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Ladakh
Ladakh
("land of high passes") is a region in the Indian occupied Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range[3] to the main Great Himalayas
Himalayas
to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.[4][5] It is one of the most sparsely populated regions in Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
and its culture and history are closely related to that of Tibet. Ladakh
Ladakh
is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and culture. Historically, the region included the Baltistan
Baltistan
(Baltiyul) valleys (now mostly in Pakistan), the entire upper Indus Valley, the remote Zanskar, Lahaul and Spiti
Lahaul and Spiti
to the south, much of Ngari
Ngari
including the Rudok
Rudok
region and Guge
Guge
in the east, Aksai Chin
Aksai Chin
in the northeast (extending to the Kun Lun Mountains), and the Nubra Valley
Nubra Valley
to the north over Khardong La in the Ladakh
Ladakh
Range. Contemporary Ladakh borders Tibet
Tibet
to the east, the Lahaul and Spiti
Lahaul and Spiti
regions to the south, the Vale of Kashmir, Jammu
Jammu
and Baltiyul
Baltiyul
regions to the west, and the southwest corner of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
across the Karakoram Pass in the far north. Aksai Chin
Aksai Chin
is one of the disputed border areas between China
China
and India.[6] It is administered by China
China
as part of Hotan County
Hotan County
but is also claimed by India
India
as a part of the Ladakh
Ladakh
region of the state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir. In 1962, China
China
and India
India
fought a brief war over Aksai Chin
Aksai Chin
and Arunachal Pradesh, but in 1993 and 1996 the two countries signed agreements to respect the Line of Actual Control.[7] In the past Ladakh
Ladakh
gained importance from its strategic location at the crossroads of important trade routes,[8] but since the Chinese authorities closed the borders with Tibet
Tibet
and Central Asia
Central Asia
in the 1960s, international trade has dwindled except for tourism. Since 1974, the Government of India
India
has successfully encouraged tourism in Ladakh. Since Ladakh
Ladakh
is a part of strategically important Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, the Indian military
Indian military
maintains a strong presence in the region. The largest town in Ladakh
Ladakh
is Leh, followed by Kargil.[9] Almost half of Ladakhis are Shia Muslims and the rest are mostly Tibetan Buddhists.[10] Some Ladakhi activists have in recent times called for Ladakh
Ladakh
to be constituted as a union territory because of perceived unfair treatment by Kashmir
Kashmir
and Ladakh's cultural differences with predominantly Muslim Kashmir.[11][12]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography 4 Panorama 5 Flora and fauna

5.1 Landform

6 Government and politics 7 Economy 8 Astronomy 9 Transport 10 Demographics 11 Culture

11.1 Cuisine 11.2 Music and dance 11.3 Sports 11.4 Social status of women 11.5 Traditional medicine 11.6 Festivals

12 Education 13 Media 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References

16.1 Citations 16.2 Sources

17 Further reading 18 External links

Etymology[edit] The Tibetan name La-dvags means "land of high passes"; it connected India
India
with the Silk Road. Ladakh
Ladakh
is its pronunciation in several Tibetan districts, and a transliteration of the Persian spelling.[13] History[edit]

The territorial extent of Ladakh
Ladakh
during the period of King Nyimagon, about A.D. 975–1000, as depicted in A History of Western Tibet
Tibet
by A.H. Francke, 1907

The 9 Stupas at Thiksey Monastery

The empire of King Tsewang Rnam Rgyal 1., and that of King Jamyang Rnam Rgyal., about 1560 and 1600 A.D

Phyang Gompa, Ladakh, India

Hemis Monastery
Hemis Monastery
in the 1870s

Main article: History of Ladakh Rock carvings found in many parts of Ladakh
Ladakh
indicate that the area has been inhabited from Neolithic
Neolithic
times.[12] Ladakh's earliest inhabitants consisted of a mixed Indo-Aryan population of Mons and Dards,[14] who find mention in the works of Herodotus,[b] Nearchus, Megasthenes, Pliny,[c] Ptolemy,[d] and the geographical lists of the Puranas.[15] Around the 1st century, Ladakh
Ladakh
was a part of the Kushan Empire. Buddhism
Buddhism
spread into western Ladakh
Ladakh
from Kashmir
Kashmir
in the 2nd century when much of eastern Ladakh
Ladakh
and western Tibet
Tibet
was still practicing the Bon religion. The 7th century Buddhist traveler Xuanzang
Xuanzang
describes the region in his accounts.[e] According to Rolf Alfred Stein, author of Tibetan Civilization, the area of Zhangzhung
Zhangzhung
was not historically a part of Tibet
Tibet
and was a distinctly foreign territory to the Tibetans. According to Stein,[16]

"... Then further west, The Tibetans encountered a distinctly foreign nation—Shangshung, with its capital at Khyunglung. Mt. Kailāśa (Tise) and Lake Manasarovar
Lake Manasarovar
formed part of this country, whose language has come down to us through early documents. Though still unidentified, it seems to be Indo-European. ... Geographically the country was certainly open to India, both through Nepal
Nepal
and by way of Kashmir
Kashmir
and Ladakh. Kailāśa is a holy place for the Indians, who make pilgrimages to it. No one knows how long they have done so, but the cult may well go back to the times when Shangshung was still independent of Tibet. How far Zhangzhung
Zhangzhung
stretched to the north, east and west is a mystery ... We have already had an occasion to remark that Shangshung, embracing Kailāśa sacred Mount of the Hindus, may once have had a religion largely borrowed from Hinduism. The situation may even have lasted for quite a long time. In fact, about 950, the Hindu King of Kabul
Kabul
had a statue of Vişņu, of the Kashmiri type (with three heads), which he claimed had been given him by the king of the Bhota (Tibetans) who, in turn had obtained it from Kailāśa."

A chronicle of Ladakh
Ladakh
compiled in the 17th century called the La dvags royal rabs, meaning the Royal Chronicle of the Kings of Ladakh recorded that this boundary was traditional and well-known. The first part of the Chronicle was written in the years 1610–1640 and the second half towards the end of the 17th century. The work has been translated into English by A. H. Francke and published in 1926 in Calcutta titled the Antiquities of Indian Tibet. In volume 2, the Ladakhi Chronicle describes the partition by King Skyid-lde-ngima-gon of his kingdom between his three sons, and then the chronicle described the extent of territory secured by that son. The following quotation is from page 94 of this book:

He gave to each of his sons a separate kingdom, viz., to the eldest Dpal-gyi-gon, Maryul of Mngah-ris, the inhabitants using black bows; ru-thogs of the east and the Gold-mine of Hgog; nearer this way Lde-mchog-dkar-po; at the frontier ra-ba-dmar-po; Wam-le, to the top of the pass of the Yi-mig rock ...

From a perusal of the aforesaid work, It is evident that Rudok
Rudok
was an integral part of Ladakh. Even after the family partition, Rudok continued to be part of Ladakh. Maryul meaning lowlands was a name given to a part of Ladakh. Even at that time, i.e. in the 10th century, Rudok
Rudok
was an integral part of Ladakh
Ladakh
and Lde-mchog-dkar-po, i.e., Demchok
Demchok
was an integral part of Ladakh. Faced with the Islamic conquest of South Asia
Islamic conquest of South Asia
in the 13th century, Ladakh
Ladakh
chose to seek and accept guidance in religious matters from Tibet. For nearly two centuries till about 1600, Ladakh
Ladakh
was subject to raids and invasions from neighbouring Muslim states. Some of the Ladakhis converted to Islam
Islam
during this period. Between the 1380s and early 1510s, many Islamic missionaries propagated Islam
Islam
and proselytised the Ladakhi people. Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, Sayyid Muhammad Nur Baksh and Mir Shamsuddin Iraqi
Mir Shamsuddin Iraqi
were three important Sufi missionaries who propagated Islam
Islam
to the locals. Mir Sayyid Ali was the first one to make Muslim converts in Ladakh
Ladakh
and is often described as the founder of Islam
Islam
in Ladakh. Several mosques were built in Ladakh
Ladakh
during this period, including in Mulbhe, Padum and Shey, the capital of Ladakh.[17][18] His principal disciple, Sayyid Muhammad Nur Baksh also propagated Islam
Islam
to Ladakhis and the Balti people
Balti people
rapidly converted to Islam. Noorbakshia Islam
Noorbakshia Islam
is named after him and his followers are only found in Baltistan
Baltistan
and Ladakh. During his youth, Sultan
Sultan
Zain-ul-Abidin expelled the mystic Sheikh Zain Shahwalli for showing disrespect to him. The sheikh then went to Ladakh
Ladakh
and proselytised many people to Islam. In 1505, Shamsuddin Iraqi, a noted Shia scholar, visited Kashmir
Kashmir
and Baltistan. He helped in spreading Shia Islam
Shia Islam
in Kashmir
Kashmir
and converted the overwhelming majority of Muslims in Baltistan
Baltistan
to his school of thought.[18] It is unclear what happened to Islam
Islam
after this period and it seems to have received a setback. Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat
Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat
who invaded and briefly conquered Ladakh
Ladakh
in 1532, 1545 and 1548, does not record any presence of Islam
Islam
in Leh
Leh
during his invasion although Shia Islam
Shia Islam
and Noorbakshia Islam
Noorbakshia Islam
continued to flourish in other regions of Ladakh.[17][18]

Thikse Monastery, Ladakh

King Bhagan reunited and strengthened Ladakh
Ladakh
and founded the Namgyal dynasty (Namgyal means "victorious" in several Tibetan languages.) which survives to today. The Namgyals repelled most Central Asian raiders and temporarily extended the kingdom as far as Nepal.[12] During the Balti invasion led by Raja
Raja
Ali Sher Khan Anchan, many Buddhist temples and artifacts were damaged. According to some accounts after the Namgyals were defeated, Jamyang gave his daughter's hand in marriage to the victorious Ali. Ali took the king and his soldiers as captives. Jamyang was later restored to the throne by Ali and was then given the hand of a Muslim princess in marriage whose name was Gyal Khatun or Argyal Khatoom upon the condition that she would be the first queen and her son will become the next ruler. Historical accounts differ upon who her father was. Some identify Ali's ally and Raja
Raja
of Khaplu
Khaplu
Yabgo Shey
Shey
Gilazi as her father, while others identify Ali himself as the father.[19][20][21][22][23][24] In the early 17th century efforts were made to restore destroyed artifacts and gonpas by Sengge Namgyal, the son of Jamyang and Gyal and the kingdom expanded into Zangskar
Zangskar
and Spiti. However, despite a defeat of Ladakh
Ladakh
by the Mughals, who had already annexed Kashmir
Kashmir
and Baltistan, it retained its independence. It appears that the Balti conquest of Laddakh took place in about 1594 AD which was the era of Namgyal dynasty by Balti king Ali Sher Khan Anchan. Legends show that the Balti army obsessed with success advanced as far as Purang, in the valley of Mansarwar Lake, and won the admiration of their enemies and friends. The Raja
Raja
of Ladakh
Ladakh
sued for peace and, since Ali Sher Khan's intention was not to annex Laddakh, he agreed subject to the condition that the village of Ganokh and Gagra Nullah should be ceded to Skardu
Skardu
and he (the Laddakhi Raja) should pay annual tribute. This tribute was paid through the Gonpa (monastery) of Lama
Lama
Yuru till the Dogra
Dogra
conquest of Laddakh. Hashmatullah records that the Head Lama
Lama
of the said Gonpa had admitted before him the payment of yearly tribute to Skardu
Skardu
Darbar till the Dogra
Dogra
conquest of Laddakh.[25] Islam
Islam
begin to take root in the Leh
Leh
area in the beginning of the 17th century after the Balti invasion and the marriage of Gyal to Jamyang. A large group of Muslim servants and musicians were sent along with Gyal to Ladakh
Ladakh
and private mosques were built where they could pray. The Muslim musicians later settled in Leh. Several hundred Baltis migrated to the kingdom and according to oral tradition many Muslim traders were granted land to settle. Many other Muslims were invited over the following years for various purposes.[26] In the late 17th century, Ladakh
Ladakh
sided with Bhutan
Bhutan
in its dispute with Tibet
Tibet
which, among other reasons, resulted in its invasion by the Tibetan Central Government. This event is known as the Tibet-Ladakh-Mughal war of 1679-1684.[27] Kashmiri historians assert that the king converted to Islam
Islam
in return for the assistance by Mughal Empire after this however Ladakhi chronicles do not mention such a thing. The king agreed to pay tribute to the Mughals
Mughals
in return for defending the kingdom.[28][29] The Mughals
Mughals
however withdrew after being paid off by the 5th Dalai Lama.[30] With the help of reinforcements from Galdan Boshugtu Khan, Khan of the Zungar Empire, the Tibetans attacked again in 1684. The Tibetans were victorious and concluded a treaty with Ladakh
Ladakh
then they retreated back to Lhasa
Lhasa
on December 1684. The Treaty of Tingmosgang
Tingmosgang
in 1684 settled the dispute between Tibet
Tibet
and Ladakh
Ladakh
but severely restricted Ladakh's independence. In 1834, the Dogra
Dogra
Zorawar Singh, a general of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
invaded and annexed Ladakh
Ladakh
to the Sikh Empire. After the defeat of the Sikhs in the Second Anglo-Sikh War, the province of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
was transferred to Gulab Singh, to be ruled under suzerainty as a princely state. A Ladakhi rebellion in 1842 was crushed and Ladakh
Ladakh
was incorporated into the Dogra
Dogra
state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir. The Namgyal family was given the jagir of Stok, which it nominally retains to this day. European influence began in Ladakh
Ladakh
in the 1850s and increased. Geologists, sportsmen and tourists began exploring Ladakh. In 1885, Leh
Leh
became the headquarters of a mission of the Moravian Church. Ladakh
Ladakh
was claimed as part of Tibet
Tibet
by Phuntsok Wangyal, a Tibetan Communist leader.[31] At the time of the partition of India
India
in 1947, the Dogra
Dogra
ruler Maharaja
Maharaja
Hari Singh
Hari Singh
signed the Instrument of Accession to India. Pakistani raiders had reached Ladakh
Ladakh
and military operations were initiated to evict them. The wartime conversion of the pony trail from Sonamarg
Sonamarg
to Zoji La
Zoji La
by army engineers permitted tanks to move up and successfully capture the pass. The advance continued. Dras, Kargil
Kargil
and Leh
Leh
were liberated and Ladakh
Ladakh
cleared of the infiltrators.[32] In 1949, China
China
closed the border between Nubra and Xinjiang, blocking old trade routes. In 1955 China
China
began to build roads connecting Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and Tibet
Tibet
through this area. It also built the Karakoram highway jointly with Pakistan. India
India
built the Srinagar- Leh
Leh
Highway during this period, cutting the journey time between Srinagar
Srinagar
and Leh from 16 days to two. The route, however, remains closed during the winter months due to heavy snowfall. Construction of a 6.5 km tunnel across Zoji La
Zoji La
pass is under consideration to make the route functional throughout the year.[12][33] The Kargil
Kargil
War of 1999, codenamed "Operation Vijay" by the Indian Army, saw infiltration by Pakistani troops into parts of Western Ladakh, namely Kargil, Dras, Mushkoh, Batalik and Chorbatla, overlooking key locations on the Srinagar- Leh
Leh
highway. Extensive operations were launched in high altitudes by the Indian Army
Indian Army
with considerable artillery and air force support. Pakistani troops were evicted from the Indian side of the Line of Control
Line of Control
which the Indian government ordered was to be respected and which was not crossed by Indian troops. The Indian government was criticized by the Indian public because India
India
respected geographical co-ordinates more than India's opponents: Pakistan
Pakistan
and China.[34][page needed] In 1984 the Siachen Glacier
Siachen Glacier
area in the northernmost corner of Ladakh became the venue of a continuing military standoff between India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
in the highest battleground in the world. The boundary here was not demarcated in the 1972 Simla Agreement
Simla Agreement
beyond a point named NJ9842. In 1984 India
India
occupied the entire Siachen Glacier
Siachen Glacier
and by 1987 the heights of the Saltoro Ridge
Saltoro Ridge
which borders the glacier to the west, with Pakistan
Pakistan
troops in the glacial valleys and on the ridges just west of the Saltoro Ridge
Saltoro Ridge
crest.[35][36] This status has remained much the same since, and a ceasefire was established in 2003. The Ladakh
Ladakh
region was bifurcated into the Kargil
Kargil
and Leh
Leh
districts in 1979. In 1989, there were violent riots between Buddhists and Muslims. Following demands for autonomy from the Kashmiri dominated state government, the Ladakh
Ladakh
Autonomous Hill Development Council was created in the 1990s. Leh
Leh
and Kargil
Kargil
districts now each have their own locally elected Hill Councils with some control over local policy and development funds. In 1991, a Peace Pagoda
Peace Pagoda
was erected in Leh
Leh
by Nipponzan Myohoji. There is a heavy presence of Indian Army
Indian Army
and Indo-Tibetan Border Police forces in Ladakh. These forces and People's Liberation Army forces from China
China
have, since the 1962 Sino-Indian War, had frequent stand-offs along the Lakakh portion of the Line of Actual Control. The stand-off involving the most troops was in September 2014 in the disputed Chumar
Chumar
region when 800 to 1,000 Indian troops and 1,500 Chinese troops came into close proximity to each other.[37] Geography[edit]

The Ladakh
Ladakh
region has high altitude.

Map of the central Ladakh
Ladakh
region

Landscape in Ladakh

Main article: Geography of Ladakh Ladakh
Ladakh
is the highest plateau in the state of Jammu
Jammu
& Kashmir
Kashmir
with much of it being over 3,000 m (9,800 ft).[10] It extends from the Himalayan to the Kunlun[38] Ranges and includes the upper Indus River
Indus River
valley. Historically, the region included the Baltistan
Baltistan
(Baltiyul) valleys (now mostly in Pakistani administered part of Kashmir), the entire upper Indus Valley, the remote Zanskar, Lahaul and Spiti
Lahaul and Spiti
to the south, much of Ngari
Ngari
including the Rudok
Rudok
region and Guge
Guge
in the east, Aksai Chin in the northeast, and the Nubra Valley
Nubra Valley
to the north over Khardong La in the Ladakh
Ladakh
Range. Contemporary Ladakh
Ladakh
borders Tibet
Tibet
to the east, the Lahaul and Spiti
Lahaul and Spiti
regions to the south, the Vale of Kashmir, Jammu and Baltiyul
Baltiyul
regions to the west, and the southwest corner of Xinjiang across the Karakoram Pass in the far north. The historic but imprecise divide between Ladakh
Ladakh
and the Tibetan Plateau commences in the north in the intricate maze of ridges east of Rudok
Rudok
including Aling Kangri and Mavang Kangri, and continues southeastward toward northwestern Nepal. Before partition, Baltistan, now under Pakistani control, was a district in Ladakh. Skardo was the winter capital of Ladakh
Ladakh
while Leh was the summer capital. The mountain ranges in this region were formed over 45 million years by the folding of the Indian plate
Indian plate
into the more stationary Eurasian Plate. The drift continues, causing frequent earthquakes in the Himalayan region.[f][39] The peaks in the Ladakh Range are at a medium altitude close to the Zoji-la
Zoji-la
(5,000–5,500 m or 16,000–18,050 ft) and increase toward southeast, culminating in the twin summits of Nun-Kun
Nun-Kun
(7000 m or 23,000 ft). The Suru and Zanskar
Zanskar
valleys form a great trough enclosed by the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Zanskar
Zanskar
Range. Rangdum
Rangdum
is the highest inhabited region in the Suru valley, after which the valley rises to 4,400 m (14,400 ft) at Pensi-la, the gateway to Zanskar. Kargil, the only town in the Suru valley, is the second most important town in Ladakh. It was an important staging post on the routes of the trade caravans before 1947, being more or less equidistant, at about 230 kilometres from Srinagar, Leh, Skardu
Skardu
and Padum. The Zangskar valley lies in the troughs of the Stod and the Lungnak rivers. The region experiences heavy snowfall; the Pensi-la
Pensi-la
is open only between June and mid-October. Dras
Dras
and the Mushkoh Valley form the western extremity of Ladakh. The Indus River
Indus River
is the backbone of Ladakh. Most major historical and current towns — Shey, Leh, Basgo
Basgo
and Tingmosgang
Tingmosgang
(but not Kargil), are close to the Indus River. After the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, the stretch of the Indus flowing through Ladakh
Ladakh
became the only part of this river, which is greatly venerated in the Hindu
Hindu
religion and culture, that still flows through India. The Siachen Glacier
Siachen Glacier
is in the eastern Karakoram Range in the Himalaya Mountains along the disputed India- Pakistan
Pakistan
border. The Karakoram Range forms a great watershed that separates China
China
from the Indian subcontinent and is sometimes called the "Third Pole." The glacier lies between the Saltoro Ridge
Saltoro Ridge
immediately to the west and the main Karakoram Range to the east. At 76 km long, it is the longest glacier in the Karakoram and second-longest in the world's non-polar areas. It falls from an altitude of 5,753 m (18,875 ft) above sea level at its source at Indira Col
Indira Col
on the China
China
border down to 3,620 m (11,880 ft) at its snout. Saser Kangri
Saser Kangri
is the highest peak in the Saser Muztagh, the easternmost subrange of the Karakoram Range in India, Saser Kangri
Saser Kangri
I having an altitude of 7,672 m (25,171 ft).

Monthly average temperature in Leh

The Ladakh Range has no major peaks; its average height is a little less than 6,000 m (20,000 ft), and few of its passes are less than 5,000 m (16,000 ft). The Pangong Range runs parallel to the Ladakh Range for about 100 km northwest from Chushul
Chushul
along the southern shore of the Pangong Lake. Its highest point is about 6,700 m (22,000 ft) and the northern slopes are heavily glaciated. The region comprising the valley of the Shayok and Nubra rivers is known as Nubra. The Karakoram Range in Ladakh
Ladakh
is not as mighty as in Baltistan. The massifs to the north and east of the Nubra–Siachen line include the Apsarasas Group (highest point 7,245 m; 23,770 ft) the Rimo Muztagh
Rimo Muztagh
(highest point 7,385 m; 24,229 ft) and the Teram Kangri
Teram Kangri
Group (highest point 7,464 m; 24,488 ft) together with Mamostong Kangri (7,526 m; 24,692 ft) and Singhi Kangri
Singhi Kangri
(7,202 m; 23,629 ft). North of the Karakoram lies the Kunlun. Thus, between Leh
Leh
and eastern Central Asia
Central Asia
there is a triple barrier — the Ladakh
Ladakh
Range, Karakoram Range, and Kunlun. Nevertheless, a major trade route was established between Leh
Leh
and Yarkand. Ladakh
Ladakh
is a high altitude desert as the Himalayas
Himalayas
create a rain shadow, generally denying entry to monsoon clouds. The main source of water is the winter snowfall on the mountains. Recent flooding in the region (e.g., the 2010 floods) has been attributed to abnormal rain patterns and retreating glaciers, both of which have been found to be linked to global climate change.[40] The Leh
Leh
Nutrition Project, headed by Chewang Norphel, also known as the "Glacier Man", creates artificial glaciers as one solution for retreating glaciers.[41][42] The regions on the north flank of the Himalayas — Dras, the Suru valley and Zangskar — experience heavy snowfall and remain cut off from the rest of the region for several months in the year, as the whole region remains cut off by road from the rest of the country. Summers are short, though they are long enough to grow crops. The summer weather is dry and pleasant. Temperature ranges are from 3 to 35 °C in summer and minimums range from -20 to -35 °C in winter.[43] Zanskar
Zanskar
is the main river of the region along with its tributaries. The Zanskar
Zanskar
gets frozen during winter and the famous Chadar trek
Chadar trek
takes place on this magnificent frozen river. Panorama[edit]

Pangong Tso
Pangong Tso
Lake

The Indus valley near Leh

Nubra Valley
Nubra Valley
lit by the full moon

Flora and fauna[edit]

Yaks In Ladakh

Main article: Flora and fauna of Ladakh Vegetation is extremely sparse in Ladakh
Ladakh
except along streambeds and wetlands, on high slopes, and irrigated places. About 1250 plant species, including crops, were reported from Ladakh
Ladakh
[44]. The plant Ladakiella klimesii, growing up to 6150 m a.s.l., was first described here and named after this region [45]. The first European to study the wildlife of this region was William Moorcroft in 1820, followed by Ferdinand Stoliczka, an Austrian-Czech palaeontologist, who carried out a massive expedition there in the 1870s.

Ibex

The endangered black-necked crane, Grus nigricollis, breeds in Ladakh. It is the state bird of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir.

The bharal or blue sheep is the most abundant mountain ungulate in the Ladakh
Ladakh
region, although it is not found in some parts of Zangskar
Zangskar
and Sham areas.[46] The Asiatic ibex
Asiatic ibex
is a very elegant mountain goat that is distributed in the western part of Ladakh. It is the second most abundant mountain ungulate in the region with a population of about 6000 individuals. It is adapted to rugged areas where it easily climbs when threatened.[47] The Ladakhi Urial is another unique mountain sheep that inhabits the mountains of Ladakh. The population is declining, however, and there are not more than 3000 individuals left in Ladakh.[48] The urial is endemic to Ladakh, where it is distributed only along two major river valleys: the Indus and Shayok. The animal is often persecuted by farmers whose crops are allegedly damaged by it. Its population declined precipitously in the last century due to indiscriminate shooting by hunters along the Leh- Srinagar
Srinagar
highway. The Tibetan argali or Nyan is the largest wild sheep in the world, standing 3.5 to 4 feet at the shoulder with the horn measuring 90–100 cm. It is distributed on the Tibetan plateau and its marginal mountains encompassing a total area of 2.5 million km2. There is only a small population of about 400 animals in Ladakh. The animal prefers open and rolling terrain as it runs, unlike wild goats that climb into steep cliffs, to escape from predators.[49] The endangered Tibetan antelope, known as chiru in Indian English, or Ladakhi tsos, has traditionally been hunted for its wool (shahtoosh) which is a natural fiber of the finest quality and thus valued for its light weight and warmth and as a status symbol. The wool of chiru must be pulled out by hand, a process done after the animal is killed. The fiber is smuggled into Kashmir
Kashmir
and woven into exquisite shawls by Kashmiri workers. Ladakh
Ladakh
is also home to the Tibetan gazelle, which inhabits the vast rangelands in eastern Ladakh
Ladakh
bordering Tibet.[50]

Kiang
Kiang
or Tibetan wild ass

The kiang, or Tibetan wild ass, is common in the grasslands of Changthang, numbering about 2,500 individuals. These animals are in conflict with the nomadic people of Changthang who hold the Kiang responsible for pasture degradation.[51] There are about 200 snow leopards in Ladakh
Ladakh
of an estimated 7,000 worldwide. The Hemis
Hemis
High Altitude National Park in central Ladakh
Ladakh
is an especially good habitat for this predator as it has abundant prey populations. The Eurasian lynx, is another rare cat that preys on smaller herbivores in Ladakh. It is mostly found in Nubra, Changthang and Zangskar.[52] The Pallas's cat, which looks somewhat like a house cat, is very rare in Ladakh
Ladakh
and not much is known about the species. The Tibetan wolf, which sometimes preys on the livestock of the Ladakhis, is the most persecuted amongst the predators.[53] There are also a few brown bears in the Suru valley and the area around Dras. The Tibetan sand fox has been discovered in this region.[54] Among smaller animals, marmots, hares, and several types of pika and vole are common.[55] Landform[edit] Scant precipitation makes Ladakh
Ladakh
a high-altitude desert with extremely scarce vegetation over most of its area. Natural vegetation mainly occurs along water courses and on high altitude areas that receive more snow and cooler summer temperatures. Human settlements, however, are richly vegetated due to irrigation.[56] Natural vegetation commonly seen along watercourses includes seabuckthorn (Hippophae spp.), wild roses of pink or yellow varieties, tamarisk (Myricaria spp.), caraway, stinging nettles, mint, Physochlaina praealta, and various grasses.[57] Government and politics[edit] In October 1993, the Indian government and the State government agreed to grant each district of Ladakh
Ladakh
the status of Autonomous Hill Council. This agreement was given effect by the Ladakh
Ladakh
Autonomous Hill Development Council Act, 1995. The council came into being with the holding of elections in Leh
Leh
District on 28 August 1995. The inaugural meeting of the council was held at Leh
Leh
on 3 September 1995. Kargil, later, adopted the Hill council in July 2003, when the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council — Kargil
Kargil
was established.[58] The council works with village panchayats to take decisions on economic development, healthcare, education, land use, taxation, and local governance which are further reviewed at the block headquarters in the presence of the chief executive councilor and executive councilors.[59] The government of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
looks after law and order, the judicial system, communications and the higher education in the region. Ladakh
Ladakh
sends one member (MP) to the lower house of the Indian parliament the Lok Sabha. The MP from Ladakh
Ladakh
in the current Lok Sabha is Thupstan Chhewang
Thupstan Chhewang
a candidate from the Bharathiya Janata Party (BJP).[60][61] Economy[edit]

Street market in Leh

The land is irrigated by a system of channels which funnel water from the ice and snow of the mountains. The principal crops are barley and wheat. Rice was previously a luxury in the Ladakhi diet, but, subsidised by the government, has now become a cheap staple.[10] Naked barley (Ladakhi: nas, Urdu: grim) was traditionally a staple crop all over Ladakh. Growing times vary considerably with altitude. The extreme limit of cultivation is at Korzok, on the Tso-moriri
Tso-moriri
lake, at 4,600 m (15,100 ft), which has what are widely considered to be the highest fields in the world.[10] A minority of Ladakhi people were also employed as merchants and caravan traders, facilitating trade in textiles, carpets, dyestuffs and narcotics between Punjab and Xinjiang. However, since the Chinese Government closed the borders with Tibet
Tibet
and Central Asia, this international trade has completely dried up.[12][62] Indus river
Indus river
flowing in the Ladakh
Ladakh
region is endowed with vast hydro power potential.[63] Solar and wind power potentials are also substantial. Though the region is a remote hilly area without all weather roads, the area is also rich in lime stone deposits to manufacture cement from the locally available cheap electricity for various construction needs.[64] Since 1974, the Indian Government has encouraged a shift in trekking and other tourist activities from the troubled Kashmir
Kashmir
region to the relatively unaffected areas of Ladakh. Although tourism employs only 4% of Ladakh's working population, it now accounts for 50% of the region's GNP.[12] This era is recorded in Arthur Neves The Tourist's Guide to Kashmir, Ladakh
Ladakh
and Skardo, first published in 1911.[62] Today, about 100,000 tourists visit Ladakh
Ladakh
every year. Among the popular places of tourist interest include Leh, Drass
Drass
valley, Suru valley, Kargil, Zangskar, Zangla, Rangdum, Padum, Phugthal, Sani, Stongdey, Shyok Valley, Sankoo, Salt Valley and several popular trek routes like Lamayuru - Padum
Padum
- Darcha, the Nubra valley
Nubra valley
and the Indus valley. Astronomy[edit] The National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) is being set up in the Ladakh
Ladakh
village of Merak near the Pangong Tso
Pangong Tso
lake by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India.[65] Transport[edit]

A vehicle on the Himalaya
Himalaya
Highway 3

There are about 1,800 km (1,100 mi) of roads in Ladakh
Ladakh
of which 800 km (500 mi) are surfaced.[66] The majority of roads in Ladakh
Ladakh
are looked after by the Border Roads Organisation. There is one airport in Leh, from which there are daily flights to Delhi
Delhi
and weekly flights to Srinagar
Srinagar
and Jammu. There are two airstrips at Daulat Beg Oldie
Daulat Beg Oldie
and Fukche
Fukche
for military transport.[67] While an airport meant for civilian purpose at Kargil
Kargil
is used by the Indian Army. The airport is a political issue for the locals who argue that the airport should serve its original purpose, i.e., should open up for civilian flights. Since past few years the Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
has been operating AN-32 air courier service to transport the locals during the winter seasons to Jammu, Srinagar
Srinagar
and Chandigarh.[68][69] A private airplane company Air Mantra landed a 17-seater aircraft at the airport, in presence of dignitaries like the Chief Minister Omar Abdullah, marking the first ever landing by a civilian airline company at Kargil.[70][71] Demographics[edit]

A Ladakhi woman in a traditional dress and hat

People of Dard descent predominate in Dras
Dras
and Dha-Hanu areas. The residents of the Dha-Hanu area, known as Brokpa, are followers of Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
and have preserved much of their original Dardic traditions and customs. The Dards of Dras, however, have converted to Islam
Islam
and have been strongly influenced by their Kashmiri neighbours. The Mons are believed to be descendants of earlier Indian settlers in Ladakh, and traditionally worked as musicians, blacksmiths and carpenters. The region's population is split roughly in half between the districts of Leh
Leh
and Kargil. 76.87% population of Kargil
Kargil
is Muslim, with a total population of 140,802, while that of Leh
Leh
is 66.40% Buddhist, with a total population of 133,487, as per the 2011 census.[72][73]

A local woman, Ladakh

The principal language of Ladakh
Ladakh
is Ladakhi, a Tibetan language. Educated Ladakhis usually know Hindi, Urdu
Urdu
and often English. Within Ladakh, there is a range of dialects, so that the language of the Chang-pa people may differ markedly from that of the Purig-pa in Kargil, or the Zangskaris, but they are all mutually comprehensible. Due to its position on important trade routes, the language of Leh
Leh
is enriched with foreign words. Traditionally, Ladakhi had no written form distinct from classical Tibetan, but a number of Ladakhi writers have started using the Tibetan script to write the colloquial tongue. Administrative work and education are carried out in English; although Urdu
Urdu
was used to a great extent in the past, now only land records and some police records are kept in Urdu. The total birth rate (TBR) in 2001 was 22.44, while it was 21.44 for Muslims and 24.46 for Buddhists. Brokpas had the highest TBR at 27.17 and Arghuns had the lowest at 14.25. TFR was 2.69 with 1.3 in Leh
Leh
and 3.4 in Kargil. For Buddhists it was 2.79 and for Muslims it was 2.66. Baltis had a TFR of 3.12 and Arghuns had a TFR of 1.66. The total death rate was 15.69, with Muslims having 16.37 and Buddhists having 14.32. Highest was for Brokpas at 21.74 and lowest was for Bodhs at 14.32.[74]

Population of Leh
Leh
and Kargil
Kargil
districts

Year[g] Leh
Leh
District Kargil
Kargil
District

Population Percent of change Females per 1000 males Population Percent of change Females per 1000 males

1951 40,484 — 1011 41,856 — 970

1961 43,587 0.74 1010 45,064 0.74 935

1971 51,891 1.76 1002 53,400 1.71 949

1981 68,380 2.80 886 65,992 2.14 853

2001 117,637 2.75 805 115,287 2.83 901

The sex ratio for Leh
Leh
district declined from 1011 females per 1000 males in 1951 to 805 in 2001, while for Kargil
Kargil
district it declined from 970 to 901.[75] The urban sex ratio in both the districts is about 640. The adult sex ratio reflects large numbers of mostly male seasonal and migrant labourers and merchants. About 84% of Ladakh's population lives in villages.[76] The average annual population growth rate from 1981 to 2001 was 2.75% in Leh
Leh
District and 2.83% in Kargil district.[75] Culture[edit]

A woman of the nomadic Chang-pa families currently living in the valley

Chorten in Ladakh

Ladakhi culture is similar to Tibetan culture.[77] Cuisine[edit] Ladakhi food has much in common with Tibetan food, the most prominent foods being thukpa (noodle soup) and tsampa, known in Ladakhi as ngampe (roasted barley flour). Edible without cooking, tsampa makes useful trekking food. A dish that is strictly Ladakhi is skyu, a heavy pasta dish with root vegetables. As Ladakh
Ladakh
moves toward a cash-based economy, foods from the plains of India
India
are becoming more common. As in other parts of Central Asia, tea in Ladakh
Ladakh
is traditionally made with strong green tea, butter, and salt. It is mixed in a large churn and known as gurgur cha, after the sound it makes when mixed. Sweet tea (cha ngarmo) is common now, made in the Indian style with milk and sugar. Most of the surplus barley that is produced is fermented into chang, an alcoholic beverage drunk especially on festive occasions.[78] Music and dance[edit] Traditional music includes the instruments surna and daman (shenai and drum). The music of Ladakhi Buddhist monastic festivals, like Tibetan music, often involves religious chanting in Tibetan as an integral part of the religion. These chants are complex, often recitations of sacred texts or in celebration of various festivals. Yang chanting, performed without metrical timing, is accompanied by resonant drums and low, sustained syllables. Religious mask dances are an important part of Ladakh's cultural life. Hemis
Hemis
monastery, a leading centre of the Drukpa tradition of Buddhism, holds an annual masked dance festival, as do all major Ladakhi monasteries. The dances typically narrate a story of the fight between good and evil, ending with the eventual victory of the former.[79] Weaving is an important part of traditional life in eastern Ladakh. Both women and men weave, on different looms.[80] Typical costumes include gonchas of velvet, elaborately embroidered waistcoats and boots and hats. Sports[edit] See also: Ladakh
Ladakh
Marathon The most popular sport in Ladakh
Ladakh
is ice hockey, which is played only on natural ice generally mid-December through mid-February.[81] Cricket is also very popular. Archery is a traditional sport in Ladakh, and many villages hold archery festivals, which are as much about traditional dancing, drinking and gambling, as they are about the sport. The sport is conducted with strict etiquette, to the accompaniment of the music of surna and daman (shehnai and drum). Polo, the other traditional sport of Ladakh, is indigenous to Baltistan
Baltistan
and Gilgit, and was probably introduced into Ladakh
Ladakh
in the mid-17th century by King Singge Namgyal, whose mother was a Balti princess.[82] Polo, popular among the Baltis with some support from financial heavyweights, is an annual affair in Drass
Drass
region of District Kargil.[83][84][85][86] Social status of women[edit]

A local woman carrying crops after a good summer harvest

A feature of Ladakhi society that distinguishes it from the rest of the state is the high status and relative emancipation enjoyed by women compared to other rural parts of India. Fraternal polyandry and inheritance by primogeniture were common in Ladakh
Ladakh
until the early 1940s when these were made illegal by the government of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir. However, the practice remained in existence into the 1990s especially among the elderly and the more isolated rural populations.[87] Another custom is known as khang-bu, or 'little house', in which the elders of a family, as soon as the eldest son has sufficiently matured, retire from participation in affairs, yielding the headship of the family to him and taking only enough of the property for their own sustenance.[10] The society is also both maternal and paternal, the tradition of where the groom comes to stay with the bride's family is not considered a taboo unlike the rest of India. Women enjoy a very high status in society, however, female participation in the politics of the region remains limited. Traditional medicine[edit] Tibetan medicine
Tibetan medicine
has been the traditional health system of Ladakh
Ladakh
for over a thousand years. This school of traditional healing contains elements of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
and Chinese medicine, combined with the philosophy and cosmology of Tibetan Buddhism. For centuries, the only medical system accessible to the people have been the amchi — traditional doctors following the Tibetan medical tradition. Amchi medicine is an important component of public health to this day, especially in remote areas.[88] Programmes by the government, local and international organisations are working to develop and rejuvenate this traditional system of healing.[88][89] Efforts are underway to preserve the intellectual property rights of amchi medicine for the people of Ladakh. The government has also been trying to promote the sea buckthorn in the form of juice and jam, as it is believed to possess many medicinal properties. This is seen as a means of providing employment to self-help groups in rural Ladakh. Festivals[edit] Ladakh
Ladakh
celebrates many famous festivals. One of the biggest and most popular is the Hemis
Hemis
festival. It is celebrated in June to commemorate the birth of Guru Padmasambhava. In September, the Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Tourism Department with the help of local authorities organize the Ladakh
Ladakh
Festival. The Government of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
organizes the Sindhu Darshan festival at Leh
Leh
in May–June. It is celebrated on the full moon day (Guru Poornima). [90][better source needed] Education[edit]

Traditionally there was little or nothing by way of formal education except in the monasteries.

According to the 2001 census, the overall literacy rate in Leh District is 62% (72% for males and 50% for females), and in Kargil District 58% (74% for males and 41% for females).[91] Traditionally there was little or nothing by way of formal education except in the monasteries. Usually, one son from every family was obliged to master the Tibetan script in order to read the holy books.[10] The Moravian Mission opened a school in Leh
Leh
in October 1889, and the Wazir-i Wazarat[ιε] (ex officio Joint Commissioner with a British officer) of Baltistan
Baltistan
and Ladakh
Ladakh
ordered that every family with more than one child should send one of them to school. This order met with great resistance from the local people who feared that the children would be forced to convert to Christianity. The school taught Tibetan, Urdu, English, Geography, Sciences, Nature study, Arithmetic, Geometry and Bible study.[14] It is still in existence today. The first local school to provide western education was opened by a local Society called "Lamdon Social Welfare Society" in 1973. Later, with support from Dalai Lama
Lama
and some international organisations, the school has grown to accommodate approximately two thousand pupils in several branches. It prides itself on preserving Ladakhi tradition and culture.[92] Schools are well distributed throughout Ladakh
Ladakh
but 75% of them provide only primary education. 65% of children attend school, but absenteeism of both students and teachers remains high. In both districts the failure rate at school-leaving level (class X) has for many years been around 50%. Before 1993, students were taught in Urdu
Urdu
until they were 14, after which the medium of instruction shifted to English. In 1994 the Students' Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh (SECMOL) launched Operation New Hope (ONH), a campaign to provide "culturally appropriate and locally relevant education" and make government schools more functional and effective.[93] Eliezer Joldan
Eliezer Joldan
Memorial College, a government degree college, enables students to pursue higher education without having to leave Ladakh.[94]

Media[edit]

Woman of Ladakh

Trees nestled in front of the Himalayas
Himalayas
near Leh.

Carved stone tablets, each with the inscription "Om Mani Padme Hum" along the paths of Zanskar

The government radio broadcaster All India
India
Radio(AIR)[95] and government television station Doordarshan[96] have stations in Leh that broadcast local content for a few hours a day. Beyond that, Ladakhis produce feature films that are screened in auditoriums and community halls. They are often made on fairly modest budgets.[97] There are a handful of private news outlets.

Reach Ladakh
Ladakh
Bulletin,[98] a biweekly newspaper in English, is the only print media published by and for Ladakhis. Rangyul or Kargil
Kargil
Number is a newspaper published from Kashmir covering Ladakh
Ladakh
in English and Urdu. Ladags Melong, an initiative of SECMOL, was published from 1992 to 2005 in English and Ladakhi.

Some publications that cover Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
as a whole provide some coverage of Ladakh.

The Daily Excelsior claims to be "The largest circulated daily of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir".[99] Epilogue, a monthly magazine covering Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir.[100] Kashmir
Kashmir
Times, a daily newspaper covering Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir.[101]

See also[edit]

This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.

2013 Daulat Beg Oldi
Daulat Beg Oldi
Incident Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh
Ladakh
(book) Balti language Baltistan Baily Bridge Geography of Ladakh Ladakhi language Mona Bhan Music of Kashmir, Jammu
Jammu
and Ladakh Polyandry
Polyandry
in Tibet Rivers of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir Tourism in Ladakh Wildlife of Ladakh

Notes[edit]

^ This excludes Aksai Chin
Aksai Chin
(37,555 km2), under Chinese administration. ^ He mentions twice a people called Dadikai, first along with the Gandarioi, and again in the catalogue of king Xerxes's army invading Greece. Herodotus
Herodotus
also mentions the gold-digging ants of Central Asia. ^ In the 1st century, Pliny repeats that the Dards were great producers of gold. ^ Ptolemy
Ptolemy
situates the Daradrai on the upper reaches of the Indus ^ See Petech, Luciano. The Kingdom of Ladakh
Ladakh
c. 950–1842 A.D., Istituto Italiano per il media ed Estremo Oriente, 1977. Xuanzang describes a journey from Ch'u-lu-to (Kuluta, Kullu) to Lo-hu-lo (Lahul), then goes on saying that "from there to the north, for over 2000 li, the road is very difficult, with cold wind and flying snow"; thus one arrives in the kingdom of Mo-lo-so, or Mar-sa, synonymous with Mar-yul, a common name for Ladakh. Elsewhere, the text remarks that Mo-lo-so, also called San-po-ho borders with Suvarnagotra or Suvarnabhumi (Land of Gold), identical with the Kingdom of Women (Strirajya). According to Tucci, the Zan-zun kingdom, or at least its southern districts were known by this name by the 7th century Indians. ^ All of Indian Ladakh
Ladakh
is placed in high risk Zone VIII, while areas from Kargil
Kargil
and Zanskar
Zanskar
southwestward are in lower risk zonesearthquake hazard scale ^ Census was not carried out in Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
in 1991 due to militancy

References[edit] Citations[edit]

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Lok Sabha
member list". 164.100.47.132. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2012.  ^ "Members of Parliament, MPs of India
India
2014, Sixteenth Lok Sabha Members". www.elections.in. Retrieved 28 September 2016.  ^ a b Weare, Garry (2002). Trekking in the Indian Himalaya
Himalaya
(4th ed.). Lonely Planet.  ^ "Harnessing gigantic hydro power potential of Indus, Jhelum and Chenab rivers in India". Retrieved 30 November 2017.  ^ "Distribution of Rocks and Minerals in J&K state". Retrieved 30 November 2017.  ^ "World's largest solar telescope to be set up in Ladakh". The Times Of India. 6 January 2012.  ^ "State Development Report— Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, Chapter 3A" (PDF). Planning Commission of India. 2001. Retrieved 21 August 2006.  ^ IAF craft makes successful landing near China
China
border (4 November 2008). "NDTV.com". NDTV.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2012.  ^ "Air Courier Service From Kargil
Kargil
Begins Operation". news.outlookindia.com. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2013.  ^ "IAF to start air services to Kargil
Kargil
during winter from December 6". NDTV.com. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 6 June 2013.  ^ Ahmed Ali Fayyaz (7 January 2013). " Kargil
Kargil
gets first civil air connectivity". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 June 2013.  ^ GreaterKashmir.com (Greater Service) (2 January 2013). "Air Mantra to operate flights to Kargil
Kargil
Lastupdate:- Wed, 2 January 2013 18:30:00 GMT". Greaterkashmir.com. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.  ^ " Kargil
Kargil
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Jammu and Kashmir
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Jammu and Kashmir
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Jammu
and Kashmir, Chapter 2 - Demographics" (PDF). Planning Commission of India. 1999. Retrieved 21 August 2006.  ^ "Rural population". Education for all in India. 1999. Retrieved 21 August 2006.  ^ " Ladakh
Ladakh
Festival - a Cultural Spectacle". EF News International. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2006.  ^ Norberg-Hodge, Helena
Norberg-Hodge, Helena
(2000). Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh. Oxford India
India
Paperbacks.  ^ "Masks: Reflections of Culture and Religion". Dolls of India. Retrieved 21 August 2006.  ^ "Living Fabric: Weaving Among the Nomads of Ladakh
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Himalaya". Retrieved 21 August 2006.  ^ Sherlip, Adam. "Hockey Foundation".  ^ " Ladakh
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culture". Jammu and Kashmir
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Tourism. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006. Retrieved 21 August 2006.  ^ GreaterKashmir.com (Greater Service) (10 July 2011). "LALIT GROUP ORGANISES POLO TOURNEY IN DRASS Lastupdate:- Sun, 10 July 2011 18:30:00 GMT". Greaterkashmir.com. Archived from the original on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.  ^ Khagta, Himanshu (18 July 2011). "Traditonal Polo in Drass, Ladakh
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Himanshu Khagta
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- Travel Photographer in India". PhotoShelter: Himanshu Khagta. Retrieved 6 June 2013.  ^ "Manipur lifts Lalit Suri Polo Cup". Statetimes.in. 12 June 2012. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2013.  ^ "Business Hotels in India
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- Event Planning in India
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- The Lalit Hotels". Archived from the original on 14 March 2013.  ^ Gielen, Uwe (1998). Gender roles in traditional Tibetan cultures. In L.L Adler (Ed.), International handbook on gender roles. Westport, CT: Greenwood. pp. 413–437 .  ^ a b "Plantlife.org project on medicinal plants of importance to amchi medicine". Plantlife.org.uk. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2012.  ^ "A government of India
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Sources[edit]

Francke, A. H. (1914, 1926). Antiquities of Indian Tibet. Two Volumes. Calcutta. 1972 reprint: S. Chand, New Delhi. Prem Singh Jina (1 January 1995). Famous Western Expolorers to Ladakh. Indus Publishing. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-81-7387-031-6. 

Further reading[edit]

Allan, Nigel J. R. 1995 Karakorum Himalaya: Sourcebook for a Protected Area. IUCN. ISBN 969-8141-13-8 Cunningham, Alexander. 1854. Ladak: Physical, Statistical, and Historical; with notices of the surrounding countries. Reprint: Sagar Publications, New Delhi. 1977. Desideri, Ippolito (1932). An Account of Tibet: The Travels of Ippolito Desideri
Ippolito Desideri
1712–1727. Ippolito Desideri. Edited by Filippo De Filippi. Introduction by C. Wessels. Reproduced by Rupa & Co, New Delhi. 2005 Drew, Federic. 1877. The Northern Barrier of India: a popular account of the Jammoo and Kashmir
Kashmir
Territories with Illustrations. 1st edition: Edward Stanford, London. Reprint: Light & Life Publishers, Jammu. 1971. Francke, A. H. (1914), 1920, 1926. Antiquities of Indian Tibet. Vol. 1: Personal Narrative; Vol. 2: The Chronicles of Ladak and Minor Chronicles, texts and translations, with Notes and Maps. Reprint: 1972. S. Chand & Co., New Delhi. (Google Books) Gielen, U. P. 1998. "Gender roles in traditional Tibetan cultures". In L. L. Adler (Ed.), International handbook on gender roles (pp. 413-437). Westport, CT: Greenwood. Gillespie, A. (2007). Time, Self and the Other: The striving tourist in Ladakh, north India. In Livia Simao and Jaan Valsiner (eds) Otherness in question: Development of the self. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, Inc. Gillespie, A. (2007). In the other we trust: Buying souvenirs in Ladakh, north India. In Ivana Marková and Alex Gillespie (Eds.), Trust and distrust: Sociocultural perspectives. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, Inc. Gordon, T. E. 1876. The Roof of the World: Being the Narrative of a Journey over the high plateau of Tibet
Tibet
to the Russian Frontier and the Oxus sources on Pamir. Edinburgh. Edmonston and Douglas. Reprint: Ch'eng Wen Publishing Company. Tapei. 1971. Ham, Peter Van. 2015. Indian Tibet
Tibet
Tibetan India: The Cultural Legacy of the Western Himalayas. Niyogi Books. ISBN 9789383098934. Halkias, Georgios (2009) "Until the Feathers of the Winged Black Raven Turn White: Sources for the Tibet-Bashahr Treaty of 1679–1684", in Mountains, Monasteries and Mosques, ed. John Bray. Supplement to Rivista Orientali, pp. 59–79.[1] Halkias, Georgios (2010). "The Muslim Queens of the Himalayas: Princess Exchange in Ladakh
Ladakh
and Baltistan." In Islam-Tibet: Interactions along the Musk Routes, eds. Anna Akasoy et al. Ashgate Publications, 231-252. [2] Harvey, Andrew. 1983. A Journey in Ladakh. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York. Pandit, K. N. (1986). Ladakh, life & culture. Srinagar, Kashmir, India: Centre of Central Asian Studies, Kashmir
Kashmir
University. Knight, E. F. 1893. Where Three Empires Meet: A Narrative of Recent Travel in: Kashmir, Western Tibet, Gilgit, and the adjoining countries. Longmans, Green, and Co., London. Reprint: Ch'eng Wen Publishing Company, Taipei. 1971. Knight, William, Henry. 1863. Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet. Richard Bentley, London. Reprint 1998: Asian Educational Services, New Delhi. Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George. 1841. Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh
Ladakh
and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara ... from 1819 to 1825, Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971. Norberg-Hodge, Helena. 2000. Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh. Rider Books, London. Peissel, Michel. 1984. The Ants' Gold: The Discovery of the Greek El Dorado in the Himalayas. Harvill Press, London. Rizvi, Janet. 1998. Ladakh, Crossroads of High Asia. Oxford University Press. 1st edition 1963. 2nd revised edition 1996. 3rd impression 2001. ISBN 0-19-564546-4. Sen, Sohini. 2015. Ladakh: A Photo Travelogue. Niyogi Books. ISBN 9789385285028. Trekking in Zanskar
Zanskar
& Ladakh: Nubra Valley, Tso Moriri & Pangong Lake, Step By step Details of Every Trek: a Most Authentic & Colourful Trekkers' guide with maps 2001–2002 Zeisler, Bettina. (2010). "East of the Moon and West of the Sun? Approaches to a Land with Many Names, North of Ancient India
India
and South of Khotan." In: The Tibet
Tibet
Journal, Special
Special
issue. Autumn 2009 vol XXXIV n. 3-Summer 2010 vol XXXV n. 2. "The Earth Ox Papers", edited by Roberto Vitali, pp. 371–463. The Road to Lamaland - by Martin Louis Alan Gompertz Magic Ladakh
Ladakh
- by Martin Louis Alan Gompertz

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ladakh.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ladakh.

" Leh
Leh
and the Gompas of Indus Valley". Leh
Leh
and the Gompas of Indus Valley. 

" Ladakh
Ladakh
District". Leh-Ladakh.  "Photo Galleries of Ladakh". Sights and people of Ladakh. Retrieved 7 January 2007.  "Many useful resources including a number of full text historical works". Silk Road
Silk Road
Seattle - University of Washington. Retrieved 6 June 2006.  "Sustainable development and appropriate technology issues". The Ladakh
Ladakh
Project. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2007.  "Official site of the Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh". Retrieved 6 June 2006. 

v t e

Ladakh

Passes

Khardung La Sasser Pass Karakoram Pass Lachulung La Tanglang La Chang la Marsimik La Rezang La Zoji La Pensi La Shingo La Spangur Gap Kongka La Lanak La Dehra Compass

Valleys

Leh Rupshu Salt Valley Padum Shyok Suru Valley Nubra Zanskar

Cities and Towns

Leh Kargil Upshi Padum Rangdum Dras Hemis Hanle Nyoma Sankoo Likir Khalatse Thiksey Chemrey Shey Zangla Daulat Beg Oldi Thoise Turtuk Chalunka Fukche Ukdungle Demchok Diskit Chushul Nimu

Rivers, glaciers and lakes

Sutlej Beas Ravi Shyok Chenab Indus Zanskar Tsarap Doda Yapola Suru River Markha Galwan Chip Chap

Siachen Glacier Drang-drung Rimo

Tso Moriri Pangong Tso Spanggur Tso

Monasteries

Alchi Bardan Basgo Chemrey Diskit Hanle Hemis Hundur Korzok Karsha Lamayuru Likir Lingshed Mashro Matho Mulbekh Namgyal Tsemo Phugtal Phyang Rangdum Rizong Sani Sankar Saspul Shey
Shey
Monastery Spituk Stakna Stok Stongdey Takthok Thikse Tserkarmo Tonde Wanla Zangla Zongkul

See also

History of Ladakh Shanti Stupa Baltistan Leh–Manali Highway Bilaspur–Mandi– Leh
Leh
railway Lahaul and Spiti Tourism in Ladakh Ladakhi language Wildlife of Ladakh Curious BRO roadsigns Geography of Ladakh Saltoro Kangri More plains Depsang Plains Khurnak Fort Sirijap Gurung Hill Ladakh
Ladakh
Marathon

v t e

Proposed states and territories of India

Proposed states

Awadh
Awadh
(Uttar Pradesh) Baghelkhand
Baghelkhand
(Uttar Pradesh/Madhya Pradesh) Bhojpur (Uttar Pradesh/Bihar) Bodoland
Bodoland
(Assam) Bundelkhand
Bundelkhand
(Uttar Pradesh/Madhya Pradesh) Chola Nadu
Chola Nadu
(Tamil Nadu) Coastal Andhra
Coastal Andhra
(Andhra Pradesh) Delhi Dimaraji
Dimaraji
(Assam/Nagaland) Dogradesh ( Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir) Garoland (Meghalaya) Gird (Madhya Pradesh) Gondwana (Madhya Pradesh/Chhattisgarh/Odisha) Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
(West Bengal) Harit Pradesh
Harit Pradesh
(Uttar Pradesh) Kalyana Karnataka
Kalyana Karnataka
(Karnataka) Kamtapur
Kamtapur
(West Bengal) Kashmir
Kashmir
( Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir) Khandesh
Khandesh
(Maharashtra) Kodagu (Karnataka) Kongu Nadu
Kongu Nadu
(Tamil Nadu) Konkan
Konkan
(Maharashtra/Goa/Karnataka) Kosal (Odisha) Kutch
Kutch
(Gujarat) Mahakoshal
Mahakoshal
(Madhya Pradesh) Malwa
Malwa
(Madhya Pradesh) Male Nadu
Male Nadu
(Karnataka) Marathwada
Marathwada
(Maharashtra) Maru Pradesh (Rajasthan) Mithila (Bihar) Nagalim
Nagalim
(Nagaland/Assam/Arunachal Pradesh) Pandya Nadu
Pandya Nadu
(Tamil Nadu) Panun Kashmir
Kashmir
( Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir) Puducherry Purvanchal
Purvanchal
(Uttar Pradesh) Rayalaseema
Rayalaseema
(Andhra Pradesh) Saurashtra (Gujarat) Seemanchal (Bihar) Tipraland
Tipraland
(Tripura) Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
(Karnataka/Kerala) Vidarbha
Vidarbha
(Maharashtra) Vindhya Pradesh
Vindhya Pradesh
(Madhya Pradesh) Uttarandhra
Uttarandhra
(Andhra Pradesh)

Proposed territories

Karaikal (Puducherry) Karbi Anglong
Karbi Anglong
(Assam) Ladakh
Ladakh
( Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir)

Current stat

.