Rhine
river system and entered Lake Constance. The opossum shrimp, which occurs in many places in shoals of several million in winter, are already an influential link in the food chain in Lake Constance. They consume dead animal and plant material as well as phytoplankton, but are also eaten by fish themselves.[45] Today, in western Lake Constance
Constance
are found: the North American spinycheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus), which was introduced into European waters in the mid-19th century to increase the yield,[44] occasionally the Chinese mitten crab
Chinese mitten crab
(Eriocheir sinensis), and in the lake's tributaries, the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusulus). As these species of large crayfish are immune to crayfish plague, but spread the pathogen, they are a great danger to native species such as noble crayfish, white-clawed crayfish or stone crayfish. The animals are often undemanding, multiply rapidly and lead predatory lives, thus also posing a threat to various small species of fish.[45] The ISF has been systematically researching the subject since 2003.[47] Wrecks on the lake bed[edit] After a collision with the Stadt Zürich in 1864 the wreck of the Jura has lain on the lake bed at a depth of 45 metres off the Swiss shore. In the early 20th century four ships were sunk in the Obersee after being taken out of service: in 1931 the Baden, formerly the Kaiser Wilhelm, in 1932 the Helvetia, in 1933 the Säntis and in 1934 the Stadt Radolfzell. The hull of the burnt-out Friedrichshafen
Friedrichshafen
was scuttled in 1944 off the mouth of the Argen
Argen
in 100 to 150 metres of water.[48][49] Tourism, leisure and sports[edit] The tourism and leisure industry is an important factor for this region. Overnight stays reached 17,56m visitors in 2012 with an turnover of about 1.9bn Euros. The same amount comes from the 70 million daily visitors that visit Lake Constance
Constance
each year.[50]

Lake Constance
Constance
seen from Spot satellite.

This region is known for sightseeing, water-sports, winter-sports like Skiing, summer-sports like Swimming
Swimming
(sport), Sailing
Sailing
and recreation. It is also one of the few places where modern Zeppelin
Zeppelin
airships operate and 12-14 people can take a trip above the lake around various points of interests.[51] In cooperation with tourism service providers, tourism organizations and public institutions in Germany, Austria, Switzerland
Switzerland
and Liechtenstein, the International Bodensee Tourismus GmbH (IBT GmbH)[52] is responsible for the tourism marketing of the Lake Constance
Constance
region. Sights and cultural heritage[edit] The lake and the region around it have a substantial touristic infrastructure as well as many attractions and points of interests. Important are especially cities like Konstanz, Überlingen, Meersburg, Friedrichshafen, Lindau
Lindau
and Bregenz
Bregenz
as they are the big hubs for boating tourism. The main tourism attractions are places like Rhine Falls, one of the three biggest waterfalls in Europe, the Mainau Island
Island
and Reichenau Island
Reichenau Island
( UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage), the pilgrimage church Birnau, castles and palaces like Salem Abbey, Meersburg
Meersburg
Castle as well as another UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage site, the Pfahlbaumuseum Unteruhldingen
Unteruhldingen
(German for ' Stilt house
Stilt house
museum). In the east of the lake, the Alps
Alps
are reaching almost to it thus allowing a great view over the lake. The Pfänderbahn
Pfänderbahn
goes from top of the mountain right down, next to the lake in Bregenz. Cultural Events[edit] Furthermore, Lake Constance
Constance
is the location for the annual Bregenzer Festspiele, a well known arts festival that also takes place on a floating stage in Bregenz. Opera and music performances generally tend to come from popular pieces and among contributors are top music bands like the Vienna Symphony Orchestra. Biking[edit] Biking around the lake is also possible on the 261 km long trail called "Bodensee-Radweg". It brings its visitors to the most interesting sites and goes around the whole lake. Nevertheless, various shortcuts via ferries allow shorter routes and the trail is suitable for all levels.[53] Note: There is also a trail that goes by the name "Bodensee-Rundweg".[54] This road was intended for pedestrians so biking is sometimes not suitable or allowed. Hiking
Hiking
and pilgrim trails[edit]

Sign of the "Lake Constanze circular route"

The 260 kilometers long Lake Constance
Constance
circular route, signposted as "Bodensee Rundwanderweg", leads around Lake Constance
Constance
through the territories of Germany, Austria
Austria
and Switzerland. It is mainly intended for hiking, cyclists follow the sometimes slightly different managed Lake Constance
Constance
cycle path[55]. The trail is very good walkable in smaller stages of different lengths and offers nice views of the lake, landscape and wildlife. Nevertheless, not the whole coast zones are accessible due to industrial settlements, buildings and nature reserves. Also in the estuary of the rivers, such the Leiblach, Bregenzer Ach, canalized Rhine
Rhine
and Old Rhine
Rhine
(Fußacher breakthrough) considerable distances have to be covered inland to the next bridge or river crossing point. Due to busy riverside roads, the Bodensee-Rundweg sometimes runs as a trail above the lake with some lookout possibilities. Lake Constance
Constance
is also a hub for long-distance hikers and pilgrims. It has been a crucial reference point of important pilgrimage routes since ancient times[56]:

Via Beuronensis, a Way of St. James from the Neckar
Neckar
region over the Swabian Alb[57] the Upper Swabian pilgrimage-route of St. James, which leads from Upper Swabia
Swabia
to the lake and branches north of the lake both in the direction of Nonnenhorn
Nonnenhorn
and in the direction of Meersburg the bavarian-swabian route of St. James, which leads down from the West Allgäu
Allgäu
to the lake the Schwabenweg, which ensures the connection to Switzerland
Switzerland
to the lake near Konstanz[58]

Swimming[edit] Swimming
Swimming
in the lake is usually possible from mid-June to mid-September. Depending on the weather, the water temperatures reach 19 ° C to 25 ° C. Within one day, differences of up to 3 ° C are possible with appropriate sunlight, so that the lake invites to swim, especially on warm summer evenings[59]. Diving[edit]

Diving spot "devils table" at Lake Constanze

Diving in Lake Constance
Constance
is considered attractive and challenging. Most of the diving areas are located in the northern part of the lake (Überlingen, Ludwigshafen, Marienschlucht and others), a few also in the south[60]. The areas should be dived exclusively by experienced divers under the guidance of one of the local diving schools or a seasoned diver. Diving at some spots like the impressive devils table ("Teufelstisch") called rock needle in the lake in front of the Marienschlucht, is only allowed after approval by the district office Konstanz. The most famous freshwater wreck in Europe is certainly the paddle steamer Jura, which lies in front of Bottighofen
Bottighofen
at a depth of 39 meters. The Canton of Thurgau, the office for archeology in Frauenfeld, has placed the Jura under protection as an underwater industrial monument.[61] For all divers, it should be noted that the water in Lake Constance
Constance
- even in summer - is already below 10 ° C from a depth of ten meters, which requires suitable cold-water regulators that do not freeze at such temperatures. Boating, recreational boating[edit]

"Rund-um" (All-Around) Regatta
Regatta
next to Lindau

The importance of pleasure boating is enormous. At the beginning of 2011, 57.875 amusement vehicles were registered for Lake Constance.[62] The legal basis for all shipping on the lake is the ordinance on shipping on Lake Constance, or "Bodensee-Schifffahrtsordnung". It is monitored on Lake Constance
Constance
and on the Upper Rhine
Rhine
by the German, Swiss and Austrian Water Police/ "Seepolizei". All boats must be registered and boat drivers must hold a "Bodenseeschifferpatent" (Authorization to drive a patented vehicle on Lake Constance). It is awarded in Germany
Germany
by the shipping offices of the district of Constance, the Lake Constance
Constance
district and the district of Lindau, in Switzerland
Switzerland
by the cantonal authorities and in Austria
Austria
by the District Commission Bregenz. For pleasure boaters short-term guest licenses are possible (for the categories A for motorboats over 4.4 kW and D for sailboats over 12 m² sail area). Boating events

Since 1979, every year to the assumption of Mary, Europe's largest ship procession is held on Lake Constance[63]. Every year (early summer) the spectacular all-around (!Rund-um") Regatta
Regatta
from Lindau
Lindau
to Lindau
Lindau
via Meersburg, Überlingen, Romanshorn is organized.[64] Since 2009, the annual water sports and sailing festival "International Lake Constanze week", a joint sports event takes place in Konstanz. In Friedrichshafen, one of the most important water sports fairs in Europe, the Interboot, takes place annually.[65]

Settlements on the lake[edit]

The steamboat, Hohentwiel.

View from the Pfänder
Pfänder
hill of Bregenz
Bregenz
and the lake (with Lindau
Lindau
in the background).

Reichenau seen from the German shore.

Lake Constance
Constance
from Lindau

Twilight near Arbon.

The Lower Lake (Untersee).

Austria[edit]

Hard Hörbranz Bregenz Lochau Höchst Fussach Gaissau

Germany[edit] From the entry of the Rhine, on the northern or right shore:

On the Upper Lake (Obersee) and Überlinger See

Lindau
Lindau
(in Bavaria) Wasserburg Nonnenhorn Kressbronn (in Baden-Württemberg) Langenargen Eriskirch Friedrichshafen Immenstaad Hagnau Stetten Meersburg Uhldingen-Mühlhofen
Uhldingen-Mühlhofen
(on Überlinger See) Überlingen Sipplingen Bodman-Ludwigshafen

Konstanz
Konstanz
with suburbs

Wallhausen Dingelsdorf Litzelstetten

On the lower lake (Untersee)

Reichenau (including the island with same name) Allensbach
Allensbach
(on the Gnadensee) Radolfzell
Radolfzell
(on the Zellersee) Moos Gaienhofen Öhningen

Switzerland[edit] From the entry of the Rhine, on the southern or left shore:

On the Upper Lake (Obersee)

Altenrhein, St. Gallen Rorschach, St. Gallen Horn, Thurgau Steinach, St. Gallen Arbon, Thurgau
Thurgau
(as all the following) Frasnacht Egnach Romanshorn Uttwil Kesswil Güttingen Altnau Landschlacht Münsterlingen Bottighofen Kreuzlingen
Kreuzlingen
(and Konstanz, Germany)

On the Rhine

Gottlieben

On the Lower Lake (Untersee)

Ermatingen Mannenbach Berlingen Steckborn Mammern Eschenz Stein am Rhein, Schaffhausen

Fishing[edit] The lake was frozen in the years 1077 (?), 1326 (partial), 1378 (partial), 1435, 1465 (partial), 1477 (partial), 1491 (partial?), 1517 (partial), 1571 (partial), 1573, 1600 (partial), 1684, 1695, 1709 (partial), 1795, 1830, 1880 (partial), and 1963. Approximately 1,000 tonnes (1,100 short tons) of fish were caught by 150 professional fishermen in 2001 which was below the previous ten year average of 1,200 tonnes (1,300 short tons) per year. The Lake Constance
Constance
trout (Salmo trutta) was almost extinct in the 1980s due to pollution, but thanks to protective measures they have made a significant return. Lake Constance
Constance
is the home of the critically endangered species of trout Salvelinus profundus,[66] and formerly also the now extinct Lake Constance
Constance
whitefish (Coregonus gutturosus).[67] See also[edit]

Überlingen
Überlingen
mid-air collision Württembergischer Yacht Club Lake Constance
Constance
is also the title of a track from Mike Oldfield's The Millennium Bell album

Notes and references[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Bodensee-Daten" (in German). igkb Internationale Gewässerschutzkommission für den Bodensee. June 2004. Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ a b c d "Schweiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra" (Map). Bodensee (2014 ed.). 1:500 000. National Map 1:500'000. Wabern, Switzerland: Federal Office of Topography – swisstopo. ISBN 978-3-302-00070-1. Retrieved 2018-02-28 – via map.geo.admin.ch.  ^ a b c d e f g "WMS LGL-BW ATKIS Digitale Topographische Karte 1:50 000 Farbkombination" (Map). Bodensee. 1:50 000. Stuttgart, Germany: Landesamt für Geoinformation und Landentwicklung Baden-Württemberg. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2018-03-01 – via www.geoportal-bw.de Geoportal Baden-Württemberg.  ^ a b c "28 - Bodensee" (Map). Bodensee (2010 ed.). 1:100 000. National Map 1:100'000. Wabern, Switzerland: Federal Office of Topography – swisstopo. 2008. ISBN 978-3-302-00028-2. Retrieved 2018-02-28 – via map.geo.admin.ch.  ^ a b c "28bis - Lindau" (Map). Lindau
Lindau
(2010 ed.). 1:100 000. National Map 1:100'000. Wabern, Switzerland: Federal Office of Topography – swisstopo. 2008. ISBN 978-3-302-10028-9. Retrieved 2018-02-28 – via map.geo.admin.ch.  ^ "1193 - Tödi" (Map). Piz Russein
Piz Russein
(2016 ed.). 1:25 000. National Map 1:25'000. Wabern, Switzerland: Federal Office of Topography – swisstopo. 2013. ISBN 978-3-302-01193-6. Retrieved 2018-02-28 – via map.geo.admin.ch.  ^ "Fünf Ortszeiten am Bodensee" in the German, version used 2018-01-08. ^ a b Wolf-Armin Freiherr von Reitzenstein, ed. (2013). Lexikon schwäbischer Ortsnamen. Herkunft und Bedeutung (in German). Munich, Germany: Verlag C. H. Beck. p. 68. ISBN 978-3-406-65209-7.  ^ a b Arno Borst (1982). "Bodensee – Geschichte eines Wortes". Schriften des Vereins für Geschichte des Bodenseeraums (in German). Friedrichshafen: Selbstverlag des Bodenseegeschichtsvereins. 99, 100 (Heft 1981/1982).  ^ Rolf Zimmermann (2004). Am Bodensee (in German). Konstanz, Germany: Stadler Verlagsgesellschaft. p. 5. ISBN 3-7977-0504-2.  ^ Wilhelm Martens (1911). Geschichte der Stadt Konstanz
Konstanz
(in German). Konstanz, Germany: Gess. pp. 6–7.  ^ Karl Heinz Burmeister (2005). "Der Bodensee im 16. Jahrhundert" (pdf). Montfort, Vierteljahreszeitschrift für Geschichte und Gegenwart Vorarlbergs (in German). Dornbirn, Austria: Vorarlberger Verlagsanstalt. 57 (Heft 3): 228–262. Retrieved 2018-03-01 – via vorarlberg.gv.at.  ^ Klaus Zintz (7 August 2015). "Der Bodensee lädt nicht nur zum Baden ein" (pdf). Stuttgarter Zeitung
Stuttgarter Zeitung
(in German). Stuttgart, Germany. Retrieved 2018-03-01 – via www.seezeichen-bodensee.de.  ^ Helmut Schlichtherle (1989). "Pfahlbauten: die frühe Besiedelung des Alpenvorlandes". Spektrum der Wissenschaft (in German). Vol. 1989 no. Siedlungen der Steinzeit. Heidelberg, Germany: Spektrum-Verlag. pp. 140 ff. ISBN 3-922508-48-0.  ^ Rolf Zimmermann (2004), Am Bodensee (in German), Constance, p. endpaper and 112  ^ Der Bodensee (Latin: Lacvs Acronianvs siue Bodamicvs) (copper print 38 x 51 cm), Berne, Switzerland: University of Berne, 1970 [1675] – via Europeana  ^ Bodensee-Daten. In: Internationale Gewässerschutzkommission für den Bodensee (publ.): Seespiegel. December 2011, p. 6. ^ Uta Mürle, Johannes Ortlepp, Peter Rey, Internationale Gewässerschutzkommission für den Bodensee (publ.): Der Bodensee: Zustand – Fakten – Perspektiven. 2nd revised edition. Bregenz, 2004, ISBN 3-902290-04-8, p. 10. ^ www.hydra-institute.com Archived 2012-05-14 at the Wayback Machine. (pdf; 1.2 MB) ^ Der Bodensee: drei Teile, ein See. In: Seespiegel. Edition 20. ^ quaternary-science.publiss.net/articles/452/download Albert Schreiner: Zur Entstehung des Bodenseebeckens (Quaternary Science Journal, pdf) ^ [1] Geology of Lake Constance] at http://www.landeskunde-online.de. Retrieved 31 Aug 2017.] ^ Landesanstalt für Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz in Baden-Württemberg: Informationen zum Jahrhunderthochwasser 1999. (pdf; 24 kB) ^ Internationale Gewässerschutzkommission für den Bodensee (publ.): Der Bodensee. Zustand – Fakten – Perspektiven. IGKB, Bregenz, 2004, ISBN 3-902290-04-8, Kapitel 1.2 Archived 2012-05-14 at the Wayback Machine. (pdf; 1.2 MB) ^ Cite error: The named reference Water Protection Commission was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Kahn, Daniel-Erasmus (2004). Die deutschen Staatsgrenzen: rechtshistorische Grundlagen und offene Rechtsfragen ("The German national borders: legal-historical foundations and open legal questions"). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9783161484032.  ^ Jennings, Ken (June 16, 2014) "The Borderless Black Hole in the Middle of Europe" Conde Nast Traveler ^ Mark, David and Smith, Barry, et al., "Bizarre Shapes: 100 Geographic Monsters" ^ Planet Wissen – Bodensee ^ Ornithologische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bodensee: Beobachtungsgebiete Archived 2016-09-19 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Aufgelistet. Die 10 häufigsten Brutvögelarten… In: Südkurier. 22 October 2010. ^ Fluctuating water levels ^ Information board on the Überlingen
Überlingen
promenade. ^ a b Franz Domgörgen: Stabile Verhältnisse im Vogelparadies. Stabile Verhältnisse im Vogelparadies. In: Südkurier. 3 January 2015. ^ ">Bundesamt für Veterinärwesen: Forschungsprojekt „Constanze“ am Bodensee gestartet ^ Brachvogelprojekt ^ Franz Domgörgen: Wasservögel bleiben Bodensee treu. In: Südkurier. 8 August 2014, p. 23. ^ Beringungszentrale Vogelwarte Radolfzell
Radolfzell
at the Wayback Machine (archived March 5, 2007) ^ Source: Who is Who Bodensee 2010/2011 Südkurier GmbH Medienhaus ^ Themenpark Umwelt des Umweltministeriums Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
– BodenseeWeb: Fische ^ Information board at the harbour in Ludwigshafen
Ludwigshafen
about especially prized Lake Constance
Constance
fish. ^ Friedrich W. Strub: Tierische Neuankömmlinge im Bodensee. In: Südkurier dated 20 April 2016. ^ Anna-Maria Schneider: Die heimliche Invasion unter Wasser. In: Südkurier date 8 September 2015. ^ a b c d e Angela Schneider: Gepanzerte Truppe erobert den Bodensee. In: Südkurier. dated 9 October 2010. ^ a b c Angela Schneider: Drei von vielen, die sich bereits im Bodensee etabliert haben. In: Südkurier. dated 9 October 2010. ^ Invasion des Höckerflohkrebses. In: Südkurier. dated 9 October 2010. ^ Cite error: The named reference Einwanderte Arten was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Katy Cuko: Zwei Schiffswracks im Bodensee gefunden. Verschrottet in 200 Meter Tiefe. 20 November 2013. ^ Janina Raschdorf, Katy Cuko: Mindestens 5 Dampfer ruhen im See. In: Südkurier. 5 December 2013. ^ "DWIF - dwif Wirtschaftsfaktor Tourismus Bodenseeregion". Retrieved 2017-01-02.  ^ "Zeppelinflug : Bodensee Tourismus". www.bodensee.eu. Retrieved 2017-01-02.  ^ "Internationale Bodensee Tourismus GmbH : Bodensee Tourism - About us". www.bodensee.eu (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "Bodensee-Radweg". Bodensee-Radweg (in German). Retrieved 2017-01-02.  ^ "Wandern rund um den Bodensee". www.fernwege.de. Retrieved 2016-12-30.  ^ Sven. "Bodensee-Rundwanderweg" (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "Der Jakobsweg ( Pilgrimage
Pilgrimage
trail of St. James) Ueberlingen near Lake Constance". Ueberlingen am Bodensee (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "Home - Startpunkt". www.via-beuronensis.de (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "Constance-Einsiedeln (Swabian way)". Route of St.James. Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "Weather-station in Kressbronn (in German)". www.wetter-kressbronn.de. Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "Diving Spots at Lake Constanze (in German)". www.tauchakademiebodensee.de (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "Wrack der Jura - Tauchen vom Boot im Bodensee". Tauchen vom Boot im Bodensee (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "Land Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
- Bodensee-Schiffsstatistik 2011". www.vorarlberg.at (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "Schiffsprozession: Gebetsstätte Wigratzbad". www.gebetsstaette.de (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ " Sailing
Sailing
Days "Rund Um" in Lindau
Lindau
at Lake Constance". Lindau Tourismus. Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "INTERBOOT". www.interboot.com. Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ ‘Extinct’ fish found in Lake Constance ^ Red List - Volume 1: Vertebrates (2009) - General assessment for the vertebrate groups

Further readings[edit]

Zimmermann, Rolf (2004), A Look at Lake Constance, Konstanz, Germany: Stadler Verlagsgesellschaft, ISBN 3-7977-0507-7  (Pictures and texts of the cities around Lake Constance).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lake Constance.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lake Constance.

 "Constance, Lake of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). 1911.  Karl Heinz Burmeister: Lake Constance
Constance
in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 2007-06-11. Nixdorf, B.; et al. (2004), "Bodensee", Dokumentation von Zustand und Entwicklung der wichtigsten Seen Deutschlands (in German), Berlin: Umweltbundesamt, p. 4  Bodensee-Hochwasser (in German) waterlevels Internationale Bodenseekonferenz Regio Bodensee Statistics Lake Constance: pictures Photos of Lake Constance Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law Peace Palace Library GrenzRaumSee: A project from the Ludwig-Uhland-Institut für Empirische Kulturwissenschaft (Ludwig-Uhland-Department of European Ethnology / Empirical Cultural Science) of the University of Tübingen Lake Constance/Bodensee Lessons learned managing the lake Lake Constance
Constance
Accommodation Tourist Information Lake Constance

v t e

Lakes of Switzerland

Major lakes

Lake Biel
Lake Biel
(Lac de Bienne, Bielersee) Lake Brienz
Lake Brienz
(Brienzersee) Lake Constance
Constance
(Bodensee) Lower Lake Constance
Constance
(Untersee) Lake Geneva
Lake Geneva
(Lac Léman, Lac de Genève) Lake Hallwil
Lake Hallwil
(Hallwilersee) Lake Lucerne
Lake Lucerne
(Vierwaldstättersee) Lake Lugano
Lake Lugano
(Lago di Lugano, Ceresio) Lake Maggiore
Lake Maggiore
(Lago Maggiore) Lake Murten
Lake Murten
(Lac de Morat, Murtensee) Lake Neuchâtel
Lake Neuchâtel
(Lac de Neuchâtel, Neuenburgersee) Lake Sempach
Lake Sempach
(Sempachersee) Lake Thun
Lake Thun
(Thunersee) Lake Walen (Walensee, Lake Walenstadt) Lake Zug
Lake Zug
(Zugersee) Lake Zurich
Lake Zurich
(Zürichsee) Sihlsee

Lists

List of lakes of Switzerland List of mountain lakes of Switzerland List of dams and reservoirs in Switzerland

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 128765153 LCCN: sh85031304 GND: 4007403-1 BNF: cb15298611

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