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KUWAIT CITY (Arabic : مدينة الكويت‎‎) is the capital and largest city of Kuwait
Kuwait
. Kuwait
Kuwait
City is the political, cultural and economic center of Kuwait. Kuwait
Kuwait
City is considered a global city . Kuwait
Kuwait
City's trade and transportation needs are served by Kuwait International Airport , Mina Al-Shuwaik (Shuwaik Port) and Mina Al Ahmadi (Ahmadi Port).

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Early history * 1.2 Golden Era (1946–1982) * 1.3 1980s and later

* 2 Politics

* 2.1 Law * 2.2 Foreign relations * 2.3 Military

* 3 Geography * 4 Climate * 5 Economy

* 6 Culture

* 6.1 Society * 6.2 Soap operas * 6.3 Theatre
Theatre
* 6.4 Arts * 6.5 Music * 6.6 Museums * 6.7 Sport

* 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links

HISTORY

This section MAY STRAY FROM THE TOPIC OF THE ARTICLE into the topic of another article, Kuwait
Kuwait
. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page . (June 2015)

See also: Timeline of Kuwait
Kuwait
City

EARLY HISTORY

In 1613, the town of Kuwait
Kuwait
was founded in modern-day Kuwait
Kuwait
City. In 1716, the Bani Utubs settled in Kuwait. At the time of the arrival of the Utubs, Kuwait
Kuwait
was inhabited by a few fishermen and primarily functioned as a fishing village . In the eighteenth century, Kuwait prospered and rapidly became the principal commercial center for the transit of goods between India
India
, Muscat , Baghdad
Baghdad
and Arabia
Arabia
. By the mid 1700s, Kuwait
Kuwait
had already established itself as the major trading route from the Persian Gulf to Aleppo
Aleppo
.

During the Persian siege of Basra
Basra
in 1775–1779, Iraqi merchants took refuge in Kuwait
Kuwait
and were partly instrumental in the expansion of Kuwait's boat-building and trading activities. As a result, Kuwait's maritime commerce boomed. Between the years 1775 and 1779, the Indian trade routes with Baghdad, Aleppo, Smyrna
Smyrna
and Constantinople
Constantinople
were diverted to Kuwait. The East India
India
Company was diverted to Kuwait
Kuwait
in 1792. The East India
India
Company secured the sea routes between Kuwait, India
India
and the east coasts of Africa. After the Persians withdrew from Basra
Basra
in 1779, Kuwait
Kuwait
continued to attract trade away from Basra.

Kuwait
Kuwait
was the center of boat building in the Persian Gulf region. During the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, ship vessels made in Kuwait
Kuwait
carried the bulk of trade between the ports of India, East Africa and the Red Sea. Kuwaiti ship vessels were renowned throughout the Indian Ocean. Regional geopolitical turbulence helped foster economic prosperity in Kuwait
Kuwait
in the second half of the 18th century. Kuwait
Kuwait
became prosperous due to Basra's instability in the late 18th century. In the late 18th century, Kuwait
Kuwait
partly functioned as a haven for Basra's merchants fleeing Ottoman government persecution. According to Palgrave, Kuwaitis developed a reputation as the best sailors in the Persian Gulf.

During the reign of Mubarak Al-Sabah , Kuwait
Kuwait
was dubbed the " Marseilles
Marseilles
of the Gulf" because its economic vitality attracted a large variety of people. In the first decades of the twentieth century, Kuwait
Kuwait
had a well-established elite: wealthy trading families who were linked by marriage and shared economic interests. The elite were long-settled, urban, Sunni families, the majority of which claim descent from the original 30 Bani Utubi families. The wealthiest families were trade merchants who acquired their wealth from long-distance commerce, shipbuilding and pearling. They were a cosmopolitan elite, they traveled extensively to India, Africa and Europe. The elite educated their sons abroad more than other Gulf Arab elite. Western visitors noted that the Kuwaiti elite used European office systems, typewriters and followed European culture with curiosity. The richest families were involved in general trade. The merchant families of Al-Ghanim and Al-Hamad were estimated to be worth millions before the 1940s.

In 1937, Freya Stark
Freya Stark
wrote about the extent of poverty in Kuwait
Kuwait
at the time:

Poverty has settled in Kuwait
Kuwait
more heavily since my last visit five years ago, both by sea, where the pearl trade continues to decline, and by land, where the blockade established by Saudi Arabia
Arabia
now harms the merchants.

Some prominent merchant families left Kuwait
Kuwait
in the early 1930s due to the prevalence of economic hardship. At the time of the discovery of oil in 1937, most of Kuwait's inhabitants were impoverished.

GOLDEN ERA (1946–1982)

From 1946 to 1982, Kuwait
Kuwait
experienced a period of prosperity driven by oil and its liberal atmosphere. In popular discourse, the years between 1946 and 1982 are referred to as the "Golden Era". In 1950, a major public-work programme began to enable Kuwaitis to enjoy a modern standard of living. By 1952, the country became the largest oil exporter in the Persian Gulf region. This massive growth attracted many foreign workers, especially from Palestine, Egypt
Egypt
and India. In June 1961, Kuwait
Kuwait
became independent with the end of the British protectorate and the sheikh Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah became an Emir. Under the terms of the newly drafted constitution , Kuwait
Kuwait
held its first parliamentary elections in 1963 . Kuwait
Kuwait
was the first Arab Persian Gulf country to establish a constitution and parliament.

In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait
Kuwait
was the most developed country in the region. Kuwait
Kuwait
was the pioneer in the Middle East in diversifying its earnings away from oil exports. The Kuwait
Kuwait
Investment Authority is the world's first sovereign wealth fund. From the 1970s onward, Kuwait
Kuwait
scored highest of all Arab countries on the Human Development Index . Kuwait
Kuwait
University was established in 1966. Kuwait's theatre industry was well-known throughout the Arab world.

In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait's press was described as one of the freest in the world . Kuwait
Kuwait
was the pioneer in the literary renaissance in the Arab region. In 1958, Al Arabi magazine was first published, the magazine went on to become the most popular magazine in the Arab world. Many Arab writers moved to Kuwait
Kuwait
for freedom of expression because Kuwait
Kuwait
had greater freedom of expression than elsewhere in the Arab world. Kuwait
Kuwait
was a haven for writers and journalists from all parts of the Middle East. The Iraqi poet Ahmed Matar left Iraq
Iraq
in the 1970s to take refuge in the more liberal environment of Kuwait.

1980S AND LATER

In the early 1980s, Kuwait
Kuwait
experienced a major economic crisis after the Souk Al-Manakh stock market crash and decrease in oil price .

During the Iran–Iraq War
Iran–Iraq War
, Kuwait
Kuwait
supported Iraq. Throughout the 1980s, there were several terror attacks in Kuwait, including the 1983 Kuwait
Kuwait
bombings , hijacking of several Kuwait
Kuwait
Airways planes and attempted assassination of Emir Jaber in 1985. Kuwait
Kuwait
was a leading regional hub of science and technology in the 1960s and 1970s up until the early 1980s, the scientific research sector significantly suffered due to the terror attacks.

The Kuwaiti government strongly advocated Islamism throughout the 1980s. At that time, the most serious threat to the continuity of Al Sabah came from home-grown secular democrats. The secular Kuwaiti opposition were protesting the 1976 suspension of the parliament . Al Sabah were attracted to Islamists preaching the virtues of a hierarchical order that included loyalty to the Kuwaiti monarchy. In 1981, the Kuwaiti government gerrymandered electoral districts in favor of the Islamists. Islamists were the government's main allies, hence Islamists were able to colonize state agencies, such as the government ministries . In 1983, the parliament banned alcohol consumption. By the mid 1980s, Kuwait
Kuwait
was described as an autocracy . In 1986, Emir Jaber suspended the parliament. Oil fires in Kuwait in 1990, which were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi military forces retreating from Kuwait.

After the Iran–Iraq War
Iran–Iraq War
ended, Kuwait
Kuwait
declined an Iraqi request to forgive its US$65 billion debt. An economic rivalry between the two countries ensued after Kuwait
Kuwait
increased its oil production by 40 percent. Tensions between the two countries increased further in July 1990, after Iraq
Iraq
complained to OPEC
OPEC
claiming that Kuwait
Kuwait
was stealing its oil from a field near the border by slant drilling of the Rumaila field .

In August 1990, Iraqi forces invaded and annexed Kuwait. After a series of failed diplomatic negotiations, the United States led a coalition to remove the Iraqi forces from Kuwait, in what became known as the Gulf War
Gulf War
. On 26 February 1991, the coalition succeeded in driving out the Iraqi forces. As they retreated, Iraqi forces carried out a scorched earth policy by setting oil wells on fire. During the Iraqi occupation, more than 1,000 Kuwaiti civilians were killed. In addition, more than 600 Kuwaitis went missing during Iraq's occupation, approximately 375 remains were found in mass graves in Iraq.

In March 2003, Kuwait
Kuwait
became the springboard for the US-led invasion of Iraq
Iraq
. Upon the death of the Emir Jaber, in January 2006, Saad Al-Sabah succeeded him but was removed nine days later by the Kuwaiti parliament due to his ailing health. Sabah Al-Sabah
Sabah Al-Sabah
was sworn in as Emir. In 2011–2012, there were protests inspired by the Arab Spring . The parliament was dissolved in December 2011 due to protests against the parliament. The prime minister stepped down following protests and allegations of corruption.

POLITICS

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Kuwait
. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page . (June 2015)

Main articles: Politics of Kuwait
Kuwait
, Government of Kuwait
Kuwait
, and National Assembly of Kuwait
Kuwait
Kuwait
Kuwait
National Assembly Building

Kuwait
Kuwait
is a constitutional monarchy and has the oldest directly elected parliament among the Arab states of the Persian Gulf
Arab states of the Persian Gulf
. The Al Sabah is Kuwait's ruling family. Legislative power
Legislative power
is vested in the National Assembly parliament and Emir in accordance with the Constitution of Kuwait
Kuwait
. The appointment of a new Emir needs the approval of the Kuwaiti parliament (per article 4 of the Constitution). The parliament effectively removed Saad al-Sabah from his post in 2006 due to his illness. The Constitutional Court and the Emir both have the authority to dissolve the National Assembly but must subsequently call a national election. A cabinet of ministers aid the Prime Minister .

The National Assembly consists of fifty elected members, who are chosen in elections held every four years. Government ministers are also granted membership in the parliament and can number up to sixteen excluding the fifty elected members. According to the Constitution of Kuwait, nomination of a new Emir or Crown Prince by the Al-Sabah family has to be approved by the National Assembly. Any amendment to the Constitution can be proposed by the Emir but it needs to be approved by more than two-thirds of the elected members of the National Assembly before being implemented.

Human rights in Kuwait
Kuwait
has been the subject of criticism, particularly regarding migrant workers rights and the Bedoon . 60% of Kuwait's population is Arab (including Arab expats), the remaining 40% consists of non-Arab expatriates, mainly South Asian migrant workers. The kafala system leaves migrant workers prone to exploitation. Many human rights organizations have criticized Kuwait
Kuwait
for failing to protect migrant workers from exploitation.

LAW

Kuwait
Kuwait
follows the "civil law system " modeled after the French legal system, Kuwait's legal system is largely secular. Sharia law governs only family law for Muslim residents, non-Muslims in Kuwait have a secular family law. For the application of family law , there are three separate court sections: Sunni, Shia and non-Muslim. According to the United Nations, Kuwait's legal system is a mix of British common law , French civil law , Egyptian civil law and Islamic law.

The court system in Kuwait
Kuwait
is secular. Unlike other Gulf states, Kuwait
Kuwait
does not have Sharia courts. Sections of the civil court system administer family law. Kuwait
Kuwait
has the most secular commercial law in the Persian Gulf.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Main article: Foreign relations of Kuwait
Kuwait
Location of diplomatic missions of Kuwait: Kuwait
Kuwait
Embassy

Foreign affairs relations of Kuwait
Kuwait
is handled at the level of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs . The first foreign affairs department bureau was established in 1961. Kuwait
Kuwait
became the 111th member state of the United Nations in May 1963. It is a long-standing member of the Arab League
Arab League
and Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf .

Before the Gulf War
Gulf War
, Kuwait
Kuwait
was the only "pro- Soviet
Soviet
" state in the Persian Gulf. Kuwait
Kuwait
acted as a conduit for the Soviets to the other Persian Gulf states and Kuwait
Kuwait
was used to demonstrate the benefits of a pro- Soviet
Soviet
stance. Between 1961 and 1991, Kuwait
Kuwait
had an uneasy relationship with the United States characterized by mistrust and hostility. In July 1987, Kuwait
Kuwait
refused to allow U.S. military bases in its territory. As a result of the Gulf War
Gulf War
, Kuwait
Kuwait
currently hosts thousands of US military personnel and contractors within active U.S. facilities.

MILITARY

The Military of Kuwait
Kuwait
traces its original roots to the Kuwaiti cavalrymen and infantrymen that used to protect Kuwait
Kuwait
and its wall since the early 1900s. These cavalrymen and infantrymen formed the defense and security sources in metropolitan areas; charged with protecting outposts outside the wall of Kuwait.

The Military of Kuwait
Kuwait
consists of several joint defense forces. The governing bodies are the Kuwait
Kuwait
Ministry of Defense , the Kuwait Ministry of Interior , the Kuwait
Kuwait
National Guard and the Kuwait
Kuwait
Fire Service Directorate. The Emir of Kuwait
Kuwait
is the commander-in-chief of all defense forces.

GEOGRAPHY

This section MAY STRAY FROM THE TOPIC OF THE ARTICLE into the topic of another article, Kuwait
Kuwait
. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page . (June 2015)

Main article: Geography of Kuwait
Kuwait
Satellite image of Kuwait
Kuwait

Kuwait
Kuwait
City is located on Kuwait
Kuwait
Bay, a natural deep-water harbor. 90% of Kuwait's population live within the Kuwait
Kuwait
Bay coast. The country is generally low lying, with the highest point being 306 m (1,004 ft) above sea level . It has nine islands , all of which, with the exception of Failaka Island , are uninhabited. With an area of 860 km2 (330 sq mi), the Bubiyan is the largest island in Kuwait
Kuwait
and is connected to the rest of the country by a 2,380-metre-long (7,808 ft) bridge. The land area is considered arable and sparse vegetation is found along its 499-kilometre-long (310 mi) coastline.

Kuwait's Burgan field has a total capacity of approximately 70 billion barrels (1.1×1010 m3) of proven oil reserves. During the 1991 Kuwaiti oil fires , more than 500 oil lakes were created covering a combined surface area of about 35.7 km2 (13.8 sq mi). The resulting soil contamination due to oil and soot accumulation had made eastern and south-eastern parts of Kuwait
Kuwait
uninhabitable. Sand and oil residue had reduced large parts of the Kuwaiti desert to semi-asphalt surfaces. The oil spills during the Gulf War
Gulf War
also drastically affected Kuwait's marine resources.

CLIMATE

Astronaut View of Kuwait
Kuwait

Kuwait
Kuwait
City has a hot desert climate (Köppen : BWh) and is one of the hottest cities in the summer on earth. Summer temperatures regularly exceed 45 °C (113 °F), and temperatures over 52 °C (126 °F) are not uncommon in the summer, especially in heat waves; nighttime lows often remain above 30 °C (86 °F). In winter, nighttime temperatures frequently drop below 8 °C (46 °F). Considering its coastal position and relative distance to the equator in comparison with the hot desert climates in Africa and Saudi Arabia, the heat in the city is rather extreme - being surrounded in almost every direction by the hot desert.

Sand storms occur at times during summer from the shamal wind . Sand storms can occur any time of year but occur mostly during summer, and less frequently during autumn.

CLIMATE DATA FOR KUWAIT CITY

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 29.8 (85.6) 35.8 (96.4) 41.2 (106.2) 44.2 (111.6) 49.0 (120.2) 49.8 (121.6) 52.1 (125.8) 50.7 (123.3) 47.7 (117.9) 43.7 (110.7) 37.9 (100.2) 30.5 (86.9) 52.1 (125.8)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 19.5 (67.1) 21.8 (71.2) 26.9 (80.4) 33.9 (93) 40.9 (105.6) 45.5 (113.9) 46.7 (116.1) 46.9 (116.4) 43.7 (110.7) 36.6 (97.9) 27.8 (82) 21.9 (71.4) 34.3 (93.7)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 8.5 (47.3) 10.0 (50) 14.0 (57.2) 19.5 (67.1) 25.4 (77.7) 28.9 (84) 30.7 (87.3) 29.5 (85.1) 26.2 (79.2) 21.5 (70.7) 14.5 (58.1) 9.9 (49.8) 19.9 (67.8)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −4.0 (24.8) −1.6 (29.1) −0.1 (31.8) 6.9 (44.4) 14.7 (58.5) 20.4 (68.7) 22.4 (72.3) 21.7 (71.1) 16.0 (60.8) 9.4 (48.9) 2.0 (35.6) −1.5 (29.3) −4.0 (24.8)

AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 30.2 (1.189) 10.5 (0.413) 18.2 (0.717) 11.5 (0.453) 0.4 (0.016) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 1.4 (0.055) 18.5 (0.728) 25.5 (1.004) 116.2 (4.575)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 5 3 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 3 19

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 198.1 222.5 217.6 229.3 272.5 304.5 307.1 301.6 285.1 252.2 216.5 193.5 3,000.5

MEAN DAILY SUNSHINE HOURS 7.1 7.7 7.5 7.9 9.4 10.5 10.6 10.8 10.2 9.0 7.7 6.9 8.8

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 68 69 63 62 69 77 76 78 77 79 72 67 72

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization (temperature and rainfall 1994–2008)

Source #2: NOAA (sunshine and records, 1961–1990)

source 3 = Wundergound (2012 records)

ECONOMY

Kuwait
Kuwait
International Airport Kuwait
Kuwait
Towers Main article: Economy of Kuwait
Kuwait

Kuwait
Kuwait
has a petroleum-based economy, petroleum and fertilizers are the main export products. The Kuwaiti dinar
Kuwaiti dinar
is the highest-valued currency unit in the world. Petroleum accounts for nearly half of GDP and 90% of export revenues and government income. The Kuwait
Kuwait
Stock Exchange is the second-largest stock exchange in the Arab world.

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Kuwait
Kuwait

Kuwaiti popular culture , in the form of theatre, radio, music, and television soap opera, flourishes and is even exported to neighboring states. Within the Gulf Arab states, the culture of Kuwait
Kuwait
is the closest to the culture of Bahrain; this is evident in the close association between the two states in theatrical productions and soap operas. Kuwait
Kuwait
Towers , the country's most famous landmark

In the Arab world, Kuwait
Kuwait
is frequently dubbed the " Hollywood
Hollywood
of the Gulf" due to the popularity of its television soap operas and theatre.

SOCIETY

Kuwaiti society is markedly more open than other Gulf Arab societies. Kuwait
Kuwait
stands out in the region as the most liberal in empowering women in the public sphere. Kuwaiti women outnumber men in the workforce. Kuwaiti political scientist Ghanim Alnajjar sees these qualities as a manifestation of Kuwaiti society as a whole, whereby in the Gulf region it is “the least strict about traditions”.

SOAP OPERAS

Kuwait's drama industry tops other Gulf drama industries and produces a minimum of fifteen serials annually. Most Gulf television dramas are filmed in Kuwait. Kuwaiti soap operas are the most-watched soap operas in the Gulf region. Soap operas are most popular during the time of Ramadan
Ramadan
, when families gather to break their fast. Although usually performed in the Kuwaiti dialect, they have been shown with success as far away as Tunisia
Tunisia
.

THEATRE

Kuwait
Kuwait
is known for its home-grown tradition of theatre . Kuwait
Kuwait
is the only country in the Gulf with a theatrical tradition. The theatrical movement in Kuwait
Kuwait
constitutes a major part of the country's cultural life. Theatrical activities in Kuwait
Kuwait
began in the 1920s when the first spoken dramas were released. Theatre
Theatre
activities are still popular today. Abdulhussain Abdulredha is the most prominent actor.

Kuwait
Kuwait
is the main centre of scenographic and theatrical training in the Gulf region. In 1973, the Higher Institute of Theatrical Arts was founded by the government to provide higher education in theatrical arts. The institute has several divisions. Many actors have graduated from the institute, such as Souad Abdullah , Mohammed Khalifa, Mansour Al-Mansour , along with a number of prominent critics such as Ismail Fahd Ismail .

Theatre
Theatre
in Kuwait
Kuwait
is subsidized by the government, previously by the Ministry of Social Affairs and now by the National Council for Culture, Arts, and Letters (NCCAL). Every urban district has a public theatre. The public theatre in Salmiya is named after Abdulhussain Abdulredha.

ARTS

Kuwait
Kuwait
has the oldest modern arts movement in the Arabian Peninsula. Beginning in 1936, Kuwait
Kuwait
was the first Gulf country to grant scholarships in the arts. The Kuwaiti artist Mojeb al-Dousari was the earliest recognized visual artist in the Gulf region. He is regarded as the founder of portrait art in the region. The Sultan Gallery was the first professional Arab art gallery in the Gulf.

Kuwait
Kuwait
is home to more than 20 art galleries . In recent years, Kuwait's contemporary art scene has boomed. Khalifa Al-Qattan was the first artist to hold a solo exhibition in Kuwait. He founded a new art theory in the early 1960s known as "circulism". Other notable Kuwaiti artists include Sami Mohammad , Thuraya Al-Baqsami and Suzan Bushnaq .

The government organizes various arts festivals , including the Al Qurain Cultural Festival and Formative Arts Festival. The Kuwait International Biennial was inaugurated in 1967, more than 20 Arab and foreign countries have participated in the biennial. Prominent participants include Layla Al-Attar . In 2004, the Al Kharafi Biennial for Contemporary Arab Art was inaugurated.

In 1958, Al Arabi magazine was first published, the magazine went on to become the most popular magazine in the Arab world. Ismail Fahd Ismail was one of the first Kuwaiti writers to achieve success in the Arab world. Taleb al-Refai , Laila al-Othman , A. H. Almaas , Taibah Al-Ibrahim , Najma Idrees , and Fatimah Yousif al-Ali are also among the pioneer writers.

MUSIC

Traditional Kuwaiti music is a reflection of the country's seafaring heritage, which is known for genres such as "fijiri " and "sawt ". Kuwait
Kuwait
pioneered contemporary music in the Gulf , Kuwaitis were the first commercial recording artists in the Gulf region. The first known Kuwaiti recordings were made between 1912 and 1915. Saleh and Daoud Al-Kuwaity were pioneer musicians who wrote over 650 songs, many of which are considered traditional and still played daily on radio stations both in Kuwait
Kuwait
and the rest of the Arab world.

Kuwaiti music has considerably influenced the music culture in other GCC countries. Nawal El Kuwaitia , Abdallah Al Rowaished , Abdul Kareem Abdul-Qader, and Nabeel Shoail are the most popular contemporary artists. Kuwait
Kuwait
has several academic institutions specializing in music education . In 1972, the Higher Institute of Musical Arts was founded by the government to provide higher education in music. In addition, the College of Basic Education offers a bachelor's degree in music education.

The Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Cultural Centre is the largest opera house in the Middle East. Kuwait
Kuwait
is home to various music festivals , including the International Music Festival hosted by the National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters (NCCAL). The annual Gulf Music Festival features internationally renowned jazz musicians and local musicians.

MUSEUMS

Main article: List of museums in Kuwait
Kuwait
Sadu House .

Sadu House is one of Kuwait's most important cultural institutions. Bait Al-Othman is the largest museum specializing in Kuwait's history. The National Museum , established in 1983, has been described as "underused and overlooked". The Scientific Center is one of the largest science museums in the Middle East.

The Museum of Modern Art , established in 2003, showcases the history of modern art in Kuwait
Kuwait
and the region. Several Kuwaiti museums are devoted to Islamic art
Islamic art
, most notably the Tareq Rajab Museums and Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah cultural centres. The Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah cultural centres include education wings, conservation labs, and research libraries. There are several art libraries in Kuwait.

Many museums in Kuwait
Kuwait
are private enterprises. In contrast to the top-down approach in other Gulf states, museum development in Kuwait reflects a greater sense of civic identity and demonstrates the strength of civil society in Kuwait, which has produced many independent cultural enterprises.

The Amiri Diwan is currently building the Abdullah Al-Salem Cultural Centre, which is a 13 hectare site with a total exhibit area of 22,000 m2 making it the largest museum project in the world.

SPORT

Football is the most popular sport in Kuwait. The Kuwait
Kuwait
Football Association (KFA) is the governing body of football in Kuwait. The KFA organises the men\'s , women\'s , and futsal national teams. The Kuwaiti Premier League is the top league of Kuwaiti football, featuring eighteen teams. They have been the champions of the 1980 AFC Asian Cup , runners-up of the 1976 AFC Asian Cup , and have taken third place of the 1984 AFC Asian Cup
1984 AFC Asian Cup
. Kuwait
Kuwait
has also been to one FIFA World Cup, in 1982 , but tied 1–1 with Czechoslovakia on the first round. Kuwait
Kuwait
is home to many football clubs including Al-Arabi , Al-Fahaheel , Al-Jahra , Al- Kuwait
Kuwait
, Al-Naser , Al-Salmiya , Al-Shabab , Al Qadsia , Al-Yarmouk , Kazma , Khaitan , Sulaibikhat , Sahel , and Tadamon . The biggest football rivalry in Kuwait
Kuwait
is between Al-Arabi and Al Qadsia .

Basketball is one of the country's most popular sports. The Kuwait national basketball team is governed by the Kuwait
Kuwait
Basketball Association (KBA). Kuwait
Kuwait
made its international debut in 1959. The national team has been to the FIBA Asian Championship in basketball eleven times. The Kuwaiti Division I Basketball League is the highest professional basketball league in Kuwait. Cricket in Kuwait
Kuwait
is governed by the Kuwait
Kuwait
Cricket Association . Other growing sports include rugby union . Handball is widely considered to be the national icon of Kuwait, although football is more popular among the overall population.

Ice hockey in Kuwait
Kuwait
is governed by the Kuwait
Kuwait
Ice Hockey Association . Kuwait
Kuwait
first joined the International Ice Hockey Federation
International Ice Hockey Federation
in 1985, but was expelled in 1992 due to a lack of ice hockey activity. Kuwait was re-admitted into the IIHF in May 2009. In 2015, Kuwait
Kuwait
won the IIHF Challenge Cup of Asia .

GALLERY

*

Built in 1979, the Kuwait
Kuwait
Towers are the most famous landmark in Kuwait
Kuwait
City. *

Seif Palace *

Al Hamra Tower is the tallest sculpted tower in the world. *

Majlis Al-Umma (مجلس الأمة, "The Council of the Nation"), the Kuwaiti parliament *

Arraya Tower complex *

Water towers are a feature of Kuwait
Kuwait
City *

Kuwait
Kuwait
Towers *

Liberation Tower *

City skyline *

Kuwait
Kuwait
Stock Exchange

SEE ALSO

* Middle East portal

* List of twin towns and sister cities in Asia# Kuwait
Kuwait
* JW Marriott Hotel * Madinat al-Hareer

REFERENCES

* ^ "Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait
Kuwait
City: The Socio-cultural Dimensions of the Kuwait
Kuwait
Courtyard and Diwaniyya". Mohammad Khalid A. Al-Jassar. 2009. p. 64. * ^ Bell, Sir Gawain (1983). Shadows on the Sand: The Memoirs of Sir Gawain Bell. Gawain Bell. p. 222. ISBN 9780905838922 . * ^ ʻAlam-i Nisvāṉ – Volume 2, Issues 1–2. p. 18. Kuwait became an important trading port for import and export of goods from India, Africa and Arabia. * ^ A B "Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait
Kuwait
City". Mohammad Khalid A. Al-Jassar. 2009. p. 66. * ^ A B "Beyond the Storm: A Gulf Crisis Reader". Phyllis Bennis. p. 42. * ^ Lauterpacht, E; Greenwood, C. J; Weller, Marc (1991). The Kuwait
Kuwait
Crisis: Basic Documents. p. 4. ISBN 9780521463089 . * ^ A B Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait
Kuwait
City. 2009. p. 67. ISBN 9781109229349 . * ^ Thabit Abdullah (2001). Merchants, Mamluks, and Murder: The Political Economy of Trade in Eighteenth-Century Basra. p. 72. ISBN 9780791448076 . * ^ The impact of economic activities on the social and political structures of Kuwait
Kuwait
(1896–1946) (PDF). p. 108. * ^ Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East: Cultural depth and diversity. p. 156. The port of Kuwait
Kuwait
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at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition". aliafarid.net. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. * ^ Gonzales, Desi (November–December 2014). "Acquiring Modernity: Kuwait
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at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition". Art Papers . * ^ "Looking for Origins of Arab Modernism in Kuwait". Hyperallergic . * ^ Al-Nakib, Farah (1 March 2014). "Towards an Urban Alternative for Kuwait: Protests and Public Participation". Built Environment. 40 (1): 101–117. * ^ A B C D "Cultural developments in Kuwait". March 2013. * ^ Chee Kong, Sam (1 March 2014). "What Can Nations Learn from Norway and Kuwait
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and Kuwait: 1972, 1990, 1991, 1997". Earthshots: Satellite Images of Environmental Change. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2013. * ^ "The Use of Terror During Iraq\'s Invasion of Kuwait". * ^ " Iraq
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* ^ Nyrop, Richard F. (1985). "Persian Gulf states: Country Studies". Department of the Army Area Handbook Series. 550 (185). Washington, D.C.: American University Foreign Area Studies: 80. In addition, Kuwait
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has established a secular legal system, unique among the Gulf states. * ^ A B Hopkins, Nicholas S.; Ibrahim, Saad Eddin, eds. (1997) . Arab Society: Class, Gender, Power, and Development (3rd. ed.). Cairo, Egypt: American University of Cairo. p. 417. ISBN 9789774244049 . * ^ Maddex, Robert L. Constitutions of the World. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. p. 153. ISBN 9781136217890 . * ^ Liebesny, Herbert J. (1974). The Law of the Near and Middle East: Readings, Cases, and Materials. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 110. ISBN 9780873952569 . * ^ "Kuwait, State of". Law.emory.edu. * ^ "State of Kuwait, Public Administration Country Profile" (PDF). United Nations. September 2004. p. 7. * ^ "State of Kuwait". London School of Economics
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. 21 March 2011. The court system in Kuwait
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is secular and tries both civil and criminal cases. * ^ A B Price, David (2009). The Development of Intellectual Property Regimes in the Arabian Gulf States: Infidels at the Gates. Abingdon, UK: Routledge-Cavendish. p. 23. ISBN 9781134024964 . * ^ Hafeez, Zeeshan Javed. Islamic Commercial Law and Economic Development. San Fabcisco, California: Heliographica. p. 10. ISBN 9781933037097 . * ^ A B Yetiv, Steve (1995). America and the Persian Gulf: The Third Party Dimension in World Politics. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 51. ISBN 9780275949730 . * ^ Panaspornprasit, Chookiat (2005). US-Kuwaiti Relations, 1961–1992: An Uneasy Relationship. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. p. 75. ISBN 9781135767228 . * ^ Wallace, Charles P. (20 July 1987). "No Military Bases for U.S., Kuwait
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– a country that has built a deep connection with people in the Persian Gulf thanks to its significant drama productions in theater, television, and even music – started with 25 kilometers of spectacular sea view * ^ Zubir, S.S.; Brebbia, C.A., eds. (2014). The Sustainable City VIII (2 Volume Set): Urban Regeneration and Sustainability. Volume 179 of WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment. Ashurst, Southampton, UK: WIT Press. p. 599. ISBN 978-1-84564-746-9 . * ^ "مريم حسين ترحل إلى "هوليوود الخليج".. وتتبرأ من العقوق في "بنات سكر نبات"". MBC (in Arabic). 29 August 2015. * ^ "هيفاء حسين : الكويت هي هوليود الخليج" (in Arabic). 8 July 2015. * ^ "منى البلوشي: الكويت هي هوليود الخليج ويقصدونها للشهرة" (in Arabic). 25 August 2013. * ^ "ارحمة لـ الشرق: أبحث دائماً عن التميّز والكويت هوليود الخليج" (in Arabic). 21 December 2014. * ^ ""السليم لـ «الراي": الدراما منتعشة ... والكويت «هوليوود الخليج". Al Rai (in Arabic). 3 February 2016. * ^ "زينب العسكري: الكويت هوليوود الخليج". Al-Anba (in Arabic). 28 February 2007. * ^ "النجم الكوميدي داوود حسين الكويت هوليود الخليج غصب عن خشم أكبر رأس". Scope. 26 May 2016. * ^ ""أحمد الجسمي: عاتب على «دبي" و«أم بي سي". Al Khaleej (in Arabic). 3 July 2016. * ^ "!طلال السدر في الديوانية: انجذابي لـ"هوليوود الخليج"..أقدار". Al Watan (in Arabic). 4 April 2012. * ^ "ريم أرحمة: حريصة على اختيار نصوص جيدة أكثر من الظهور في رمضان". Al-Jarida (in Arabic). 7 June 2016. * ^ "وفاء مكي: موزة تعيش في ذاكرتي". Al-Qabas (in Arabic). 13 March 2009. * ^ "مي أحمد: المواهب الشابة لا تقلّّ رقياً عن الفنانين الكبار". Al-Jarida (in Arabic). 19 February 2010. * ^ "الإماراتي أحمد الخميس: لن أنسى ما فعله طارق العلي معي!" (in Arabic). 6 March 2016. * ^ "سناء: الكويت هوليوود الخليج". Al-Qabas (in Arabic). 17 December 2015. * ^ "فيديو – رئيس مجلس إدارة نقابة الفنانين الكويتية د. نبيل الفيلكاوي: الكويت "هوليوود الخليج" لكنها لاتملك أكاديمية للفنون". Al Watan (in Arabic). 22 April 2015. * ^ "فايز بن دمخ: نفخر باسم الأمير سعود بن محمد". Annahar (in Arabic). 1 June 2016. * ^ " Kuwait
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. 26 March 2015. * ^ "الله… الله عليك يا الكويت". Al-Jarida (in Arabic). 28 July 2011. * ^ "الأردنية عبير عيسى لـ "الانباء": أتمنى استمرار مشاركاتي في الدراما الكويتية". Al Anba (in Arabic). 12 August 2013. * ^ " Kuwait
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Cultural Days kick off in Seoul". Kuwait
Kuwait
News Agency (in Arabic). 18 December 2015. * ^ Alazemi, Einas. The role of fashion design in the construct of national identity of Kuwaiti women in the 21st century (PhD). University of Southampton
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. p. 140-199. * ^ "The Situation of Women in the Gulf States" (PDF). p. 18. * ^ Karen E. Young. "Small Victories for GCC Women: More Educated, More Unemployed". The Arab Gulf States Institute . * ^ Karen E. Young. "More Educated, Less Employed: The Paradox of Women’s Employment in the Gulf" (PDF). pp. 7–8. * ^ " Kuwait
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leads Gulf states in women in workforce". Gulf News. * ^ Stephenson, Lindsey. "Women and the Malleability of the Kuwaiti Diwaniyya". p. 190. * ^ A B Al Mukrashi, Fahad (22 August 2015). "Omanis turn their backs on local dramas". Gulf News. Kuwait's drama industry tops other Gulf drama as it has very prominent actors and actresses, enough scripts and budgets, produces fifteen serials annually at least. * ^ "Closer cultural relations between the two countries". Oman Daily Observer . 20 February 2017. The Kuwaiti television is considered the most active in the Gulf region, as it has contributed to the development of television drama in Kuwait
Kuwait
and the Gulf region. Therefore, all the classics of the Gulf television drama are today Kuwaiti dramas by Kuwaiti actors * ^ "Big plans for small screens". BroadcastPro Me. Around 90% of Khaleeji productions take place in Kuwait. * ^ Papavassilopoulos, Constantinos (10 April 2014). "OSN targets new markets by enriching its Arabic content offering". IHS Inc.
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* ^ Fattahova, Nawara (26 March 2015). "First Kuwaiti horror movie to be set in ‘haunted’ palace". Kuwait
Kuwait
Times. Kuwait's TV soaps and theatrical plays are among the best in the region and second most popular after Egypt
Egypt
in the Middle East. * ^ "Kuwaiti Drama Museum: formulating thoughts of the Gulf". 23 May 2014. * ^ Mansfield, Peter (1990). Kuwait: vanguard of the Gulf. Hutchinson. p. 113. * ^ Watson, Katie (18 December 2010). "Reviving Kuwait\'s theatre industry". BBC News
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. * ^ Hammond, Andrew (2007). Popular Culture in the Arab World: Arts, Politics, and the Media. Cario, Egypt: American University in Cairo
Cairo
Press. p. 277. ISBN 9789774160547 . * ^ A B Herbert, Ian; Leclercq, Nicole, eds. (2000). "An Account of the Theatre
Theatre
Seasons 1996–97, 1997–98 and 1998–99". The World of Theatre
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(2000 ed.). London: Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-415-23866-3 . * ^ Rubin, Don, ed. (1999). "Kuwait". The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre. Volume 4: The Arab world. London: Taylor & Francis. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-415-05932-9 . * ^ Alhajri, Khalifah Rashed. A Scenographer\'s Perspective on Arabic Theatre
Theatre
and Arab-Muslim Identity (PDF) (PhD). Leeds, UK: University of Leeds
University of Leeds
. p. 207. * ^ A B "Shooting the Past". y-oman.com. 11 July 2013. Most Omanis who get to study drama abroad tend to go to Kuwait
Kuwait
or Egypt. In the Gulf, Kuwait
Kuwait
has long been a pioneer in theatre, film and television since the establishment of its Higher Institute of Dramatic Arts (HIDA) in 1973. By contrast, there is no drama college or film school in Oman, although there is a drama course at Sultan Qaboos University.

* ^ Herbert, Ian; Leclercq, Nicole, eds. (2003). "World of Theatre 2003 Edition: An Account of the World\'s Theatre
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Seasons". The World of Theatre
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(2003 ed.). London: Taylor & Francis. p. 214. ISBN 9781134402120 . * ^ Fiona MacLeod. "The London musician who found harmony in Kuwait". Financial Times. * ^ A B Bloom, Jonathan; Sheila, Blair, eds. (2009). Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set (2009 ed.). London: Oxford University Press. p. 405. ISBN 9780195309911 . * ^ Al Qassemi, Sultan Sooud (22 November 2013). "Correcting misconceptions of the Gulf’s modern art movement". Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East. * ^ "Kuwait". Atelier Voyage. * ^ Kristine Khouri. "Mapping Arab Art through the Sultan Gallery". ArteEast. * ^ "The Sultan Gallery – Kristine Khouri". * ^ "Culture of Kuwait". Kuwait
Kuwait
Embassy in Austria. * ^ "Art Galleries and Art Museums in Kuwait". Art Kuwait. * ^ "Egyptian Artist Fatma, talks about the gateway to human faces and equality for all". Reconnecting Arts. * ^ "Kuwaiti Artist Rua AlShaheen tells us about recycling existing elements to tell a new narrative". Reconnecting Arts. * ^ "Farah Behbehani & the Story of the letter Haa ‘". Al Ostoura Magazine. * ^ "Select Kuwait". select-kw.com. Kuwait
Kuwait
is witnessing a cultural renaissance, and Select strives to be at its forefront. * ^ Muayad H., Hussain (2012). Modern Art from Kuwait: Khalifa Qattan and Circulism (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Birmingham. * ^ "Khalifa Qattan, Founder of Circulism". * ^ "Interview with Ali Al-Youha - Secretary General of Kuwait National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters (NCCAL)" (PDF). oxgaps.org. * ^ " Kuwait
Kuwait
celebrates formative arts festival". Kuwait
Kuwait
News Agency (KUNA). * ^ "KAA honors winners of His Highness Amir formative arts award". Kuwait
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News Agency (KUNA). * ^ A B "12th Kuwait
Kuwait
International Biennial". AsiaArt archive. * ^ Sajjad, Valiya S. " Kuwait
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Literary Scene A Little Complex". Arab Times. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. A magazine, Al Arabi, was published in 1958 in Kuwait. It was the most popular magazine in the Arab world. It came out it in all the Arabic countries, and about a quarter million copies were published every month. * ^ "Hidden Treasures: Reflections on Traditional Music in Kuwait".

* ^ "Kuwait’s musical heritage: The heartbeat of a nation". * ^ "Ya Bahr". * ^ "The Innerworkings of Kuwaiti Pearl Diving: Ghazi AlMulaifi". * ^ A B Mustafa Said. "History of Recording in the Gulf area, Part 1". Retrieved 12 March 2016. * ^ A B Ulaby, Laith. Performing the Past: Sea Music in the Arab Gulf States (PDF) (PhD). University of California, Los Angeles . p. 99. * ^ A B Mustafa Said. "History of Recording in the Gulf area, Part 2". Retrieved 12 March 2016. * ^ "A Gulfie record collector writes". * ^ " Jerusalem
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. p. 10. * ^ "Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre". jacc-kw.com. * ^ "International Music Festival opens in Kuwait" (PDF). * ^ "Int\'l Music Festival opens in Kuwait". Kuwait
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* ^ "Abous Us - CAPKuwait". capkuwait.com. * ^ "First Art Library in Kuwait". artkuwait.org. * ^ A B Excell, Karen; Wakefield, Sarina, eds. (2016). Museums in Arabia: Transnational Practices and Regional Processes. Taylor & Francis. pp. 137–158. ISBN 9781317092766 . * ^ Exell, Karen (2016). Modernity and the Museum in the Arabian Peninsula. Taylor & Francis. p. 176. ISBN 9781317279006 . * ^ "BECK – international museum fit-out: breaking the boundaries of what’s possible". * ^ " Kuwait
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