Germany, Switzerland, Austria
63 km (39 mi)
14 km (8.7 mi)
536 km2 (207 sq mi)
90 m (300 ft)
251 m (823 ft)
48 km3 (12 cu mi)
273 km (170 mi)
395 m (1,296 ft)
1795, 1830, 1880 (partial), 1963
Lake Überlingen (Überlinger See)
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.
Constance (German: Bodensee) is a lake on the
Rhine at the
northern foot of the Alps, and consists of three bodies of water: the
Obersee or Upper Lake Constance, the Untersee or Lower Lake Constance,
and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the Seerhein. These
waterbodies lie within the Lake
Constance Basin (Bodenseebecken),
which is part of the
Alpine Foreland and through which the Rhine
The lake is situated in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. Its
shorelines lie in the German states of
Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg,
the Austrian state of Vorarlberg, and the Swiss cantons of Thurgau,
St. Gallen, and Schaffhausen. The
Rhine flows into the lake from the
south, with its original course forming the Austro-Swiss border, and
has its outflow on the "Lower Lake" where — except for Schaffhausen
— it forms the German-Swiss border until the city of Basel.
2.2 Key facts
2.3 Historical maps
3.2 Emergence and future
3.4 Outflows, evaporation, water extraction
3.9 International borders
4.2.3 Introduced species
22.214.171.124 Well-known non-native species
4.3 Wrecks on the lake bed
5 Tourism, leisure and sports
5.1 Sights and cultural heritage
5.2 Cultural Events
Hiking and pilgrim trails
5.7 Boating, recreational boating
6 Settlements on the lake
8 See also
9 Notes and references
10 Further readings
11 External links
Constance is central Europe's third largest, after
Lake Balaton (but only with respect to surface area!) and Lake Geneva.
It is 63 km (39 mi) long, and at its widest point, nearly
14 km (8.7 mi) wide. It covers approximately 536 km2
(207 sq mi), and is 395 m (1,296 ft) above sea
level. The greatest depth is 252 metres (827 ft), quite precisely
in the middle of the Upper Lake. Its volume is approximately
48 km3 (12 cu mi).
The lake has two parts: the main east section, called Obersee or
"Upper Lake", covers about 473 square kilometres
(183 sq mi), to which also its northwestern arm, the
Überlinger See (61 km2 (24 sq mi)), belongs, and the
much smaller west section, summarizingly called Untersee or "Lower
Lake", with an area of about 63 square kilometres
(24 sq mi).
The connecting part between these two lake parts is the so-called and
Seerhein (lit.: "Lake Rhine"). Geographically, it is
sometimes not considered to be part of the lake, but a river.
The Lower Lake
Constance is loosely divided into three sections around
Island of Reichenau: The two German parts, the
"Lake Mercy") north of the island and north of the peninsula of
Mettnau (the Markelfinger Winkel), and the Zeller See, south of
Radolfzell and to the northwest of the Reichenau island, and the
Rheinsee (lit.: "
Rhine Lake") – not to be mismatched
Seerhein at its start! – to the south of the island and
with its southwestern arm leading to its effluent in Stein am
The river water of the regulated Alpine
Rhine flows into the lake in
the southeast near Bregenz, Austria, then through the Upper Lake
Constance hardly targeting the Überlinger See, into the
the town of Konstanz, then through the
Rheinsee virtually without
feeding both German parts of the Lower Lake, and finally feeds the
start of the High
Rhine in Swiss town Stein am Rhein.
The lake itself is an important drinking water source for southwestern
The culminating point of the lake's drainage basin is the Swiss peak
Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus
Alps at 3,613 metres
(11,854 ft) above sea level. It starts with the creek Aua da
Russein (lit.: "Water of the Russein").
Car ferries link Romanshorn, Switzerland, to Friedrichshafen, and
Konstanz to Meersburg, all in Germany.
Constance was formed by the
Rhine Glacier during the ice age and
is a zungenbecken lake. After the end of the last glacial period,
about 10,000 years ago, the Obersee and Untersee still formed a single
lake. The downward erosion of the High
Rhine caused the lake level to
gradually sink and a sill, the Konstanzer Schwelle, to emerge.
The Rhine, the Bregenzer Ach, and the
Dornbirner Ach carry sediments
Alps to the lake, thus gradually decreasing the depth and
coastline extension of the lake in the southeast.
In antiquity the two lakes still had different names; later, for
reasons which are unknown, they came to have the same name.
In the 19th century, there have been five different local time zones
around Lake Constance. Constance, belonging to the Grand Duchy of
Baden, adhered to the
Friedrichshafen used the time of
the Duchy of Württemberg, in Lindau, the Bavarian Munich time was
Bregenz used the Prague time, while the Swiss shore used
the Berne time. One would have needed to travel only 46 kilometers to
visit five time zones. Given the amount of trade and traffic over Lake
Constance, this led to serious confusion. Public clocks in harbors
used three different clock faces, depending on the destinations
offered by the boat companies. In 1892, all German territories used
CET, the Austrian railways introduced CET already in 1891, and
Switzerland followed in 1894. Because traffic timetables had not been
yet updated, CET became the sole valid time around and on Lake
Constance in 1895.
The Roman geographer, Pomponius Mela, was the first to mention the
lake around 43 AD, calling it the Lacus Venetus and the Untersee (the
lower portion) Lacus Acronius, the
Rhine passing through both. Around
75 AD, The naturalist
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder called the entire Lake
Constance, Lacus Raetiae Brigantinus after the main Roman town on the
lake, Brigantium (later Bregenz). This name is associated with the
Celtic Brigantii who lived here, although it is not clear whether the
place was named after the tribe or the inhabitants of the region were
named after their main settlement.
Ammianus Marcellinus later used the
form Lacus Brigantiae.
The current German name of Bodensee derives from the place name
Bodman, which probably originally derived from the Old High German
bodamon which meant "on the soils", indicating a place on level
terrain by the lake.:500 This place, situated at the west end of
Lake Überlingen (Überlinger See), had a more supraregional character
for a certain period in the early Middle Ages as a Frankish imperial
palace (Königspfalz), Alamannian ducal seat and mint, which is why
the name may have been transferred to the lake ("lake, by which Bodman
is situated" = Bodmansee). From 833/834 AD, in Latin sources, the name
appears in its Latinised form lacus potamicus. Therefore, the name
actually derived from the Bodman Pfalz (Latinized as Potamum) was
wrongly assumed by monastic scholars like
Walahfrid Strabo to be
derived from the Greek word potamos for "river" and meant "river
lake". They may also have been influenced by the fact that the Rhine
flowed through the lake.:501ff
Wolfram von Eschenbach
Wolfram von Eschenbach describes it in
Middle High German
Middle High German as the
Bodemensee or Bodemsee which has finally evolved into the present
German name, Bodensee. The name may be linked to that of the
Bodanrück, the hill range between
Lake Überlingen and the Untersee,
and the history of the House of Bodman.
The German name of the lake, Bodensee, has been adopted by many other
languages, for example: Dutch: Bodenmeer, Danish: Bodensøen,
Norwegian: Bodensjøen, Swedish: Bodensjön, Islandic: Bodenvatn,
Finnish: Bodenjärvi, Estonian: Bodeni järv, Lithuanian: Bodeno
ežeras, Latvian: Bodenezers, Russian: Боденское озеро,
Polish: Jezioro Bodeńskie, Czech: Bodamské jezero, Slovak: Bodamské
jazero, Hungarian: Bodeni-tó, Bulgarian: Боденско езеро,
Ukrainian: Боденське озеро, Croatian: Bodensko jezero,
Albanian: Liqeni i Bodenit. Even in many Asiatic languages, the lake
is called the Bodensee e.g. Azerbaijani: Boden gölü, Tatar:
Боден күле, Marathi: बोडन से Bōdana sē,
Mandarin: Chinese: 波登湖; pinyin: Bódēng-hú, Korean: 보덴 호
Boden-ho, Japanese: ボーデン湖 Bōden-ko.
Location of Lake
Constance within the Duchy of
Council of Constance
Council of Constance in the 15th century, the alternative
name Lacus Constantinus was used in the (Roman Catholic) Romance
language area. This name, which had been attested as early as 1187 in
the form Lacus Constantiensis, came from the town of
the outflow of the
Rhine from the Obersee, whose original name,
Constantia, was in turn derived from the Roman emperor, Constantius
Chlorus (around 300 AD). Hence the French: Lac de Constance, Italian:
Lago di Costanza, Portuguese: Lago de Constança, Spanish: Lago de
Constanza, Romanian: Lacul Constanța, Greek: Λίμνη της
Κωνσταντίας – Limni tis Konstantias. The Arabic,
بحيرة كونستانس buħaira Konstans and probably the
Konstanz gölü, probably go back to the French form of the
name. Even in Romance-influenced English the name "Lake Constance"
gained a foothold and was then exported into other languages such as
Hebrew: ימת קונסטנץ yamat
Konstanz and Swahili: Ziwa la
Konstanz. In many languages both forms exist in parallel e.g. Romansh:
Lai da Constanza and Lai Bodan, Esperanto: Konstanca Lago and
The poetic name, "Swabian Sea" was adopted by authors of the early
modern era and the Enlightenment from ancient authors, possibly
Tacitus. However, this assumption was based on an error (similar to
that of the
Teutoburg Forest and the Taunus): the Romans sometimes
used the name Mare Suebicum for the Baltic Sea, not Lake Constance. In
times when the Romans had located the so-called "Suebi", then an Elbe
Germanic tribe near a sea, this was understandable. The authors of the
Early Modern Period
Early Modern Period overlooked this and adopted the name for the
largest lake in the middle of the former Duchy of Swabia, which also
included parts of today's Switzerland. Today the name Swabian Sea
(Schwäbisches Meer) is only used jocularly as a hyperbolic term for
Paleolithic finds have been made in the immediate vicinity of the
lake, because the region of Lake
Constance was covered for a long time
Rhine Glacier. The discovery of stone tools (microliths)
indicate that hunters and gatherers of the
Mesolithic period (Middle
Stone Age, 8,000-5,500 BC) frequented the area without settling,
however. Only hunting camps have been confirmed. The earliest
Neolithic farmers, who belonged to the Linear Pottery culture, also
left no traces behind, because the Alpine foreland lay away from the
routes along which they had spread during the 6th century BC. This
changed only in the middle and late
Neolithic when shore settlements
were established, the so-called pile dwelling and wetland settlements,
which have now been uncovered mainly on Lake Überlingen, the
Constance Hopper and on the Obersee. At Unteruhldingen, such a pile
dwelling village has been reconstructed and is now accessible as a
Grave finds from
Singen am Hohentwiel
Singen am Hohentwiel date to the beginning of the
Bronze Age and shore settlements were repeatedly built during
Neolithic Period and the
Bronze Age (up to 800 BC). During the
Iron Age the settlement history is interrupted. The
settlement of the shore of Lake
Constance during the Hallstatt period
is attested by grave mounds, which today are usually found in forests
where they have been protected from the destruction by agriculture.
Since the late Hallstatt period, the peoples living on Lake Constance
are referred to as the Celts. During the
La Tène period
La Tène period from 450 AD,
the population density decreases, as can be deduced partly due from
the fact that no more grave mounds were built. For the first time, we
have written reports on Lake
Constance that have survived. Thus, we
learn that the
Helvetians settled by the lake in the south, the
Rhaetians in the area of the Alpine
Rhine Valley and the
the northeast. The most important places on the lake were Bregenz
(Celtic Brigantion) and today's Constance.
In the course of the Roman Alpine campaign of 16/15 BC, the Lake
Constance region was integrated into the Roman Empire. During the
campaign, there was also supposed to have been a battle on Lake
Constance. The geographer, Pomponius Mela, makes the first mention in
43 AD of Lake
Constance as two lakes - the Lacus Venetus (Upper Lake)
and the Lacus Acronius (Untersee) - with the
Rhine flowing through
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder referred to Lake
Constance as Lacus Brigantinus
for the first time. The most important Roman site was Bregenz, which
soon became subject to Roman municipal law and later became the seat
of the Prefect of the Lake
Constance fleet. The Romans were also in
Lindau, but settled only on the hills around
Lindau as the lakeshore
was swampy. Other Roman towns were Constantia (Constance) and Arbor
After the borders of the
Roman Empire were drawn back to the Rhine
boundary in the 3rd century BC, the Alemanni gradually settled on the
north shore of Lake
Constance and, later, on the south bank as well.
After the introduction of Christianity, the cultural significance of
the region grew as a result of the founding of
Reichenau Abbey and the
Bishopric of Constance. Under the rule of the Hohenstaufens, Imperial
Diets (Reichstage) were held by Lake Constance. In Constance, too, a
treaty was drawn up between the
Hohenstaufen emperor and the Lombard
Constance also played an important role as a trading post
for goods being traded between German and Italian states.
During the Thirty Years' War, there were various conflicts over the
control of the region during the
Lake War (1632-1648).
War of the Second Coalition
War of the Second Coalition (1798-1802), which also affected
the region and during which Austrian and French flotillas operated on
Lake Constance, there was a reorganisation of state relationships.
1540 map of the Lake
1540: the map Lacus Constantiensis by
Johannes Zwick and Thomas Blarer
shows topographic names, towns and the Rhine.
1555: the map of the route of the
Rhine (Rhinelaufkarte) by Caspar
Vopel includes a topographical map of Lake
Constance with its larger
towns, the tributaries and the course of the Rhine.
1633: the Swabian map by Johannes Janssonius, Amsterdam: Totius
Sveviae novissima tabula shows Lake
Constance with islands,
tributaries, towns and villages.
1675: The Lake
Constance map, Lacos Acronianus sive Bodamicus, by
Nikolaus David Hautt based on Andreas Arzet SJ shows Lake Constance
with the adjacent lands.
Complete lake from the Winterstaude
Constance is located in the foothills of the Alps. The shore
length of both main lakes is 273 kilometres long. Of this, 173
kilometres are located in
Baden-Württemberg 155 km,
Bavaria 18 km), 28 kilometres run through
72 kilometres through Switzerland. If the Upper and Lower
Lakes are combined, Lake
Constance has a total area of 536 km²,
the third largest lake in
Central Europe by area after Lake Balaton
(594 km²) and
Lake Geneva (580 km²). It is also the second
largest by water volume (48.5 km³) after Lake Geneva
(89 km³) and extends for over 69.2 kilometres between Bregenz
and Stein am Rhein. Its catchment area is around 11,500 square
kilometres, and reaching as far south as
Lago di Lei
Lago di Lei in Italy.
The area of the Obersee is 473 km². It extends from
Bodman-Ludwigshafen for over 63.3 kilometres and is 14 kilometres wide
Friedrichshafen and Romanshorn. At its deepest point between
Fischbach and Uttwil, it is 251.14 metres deep.
Constance with the
Lindau seen from
Pfänder in 2007
The three small bays on the
Vorarlberg shore have their own names: the
Bay of Bregenz, off Hard and
Fußach is the Bay of
Fussach and, west
of that is the Wetterwinkel. Farther west, now in Switzerland, is the
Bay of Rorschach. To the north, on the Bavarian side, is the Bay of
Reutin. The railway embankment from the mainland to the island of
Lindau and the motorway bridge over the lake border the so-called
Little Lake (Kleiner See), which is located between the
of Aeschach and the island.
The northwestern, finger-shaped arm of the Obersee is called Lake
Überlingen. It is usually regarded as a separate lake, the boundary
between the Obersee and
Lake Überlingen runs approximately along the
line between the southeast tip of
Bodanrück (the Hörnle, which
belongs to the town of Konstanz) and Meersburg. The
lies between the German and Swiss shores east of Konstanz.
The Obersee and Untersee are connected by the Seerhein.
The Untersee, which is separated from the Obersee and from its
north-west arm, Lake Überlingen, by the large peninsula of
Bodanrück, has an area of 63 km². It is strongly characterised
and divided into different areas by end moraines, various glacial
snouts and medial moraines. These various areas of the lake have their
own names. North of
Reichenau Island is the Gnadensee. West of the
island of Reichenau, between the peninsula of Höri and the peninsula
Mettnau is Lake Zell. North of the
Mettnau lies the Markelfinger
Winkel. The drumlins of the southern
Bodanrück continue along the bed
of these northern parts of the lake. South of the Reichenau, from
Gottlieben to Eschenz, stretches the
Rhine Lake") with
Rhine currents in places. Previously this lake part was named
Lake Bernang after the village of Berlingen. On most of the maps the
name of the
Rheinsee is not shown, because this place is best suited
for the name of the Untersee.
Emergence and future
The present-day shape of Lake
Constance has resulted from the
combination of several factors:
The tectonic Lake
Constance Basin between the
Alps and the Jura was
created in the
The current Alpine
Rhine was initially a tributary of the Danube.
Over time, the basin was captured by the High
Rhine as a result of
headward erosion (fluvial erosion).
The capture was not always only along the present
Rhine valley; Lake
Überlingen marks part of an older valley course.
The river valleys were deepened during several cold periods by the
Rhine Glacier from the valley of the Alpine
Rhine (glacial erosion).
Behind the present impressive traces of the Würm Ice Age, the effects
of older cold periods can no longer be explored in any detail. Lake
Constance now represents, above all, a zungenbecken or glacial lake of
the Würm Glaciation.
During a later phase of the ice age, only the Obersee was glaciated.
As the glacier retreated further, the glacial meltwaters flowed out of
Überlingen lake through the older more northerly valley
into the present High
Due to the advancing headward erosion, the present course of the High
Rhine was finally (again) reconnected to Lake Constance.
Like any glacial lake, Lake
Constance will also become silted up by
sedimentation in the near future. This process can best be observed at
the mouths of the larger rivers, especially that of the Alpine Rhine.
The silting up process is accelerated by ever-increasing erosion by
Rhine and the associated reduction in the level of the lake.
The estuary of the Alpine
Rhine on Lake Constance
The main tributary of Lake
Constance is the Alpine Rhine. The Alpine
Rhine and the
Seerhein do not mix greatly with the waters of the lake
and flow through the lakes along courses that change relatively
little. There are also numerous smaller tributaries (236 in all). The
most important tributaries of the Obersee are (counterclockwise) the
Dornbirner Ach, Bregenzer Ach, Leiblach, Argen, Schussen, Rotach,
Seefelder Aach, Stockacher Aach, Salmsacher Aach, the Aach near Arbon,
Steinach, Goldach and the Old Rhine. The outflow of the Obersee is the
Seerhein, which in turn is the main tributary of the Untersee. The
most important tributary of the Untersee is the Radolfzeller Aach.
The ten biggest tributaries of the Obersee by discharge volume
with its catchment areas:
Rhine Valley Canal)
Sum of the
10 main tributaries
Because the Alpine
Rhine brings with it drift from the mountains and
deposits this material as sediment, the Bay of
Bregenz will silt up in
a few centuries time. The silting up of the entire Lake
estimated to take another ten to twenty thousand years.
Outflows, evaporation, water extraction
The outflow of the Untersee is the High
Rhine with the
Rhine Falls at
Schaffhausen. Both the average precipitation of 0.45 km³/a and
evaporation which averages 0.29 km³/a cause a net change in the
level of Lake
Constance that is less when compared to the influence of
the inflows and outflows. Further quantities of lake water are
extracted by municipal waterworks around the lake and the water
company of Bodensee-Wasserversorgung.
The island of Mainau
Main article: List of islands in Lake Constance
Constance there are ten islands that are larger than
By far the largest is the island of Reichenau in the Untersee, which
belongs to the municipality of Reichenau. The former abbey of
Reichenau is a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site due to its three early and
highly medieval churches. The island is also known for its intensive
cultivation of fruit and vegetables.
The island of
Lindau is located in the east of the Obersee, and is the
second largest island. On it is the old town and main railway station
The third largest island is
Mainau in the southeast of Lake
Überlingen. The owners, the family of Bernadotte, have set up the
island as a tourist attraction and created botanical gardens and
Relatively large, but uninhabited and inaccessible because of their
status as nature reserves, are two islands off the Wollmatinger Ried:
Triboldingerbohl which has an area of 13 ha and Mittler or
Langbohl which is just 3 ha in area.
Smaller islands in the Obersee are:
Island (Dominikanerinsel) separated by a six-metre-wide
ditch from the old town of
Constance which is home to the
Steigenberger Hotel (2 ha)
The tiny island of Hoy near Lindau
The ten artificial islands on the
Rhine Causeway on the
The little island by the port of Romanshorn
The Wollschweininsel (officially Wulesaueninsle) by the Seepark in
In the Untersee are:
the islands of Werd,
Mittleres Werdli and
Unteres Werdli which
together form the
Werd Islands group are located at the outflow of the
Rhine from the Untersee at
Stein am Rhein
Stein am Rhein into the High Rhine.
The so-called Liebesinsel ("Love Island", 0.2 ha) southwest of
Constance there are several peninsulas which vary greatly in
The Bodanrück, the largest peninsula, separates the Obersee (Lake
Überlingen) from the Untersee. It covers an area of 112 km2.
Mettnau in the Untersee, which extends towards the island of
Lake Zell in the south from the Markelfinger
Winkel in the north. It has a surface area of 1.7 km².
The approximately 45-square-kilometre Höri, which also extends
towards the island of Reichenau, separates
Lake Zell to the north from
Rheinsee to the south.
In the southeast, near the mouth of the new
Rhine Canal, the Rohrspitz
juts out about 1.2 km into the lake and forms the western
perimeter of the Bay of Fußach. It has an area of approximately 50
The Wasserburg peninsula has a castle, Schloss Wasserburg, and the
parish church of St. George. The peninsula is on the northeastern
shore of the Obersee between the Bay of
Nonnenhorn in the west and Bay
of Wasserburg in the east. It has an area of 2.3 ha and was an
island until 1720, when the Fuggers built a causeway. In March 2009,
27 people lived on the peninsula.
Galgeninsel ("Gallows Island") in the Bay of Reutin is also a
peninsula that was formerly an island. It is only 0.16 hectares in
Sandy beach at the Marienschlucht
The shores of Lake
Constance consist mainly of gravel. In some places
there are also sandy beaches, such as the Rohrspitz in the Austrian
section of the lake, the
Langenargen and Marienschlucht.
According to the data of the International Water Protection Commission
for the Lake Constance, the approximate shore length is 273 km
(see Coastline paradox). The inflow of water is constantly changing,
mainly due to rain and the snow melt in the Alps. Its average surface
area is approximately 395 m above NN (in Switzerland
the absolute value is slightly higher in m above sea level). The more
or less regular seasonal fluctuations in the water level also lead to
slight variations in shore length and differences in the shore zone
habitats (depending on high and low water).
Summer storm – view of the Luitpold Barracks in Lindau
The climate of the Lake
Constance area is characterised by mild
temperatures with moderate gradients, thanks to the balancing and
retarding effect of the large body of water. However, due to the
year-round influence of föhn winds which causes frequent fog in
winter and close weather in summer, it is considered a stressful
Waves raised by föhn winds on the lake
Frozen lake surface: skating in the Markelfinger Winkel
Constance is also considered to be a risky and challenging lake
for water sports because of the danger of gusty winds which can whip
up waves as the weather changes suddenly. The most dangerous wind is
the föhn, a warm down-slope wind from the Alps, which spreads out
across the water, especially through the Alpine
Rhine Valley and can
generate waves several metres high.
Similarly dangerous for those unfamiliar with the area, are the sudden
stormy gusts of wind during summer thunderstorms. They constantly
claim victims from the water sports fraternity. During a thunderstorm
in July 2006, waves reached heights of up to 3.50 metres.
For these reasons, there is a storm warning system in all three
neighbouring countries. For storm warning purposes, Lake
divided into three warning regions (west, centre and east). Warnings
can be issued for each region independently. A "high winds" warning
will be issued when squalls are expected of between 25 and
33 knots or registering force 6 to 8 on the Beaufort scale. A
gale warning announces the likelihood of gale-force winds, i.e. those
at speeds as of 34 knots or more or force 8 on the Beaufort scale. In
order to issue these warnings, orange-coloured flashing lights are
installed around the lake, which flash at a frequency of 40 times per
minute for high winds or 90 times per minute for gales. It can happen
that, due to the differently regulated responsibilities and
assessments, a gale warning is issued on the Swiss side of the
Obersee, but not on the German or Austrian shores, and vice-versa.
Ships and ferries on Lake
Constance indicate a gale warning by
hoisting a Sturmballon ("storm ball") up the mast.
A one-hundred year event is the freezing over of Lake Constance, when
Lake Überlingen and the Obersee are completely frozen
over so that people can safely cross the lake on foot. The three last
so-called Seegfrörne events were in 1963, 1880 and 1830.
Certain parts of the lake freeze over more frequently, mainly due to
their shallow depth of water and shelter, as is the case, for example,
of the so-called
Markelfinger Winkel between the municipality of
Markelfingen and the
Lake Constance, seen from a vineyard
There is no legally binding agreement as to where the borders lie
Germany and Austria. However, Switzerland
holds the view that the border runs through the middle of the lake,
Austria is of the opinion that the contentious area belongs to all the
states on its banks, which is known as a "condominium", and Germany
holds an ambiguous opinion. Legal questions pertaining to ship
transport and fishing are regulated in separate treaties.
Naturally, disputes arise. One concerns a houseboat which was moored
in two states (ECJ c. 224/97 Erich Ciola); another concerns the rights
to fish in the Bay of Bregenz. In relation to the latter, an Austrian
family was of the opinion that it alone had the right to fish in broad
portions of the bay. However, this was accepted neither by the
Austrian courts nor by the organs and courts of the other states.
100-year flood around June 1999 (Pfingsthochwasser 1999) raised the
level about 2 metres above normal, flooding harbors and many shoreline
buildings and hotels.
In late August 2005, heavy rain raised the level by more than
70 cm in a few days. The rains caused widespread flooding and
washed out highways and railroads.
Flooding on the shore of Lake Constance, May 2013
Until the 19th century, Lake
Constance was a natural lake. Since then,
nature has been heavily influenced by clearing and the cultivation of
much of the land around its shores. However, some near-natural areas
have been largely conserved, especially in the nature reserves, or
were re-naturalised. As a result, the Lake
Constance region has some
unusual ecological features. These include the large forested area on
the Bodanrück, the occurrence of marsh gentian and orchids of the
Orchis in the Wollmatinger Ried, and the
Siberian iris (Iris sibirica) in the Eriskircher Ried, which was
therefore given its own name. One unique species among the local
flora is the Lake
Constance forget-me-not (Myosotis rehsteineri),
whose habitat is restricted to undisturbed beaches of lime trees.
Constance is also the home of numerous species of birds, many of
which next in its nature reserves, such as the
Wollmatinger Ried or
Mettnau peninsula. 412 species have so far been recorded.
The ten most common breeding bird species at Lake
to a 2000-2003 survey in descending order are the: blackbird,
chaffinch, starling, robin, chiffchaff, greenfinch, and blue tit.
Coot in Hard am Bodensee
In spring, the Lake
Constance is an important breeding ground,
especially for the coot and great crested grebe. Typical waterfowl
include the: shoveler , goldeneye, goosander, pochard, grey heron,
pintail, tufted duck and mallard.
In December 2014, 1,389 cormorant were counted. The International Lake
Constance Fishery Association (IBF) estimates the food requirements of
the cormorants on Lake
Constance at 150 tonnes of fish annually.
Constance is an important overwintering area for around 250,000
birds. annually. Bird species such as the dunlin, the curlew and
the lapwing overwinter at Lake Constance. In the middle of
December 2014 there were 56,798 heron, 51,713 coot and 43,938
pochard. In November/December are about 10,000 to 15,000
red-crested pochard and 10,000 great crested grebe on Lake
During migration in late autumn there are also numerous loon on the
lake (black-throated and red-throated loon, as well as a few great
northern divers). Lake
Constance is also very important as a staging
post during the bird migration.
Bird migration is often inconspicuous
and most noticeable when there are special weather conditions that
make day migration obvious. Only where there is a prolonged spell of
widespread low-pressure is it common to observe the congestion of
large groups of migratory birds. This can often be observed in autumn
on the Eriskircher Ried on the northern shore of Lake Constance. This
is where broad front migration converges on the lake and birds then
try to move along the shore towards the northwest. The importance of
Constance as an important area for resting and overwintering is
underlined by the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology's Radolfzell
Bird Observatory (Vogelwarte Radolfzell), which is the bird ringing
centre for the German states of Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, Berlin,
Rhineland-Palatinate and the Saarland as well as for Austria, and
which researches bird migration.
Around 45 species of fish live in Lake Constance. The annual haul from
fishing is 1.5 million kg. Unusual species occurring here considering
the location of the lake are the whitefish (
Coregonus spec.) and the
Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Fish that are important for the
fishing industry are:
Bodenseefelchen (German: also Blaufelchen, Lat.:
Sandfelchen (German: also Weißfelchen, Lat.:
Constance whitefish (German: Kilch, Lat.:
Grayling (German: Äsche, Lat.: Thymallus thymallus)
Perch (German: Flussbarsch, Kretzer, Barschling, Swiss German: Egli,
Lat.: Perca fluviatilis)
Bream (German: Brachse, Brasse, Lat.: Abramis brama)
Northern pike (German: Hecht]] (Lat.: Esox lucius)
Zander (Lat.: Sander lucioperca)
Burbot (German: Quappe, Trüsche, Lat.: Lota lota)
Eel (German: Aal, Lat.: Anguilla Anguilla)
Bullhead (German: Groppe, Lat.: Cottus gobio)
Tench (German: Schleie, Lat.: Tinca tinca)
Wels catfish (German: Wels, Lat.: Silurus glanis)
Lake trout (German: Seeforelle, Lat.: Salmo trutta lacustris).
Coregonus wartmanni), which was named after Lake
Constance due to the great numbers found there, is often prepared
whole or as a fillet, in the style of the miller's wife (nach
Müllerin Art), in local fish restaurants in a similar way to other
trout It is also often served smoked.
The endemic species, formerly found in Lake Constance, the
Coregonus gutturosus) and deepwater char (Salvelinus
profundus) are now assumed to be extinct.
For many years non-native species have settled in the Lake Constance
ecosystem and, in some cases, endangered or threatened native flora
and fauna. At Lake Constance, non-native species have been increasing
annually. Several have been transported from other waterbodies as
'blind passengers' on the outside of boats, life jackets, anchor
chains or ropes or diving gear. Others have immigrated from the
Black Sea or the
Danube since the opening of the Main-
Others have been deliberately introduced.
Well-known non-native species
Even the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is not a native fish. It
was introduced into Lake
Constance around 1880 for economic reasons to
enhance the local fauna.
Among the foreign species of animal in Lake
Constance are the zebra
mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) which, since the 18th century, has
spread from the
Black Sea region across most of Europe and was carried
Constance between 1960 and 1965. After a huge increase in
numbers during the 1980s in the
Rhine and large lakes, this species is
now in retreat today. The zebra mussel causes problems because, among
other things, it blocks water extraction pipes. In addition, the
species can be a disaster for domestic shellfish, because it competes
for their food. Today, according to the Institute for Lake
Research (Institut für Seenforschung, ISF), the zebra mussel is also
an important food for overwintering waterfowl. In fact, the number of
overwinterers has more than doubled in around 30 years.
The killer shrimp (Dikerogammarus villosus) has spread since 2002 from
two sections of shoreline near Hagnau and Immenstaad, over the whole
Lake Überlingen (2004), the whole of the Obersee (2006) and almost
the whole Lake
Rheinsee shore (2007) aus. As its
name implies, it is a voracious burglar of fish larvae and fish
The most recent example is the little opossum shrimp (Limnomysis
benedeni), only six to eleven millimeters long, which was found in
2006 in the
Vorarlberg region of Hard, and can now be found almost all
over Lake Constance. It comes from the waters around the Black
Sea. It was presumably first transported by ships up the
it spread into the
Rhine river system and entered Lake Constance. The
opossum shrimp, which occurs in many places in shoals of several
million in winter, are already an influential link in the food chain
in Lake Constance. They consume dead animal and plant material as well
as phytoplankton, but are also eaten by fish themselves.
Today, in western Lake
Constance are found: the North American
spinycheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus), which was introduced into
European waters in the mid-19th century to increase the yield,
Chinese mitten crab
Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis), and in the
lake's tributaries, the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusulus). As
these species of large crayfish are immune to crayfish plague, but
spread the pathogen, they are a great danger to native species such as
noble crayfish, white-clawed crayfish or stone crayfish. The animals
are often undemanding, multiply rapidly and lead predatory lives, thus
also posing a threat to various small species of fish. The ISF has
been systematically researching the subject since 2003.
Wrecks on the lake bed
After a collision with the Stadt Zürich in 1864 the wreck of the Jura
has lain on the lake bed at a depth of 45 metres off the Swiss shore.
In the early 20th century four ships were sunk in the Obersee after
being taken out of service: in 1931 the Baden, formerly the Kaiser
Wilhelm, in 1932 the Helvetia, in 1933 the Säntis and in 1934 the
Stadt Radolfzell. The hull of the burnt-out
scuttled in 1944 off the mouth of the
Argen in 100 to 150 metres of
Tourism, leisure and sports
The tourism and leisure industry is an important factor for this
region. Overnight stays reached 17,56m visitors in 2012 with an
turnover of about 1.9bn Euros. The same amount comes from the 70
million daily visitors that visit Lake
Constance each year.
Constance seen from Spot satellite.
This region is known for sightseeing, water-sports, winter-sports like
Skiing, summer-sports like
Sailing and recreation.
It is also one of the few places where modern
operate and 12-14 people can take a trip above the lake around various
points of interests.
In cooperation with tourism service providers, tourism organizations
and public institutions in Germany, Austria,
Liechtenstein, the International Bodensee Tourismus GmbH (IBT
GmbH) is responsible for the tourism marketing of the Lake
Sights and cultural heritage
The lake and the region around it have a substantial touristic
infrastructure as well as many attractions and points of interests.
Important are especially cities like Konstanz, Überlingen, Meersburg,
Bregenz as they are the big hubs for
boating tourism. The main tourism attractions are places like Rhine
Falls, one of the three biggest waterfalls in Europe, the Mainau
Reichenau Island (
UNESCO world heritage), the pilgrimage
church Birnau, castles and palaces like Salem Abbey,
as well as another
UNESCO world heritage site, the Pfahlbaumuseum
Unteruhldingen (German for '
Stilt house museum).
In the east of the lake, the
Alps are reaching almost to it thus
allowing a great view over the lake. The
Pfänderbahn goes from top of
the mountain right down, next to the lake in Bregenz.
Constance is the location for the annual Bregenzer
Festspiele, a well known arts festival that also takes place on a
floating stage in Bregenz. Opera and music performances generally tend
to come from popular pieces and among contributors are top music bands
like the Vienna Symphony Orchestra.
Biking around the lake is also possible on the 261 km long trail
called "Bodensee-Radweg". It brings its visitors to the most
interesting sites and goes around the whole lake. Nevertheless,
various shortcuts via ferries allow shorter routes and the trail is
suitable for all levels. Note: There is also a trail that goes by
the name "Bodensee-Rundweg". This road was intended for
pedestrians so biking is sometimes not suitable or allowed.
Hiking and pilgrim trails
Sign of the "Lake Constanze circular route"
The 260 kilometers long Lake
Constance circular route, signposted as
"Bodensee Rundwanderweg", leads around Lake
Constance through the
territories of Germany,
Austria and Switzerland. It is mainly intended
for hiking, cyclists follow the sometimes slightly different managed
Constance cycle path. The trail is very good walkable in
smaller stages of different lengths and offers nice views of the lake,
landscape and wildlife.
Nevertheless, not the whole coast zones are accessible due to
industrial settlements, buildings and nature reserves. Also in the
estuary of the rivers, such the Leiblach, Bregenzer Ach, canalized
Rhine and Old
Rhine (Fußacher breakthrough) considerable distances
have to be covered inland to the next bridge or river crossing point.
Due to busy riverside roads, the Bodensee-Rundweg sometimes runs as a
trail above the lake with some lookout possibilities.
Constance is also a hub for long-distance hikers and pilgrims. It
has been a crucial reference point of important pilgrimage routes
since ancient times:
Via Beuronensis, a
Way of St. James from the
Neckar region over the
the Upper Swabian pilgrimage-route of St. James, which leads from
Swabia to the lake and branches north of the lake both in the
Nonnenhorn and in the direction of Meersburg
the bavarian-swabian route of St. James, which leads down from the
Allgäu to the lake
the Schwabenweg, which ensures the connection to
Switzerland to the
lake near Konstanz
Swimming in the lake is usually possible from mid-June to
mid-September. Depending on the weather, the water temperatures reach
19 ° C to 25 ° C. Within one day, differences of up to 3 ° C are
possible with appropriate sunlight, so that the lake invites to swim,
especially on warm summer evenings.
Diving spot "devils table" at Lake Constanze
Diving in Lake
Constance is considered attractive and challenging.
Most of the diving areas are located in the northern part of the lake
(Überlingen, Ludwigshafen, Marienschlucht and others), a few also in
the south. The areas should be dived exclusively by experienced
divers under the guidance of one of the local diving schools or a
seasoned diver. Diving at some spots like the impressive devils table
("Teufelstisch") called rock needle in the lake in front of the
Marienschlucht, is only allowed after approval by the district office
The most famous freshwater wreck in Europe is certainly the paddle
steamer Jura, which lies in front of
Bottighofen at a depth of 39
meters. The Canton of Thurgau, the office for archeology in
Frauenfeld, has placed the Jura under protection as an underwater
For all divers, it should be noted that the water in Lake
even in summer - is already below 10 ° C from a depth of ten meters,
which requires suitable cold-water regulators that do not freeze at
Boating, recreational boating
Regatta next to Lindau
The importance of pleasure boating is enormous. At the beginning of
2011, 57.875 amusement vehicles were registered for Lake
The legal basis for all shipping on the lake is the ordinance on
shipping on Lake Constance, or "Bodensee-Schifffahrtsordnung". It is
monitored on Lake
Constance and on the Upper
Rhine by the German,
Swiss and Austrian Water Police/ "Seepolizei".
All boats must be registered and boat drivers must hold a
"Bodenseeschifferpatent" (Authorization to drive a patented vehicle on
Lake Constance). It is awarded in
Germany by the shipping offices of
the district of Constance, the Lake
Constance district and the
district of Lindau, in
Switzerland by the cantonal authorities and in
Austria by the District Commission Bregenz. For pleasure boaters
short-term guest licenses are possible (for the categories A for
motorboats over 4.4 kW and D for sailboats over 12 m² sail area).
Since 1979, every year to the assumption of Mary, Europe's largest
ship procession is held on Lake Constance.
Every year (early summer) the spectacular all-around (!Rund-um")
Lindau via Meersburg, Überlingen, Romanshorn
Since 2009, the annual water sports and sailing festival
"International Lake Constanze week", a joint sports event takes place
In Friedrichshafen, one of the most important water sports fairs in
Europe, the Interboot, takes place annually.
Settlements on the lake
The steamboat, Hohentwiel.
View from the
Pfänder hill of
Bregenz and the lake (with
Reichenau seen from the German shore.
Constance from Lindau
Twilight near Arbon.
The Lower Lake (Untersee).
From the entry of the Rhine, on the northern or right shore:
On the Upper Lake (Obersee) and Überlinger See
Lindau (in Bavaria)
Kressbronn (in Baden-Württemberg)
Uhldingen-Mühlhofen (on Überlinger See)
Konstanz with suburbs
On the lower lake (Untersee)
Reichenau (including the island with same name)
Allensbach (on the Gnadensee)
Radolfzell (on the Zellersee)
From the entry of the Rhine, on the southern or left shore:
On the Upper Lake (Obersee)
Altenrhein, St. Gallen
Rorschach, St. Gallen
Steinach, St. Gallen
Thurgau (as all the following)
Kreuzlingen (and Konstanz, Germany)
On the Rhine
On the Lower Lake (Untersee)
Stein am Rhein, Schaffhausen
The lake was frozen in the years 1077 (?), 1326 (partial), 1378
(partial), 1435, 1465 (partial), 1477 (partial), 1491 (partial?), 1517
(partial), 1571 (partial), 1573, 1600 (partial), 1684, 1695, 1709
(partial), 1795, 1830, 1880 (partial), and 1963.
Approximately 1,000 tonnes (1,100 short tons) of fish were caught by
150 professional fishermen in 2001 which was below the previous ten
year average of 1,200 tonnes (1,300 short tons) per year. The Lake
Constance trout (Salmo trutta) was almost extinct in the 1980s due to
pollution, but thanks to protective measures they have made a
significant return. Lake
Constance is the home of the critically
endangered species of trout Salvelinus profundus, and formerly
also the now extinct Lake
Constance whitefish (Coregonus
Überlingen mid-air collision
Württembergischer Yacht Club
Constance is also the title of a track from Mike Oldfield's The
Millennium Bell album
Notes and references
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Bodensee-Daten" (in German). igkb
Internationale Gewässerschutzkommission für den Bodensee. June 2004.
^ a b c d "Schweiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra" (Map). Bodensee (2014 ed.).
1:500 000. National Map 1:500'000. Wabern, Switzerland: Federal Office
of Topography – swisstopo. ISBN 978-3-302-00070-1. Retrieved
2018-02-28 – via map.geo.admin.ch.
^ a b c d e f g "WMS LGL-BW ATKIS Digitale Topographische Karte 1:50
000 Farbkombination" (Map). Bodensee. 1:50 000. Stuttgart, Germany:
Landesamt für Geoinformation und Landentwicklung Baden-Württemberg.
2017-12-20. Retrieved 2018-03-01 – via www.geoportal-bw.de Geoportal
^ a b c "28 - Bodensee" (Map). Bodensee (2010 ed.). 1:100 000.
National Map 1:100'000. Wabern, Switzerland: Federal Office of
Topography – swisstopo. 2008. ISBN 978-3-302-00028-2. Retrieved
2018-02-28 – via map.geo.admin.ch.
^ a b c "28bis - Lindau" (Map).
Lindau (2010 ed.). 1:100 000. National
Map 1:100'000. Wabern, Switzerland: Federal Office of Topography –
swisstopo. 2008. ISBN 978-3-302-10028-9. Retrieved 2018-02-28 –
^ "1193 - Tödi" (Map).
Piz Russein (2016 ed.). 1:25 000. National Map
1:25'000. Wabern, Switzerland: Federal Office of Topography –
swisstopo. 2013. ISBN 978-3-302-01193-6. Retrieved 2018-02-28 –
^ "Fünf Ortszeiten am Bodensee" in the German, version used
^ a b Wolf-Armin Freiherr von Reitzenstein, ed. (2013). Lexikon
schwäbischer Ortsnamen. Herkunft und Bedeutung (in German). Munich,
Germany: Verlag C. H. Beck. p. 68.
^ a b Arno Borst (1982). "Bodensee – Geschichte eines Wortes".
Schriften des Vereins für Geschichte des Bodenseeraums (in German).
Friedrichshafen: Selbstverlag des Bodenseegeschichtsvereins. 99, 100
^ Rolf Zimmermann (2004). Am Bodensee (in German). Konstanz, Germany:
Stadler Verlagsgesellschaft. p. 5. ISBN 3-7977-0504-2.
^ Wilhelm Martens (1911). Geschichte der Stadt
Konstanz (in German).
Konstanz, Germany: Gess. pp. 6–7.
^ Karl Heinz Burmeister (2005). "Der Bodensee im 16. Jahrhundert"
(pdf). Montfort, Vierteljahreszeitschrift für Geschichte und
Gegenwart Vorarlbergs (in German). Dornbirn, Austria: Vorarlberger
Verlagsanstalt. 57 (Heft 3): 228–262. Retrieved 2018-03-01 – via
^ Klaus Zintz (7 August 2015). "Der Bodensee lädt nicht nur zum Baden
Stuttgarter Zeitung (in German). Stuttgart, Germany.
Retrieved 2018-03-01 – via www.seezeichen-bodensee.de.
^ Helmut Schlichtherle (1989). "Pfahlbauten: die frühe Besiedelung
des Alpenvorlandes". Spektrum der Wissenschaft (in German).
Vol. 1989 no. Siedlungen der Steinzeit. Heidelberg, Germany:
Spektrum-Verlag. pp. 140 ff. ISBN 3-922508-48-0.
^ Rolf Zimmermann (2004), Am Bodensee (in German), Constance,
p. endpaper and 112
^ Der Bodensee (Latin: Lacvs Acronianvs siue Bodamicvs) (copper print
38 x 51 cm), Berne, Switzerland: University of Berne, 1970  –
^ Bodensee-Daten. In: Internationale Gewässerschutzkommission für
den Bodensee (publ.): Seespiegel. December 2011, p. 6.
^ Uta Mürle, Johannes Ortlepp, Peter Rey, Internationale
Gewässerschutzkommission für den Bodensee (publ.): Der Bodensee:
Zustand – Fakten – Perspektiven. 2nd revised edition. Bregenz,
2004, ISBN 3-902290-04-8, p. 10.
^ www.hydra-institute.com Archived 2012-05-14 at the Wayback Machine.
(pdf; 1.2 MB)
^ Der Bodensee: drei Teile, ein See. In: Seespiegel. Edition 20.
^ quaternary-science.publiss.net/articles/452/download Albert
Schreiner: Zur Entstehung des Bodenseebeckens (Quaternary Science
^  Geology of Lake Constance] at http://www.landeskunde-online.de.
Retrieved 31 Aug 2017.]
^ Landesanstalt für Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz in
Baden-Württemberg: Informationen zum Jahrhunderthochwasser 1999.
(pdf; 24 kB)
^ Internationale Gewässerschutzkommission für den Bodensee (publ.):
Der Bodensee. Zustand – Fakten – Perspektiven. IGKB, Bregenz,
2004, ISBN 3-902290-04-8, Kapitel 1.2 Archived 2012-05-14 at the
Wayback Machine. (pdf; 1.2 MB)
^ Cite error: The named reference Water Protection Commission was
invoked but never defined (see the help page).
^ Kahn, Daniel-Erasmus (2004). Die deutschen Staatsgrenzen:
rechtshistorische Grundlagen und offene Rechtsfragen ("The German
national borders: legal-historical foundations and open legal
questions"). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9783161484032.
^ Jennings, Ken (June 16, 2014) "The Borderless Black Hole in the
Middle of Europe" Conde Nast Traveler
^ Mark, David and Smith, Barry, et al., "Bizarre Shapes: 100
^ Planet Wissen – Bodensee
^ Ornithologische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bodensee: Beobachtungsgebiete
Archived 2016-09-19 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Aufgelistet. Die 10 häufigsten Brutvögelarten… In: Südkurier.
22 October 2010.
^ Fluctuating water levels
^ Information board on the
^ a b Franz Domgörgen: Stabile Verhältnisse im Vogelparadies.
Stabile Verhältnisse im Vogelparadies. In: Südkurier. 3 January
^ ">Bundesamt für Veterinärwesen: Forschungsprojekt
„Constanze“ am Bodensee gestartet
^ Franz Domgörgen: Wasservögel bleiben Bodensee treu. In:
Südkurier. 8 August 2014, p. 23.
^ Beringungszentrale Vogelwarte
Radolfzell at the Wayback Machine
(archived March 5, 2007)
^ Source: Who is Who Bodensee 2010/2011 Südkurier GmbH Medienhaus
^ Themenpark Umwelt des Umweltministeriums
^ Information board at the harbour in
Ludwigshafen about especially
^ Friedrich W. Strub: Tierische Neuankömmlinge im Bodensee. In:
Südkurier dated 20 April 2016.
^ Anna-Maria Schneider: Die heimliche Invasion unter Wasser. In:
Südkurier date 8 September 2015.
^ a b c d e Angela Schneider: Gepanzerte Truppe erobert den Bodensee.
In: Südkurier. dated 9 October 2010.
^ a b c Angela Schneider: Drei von vielen, die sich bereits im
Bodensee etabliert haben. In: Südkurier. dated 9 October 2010.
^ Invasion des Höckerflohkrebses. In: Südkurier. dated 9 October
^ Cite error: The named reference Einwanderte Arten was invoked but
never defined (see the help page).
^ Katy Cuko: Zwei Schiffswracks im Bodensee gefunden. Verschrottet in
200 Meter Tiefe. 20 November 2013.
^ Janina Raschdorf, Katy Cuko: Mindestens 5 Dampfer ruhen im See. In:
Südkurier. 5 December 2013.
^ "DWIF - dwif Wirtschaftsfaktor Tourismus Bodenseeregion". Retrieved
^ "Zeppelinflug : Bodensee Tourismus". www.bodensee.eu. Retrieved
^ "Internationale Bodensee Tourismus GmbH : Bodensee Tourism -
About us". www.bodensee.eu (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28.
^ "Bodensee-Radweg". Bodensee-Radweg (in German). Retrieved
^ "Wandern rund um den Bodensee". www.fernwege.de. Retrieved
^ Sven. "Bodensee-Rundwanderweg" (in German). Retrieved
^ "Der Jakobsweg (
Pilgrimage trail of St. James) Ueberlingen near
Lake Constance". Ueberlingen am Bodensee (in German). Retrieved
^ "Home - Startpunkt". www.via-beuronensis.de (in German). Retrieved
^ "Constance-Einsiedeln (Swabian way)". Route of St.James. Retrieved
^ "Weather-station in Kressbronn (in German)".
www.wetter-kressbronn.de. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
^ "Diving Spots at Lake Constanze (in German)".
www.tauchakademiebodensee.de (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28.
^ "Wrack der Jura - Tauchen vom Boot im Bodensee". Tauchen vom Boot im
Bodensee (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28.
Vorarlberg - Bodensee-Schiffsstatistik 2011".
www.vorarlberg.at (in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28.
^ "Schiffsprozession: Gebetsstätte Wigratzbad". www.gebetsstaette.de
(in German). Retrieved 2018-02-28.
Sailing Days "Rund Um" in
Lindau at Lake Constance". Lindau
Tourismus. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
^ "INTERBOOT". www.interboot.com. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
^ ‘Extinct’ fish found in Lake Constance
^ Red List - Volume 1: Vertebrates (2009) - General assessment for the
Zimmermann, Rolf (2004), A Look at Lake Constance, Konstanz, Germany:
Stadler Verlagsgesellschaft, ISBN 3-7977-0507-7 (Pictures
and texts of the cities around Lake Constance).
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lake Constance.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lake Constance.
"Constance, Lake of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.).
Karl Heinz Burmeister: Lake
Constance in German, French and Italian in
the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 2007-06-11.
Nixdorf, B.; et al. (2004), "Bodensee", Dokumentation von Zustand und
Entwicklung der wichtigsten Seen Deutschlands (in German), Berlin:
Umweltbundesamt, p. 4
Bodensee-Hochwasser (in German) waterlevels
Regio Bodensee Statistics
Lake Constance: pictures
Photos of Lake Constance
Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law Peace Palace
GrenzRaumSee: A project from the Ludwig-Uhland-Institut für
Empirische Kulturwissenschaft (Ludwig-Uhland-Department of European
Ethnology / Empirical Cultural Science) of the University of Tübingen
Lake Constance/Bodensee Lessons learned managing the lake
Tourist Information Lake Constance
Lakes of Switzerland
Lake Biel (Lac de Bienne, Bielersee)
Lake Brienz (Brienzersee)
Lake Geneva (Lac Léman, Lac de Genève)
Lake Hallwil (Hallwilersee)
Lake Lucerne (Vierwaldstättersee)
Lake Lugano (Lago di Lugano, Ceresio)
Lake Maggiore (Lago Maggiore)
Lake Murten (Lac de Morat, Murtensee)
Lake Neuchâtel (Lac de Neuchâtel, Neuenburgersee)
Lake Sempach (Sempachersee)
Lake Thun (Thunersee)
Lake Walen (Walensee, Lake Walenstadt)
Lake Zug (Zugersee)
Lake Zurich (Zürichsee)
List of lakes of Switzerland
List of mountain lakes of Switzerland
List of dams and reservoirs in Switzerland