Coordinates: 41°N 75°E / 41°N 75°E / 41; 75
Кыргыз Республикасы (Kyrgyz)
Республика Киргизстан (Russian)
Кыргыз Республикасынын Мамлекеттик
Kyrgyz Respublikasının Mamlekettik Gimni
National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic
Location of Kyrgyzstan (green)
and largest city
42°52′N 74°36′E / 42.867°N 74.600°E / 42.867; 74.600
Kyrgyz (national and official)
Ethnic groups (2016)
Christianity (Russian Orthodoxy)
Unitary parliamentary republic
• Prime Minister
Independence from the Soviet Union
• Kara-Kirghiz AO
14 October 1924
• Kirghiz SSR
5 December 1936
• Independence declared
31 August 1991
• CIS full membership
21 December 1991
25 December 1991
• Admitted to the United Nations
2 March 1992
• Current constitution
27 June 2010
199,951 km2 (77,202 sq mi) (85th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
• 2009 census
27.4/km2 (71.0/sq mi) (176th)
• Per capita
• Per capita
medium · 120th
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz: Кыргыз Республикасы,
translit. Kyrgyz Respublikasy; Russian: Кыргызская
Республика, tr. Kyrgyzskaya Respublika), or simply
Kyrgyzstan; and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyz:
Russian: Киргизия, tr. Kirgiziya) is a sovereign state in
Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country with mountainous
terrain. It is bordered by
Kazakhstan to the north,
Uzbekistan to the
west and southwest,
Tajikistan to the southwest and
China to the east.
Its capital and largest city is Bishkek.
Kyrgyzstan's recorded history spans over 2,000 years, encompassing a
variety of cultures and empires. Although geographically isolated by
its highly mountainous terrain, which has helped preserve its ancient
Kyrgyzstan has been at the crossroads of several great
civilizations as part of the
Silk Road and other commercial and
cultural routes. Though long inhabited by a succession of independent
tribes and clans,
Kyrgyzstan has periodically fallen under foreign
domination and attained sovereignty as a nation-state only after the
breakup of the
Soviet Union in 1991.
Kyrgyzstan has officially been a unitary
parliamentary republic, although it continues to endure ethnic
conflicts, revolts, economic troubles,
transitional governments and political conflict.
a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian
Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic
Cooperation, the Turkic Council, the
Türksoy community and the United
Ethnic Kyrgyz make up the majority of the country's 5.7 million
people, followed by significant minorities of
Uzbeks and Russians.
Kyrgyz is closely related to other Turkic languages, although Russian
remains widely spoken and is an official language, a legacy of a
century of Russification. The majority of the population are
non-denominational Muslims. In addition to its Turkic origins,
Kyrgyz culture bears elements of Persian, Mongolian, and Russian
2.2 Soviet Kyrgyzstan
3.1 Human rights
3.3 Administrative divisions
4.2 Enclaves and exclaves
6.1 Ethnic groups
6.3 Population centres
7.4 Public holidays
7.7 Science and technology
9.2 Banned airline status
9.3.1 Rail links with adjacent countries
9.6 Ports and harbours
10 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
"Kyrgyz" is believed to have been derived from the Turkic word for
"forty", in reference to the forty clans of Manas, a legendary hero
who united forty regional clans against the Uyghurs. Literally, Kyrgyz
means We are forty. At the time, in the early 9th century AD, the
Uyghurs dominated much of
Central Asia (including Kyrgyzstan),
Mongolia, and parts of
Russia and China.
The 40-ray sun on the flag of
Kyrgyzstan is a reference to those same
forty tribes and the graphical element in the sun's center depicts the
wooden crown, called tunduk, of a yurt – a portable dwelling
traditionally used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia.
In terms of naming conventions, the country's official name is "Kyrgyz
Republic" whenever it is used in some international arenas and foreign
relations. However, in the English-speaking world, the
Kyrgyzstan is commonly used while its former name Kirghizia
is rarely used as such.
Main article: History of Kyrgyzstan
The Turkic Khaganate.
According to David C. King,
Scythians were early settlers in
The Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the
Uyghur Khaganate in 840 A.D. From the 10th century the Kyrgyz
migrated as far as the
Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance
over this territory for about 200 years.
In the twelfth century the Kyrgyz dominion had shrunk to the Altay
Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion. With
the rise of the
Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century, the Kyrgyz
migrated south. The Kyrgyz peacefully became a part of the Mongol
Empire in 1207.
The descent of the Kyrgyz from the autochthonous Siberian population,
on the other hand, is confirmed by recent genetic studies. Because
of the processes of migration, conquest, intermarriage, and
assimilation, many of the Kyrgyz peoples who now inhabit Central and
Asia are of mixed origins, often stemming from fragments of
many different tribes, though they now speak closely related
Issyk Kul Lake
Issyk Kul Lake was a stopover on the Silk Road, a land route for
traders, merchants and other travelers from the Far East to Europe.
Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the 17th century by the Mongols, in the
mid-18th century by the Manchurian Qing Dynasty, and in the early 19th
century by the Uzbek Khanate of Kokand.
In the late nineteenth century, the eastern part of what is today
Kyrgyzstan, mainly Issyk-Kul Region, was ceded to Russian Empire
Treaty of Tarbagatai between
China (then ruled by the Qing
Dynasty) and Russia. The territory, then known in Russian as
"Kirghizia", was formally incorporated into the
Russian Empire in
1876. The Russian takeover was met with numerous revolts against
Tsarist authority, and many of the Kyrgyz opted to move to the Pamir
Mountains and Afghanistan.
In addition, the suppression of the 1916 rebellion against Russian
Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz later to migrate to China.
Since many ethnic groups in the region were (and still are) split
between neighboring states at a time when borders were more porous and
less regulated, it was common to move back and forth over the
mountains, depending on where life was perceived as better; this might
mean better rains for pasture or better government during oppression.
Silk road caravansary utilized during the Islamic Golden Age
Kyrgyz nomads, 1869–70, by Vasily Vereshchagin
Kyrgyz yurt, 1869–70, by Vasily Vereshchagin
A Nomadic Kyrgyz family on the Golodnaya Steppe in Uzbekistan, 1911,
Soviet power was initially established in the region in 1919, and the
Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was created within the
Russian SFSR (the
phrase Kara-Kirghiz was used until the mid-1920s by the
distinguish them from the Kazakhs, who were also referred to as
Kirghiz). On 5 December 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
was established as a full republic of the Soviet Union.
During the 1920s,
Kyrgyzstan developed considerably in cultural,
educational and social life.
Literacy was greatly improved, and a
standard literary language was introduced by imposing Russian on the
populace. Economic and social development also was notable. Many
aspects of Kyrgyz national culture were retained despite the
suppression of nationalist activity under Joseph Stalin, who
Soviet Union from the late 1920s until 1953.
The early years of glasnost had little effect on the political climate
in Kyrgyzstan. However, the Republic's press was permitted to adopt a
more liberal stance and to establish a new publication, Literaturny
Kirghizstan, by the Union of Writers. Unofficial political groups were
forbidden, but several groups that emerged in 1989 to deal with the
acute housing crisis were permitted to function.
According to the last Soviet census in 1989, ethnic Kyrgyz made up
only 22% of the residents of the northern city of Frunze (now
Bishkek), while more than 60% were Russians, Ukrainians, and people
from other Slavic nations. Nearly 10% of the capital's population were
Jewish (a rather unique fact, for almost any place in the Soviet
Union, except the Jewish Autonomous Republic).
Marco Polo sheep
Marco Polo sheep on a
In June 1990, ethnic tensions between
Uzbeks and Kyrgyz surfaced in
Osh Oblast (southern Kyrgyzstan), where
Uzbeks form a minority of
the population. Attempts to appropriate Uzbek collective farms for
housing development triggered the
Osh Riots. A state of emergency and
curfew were introduced and Askar Akayev, the youngest of five sons
born into a family of collective farm workers (in northern
Kyrgyzstan), was elected president in October of that same year.
By then, the
Kyrgyzstan Democratic Movement (KDM) had developed into a
significant political force with support in Parliament. On 15 December
1990, the Supreme Soviet voted to change the republic's name to the
Republic of Kyrgyzstan. (In 1993, it became the Kyrgyz Republic.) The
following January, Akayev introduced new government structures and
appointed a new government composed mainly of younger, reform-oriented
politicians. In February 1991, the name of the capital, Frunze, was
changed back to its pre-revolutionary name of Bishkek.
Despite these political moves toward independence, economic realities
seemed to work against secession from the Soviet Union. In a
referendum on the preservation of the
Soviet Union in March 1991,
88.7% of the voters approved the proposal to retain the Soviet Union
as a "renewed federation". Nevertheless, secessionist forces pushed
Kyrgyzstan's independence through in August of that same year.
On 19 August 1991, when the State Emergency Committee assumed power in
Moscow, there was an attempt to depose Akayev in Kyrgyzstan. After the
coup collapsed the following week, Akayev and Vice President German
Kuznetsov announced their resignations from the Communist Party of the
Soviet Union (CPSU), and the entire bureau and secretariat resigned.
This was followed by the Supreme Soviet vote declaring independence
Soviet Union on 31 August 1991 as the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.
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In October 1991, Akayev ran unopposed and was elected president of the
new independent Republic by direct ballot, receiving 95 percent of the
votes cast. Together with the representatives of seven other Republics
that same month, he signed the Treaty of the New Economic Community.
Finally, on 21 December 1991,
Kyrgyzstan joined with the other four
Central Asian Republics to formally enter the new Commonwealth of
Kyrgyzstan gained full independence a few days
later on 25 December 1991. The following day, on 26 December 1991, the
Soviet Union ceased to exist. In 1992,
Kyrgyzstan joined the United
Nations and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
(OSCE). On 5 May 1993, the official name changed from the Republic of
Kyrgyzstan to the Kyrgyz Republic.
In 2005, a popular uprising known as the "Tulip Revolution", took
place after the parliamentary elections in March 2005, forced
President Askar Akayev's resignation on 4 April 2005. Opposition
leaders formed a coalition, and a new government was formed under
Kurmanbek Bakiyev and Prime Minister Feliks Kulov. The
nation's capital was looted during the protests.
Political stability appeared to be elusive, however, as various groups
and factions allegedly linked to organized crime jockeyed for power.
Three of the 75 members of Parliament elected in March 2005 were
assassinated, and another member was assassinated on 10 May 2006
shortly after winning his murdered brother's seat in a by-election.
All four are reputed to have been directly involved in major illegal
business ventures.[according to whom?] On 6 April 2010, civil unrest
broke out in the town of Talas after a demonstration against
government corruption and increased living expenses. The protests
became violent, spreading to
Bishkek by the following day. Protesters
attacked President Bakiyev's offices, as well as state-run radio and
television stations. There were conflicting reports that Interior
Moldomusa Kongatiyev had been beaten. On 7 April 2010,
President Bakiyev imposed a state of emergency. Police and special
services arrested many opposition leaders. In response, protesters
took control of the internal security headquarters (former KGB
headquarters) and a state television channel in the capital,
Bishkek. Reports by
Kyrgyzstan government officials
indicated that at least 75 people were killed and 458 hospitalized in
bloody clashes with police in the capital. Reports say that at
least 80 people died as a result of clashes with police. A transition
government, led by former foreign minister Roza Otunbayeva, by 8 April
2010 had taken control of state media and government facilities in the
capital, but Bakiyev had not resigned from office.
President Bakiyev returned to his home in
Jalal-Abad and stated his
terms of resignation at a press conference on 13 April 2010. On 15
April 2010, Bakiyev left the country and flew to neighboring
Kazakhstan, along with his wife and two children. The country's
provisional leaders announced that Bakiyev signed a formal letter of
resignation prior to his departure.
Daniar Usenov accused
Russia of supporting the
protests; this accusation was denied by Russian Prime Minister,
Vladimir Putin. Opposition members also called for the closing of the
US-controlled Manas Air Base. Russia's President Dmitry Medvedev
ordered measures to ensure the safety of Russian nationals and tighten
security around Russian sites in
Kyrgyzstan to protect them against
2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes
2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes occurred between the two main
Uzbeks and Kyrgyz—in Osh, the second largest
city in the country, on 11 June 2010. The clashes incited fears that
the country could be heading towards a civil war.
Nomads in Kyrgyzstan
Finding it difficult to control the situation, Otunbayeva, the interim
leader, sent a letter to the Russian president, Dimitry Medvedev,
asking him to send Russian troops to help the country control the
situation. Medvedev's Press Attaché, Natalya Timakova, said in a
reply to the letter, "It is an internal conflict and for now Russia
does not see the conditions for taking part in its resolution". The
clashes caused a shortage of food and other essential commodities with
more than 200 killed and 1,685 people hurt, as of
12 June 2010[update]. The Russian government, however, said
it would be sending humanitarian aid to the troubled nation.
According to local sources, there was a clash between two local gangs
and it did not take long for the violence to spread to the rest of the
city. There were also reports that the armed forces supported ethnic
Kyrgyz gangs entering the city, but the government denied the
The riots spread to neighboring areas, and the government declared a
state of emergency in the entire southern
Jalal-Abad region. To
control the situation, the interim government gave special
shoot-to-kill powers to the security forces. The Russian government
decided to send a battalion to the country to protect Russian
Kyrgyz family in the village of Sary-Mogol,
Otunbayeva accused the family of Bakiyev of "instigating the
riots". AFP reported "a veil of smoke covering the whole city".
Authorities in neighboring
Uzbekistan said at least 30,000
crossed the border to escape the riots.
Osh became relatively calm
on 14 June 2010, but
Jalal-Abad witnessed sporadic incidents of arson.
The entire region was still under a state of emergency as
reluctant to leave their houses for fear of attacks by the mobs. The
United Nations decided to send an envoy to assess the situation.
Temir Sariyev, deputy chief of the interim government, said there were
local clashes and that it was not possible [for the government] to
fully control the situation. He added that there were not sufficient
security forces to contain the violence. Media agencies reported on 14
June 2010 that the Russian government was considering a request by the
Kyrgyz government. An emergency meeting of Collective Security Treaty
Organisation (CSTO) was held on the same day (14 June) to discuss the
role it could play in helping to end the violence. Ethnic violence
waned, according to the Kyrgyz government, by 15 June 2010 and Kyrgyz
Roza Otunbayeva held a news conference that day and declared
that there was no need for
Russia to send in troops to quell the
violence. There were at least 170 people left dead by 15 June 2010 but
Pascale Meige Wagner of the International Committee of the Red Cross
said the [official] death toll was an underestimate. The UN High
Commissioner told reporters in
Geneva that evidence suggested that the
violence seemed to have been staged up. Ethnic
Uzbeks threatened to
blow up an oil depot in
Osh if they failed to get guarantees of
United Nations said it believed that the attacks were
"orchestrated, targeted and well-planned". Kyrgyz officials told the
media that a person suspected to be behind the violence in Jalal-Abad
had been detained.
On 2 August 2010, a Kyrgyz government commission began investigating
the causes of the clashes. Members of the National Commission, led by
former parliament speaker Abdygany Erkebaev, met with people from the
predominantly ethnic Uzbek villages of Mady, Shark, and Kyzyl-Kyshtak
in the Kara-Suu district of
Osh Oblast. This National Commission,
including representatives of many ethnic groups, was established by a
Roza Otunbayeva also said in August 2010 that an
international commission would also be formed to investigate the
The commission's report, released in January 2011, concluded that the
events in southern
Kyrgyzstan constituted a “planned, large-scale
provocation, oriented towards the splitting of
disrupting the unity of its people.” Responsibility for this
provocation was seen as lying with “nationalistically-minded leaders
of the Uzbek community”. In the aftermath of the turmoil, on 5
August 2010, Kyrgyz forces arrested party leader Urmat Baryktabasov on
suspicion of plotting an overthrow of the government, after troops
allegedly fired blank rounds at a crowd trying to join mass
demonstrations near the Parliament in the capital Bishkek. Acting
Roza Otunbayeva said security forces seized firearms and
grenades from him and 26 supporters.
Main article: Politics of Kyrgyzstan
Sooronbay Jeenbekov in office since 2017
Sapar Isakov in office since 2017
Askar Akayev (1990–2005) with U.S. ex-President George
W. Bush, 22 September 2002
PM and ex-President
Kurmanbek Bakiyev (2005–2010) on a meeting with
U.S. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, 26 July 2005
Almazbek Atambayev (2011–17) and Russian president
Vladimir Putin, 16 March 2015
The 1993 constitution defines the form of government as a democratic
unicameral republic. The executive branch includes a Supreme
Chancellor and Vice Chair. The parliament currently is unicameral. The
judicial branch comprises a Supreme Court, local courts and a Chief
In March 2002, in the southern district of Aksy, five people
protesting the arbitrary arrest of an opposition politician were shot
dead by police, sparking nationwide protests. President Askar Akayev
initiated a constitutional reform process which initially included the
participation of a broad range of government, civil and social
representatives in an open dialogue, leading to a February 2003
referendum marred by voting irregularities.
The amendments to the constitution approved by the referendum resulted
in stronger control by the president and weakened the parliament and
the Constitutional Court. Parliamentary elections for a new, 75-seat
unicameral legislature were held on 27 February and 13 March 2005, but
were widely viewed as corrupt. The subsequent protests led to a
bloodless coup on 24 March 2005, after which Akayev fled the country
with his family and was replaced by acting president Kurmanbek Bakiyev
(see: Tulip Revolution).
On 10 July 2005, acting president Bakiyev won the presidential
election in a landslide, with 88.9% of the vote, and was inaugurated
on 14 August. However, initial public support for the new
administration substantially declined in subsequent months as a result
of its apparent inability to solve the corruption problems that had
plagued the country since its independence from the Soviet Union,
along with the murders of several members of parliament. Large-scale
protests against president Bakiyev took place in
Bishkek in April and
November 2006, with opposition leaders accusing the president of
failing to live up to his election promises to reform the country's
constitution and transfer many of his presidential powers to
Kyrgyzstan is also a member of the Organization for Security and
Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), a league of 56 participating states
committed to peace, transparency, and the protection of human rights
in Eurasia. As an OSCE participating State, Kyrgyzstan’s
international commitments are subject to monitoring under the mandate
of the U.S. Helsinki Commission.
In December 2008, the state-owned broadcast UTRK announced that it
would require prior submission of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
programmes, which UTRK are required to retransmit according to a 2005
agreement. UTRK had stopped retransmitting RFE/RL programming in
October 2008, a week after it failed to broadcast an RFE/RL programme
called 'Inconvenient Questions' which covered the October elections,
claiming to have lost the missing material. President Bakiyev had
criticised this programme in September 2008, while UTRK told RFE/RL
that its programming was too negative. Reporters Without Borders,
Kyrgyzstan 111th out of 173 countries on its Press Freedom
Index, strongly criticised the decision.
On 3 February 2009, President
Kurmanbek Bakiyev announced the imminent
closure of the Manas Air Base, the only US military base remaining in
Central Asia. The closure was approved by Parliament on 19
February 2009 by a vote of 78–1 for the government-backed bill.
However, after much behind-the-scenes negotiation between Kyrgyz,
Russian and American diplomats, the decision was reversed in June
2009. The Americans were allowed to remain under a new contract,
whereby rent would increase from $17.4 million to $60 million
Kyrgyzstan is among the fifty countries in the world with the highest
perceived level of corruption: the 2016 Corruption Perception Index
Kyrgyzstan is 28 on a scale of 0 (most corrupt) to 100 (least
In 2010 another revolution erupted in the country (see: April
Kurmanbek Bakiyev together with his relatives –
e.g. son Maksim and brother Janish – were forced to flee to
Kazakhstan and then sought asylum in Belarus. Roza Otunbayeva, who was
appointed interim president, announced that she did not intend to run
for the Presidential elections in 2011. The election was held in
November and won by the then-Prime Minister Almazbek Atambayev, leader
of the Social Democratic Party, and Atambayev was sworn in as
president on 1 December 2011.
Omurbek Babanov was appointed prime
minister on the same day and was confirmed on 23 December 2011.
Human rights in Kyrgyzstan
In a move that alarmed human-rights groups, dozens of prominent Uzbek
religious and community leaders were arrested by security forces
following the 2010 South
Kyrgyzstan riots, including journalist and
human-rights activist Azimzhan Askarov. A law banning women under
the age of 23 from traveling abroad without a parent or guardian, with
the purpose of "increased morality and preservation of the gene pool"
passed in the Kyrgyz parliament in June 2013. American diplomats
expressed concern in October 2014 when
Kyrgyzstan lawmakers passed a
law that imposes jail terms on gay-rights activists and others,
including journalists, who create “a positive attitude toward
non-traditional sexual relations.”
Kyrgyz soldiers conducting mine sweeping exercises.
Main article: Armed Forces of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan
The armed forces of
Kyrgyzstan were formed after the collapse of the
Soviet Union and consist of the Land Forces, Air Forces, internal
troops, National Guard, and the border guard. The military works with
the US Armed Forces, which leased a facility named the Transit Center
at Manas at Manas International airport near
Bishkek until June
2014. In recent years, the armed forces have begun developing
better relations with
Russia including signing modernization deals
worth $1.1bn and partaking in more exercises with Russian troops.
The Agency of National Security works with the military and serves
similar purposes to its Soviet predecessor, the KGB. It oversees an
elite counterterrorism special forces unit known as "Alfa", the same
name used by other former Soviet countries, including
Uzbekistan. The police are commanded by the Ministry of the Interior
Affairs, along with the border guard.
Regions of Kyrgyzstan
Regions of Kyrgyzstan and Districts of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan is divided into seven regions (sing. oblast
(область), pl. oblasttar (областтар)) administered by
appointed governors. The capital, Bishkek, and the second largest city
Osh are administratively independent cities (shaar) with a status
equal to a region.
The regions, and independent cities, are as follows:
City of Bishkek
City of Osh
Each region comprises a number of districts (raions), administered by
government-appointed officials (akim).
Rural communities (ayıl
ökmötü), consisting of up to 20 small settlements, have their own
elected mayors and councils.
A map of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan map of Köppen climate classification
Tian Shan mountain range in Kyrgyzstan
On the southern shore of Issyk Kul lake, Issyk Kul Region
Main article: Geography of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordering
Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It lies between
latitudes 39° and 44° N, and longitudes 69° and 81° E. It is
farther from the sea than any other individual country, and all its
rivers flow into closed drainage systems which do not reach the sea.
The mountainous region of the
Tian Shan covers over 80% of the country
Kyrgyzstan is occasionally referred to as "the Switzerland of Central
Asia", as a result), with the remainder made up of valleys and
Issyk-Kul Lake, or Ysyk-Köl in Kyrgyz, in the north-eastern Tian Shan
is the largest lake in
Kyrgyzstan and the second largest mountain lake
in the world after Titicaca. The highest peaks are in the Kakshaal-Too
range, forming the Chinese border. Peak Jengish Chokusu, at
7,439 m (24,406 ft), is the highest point and is considered
by geologists to be the northernmost peak over 7,000 m
(22,966 ft) in the world. Heavy snowfall in winter leads to
spring floods which often cause serious damage downstream. The runoff
from the mountains is also used for hydro-electricity.
Kyrgyzstan has significant deposits of metals including gold and
rare-earth metals. Due to the country's predominantly mountainous
terrain, less than 8% of the land is cultivated, and this is
concentrated in the northern lowlands and the fringes of the Fergana
Bishkek in the north is the capital and largest city, with 937,400
inhabitants (as of 2015[update]). The second city is the ancient town
of Osh, located in the
Fergana Valley near the border with Uzbekistan.
The principal river is the Kara Darya, which flows west through the
Fergana Valley into Uzbekistan. Across the border in
meets another major Kyrgyz river, the Naryn.
The confluence forms the Syr Darya, which originally flowed into the
Aral Sea. As of 2010[update], it no longer reaches the sea, as its
water is withdrawn upstream to irrigate cotton fields in Tajikistan,
Uzbekistan, and southern Kazakhstan. The
Chu River also briefly flows
Kyrgyzstan before entering Kazakhstan.
Main article: Climate of Kyrgyzstan
The climate varies regionally. The low-lying
Fergana Valley in the
southwest is subtropical and extremely hot in summer, with
temperatures reaching 40 °C (104 °F) The northern
foothills are temperate and the
Tian Shan varies from dry continental
to polar climate, depending on elevation. In the coldest areas
temperatures are sub-zero for around 40 days in winter, and even some
desert areas experience constant snowfall in this period. In the
lowlands the temperature ranges from around -−6 °C
(21 °F) in January to 24 °C (75 °F) in July.
Enclaves and exclaves
There is one exclave, the tiny village of Barak (population 627),
in the Fergana Valley. The village is surrounded by Uzbek territory.
It is located on the road from
Osh (Kyrgyzstan) to Khodjaabad
(Uzbekistan) about 4 kilometres (2 miles) north-west from the
Kyrgyz–Uzbek border in the direction of Andijan. Barak is
administratively part of
Kara-Suu District in Kyrgyzstan's
There are four Uzbek enclaves within Kyrgyzstan. Two of them are the
towns of Sokh (area 325 km2 (125 sq mi) and a
population of 42,800 in 1993, although some estimates go as high as
70,000; 99% are Tajiks, the remainder Uzbeks) and Shakhimardan (also
known as Shahimardan, Shohimardon, or Shah-i-Mardan, area 90 km2
(35 sq mi) and a population of 5,100 in 1993; 91% are
Uzbeks, the remainder Kyrgyz); the other two are the tiny territories
of Chong-Kara (roughly 3 km (2 mi) long by 1 km
(0.6 mi) wide) and Jangy-ayyl (a dot of land barely 2–3 km
(1–2 mi) across). Chong-Kara is on the Sokh river, between the
Uzbek border and the Sokh enclave. Jangy-ayyl is about 60 kilometres
(37 mi) east of Batken, in a northward projection of the
Kyrgyz-Uzbek border near Khalmion.
There are also two enclaves belonging to Tajikistan:
area between 95–130 km2 (37–50 sq mi), population
estimated between 23,000 and 29,000, 95% Tajiks and 5% Kyrgyz,
distributed among 17 villages), located 45 kilometres (28 mi)
Isfara on the right bank of the Karafshin river, and a small
settlement near the Kyrgyz railway station of Kairagach.
Main article: Economy of Kyrgyzstan
A proportional representation of
Kyrgyzstan 's exports
National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic serves as the
Central bank of
Kyrgyzstan was the ninth poorest country in the former
Soviet Union, and is today the second poorest country in Central Asia
after Tajikistan. According to the CIA World Factbook, in 2011, a
third of the country's population lived below the poverty line.
According to UNDP, the level of poverty will continue to grow: in 2009
31% of the population lived below the poverty level, while in 2011
this figure rose to 37%.. But in 2017 according to data provided
World Bank the country's population lived below the poverty line
was reduced to 31,7%.
Despite the backing of major Western lenders, including the
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund (IMF), the
World Bank and the Asian
Kyrgyzstan has had economic difficulties following
independence. Initially, these were a result of the breakup of the
Soviet trade bloc and resulting loss of markets, which impeded the
republic's transition to a demand economy.
The government has reduced expenditures, ended most price subsidies
and introduced a value-added tax. Overall, the government appears
committed to the transition to a market economy. Through economic
stabilization and reform, the government seeks to establish a pattern
of long-term consistent growth. Reforms led to Kyrgyzstan's accession
World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization (WTO) on 20 December 1998.
The Kyrgyz economy was severely affected by the collapse of the Soviet
Union and the resulting loss of its vast market. In 1990, some 98% of
Kyrgyz exports went to other parts of the Soviet Union. Thus, the
nation's economic performance in the early 1990s was worse than any
other former Soviet republic except war-torn Armenia,
Tajikistan, as factories and state farms collapsed with the
disappearance of their traditional markets in the former Soviet Union.
While economic performance has improved considerably in the last few
years, and particularly since 1998, difficulties remain in securing
adequate fiscal revenues and providing an adequate social safety net.
Remittances of around 800,000 Kyrgyz migrants working in Russia
represent 40% of Kyrgyzstan's GDP.
Agriculture is an important sector of the economy in
agriculture in Kyrgyzstan). By the early 1990s, the private
agricultural sector provided between one-third and one-half of some
harvests. In 2002, agriculture accounted for 35.6% of GDP and about
half of employment. Kyrgyzstan's terrain is mountainous, which
accommodates livestock raising, the largest agricultural activity, so
the resulting wool, meat and dairy products are major commodities.
Main crops include wheat, sugar beets, potatoes, cotton, tobacco,
vegetables, and fruit. As the prices of imported agrichemicals and
petroleum are so high, much farming is being done by hand and by
horse, as it was generations ago. Agricultural processing is a key
component of the industrial economy as well as one of the most
attractive sectors for foreign investment.
Kyrgyzstan is rich in mineral resources but has negligible petroleum
and natural gas reserves; it imports petroleum and gas. Among its
mineral reserves are substantial deposits of coal, gold, uranium,
antimony, and other valuable metals.
Metallurgy is an important
industry, and the government hopes to attract foreign investment in
this field. The government has actively encouraged foreign involvement
in extracting and processing gold from the Kumtor
Gold Mine and other
regions. The country's plentiful water resources and mountainous
terrain enable it to produce and export large quantities of
The principal exports are nonferrous metals and minerals, woollen
goods and other agricultural products, electric energy and certain
engineering goods. Imports include petroleum and natural gas, ferrous
metals, chemicals, most machinery, wood and paper products, some foods
and some construction materials. Its leading trade partners include
Germany, Russia, China, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan.
In regards to telecommunication infrastructure, Kyrgyz Republic ranks
Central Asia in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness
Index (NRI) – an indicator for determining the development level of
a country’s information and communication technologies. Kyrgyz
Republic ranked number 118 overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, unchanged
from 2013 (see Networked Readiness Index).
A population pyramid showing Kyrgyzstan's age distribution (2005).
Main article: Demographics of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan's population is estimated at 5.6 million in 2013. Of
those, 34.4% are under the age of 15 and 6.2% are over 65. The country
is rural: only about one-third of the population live in urban areas.
The average population density is 25 people per km².
The nation's largest ethnic group are the Kyrgyz, a Turkic people, who
comprise 73.2% of the population. Other ethnic groups include Russians
(5.8%) concentrated in the north and
Uzbeks (14.6%) living in the
south. Small but noticeable minorities include
Dungans (1.1%), Uyghurs
(1.1%), Tajiks (1.1%),
Kazakhs (0.7%), and
Ukrainians (0.5%) and other
smaller ethnic minorities (1.7%). The country has over 80 ethnic
The Kyrgyz have historically been semi-nomadic herders, living in
round tents called yurts and tending sheep, horses and yaks. This
nomadic tradition continues to function seasonally (see transhumance)
as herding families return to the high mountain pasture (or jailoo) in
the summer. The sedentary
Uzbeks and Tajiks traditionally have farmed
lower-lying irrigated land in the Fergana valley.
Kyrgyzstan has undergone a pronounced change in its ethnic composition
since independence. The percentage of ethnic Kyrgyz has
increased from around 50% in 1979 to over 70% in 2013, while the
percentage of ethnic groups, such as Russians, Ukrainians, Germans and
Tatars dropped from 35% to about 7%. Since 1991, a large number of
Germans, who in 1989 numbered 101,000 persons, have emigrated to
Kyrgyzstan according to ethnic group 1926–2014
Kyrgyzstan is one of two former Soviet republics in
Central Asia to
have Russian as an official language,
Kazakhstan being the other. The
Kyrgyz language was adopted as the official language in 1991. After
pressure from the Russian minority in the country,
Russian as an official language as well in 1997, to become an
officially bilingual country.
Kyrgyz is a Turkic language of the Kipchak branch, closely related to
Kazakh, Karakalpak, and Nogay Tatar. It was written in the Arabic
alphabet until the twentieth century. Latin script was introduced and
adopted in 1928, and was subsequently replaced on Stalin's orders by
Cyrillic script in 1941.
According to the 2009 census, 4.1 million people spoke Kyrgyz as
native or second language and 2.5 million spoke Russian as native or
second language. Uzbek is the second most widely spoken native
language, followed by Russian. Russian is the most widely spoken
second language, followed by Kyrgyz and Uzbek.
Many business and political affairs are carried out in Russian. Until
recently, Kyrgyz remained a language spoken at home and was rarely
used during meetings or other events. However, most parliamentary
meetings today are conducted in Kyrgyz, with simultaneous
interpretation available for those not speaking Kyrgyz.
Main article: List of cities in Kyrgyzstan
Largest cities or towns in Kyrgyzstan
Russian Orthodox Church
Main article: Religion in Kyrgyzstan
Karakol Dungan Mosque
Islam is the dominant religion of Kyrgyzstan: 80% of the population is
Muslim while 17% follow Russian Orthodoxy and 3% other religions.
Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center report indicates a higher percentage of
Muslims, with 86.3% of Kyrgyzstan's population adhering to Islam.
The majority of Muslims are non-denominational Muslims at 64% while
roughly 23% are Sunni, adhering to the
Hanafi school of thought.
There are a few
Ahmadiyya Muslims, though unrecognised by the
During Soviet times, state atheism was encouraged. Today, however,
Kyrgyzstan is a secular state, although
Islam has exerted a growing
influence in politics. For instance, there has been an attempt to
arrange for officials to travel on hajj (the pilgrimage to Mecca)
under a tax-free arrangement.
Kyrgyzstan is more of a cultural background than a
devout daily practice for many, public figures have expressed support
for restoring religious values. For example, human rights ombudsman
Tursunbay Bakir-Ulu noted, "In this era of independence, it is not
surprising that there has been a return to spiritual roots not only in
Kyrgyzstan, but also in other post-communist republics. It would be
immoral to develop a market-based society without an ethical
Bishkek Orthodox Church
Additionally, Bermet Akayeva, the daughter of Askar Akayev, the former
President of Kyrgyzstan, stated during a July 2007 interview that
Islam is increasingly taking root across the nation. She
emphasized that many mosques have recently been built and that the
Kyrgyz are increasingly devoting themselves to Islam, which she noted
was "not a bad thing in itself. It keeps our society more moral,
cleaner." There is a contemporary
Sufi order present which adheres
to a somewhat different form of
Islam than the orthodox Islam.
Mosque under construction in Kyrgyzstan
The other faiths practiced in
Kyrgyzstan include Russian Orthodox and
Ukrainian Orthodox versions of Christianity, practiced primarily by
Ukrainians respectively. A community of 5000 to 10000
Jehovah's Witnesses gather in both Kirghiz- and Russian-speaking
congregations, as well as some Chinese- and Turkish-speaking
groups. A small minority of ethnic Germans are also Christian,
mostly Lutheran and
Anabaptist as well as a
Roman Catholic community
of approximately 600.
A few Animistic traditions survive, as do influences from Buddhism
such as the tying of prayer flags onto sacred trees, though some view
this practice rooted within
Sufi Islam. There are also a small
Bukharian Jews living in Kyrgyzstan, but during the collapse
Soviet Union most fled to other countries, mainly the United
States and Israel. In addition, there is a small community of
Ashkenazi Jews, who fled to the country from eastern Europe during the
Second World War.
On 6 November 2008, the
Kyrgyzstan parliament unanimously passed a law
increasing the minimum number of adherents for recognizing a religion
from 10 to 200. It also outlawed "aggressive action aimed at
proselytism", and banned religious activity in schools and all
activity by unregistered organizations. It was signed by President
Kurmanbek Bakiyev on 12 January 2009.
There have been several reported police raids against peaceful
minority religious meetings, reports of officials planting false
evidence, but also some court decisions in favour of religious
Culture of Kyrgyzstan
Culture of Kyrgyzstan and Kyrgyz cuisine
Musicians playing traditional Kyrgyz music.
Manas, an epic poem
Komuz, a three-stringed lute
Tush kyiz, large, elaborately embroidered wall hangings
Shirdak, flat cushions made in shadow-pairs
Other textiles, especially made from felt
In addition to celebrating the
New Year each 1 January, the Kyrgyz
observe the traditional
New Year festival
Nowruz on the vernal
equinox. This spring holiday is celebrated with feasts and festivities
such as the horse game Ulak Tartish.
Illegal, but still practiced, is the tradition of bride
It is debatable whether bride kidnapping is actually traditional. Some
of the confusion may stem from the fact that arranged marriages were
traditional, and one of the ways to escape an arranged marriage was to
arrange a consensual "kidnapping."
The 40-rayed yellow sun in the center of the flag represent the 40
tribes that once made up the entirety of Kyrgyz culture before the
Russia during the rise of the Soviet Union. The lines
inside the sun represent the crown or tündük (Kyrgyz түндүк)
of a yurt, a symbol replicated in many facets of Kyrgyz architecture.
The red portion of the flag represents peace and openness of
Under Soviet rule and before 1992, it had the flag of the Soviet Union
with two big blue stripes and a white thin stripe in the middle.
Hunting with an eagle
The traditional national sports reflect the importance of horse riding
in Kyrgyz culture.
Very popular, as in all of Central Asia, is Ulak Tartysh, a team game
resembling a cross between polo and rugby in which two teams of riders
wrestle for possession of the headless carcass of a goat, which they
attempt to deliver across the opposition's goal line, or into the
opposition's goal: a big tub or a circle marked on the ground.
Other popular games on horseback include:
At Chabysh – a long-distance horse race, sometimes over a distance
of more than 50 km
Jumby Atmai – a large bar of precious metal (the "jumby") is tied to
a pole by a thread and contestants attempt to break the thread by
shooting at it, while at a gallop
Kyz Kuumai – a man chases a girl in order to win a kiss from her,
while she gallops away; if he is not successful she may in turn chase
him and attempt to beat him with her "kamchi" (horsewhip)
Oodarysh – two contestants wrestle on horseback, each attempting to
be the first to throw the other from his horse
Tyin Emmei – picking up a coin from the ground at full gallop
Southern shore of Issyk Kul Lake.
Main article: Public holidays in Kyrgyzstan
This is the list of public holidays in Kyrgyzstan:
1 January – New Year's Day
7 January – Orthodox Christmas
23 February – Fatherland Defender's Day
8 March – Women's Day
21–23 March – Nooruz Mairamy, Persian
New Year (spring festival)
7 April – Day of National Revolution
1 May – Labor Day
5 May – Constitution Day
8 May – Remembrance Day
9 May – Victory Day
31 August – Independence Day
7-8 November – Days of History and Commemoration of Ancestors
Issyk Kul Lake
Two additional Muslim holidays Orozo Ait and Kurman Ait are defined by
One of the most popular tourist destination points in
Issyk Kul Lake. Numerous hotels, vacation resorts, and boarding houses
are located along its Northern shore. The most popular beach zones are
in the city of
Cholpon-Ata and the settlements nearby, such as Kara-Oi
(Dolinka), Bosteri and Korumdy. The number of tourists visiting the
lake was more than a million a year in 2006 and 2007. However, due to
the economical and political instability in the region, the number has
declined in recent years.
For those interested in trekking and camping, every region offers
attractions and challenges. Some of the most popular locations for
camping are southern Osh, the area between
Naryn City and the Torugart
pass, and the mountains and glaciers surrounding
Issyk-Kul. Local guides and porters can be hired from
many tour companies in
Bishkek and in the regional capitals.
Skiing is still in its infancy as a tourism industry, but there is one
fairly cheap and well-equipped base about a half-hour from Bishkek.
The ski base of Toguz Bulak is 45 km (28 mi) from Bishkek,
on the way to Issyk Ata valley. In the
Karakol Valley National Park,
outside Karakol, there is also a ski base with three T-bars and rental
equipment available of good quality.
See also: Rugby union in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan in red against Japan
Football is the most popular sport in Kyrgyzstan. The official
governing body is the Football Federation of Kyrgyz Republic, which
was founded in 1992, after the split of the Soviet Union. It
Kyrgyzstan national football team.
Wrestling is also very popular. In the 2008
Summer Olympic Games, two
Kyrgyzstan won medals in Greco-Roman wrestling: Kanatbek
Begaliev (silver) and
Ruslan Tyumenbayev (bronze).
Ice hockey was not as popular in
Kyrgyzstan until the first Ice Hockey
Championship was organized in 2009. In 2011, the
national ice hockey team won
2011 Asian Winter Games
2011 Asian Winter Games Premier Division
dominating in all six games with six wins. It was the first major
international event that Kyrgyzstan's ice hockey team took part
Kyrgyzstan men's ice hockey team joined the
IIHF in July
Bandy is becoming increasingly popular in the country. The Kyrgyz
national team took Kyrgyzstan's first medal at the Asian Winter Games,
when they captured the bronze. They played in the
Championship 2012, their first appearance in that tournament.
Science and technology
The headquarters of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences is located in
Bishkek, where several research institutes are located. Kyrgyz
researchers are developing useful technologies based on natural
products, such as heavy metal remediation for purifying waste
Main article: Education in Kyrgyzstan
American University of Central Asia
The school system in
Kyrgyzstan includes primary (grades 1 to 4) and
secondary (grades 5 to 11 (or sometimes 12)) divisions within one
school. Children are usually accepted to primary schools at the age of
7. It is required that every child finishes 9 grades of school and
receives a certificate of completion. Grades 10–11 are optional, but
it is necessary to complete them to graduate and receive a
state-accredited school diploma. To graduate, a student must complete
the 11-year school course and pass 4 mandatory state exams in writing,
maths, history and a foreign language.
There are 77 public schools in
Bishkek (capital city) and more than
200 in the rest of the country. There are 55 higher educational
institutions and universities in Kyrgyzstan, out of which 37 are state
In September 2016, the University of
Central Asia was launched in
Naryn, Kyrgyzstan- the country's newest university.
Bishkek West Bus Terminal
Main article: Transport in Kyrgyzstan
Transport in Kyrgyzstan
Transport in Kyrgyzstan is severely constrained by the country's
alpine topography. Roads have to snake up steep valleys, cross passes
of 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) altitude and more, and are subject to
frequent mudslides and snow avalanches. Winter travel is close to
impossible in many of the more remote and high-altitude regions.
Additional problems come from the fact that many roads and railway
lines built during the Soviet period are today intersected by
international boundaries, requiring time-consuming border formalities
to cross where they are not completely closed. Horses are still a
much-used transport option, especially in more rural areas;
Kyrgyzstan's road infrastructure is not extensive, so horses are able
to reach locations that motor vehicles cannot, and they do not require
expensive, imported fuel.
At the end of the Soviet period there were about 50 airports and
airstrips in Kyrgyzstan, many of them built primarily to serve
military purposes in this border region so close to China. Only a few
of them remain in service today. The
Kyrgyzstan Air Company
Kyrgyzstan Air Company provides
air transport to China, Russia, and other local countries.
Manas International Airport
Manas International Airport near
Bishkek is the main international
airport, with services to Moscow, Tashkent, Almaty, Urumqi, Istanbul,
Baku, and Dubai.
Osh Airport is the main air terminal in the south of the country, with
daily connections to Bishkek.
Jalal-Abad Airport is linked to
Bishkek by daily flights. The national
flag carrier, Kyrgyzstan, operates flights on
BAe-146 aircraft. During
the summer months, a weekly flight links
Jalal-Abad with the Issyk-Kul
Other facilities built during the Soviet era are either closed down,
used only occasionally or restricted to military use (e.g., Kant Air
Base near Bishkek, which is used by the Russian Air Force).
Banned airline status
Kyrgyzstan appears on the European Union's list of prohibited
countries for the certification of airlines. This means that no
airline which is registered in
Kyrgyzstan may operate services of any
kind within the European Union, due to safety standards which fail to
meet European regulations.
Chuy Valley in the north and the
Ferghana valley in the south were
endpoints of the Soviet Union's rail system in Central Asia. Following
the emergence of independent post-Soviet states, the rail lines which
were built without regard for administrative boundaries have been cut
by borders, and traffic is therefore severely curtailed. The small
bits of rail lines within Kyrgyzstan, about 370 km (230 mi)
(1,520 mm (59.8 in) broad gauge) in total, have little
economic value in the absence of the former bulk traffic over long
distances to and from such centres as Tashkent, Almaty, and the cities
There are vague plans about extending rail lines from
Balykchy in the
north and/or from
Osh in the south into China, but the cost of
construction would be enormous.
Rail links with adjacent countries
Kazakhstan – yes –
Bishkek branch – same gauge
Uzbekistan – yes –
Osh branch – same gauge
Tajikistan – no – same gauge
China – no –
Break of gauge
Break of gauge 1524 mm/1435 mm
Street scene in Osh.
With support from the Asian Development Bank, a major road linking the
north and southwest from
Osh has recently been completed.
This considerably eases communication between the two major population
centres of the country—the
Chuy Valley in the north and the Fergana
Valley in the South. An offshoot of this road branches off across a
3,500 meter pass into the
Talas Valley in the northwest. Plans are now
being formulated to build a major road from
Osh into China.
total: 34,000 km (21,127 mi) (including 140 km
(87 mi) of expressways)
paved: 22,600 km (14,043 mi) (includes some all-weather
unpaved: 7,700 km (4,785 mi) (these roads are made of
unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather)
Water transport exists only on Issyk Kul Lake, and has drastically
shrunk since the end of the Soviet Union.
Ports and harbours
Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye), on Issyk Kul Lake.
Central Asia portal
Outline of Kyrgyzstan
Index of Kyrgyzstan-related articles
^ "Constitution". Government of Kyrgyzstan.
1. The state language of the Kyrgyz Republic shall be the Kyrgyz
2. In the Kyrgyz Republic, the
Russian language shall be used in the
capacity of an official language. Missing or empty url= (help)
^ a b "Национальный состав населения
(оценка на начало года, человек)".
^ Kyrgysztan in the CIA World Factbook.
^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". World Economic
Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund.
^ "Gini index". World Bank. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
^ "Human Development Report 2016" (PDF).
United Nations Development
Programme. 2017. Table 1:
Human Development Index
Human Development Index and its
^ /ˌkɜːrɡɪˈstɑːn/ KUR-ghih-STAHN, /ˌkɪər-/ KEER-, or with
the stress on the first syllable. See J. C. Wells, Longman
Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed. (Harlow, England: Pearson Education
^ a b https://news.az/articles/politics/129214
BBC News –
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December 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
^ "Investigating Kyrgyzstan's ethnic violence: Bloody business". The
Economist. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
^ "Foreigners in Kyrgyzstan: 'Will We Be Banned, Too?'".
EurasiaNet.org. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
^ "Kyrgyz private armies incite "permanent revolution" — RT".
Rt.com. 17 March 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
^ "Kyrgyzstan: Economy globalEDGE: Your source for Global Business
Knowledge". Globaledge.msu.edu. 20 December 1998. Retrieved 26 March
^ "Kyrgyz Republic Economy: Population, GDP, Inflation, Business,
Trade, FDI, Corruption". Heritage.org. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
BBC News –
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October 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
^ "Kyrgyz Unrest". EurasiaNet.org. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
^ "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World's Muslims: Unity and
Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 9
August 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013
^ Forty tribes and the 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan,
SRAS–The School of Russian and Asian Studies
^ King, David C (2005). Kyrgyzstan. Marshall Cavendish. p. 144.
Kyrgyzstan timeline". BBC News. 12 June 2010.
^ Wells, R. S.; Yuldasheva, N.; Ruzibakiev, R.; Underhill, P. A.;
Evseeva, I.; Blue-Smith, J.; Jin, L.; Su, B.; Pitchappan, R.;
Shanmugalakshmi, S.; Balakrishnan, K.; Read, M.; Pearson, N. M.;
Zerjal, T.; Webster, M. T.; Zholoshvili, I.; Jamarjashvili, E.;
Gambarov, S.; Nikbin, B.; Dostiev, A.; Aknazarov, O.; Zalloua, P.;
Tsoy, I.; Kitaev, M.; Mirrakhimov, M.; Chariev, A.; Bodmer, W. F.
(2001). "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on
Y-chromosome diversity". Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences. 98 (18): 10244–10249. doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098.
PMC 56946 . PMID 11526236.
^ "Kyrgyzstan". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Retrieved 14 April
^ Zerjal, T.; Wells, R. S.; Yuldasheva, N.; Ruzibakiev, R.;
Tyler-Smith, C. (2002). "A Genetic Landscape Reshaped by Recent
Events: Y-Chromosomal Insights into Central Asia". The American
Journal of Human Genetics. 71 (3): 466–82. doi:10.1086/342096.
PMC 419996 . PMID 12145751.
^ "Kyrgyzstan–Mongol Domination" Library of Congress Country
^ "Map of Chinese Empire (1835)".
Uzbekistan – The Jadidists and Basmachis". Library of Congress
^ "KYRGYZSTAN: Economic disparities driving inter-ethnic conflict".
IRIN Asia. 15 February 2006.
Kyrgyzstan Voice Complaints Over Discrimination,
Corruption". EurasiaNet.org. 24 January 2006.
^ Tkachenko, Maxim (9 April 2010). "Kyrgyz president says he won't
resign". CNN. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
^ "Expert: Kyrgysztan could face civil war". UPI.com. 9 April 2010.
Retrieved 17 April 2010.
^ AFP (10 April 2010). "Ousted Kyrgyz president is offered 'safe
passage'". asiaone. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
^ "Kyrgyz President Bakiyev 'will resign if safe'". BBC News. 13 April
2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
^ "Ousted Kyrgyz president quits, leaves country". CNN. 16 April
^ Leonard, Peter (7 April 2010). "Kyrgyz Opposition Controls
Government Building". The Associated Press via ABC News. Archived from
the original on 11 April 2010.
^ "There are clashes in the
Kyrgyzstan again". BBC. 11 June 2010.
Retrieved 11 June 2010.
^ Shuster, Simon. (1 August 2010) "Signs of Uzbek Persecution Rising
in Kyrgyzstan". Time.com. Retrieved on 6 December 2013.
^ a b "Kyrgyz president asks for Russian help". BBC. 12 June 2010.
Retrieved 12 June 2010.
^ a b "Situation worsens in Kyrgyzstan". bbc.co.uk. 13 June 2010.
Retrieved 13 June 2010.
^ "Ousted Kyrgyz President's family blamed". Associated Press via The
Indian Express. 12 June 2010. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
Osh gets relatively calmer but Jalalabad flares up". BBC. 14 June
2010. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
^ "UN and Russian aid arrives". BBC. 16 June 2010. Retrieved 16 June
^ Kyrgyz Commission Begins Investigating Ethnic Clashes. Rferl.org (2
August 2010). Retrieved on 6 December 2013.
^ Siegel, Matt and Namatabayeva, Tolkun (5 August 2010) Attempted coup
rocks tense Kyrgyzstan. AFP.
^ "Clashes erupt in Kyrgyz capital". BBC Online. 7 November 2006.
Retrieved 21 November 2007.
^ "Refworld Demand for prior approval of RFE/RL programmes called
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 17
December 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
^ "Proposal to close the Manas Air Base". BBC News. 4 February 2009.
Retrieved 2 May 2010.
^ Kyrgyz Parliament Approves U.S. base closure. Associated Press. 19
^ Schwirtz, Michael and Levy, Clifford J. (23 June 2009) In Reversal,
Kyrgyzstan Won't Close a U.S. Base. New York Times
^ "2016 official table". 25 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January
^ "Maksim Bakiyev tracked not only in Bishkek, but also in the
States?". Ferghana Information agency, Moscow. 16 October 2012.
^ Kramer, Andrew E. (1 July 2010). "
Uzbeks Accused of Inciting
Violence in Kyrgyzstan". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 April
Kyrgyzstan Passes Controversial Girl Travel Ban. EurasiaNet.org (13
June 2013). Retrieved on 2 October 2014.
Kyrgyzstan moves towards adoption of Russia's anti-gay law". The
Guardian. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
^ Vandiver, John (5 February 2014). "First troops move through new US
transit point in Romania". www.stripes.com. Stars and Stripes.
Retrieved 5 February 2014.
^ Ott, Stephanie (18 September 2014). "
Russia tightens control over
Kyrgyzstan". The Guardian.
^ Escobar, Pepe (26 March 2005). "The
Tulip Revolution takes root".
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Historical Dictionary of
Kyrgyzstan by Rafis Abazov
Kyrgyzstan: Central Asia's Island of Democracy? by John Anderson
Kyrgyzstan: The Growth and Influence of
Islam in the Nations of Asia
Central Asia by Daniel E. Harmon
Lonely Planet Guide:
Central Asia by Paul Clammer, Michael Kohn and
Odyssey Guide: Kyrgyz Republic by Ceri Fairclough, Rowan Stewart and
Politics of Language in the Ex-Soviet Muslim States: Azerbaijan,
Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,
Jacob M. Landau and Barbara Kellner-Heinkele. Ann Arbor, University of
Michigan Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-472-11226-5
Kyrgyzstan: Traditions of Nomads by V. Kadyrov, Rarity Ltd., Bishkek,
2005. ISBN 9967-424-42-7
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