HOME
ListMoto - Kuwait City


--- Advertisement ---



(i)

Kuwait
Kuwait
City (Arabic: مدينة الكويت‎) is the capital and largest city of Kuwait. Kuwait
Kuwait
City is the political, cultural and economic center of Kuwait. Kuwait
Kuwait
City is considered a global city. Kuwait
Kuwait
City's trade and transportation needs are served by Kuwait International Airport, Mina Al-Shuwaik (Shuwaik Port) and Mina Al Ahmadi (Ahmadi Port).

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 Golden Era (1946–82) 1.3 1982 to present day

2 Politics

2.1 Foreign relations 2.2 Military

3 Geography 4 Climate 5 Economy

5.1 Petroleum 5.2 Finance 5.3 Health and research 5.4 Education 5.5 Tourism 5.6 Transport

6 Culture

6.1 Television and theatre 6.2 Arts 6.3 Music 6.4 Museums 6.5 Sport

7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Kuwait
Kuwait
City Early history[edit] In 1613, the town of Kuwait
Kuwait
was founded in modern-day Kuwait
Kuwait
City. In 1716, the Bani Muailis settled in Kuwait, which at this time was inhabited by a few fishermen and primarily functioned as a fishing village.[1] In the eighteenth century, Kuwait
Kuwait
prospered and rapidly became the principal commercial center for the transit of goods between India, Muscat, Baghdad
Baghdad
and Arabia.[2][3] By the mid 1700s, Kuwait
Kuwait
had already established itself as the major trading route from the Persian Gulf to Aleppo.[4] During the Persian siege of Basra
Basra
in 1775–79, Iraqi merchants took refuge in Kuwait
Kuwait
and were partly instrumental in the expansion of Kuwait's boat-building and trading activities.[5] As a result, Kuwait's maritime commerce boomed,[5] as the Indian trade routes with Baghdad, Aleppo, Smyrna
Smyrna
and Constantinople
Constantinople
were diverted to Kuwait during this time.[4][6] The East India
India
Company was diverted to Kuwait in 1792.[7] The East India
India
Company secured the sea routes between Kuwait, India
India
and the east coasts of Africa.[7] After the Persians withdrew from Basra
Basra
in 1779, Kuwait
Kuwait
continued to attract trade away from Basra.[8] Kuwait
Kuwait
was the center of boat building in the Persian Gulf region.[9][10] During the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, vessels made in Kuwait
Kuwait
carried the bulk of trade between the ports of India, East Africa
Africa
and the Red Sea.[11][12][13] Regional geopolitical turbulence helped foster economic prosperity in Kuwait
Kuwait
in the second half of the 18th century.[14] Perhaps the biggest catalyst for much of Kuwait
Kuwait
becoming prosperous was due to Basra's instability in the late 18th century.[15] In the late 18th century, Kuwait
Kuwait
partly functioned as a haven for Basra's merchants, who were fleeing Ottoman government persecution.[16] Kuwaitis developed a reputation as the best sailors in the Persian Gulf.[17][18][19] The Sheikhdom of Kuwait
Kuwait
became a British Protectorate in 1899 (until 1961) after the Anglo-Kuwaiti Agreement of 1899 was signed between Sheikh Mubarak Al Sabah and the British government in India
India
due to severe threats to Kuwait's independence from the Ottoman Empire.

Celebration at Seif Palace
Seif Palace
in 1944.

Following the Kuwait–Najd War of 1919–20, Ibn Saud
Ibn Saud
imposed a trade blockade against Kuwait
Kuwait
from the years 1923 until 1937.[20] The goal of the Saudi economic and military attacks on Kuwait
Kuwait
was to annex as much of Kuwait's territory as possible. At the Uqair conference in 1922, the boundaries of Kuwait
Kuwait
and Najd
Najd
were set; as a result of British interference, Kuwait
Kuwait
had no representative at the Uqair conference. Ibn Saud
Ibn Saud
persuaded Sir Percy Cox
Percy Cox
to give him two-thirds of Kuwait's territory. More than half of Kuwait
Kuwait
was lost due to Uqair. After the Uqair conference, Kuwait
Kuwait
was still subjected to a Saudi economic blockade and intermittent Saudi raiding. The Great Depression
Great Depression
harmed Kuwait's economy, starting in the late 1920s.[20] International trading was one of Kuwait's main sources of income before oil.[20] Kuwaiti merchants were mostly intermediary merchants.[20] As a result of the decline of European demand for goods from India
India
and Africa, Kuwait's economy suffered. The decline in international trade resulted in an increase in gold smuggling by Kuwaiti ships to India.[20] Some Kuwaiti merchant families became rich from this smuggling.[21] Kuwait's pearl industry also collapsed as a result of the worldwide economic depression.[21] At its height, Kuwait's pearl industry had led the world's luxury market, regularly sending out between 750 and 800 ships to meet the European elite's desire for pearls.[21] During the economic depression, luxuries like pearls were in little demand.[21] The Japanese invention of cultured pearls also contributed to the collapse of Kuwait's pearl industry.[21] Golden Era (1946–82)[edit] From 1946 to 1982, Kuwait
Kuwait
experienced a period of prosperity driven by oil and its liberal atmosphere.[22][23][24] In popular discourse, the years between 1946 and 1982 are referred to as the "Golden Era".[22][23][24][25] In 1950, a major public-work programme began to enable Kuwaitis to enjoy a modern standard of living. By 1952, the country became the largest oil exporter in the Persian Gulf region. This massive growth attracted many foreign workers, especially from Palestine, India, and Egypt
Egypt
– with the latter being particularly political within the context of the Arab Cold War.[26] In June 1961, Kuwait
Kuwait
became independent with the end of the British protectorate and the sheikh Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah
Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah
became an Emir. Under the terms of the newly drafted constitution, Kuwait
Kuwait
held its first parliamentary elections in 1963. Kuwait
Kuwait
was the first of the Arab states of the Persian Gulf to establish a constitution and parliament. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait
Kuwait
was the most developed country in the region.[27][28][29] Kuwait
Kuwait
was the pioneer in the Middle East
Middle East
in diversifying its earnings away from oil exports.[30] The Kuwait Investment Authority is the world's first sovereign wealth fund. From the 1970s onward, Kuwait
Kuwait
scored highest of all Arab countries on the Human Development Index.[29] Kuwait
Kuwait
University was established in 1966.[29] Kuwait's theatre industry was well-known throughout the Arab world.[22][29] In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait's press was described as one of the freest in the world.[31] Kuwait
Kuwait
was the pioneer in the literary renaissance in the Arab region.[32] In 1958, Al Arabi magazine was first published, the magazine went on to become the most popular magazine in the Arab world.[32] Many Arab writers moved to Kuwait because they enjoyed greater freedom of expression than elsewhere in the Arab world.[33][34] The Iraqi poet Ahmed Matar left Iraq
Iraq
in the 1970s to take refuge in the more liberal environment of Kuwait. Kuwaiti society embraced liberal and Western attitudes throughout the 1960s and 1970s.[35] For example, most Kuwaiti women
Kuwaiti women
did not wear the hijab in the 1960s and 70s.[36][37] 1982 to present day[edit] In the early 1980s, Kuwait
Kuwait
experienced a major economic crisis after the Souk Al-Manakh stock market crash
Souk Al-Manakh stock market crash
and decrease in oil price.[38] During the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War, Kuwait
Kuwait
supported Iraq. Throughout the 1980s, there were several terror attacks in Kuwait, including the 1983 Kuwait
Kuwait
bombings, hijacking of several Kuwait
Kuwait
Airways planes and the attempted assassination of Emir Jaber in 1985. Kuwait
Kuwait
was a regional hub of science and technology in the 1960s and 1970s up until the early 1980s; the scientific research sector significantly suffered due to the terror attacks.[39]

Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Cultural Centre.[40]

After the Iran- Iraq
Iraq
war ended, Kuwait
Kuwait
declined an Iraqi request to forgive its US$65 billion debt.[41] An economic rivalry between the two countries ensued after Kuwait
Kuwait
increased its oil production by 40 percent.[42] Tensions between the two countries increased further in July 1990, after Iraq
Iraq
complained to OPEC
OPEC
claiming that Kuwait
Kuwait
was stealing its oil from a field near the border by slant drilling of the Rumaila field.[42] In August 1990, Iraqi forces invaded and annexed Kuwait. After a series of failed diplomatic negotiations, the United States
United States
led a coalition to remove the Iraqi forces from Kuwait, in what became known as the Gulf War. On 26 February 1991, the coalition succeeded in driving out the Iraqi forces. As they retreated, Iraqi forces carried out a scorched earth policy by setting oil wells on fire.[43] During the Iraqi occupation, more than 1,000 Kuwaiti civilians were killed. In addition, more than 600 Kuwaitis went missing during Iraq's occupation,[44] approximately 375 remains were found in mass graves in Iraq. In March 2003, Kuwait
Kuwait
became the springboard for the US-led invasion of Iraq. Upon the death of the Emir Jaber, in January 2006, Saad Al-Sabah succeeded him but was removed nine days later by the Kuwaiti parliament due to his failing health. Sabah Al-Sabah
Sabah Al-Sabah
was sworn in as Emir. From 2001 to 2009, Kuwait
Kuwait
had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the Arab world.[45][46][47][48] In 2005, women won the right to vote and run in elections. In 2014 and 2015, Kuwait
Kuwait
was ranked first among Arab countries in the Global Gender Gap Report.[49][50][51] Sabah Al Ahmad Sea City
Sabah Al Ahmad Sea City
was inaugurated in mid 2015.[52][53] In June 2015, a suicide bombing took place at Al Sadiq Mosque. The Amiri Diwan is currently developing the new Kuwait
Kuwait
National Cultural District (KNCD), which comprises Sheikh Abdullah Al Salem Cultural Centre, Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre, Al Shaheed Park, and Al Salam Palace.[54][55] With a capital cost of more than US$1 billion, the cultural district is one of the largest cultural investments in the world.[54] In November 2016, the Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre opened.[56][40] It is the largest cultural centre in the Middle East.[57][58] The Kuwait
Kuwait
National Cultural District is a member of the Global Cultural Districts Network.[59] Politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Kuwait, Government of Kuwait, and National Assembly of Kuwait

Kuwait
Kuwait
National Assembly Building

The Constitution of Kuwait
Kuwait
is the most liberal constitution in the GCC.[60] It guarantees a wide range of civil liberties and rights. In contrast to other states in the region, the political process largely respects constitutional provisions. Kuwait
Kuwait
has a robust public sphere and active civil society with political and social organizations that are parties in all but name.[61][62] Professional groups like the Chamber of Commerce maintain their autonomy from the government.[61][62] The National Assembly is the legislature and has oversight authority. The National Assembly consists of fifty elected members, who are chosen in elections held every four years. Since the parliament can conduct inquiries into government actions and pass motions of no confidence, checks and balances are robust in Kuwait.[63] The parliament can be dissolved under a set of conditions based on constitutional provisions.[64] The Constitutional Court and Emir both have the power to dissolve the parliament, although the Constitutional Court can invalidate the Emir's dissolve. Executive power is executed by the government. The Emir appoints the prime minister, who in turn chooses the ministers comprising the government. According to the constitution, at least one minister has to be an elected MP from the parliament. The parliament is often rigorous in holding the government accountable, government ministers are frequently interpellated and forced to resign.[64][63] Kuwait
Kuwait
has more government accountability and transparency than other GCC countries.[61] The judiciary is nominally independent of the executive and the legislature, and the Constitutional Court is charged with ruling on the conformity of laws and decrees with the constitution.[64] The judiciary's independence has come under question, although the Constitutional Court is widely regarded as one of the most judicially independent courts in the Arab world.[65] The Constitutional Court has the power to dissolve the parliament and invalidate the Emir's decrees, as happened in 2013 when the dissolved 2009 parliament resumed its role. Kuwaiti women
Kuwaiti women
outnumber men in the workforce.[66] The political participation of Kuwaiti women
Kuwaiti women
has been limited,[67] although Kuwaiti women are among the most emancipated women in the Middle East. In 2014 and 2015, Kuwait
Kuwait
was ranked first among Arab countries in the Global Gender Gap Report.[49][50][51] In 2013, 53% of Kuwaiti women participated in the labor force.[68] Kuwait
Kuwait
has higher female citizen participation in the workforce than other GCC countries.[66][68][69] Political groups and parliamentary voting blocs exist, although most candidates run as independents. Once elected, many deputies form voting blocs in the National Assembly. Kuwaiti law does not recognize political parties.[70] However, numerous political groups function as de facto political parties in elections, and there are blocs in the parliament. Major de facto political parties include the National Democratic Alliance, Popular Action Bloc, Hadas (Kuwaiti Muslim Brotherhood), National Islamic Alliance and the Justice and Peace Alliance. Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Kuwait

Location of diplomatic missions of Kuwait:   Kuwait   Embassy

Foreign affairs relations of Kuwait
Kuwait
is handled at the level of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The first foreign affairs department bureau was established in 1961. Kuwait
Kuwait
became the 111th member state of the United Nations in May 1963. It is a long-standing member of the Arab League
Arab League
and Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. Before the Gulf War, Kuwait
Kuwait
was the only "pro-Soviet" state in the Persian Gulf.[71] Kuwait
Kuwait
acted as a conduit for the Soviets to the other Persian Gulf states and Kuwait
Kuwait
was used to demonstrate the benefits of a pro- Soviet
Soviet
stance.[71] Between 1961 and 1991, Kuwait
Kuwait
had an uneasy relationship with the United States
United States
characterized by mistrust and hostility.[72] In July 1987, Kuwait
Kuwait
refused to allow U.S. military bases in its territory.[73] As a result of the Gulf War, Kuwait
Kuwait
currently hosts thousands of US military personnel and contractors within active U.S. facilities. Military[edit] The Military of Kuwait
Kuwait
traces its original roots to the Kuwaiti cavalrymen and infantrymen that used to protect Kuwait
Kuwait
and its wall since the early 1900s. These cavalrymen and infantrymen formed the defense and security sources in metropolitan areas; charged with protecting outposts outside the wall of Kuwait. The Military of Kuwait
Kuwait
consists of several joint defense forces. The governing bodies are the Kuwait
Kuwait
Ministry of Defense, the Kuwait Ministry of Interior, the Kuwait
Kuwait
National Guard and the Kuwait
Kuwait
Fire Service Directorate. The Emir of Kuwait
Kuwait
is the commander-in-chief of all defense forces. Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Kuwait

Satellite image of Kuwait

Kuwait
Kuwait
City is located on Kuwait
Kuwait
Bay, a natural deep-water harbor. 90% of Kuwait's population live within the Kuwait
Kuwait
Bay coast. The country is generally low lying, with the highest point being 306 m (1,004 ft) above sea level.[74] It has nine islands, all of which, with the exception of Failaka Island, are uninhabited.[75] With an area of 860 km2 (330 sq mi), the Bubiyan
Bubiyan
is the largest island in Kuwait
Kuwait
and is connected to the rest of the country by a 2,380-metre-long (7,808 ft) bridge.[76] The land area is considered arable[74] and sparse vegetation is found along its 499-kilometre-long (310 mi) coastline.[74] Kuwait's Burgan field
Burgan field
has a total capacity of approximately 70 billion barrels (1.1×1010 m3) of proven oil reserves. During the 1991 Kuwaiti oil fires, more than 500 oil lakes were created covering a combined surface area of about 35.7 km2 (13.8 sq mi).[77] The resulting soil contamination due to oil and soot accumulation had made eastern and south-eastern parts of Kuwait
Kuwait
uninhabitable. Sand and oil residue had reduced large parts of the Kuwaiti desert to semi-asphalt surfaces.[78] The oil spills during the Gulf War
Gulf War
also drastically affected Kuwait's marine resources.[79] Climate[edit]

Astronaut View of Kuwait

Kuwait
Kuwait
City has a hot desert climate (Köppen: BWh) and is one of the hottest cities in the summer on earth.[80] Summer temperatures regularly exceed 45 °C (113 °F), and temperatures over 52 °C (126 °F)[80] are not uncommon in the summer, especially in heat waves; nighttime lows often remain above 30 °C (86 °F). In winter, nighttime temperatures frequently drop below 8 °C (46 °F). Considering its coastal position and relative distance to the equator in comparison with the hot desert climates in Africa
Africa
and Saudi Arabia, the heat in the city is rather extreme - being surrounded in almost every direction by the hot desert. Sand storms occur at times during summer from the shamal wind. Sand storms can occur any time of year but occur mostly during summer, and less frequently during autumn.

Climate data for Kuwait
Kuwait
City

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 29.8 (85.6) 35.8 (96.4) 41.2 (106.2) 44.2 (111.6) 49.0 (120.2) 49.8 (121.6) 52.1 (125.8) 50.7 (123.3) 47.7 (117.9) 43.7 (110.7) 37.9 (100.2) 30.5 (86.9) 52.1 (125.8)

Average high °C (°F) 19.5 (67.1) 21.8 (71.2) 26.9 (80.4) 33.9 (93) 40.9 (105.6) 45.5 (113.9) 46.7 (116.1) 46.9 (116.4) 43.7 (110.7) 36.6 (97.9) 27.8 (82) 21.9 (71.4) 34.3 (93.7)

Average low °C (°F) 8.5 (47.3) 10.0 (50) 14.0 (57.2) 19.5 (67.1) 25.4 (77.7) 28.9 (84) 30.7 (87.3) 29.5 (85.1) 26.2 (79.2) 21.5 (70.7) 14.5 (58.1) 9.9 (49.8) 19.9 (67.8)

Record low °C (°F) −4.0 (24.8) −1.6 (29.1) −0.1 (31.8) 6.9 (44.4) 14.7 (58.5) 20.4 (68.7) 22.4 (72.3) 21.7 (71.1) 16.0 (60.8) 9.4 (48.9) 2.0 (35.6) −1.5 (29.3) −4.0 (24.8)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 30.2 (1.189) 10.5 (0.413) 18.2 (0.717) 11.5 (0.453) 0.4 (0.016) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 1.4 (0.055) 18.5 (0.728) 25.5 (1.004) 116.2 (4.575)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 5 3 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 3 19

Mean monthly sunshine hours 198.1 222.5 217.6 229.3 272.5 304.5 307.1 301.6 285.1 252.2 216.5 193.5 3,000.5

Mean daily sunshine hours 7.1 7.7 7.5 7.9 9.4 10.5 10.6 10.8 10.2 9.0 7.7 6.9 8.8

Percent possible sunshine 68 69 63 62 69 77 76 78 77 79 72 67 72

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization (temperature and rainfall 1994–2008)[81]

Source #2: NOAA (sunshine and records, 1961–1990)[82] source 3 = Wundergound (2012 records)[83]

Economy[edit]

Kuwait
Kuwait
International Airport

Kuwait
Kuwait
Towers

Main article: Economy of Kuwait

A proportional representation of Kuwait's exports.

Al Hamra Tower
Al Hamra Tower
is the tallest sculpted tower in the world.

Arraya Tower.

Kuwait
Kuwait
has a petroleum-based economy, petroleum is the main export product. The Kuwaiti dinar
Kuwaiti dinar
is the highest-valued unit of currency in the world.[84] According to the World Bank, Kuwait
Kuwait
is the fourth richest country in the world per capita.[85] Kuwait
Kuwait
is the second richest GCC country per capita (after Qatar).[85][86][87] Petroleum accounts for half of GDP
GDP
and 90% of government income.[88] Non-petroleum industries include financial services.[88] In the past five years, there has been a significant rise in entrepreneurship and small business start-ups in Kuwait.[89][90] The informal sector is also on the rise,[91] mainly due to the popularity of Instagram businesses.[92][93][94] Kuwait
Kuwait
is a major source of foreign economic assistance to other states through the Kuwait
Kuwait
Fund for Arab Economic Development, an autonomous state institution created in 1961 on the pattern of international development agencies. In 1974, the fund's lending mandate was expanded to include all developing countries in the world. Petroleum[edit] Kuwait
Kuwait
has proven crude oil reserves of 104 billion barrels, estimated to be 10% of the world's reserves. According to the constitution, all natural resources in the country are state property. Kuwait
Kuwait
currently pumps 2.9 million bpd and its full production capacity is a little over 3 million bpd. Finance[edit] The Kuwait
Kuwait
Investment Authority (KIA) is Kuwait's sovereign wealth fund specializing in foreign investment. The KIA is the world's oldest sovereign wealth fund. Since 1953, the Kuwaiti government has directed investments into Europe, United States
United States
and Asia Pacific. As of 2015[update], the holdings were valued at $592 billion in assets.[95] It is the 5th largest sovereign wealth fund in the world. Kuwait
Kuwait
has a leading position in the financial industry in the GCC; the abyss that separates Kuwait
Kuwait
from its Gulf neighbors in terms of tourism, transport, and other measures of diversification is absent in the financial sector.[96] The Emir has promoted the idea that Kuwait should focus its energies, in terms of economic development, on the financial industry.[96] The historical preeminence of Kuwait
Kuwait
(among the Gulf monarchies) in finance dates back to the founding of the National Bank of Kuwait
Kuwait
in 1952.[96] The bank was the first local publicly traded corporation in the Persian Gulf region.[96] In the late 1970s and early 1980s, an alternative stock market, trading in shares of Gulf companies, emerged in Kuwait, the Souk Al-Manakh.[96] At its peak, its market capitalization was the third highest in the world, behind only the U.S. and Japan, and ahead of the UK and France.[96] Kuwait
Kuwait
has a large wealth-management industry that stands out in the region.[96] Kuwaiti investment companies administer more assets than those of any other GCC country, save the much larger Saudi Arabia.[96] The Kuwait
Kuwait
Financial Centre, in a rough calculation, estimated that Kuwaiti firms accounted for over one-third of the total assets under management in the GCC.[96] The relative strength of Kuwait
Kuwait
in the financial industry extends to its stock market.[96] For many years, the total valuation of all companies listed on the Kuwaiti exchange far exceeded the value of those on any other GCC bourse, except Saudi Arabia.[96] In 2011, financial and banking companies made up more than half of the market capitalization of the Kuwaiti bourse; among all the Gulf states, the market capitalization of Kuwaiti financial-sector firms was, in total, behind only that of Saudi Arabia.[96] In recent years, Kuwaiti investment companies have invested large percentages of their assets abroad, and their foreign assets have become substantially larger than their domestic assets.[96] Health and research[edit] Kuwait
Kuwait
has a state-funded healthcare system, which provides treatment without charge to Kuwaiti nationals. There are outpatient clinics in every residential area in Kuwait. A public insurance scheme exists to provide reduced cost healthcare to expatriates. Private healthcare providers also run medical facilities in the country, available to members of their insurance schemes. There are 29 public hospitals. Many new hospitals are under construction.[97] The Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Hospital is the largest hospital in the Middle East.[98] Kuwait
Kuwait
has a growing scientific research sector. To date, Kuwait
Kuwait
has registered 384 patents, the second highest figure in the Arab world.[99][100][101][102] Kuwait
Kuwait
produces the largest number of patents per capita in the Arab world
Arab world
and OIC.[103][104][105][106] The government has implemented various programs to foster innovation resulting in patent rights.[103][107] Between 2010 and 2016, Kuwait registered the highest growth in patents in the Arab world.[103][101][107]

Literacy rate.

Education[edit] Main article: Education in Kuwait Kuwait
Kuwait
has the highest literacy rate in the Arab world.[108] The general education system consists of four levels: kindergarten (lasting for 2 years), primary (lasting for 5 years), intermediate (lasting for 4 years) and secondary (lasting for 3 years).[109] Schooling at primary and intermediate level is compulsory for all students aged 6 – 14. All the levels of state education, including higher education, are free.[110] The public school system is undergoing a revamp due to a project in conjunction with the World Bank.[111] In 2013, the government launched a pilot project in 48 schools across the state called the National Curriculum Framework.[111] The curriculum is set to be implemented in the next two or three years.[111][112] Tourism[edit] Tourism accounts for 1.5 percent of the GDP.[113][114] In 2016, the tourism industry generated nearly $500 million in revenue.[115] The annual "Hala Febrayer" festival attracts many tourists from neighboring GCC countries,[116] and includes a variety of events including music concerts, parades, and carnivals.[116][117][118] The festival is a month-long commemoration of the liberation of Kuwait, and runs from February 1 to February 28. Liberation Day
Liberation Day
itself is celebrated on February 26.[119] The Amiri Diwan is currently developing the new Kuwait
Kuwait
National Cultural District (KNCD), which comprises Sheikh Abdullah Al Salem Cultural Centre, Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre, Al Shaheed Park, and Al Salam Palace.[54][55] The Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Cultural Centre is the largest cultural centre in the Middle East.[57] Yachting is a popular activity, Kuwait
Kuwait
is the largest leisure boat market in the Gulf region.[120][121][122] Sabah Al Ahmad Sea City
Sabah Al Ahmad Sea City
is a large-scale tourism project in Khiran.[52][53][123] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Kuwait Kuwait
Kuwait
has an extensive and modern network of highways. Roadways extended 5,749 km (3,572 mi), of which 4,887 km (3,037 mi) is paved. There are more than 2 million passenger cars, and 500,000 commercial taxis, buses, and trucks in use. On major highways the maximum speed is 120 km/h (75 mph). Since there is no railway system in the country, most people travel by automobiles.

A highway in Kuwait
Kuwait
City.

The country's public transportation network consists almost entirely of bus routes. The state owned Kuwait
Kuwait
Public Transportation Company was established in 1962. It runs local bus routes across Kuwait
Kuwait
as well as longer distance services to other Gulf states. The main private bus company is CityBus, which operates about 20 routes across the country. Another private bus company, Kuwait
Kuwait
Gulf Link Public Transport Services, was started in 2006. It runs local bus routes across Kuwait
Kuwait
and longer distance services to neighbouring Arab countries. There are two airports in Kuwait. Kuwait
Kuwait
International Airport serves as the principal hub for international air travel. State-owned Kuwait Airways is the largest airline in the country. A portion of the airport complex is designated as Al Mubarak Air Base, which contains the headquarters of the Kuwait
Kuwait
Air Force, as well as the Kuwait
Kuwait
Air Force Museum. In 2004, the first private airline of Kuwait, Jazeera Airways, was launched. In 2005, the second private airline, Wataniya Airways was founded. Kuwait
Kuwait
has one of the largest shipping industries in the region. The Kuwait
Kuwait
Ports Public Authority manages and operates ports across Kuwait. The country’s principal commercial seaports are Shuwaikh
Shuwaikh
and Shuaiba which handled combined cargo of 753,334 TEU in 2006.[124] Mina Al-Ahmadi, the largest port in the country, handles most of Kuwait's oil exports.[125] Construction of another major port located in Bubiyan
Bubiyan
island started in 2007. The port is expected to handle 1.3 million TEU when operations start. Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Kuwait Kuwaiti popular culture, in the form of theatre, radio, music, and television soap opera, flourishes and is even exported to neighboring states.[126][127] Within the Gulf Arab states, the culture of Kuwait is the closest to the culture of Bahrain; this is evident in the close association between the two states in theatrical productions and soap operas.[128]

Kuwait
Kuwait
Towers, the country's most famous landmark

Kuwaiti society is markedly more open than other Gulf Arab societies.[129] Kuwait
Kuwait
stands out in the region as the most liberal in empowering women in the public sphere.[130][131][132] Kuwaiti women outnumber men in the workforce.[66] Kuwaiti political scientist Ghanim Alnajjar sees these qualities as a manifestation of Kuwaiti society as a whole, whereby in the Gulf region it is “the least strict about traditions”.[133] Television and theatre[edit] Kuwait's television drama industry tops other Gulf drama industries and produces a minimum of fifteen serials annually.[134][135][136] Kuwait
Kuwait
is the production center of the Gulf television drama and comedy scene.[135] Most Gulf television drama and comedy productions are filmed in Kuwait.[135][137][138] Kuwaiti soap operas are the most-watched soap operas in the Gulf region.[134][139][140] Soap operas are most popular during the time of Ramadan, when families gather to break their fast.[141] Although usually performed in the Kuwaiti dialect, they have been shown with success as far away as Tunisia.[142] Kuwait
Kuwait
is frequently dubbed the " Hollywood
Hollywood
of the Gulf" due to the popularity of its television soap operas and theatre.[143][144][145][146][147][148][149][150][151][152][153][154][155][156][157][158][159][160][161][162] Kuwait
Kuwait
is known for its home-grown tradition of theatre.[163][164][165] Kuwait
Kuwait
is the only country in the Gulf with a theatrical tradition.[163] The theatrical movement in Kuwait constitutes a major part of the country's cultural life.[166] Theatrical activities in Kuwait
Kuwait
began in the 1920s when the first spoken dramas were released.[167] Theatre
Theatre
activities are still popular today.[166] Abdulhussain Abdulredha is the most prominent actor. Kuwait
Kuwait
is the main centre of scenographic and theatrical training in the Gulf region.[168][169] In 1973, the Higher Institute of Theatrical Arts was founded by the government to provide higher education in theatrical arts.[169] The institute has several divisions. Many actors have graduated from the institute, such as Souad Abdullah, Mohammed Khalifa, Mansour Al-Mansour, along with a number of prominent critics such as Ismail Fahd Ismail. Theatre
Theatre
in Kuwait
Kuwait
is subsidized by the government, previously by the Ministry of Social Affairs and now by the National Council for Culture, Arts, and Letters (NCCAL).[170] Every urban district has a public theatre.[171] The public theatre in Salmiya is named after Abdulhussain Abdulredha. Arts[edit] Kuwait
Kuwait
has the oldest modern arts movement in the Arabian Peninsula.[172][173][174] Beginning in 1936, Kuwait
Kuwait
was the first Gulf country to grant scholarships in the arts.[172] The Kuwaiti artist Mojeb al-Dousari was the earliest recognized visual artist in the Gulf region.[175] He is regarded as the founder of portrait art in the region.[176] The Sultan Gallery was the first professional Arab art gallery in the Gulf.[177][178] Kuwait
Kuwait
is home to more than 20 art galleries.[179][180] In recent years, Kuwait's contemporary art scene has boomed.[181][182][183] Khalifa Al-Qattan was the first artist to hold a solo exhibition in Kuwait. He founded a new art theory in the early 1960s known as "circulism".[184][185] Other notable Kuwaiti artists include Sami Mohammad, Thuraya Al-Baqsami
Thuraya Al-Baqsami
and Suzan Bushnaq. The government organizes various arts festivals, including the Al Qurain Cultural Festival and Formative Arts Festival.[186][187][188] The Kuwait
Kuwait
International Biennial was inaugurated in 1967,[189] more than 20 Arab and foreign countries have participated in the biennial.[189] Prominent participants include Layla Al-Attar. In 2004, the Al Kharafi Biennial for Contemporary Arab Art was inaugurated. Music[edit] Kuwait
Kuwait
is the birthplace of various popular musical genres, such as sawt.[190] Kuwaiti music has considerably influenced the music culture in other GCC countries.[191][190] Traditional Kuwaiti music is a reflection of the country's seafaring heritage,[192] which is known for genres such as fijiri.[193][194][195] Kuwait
Kuwait
pioneered contemporary Khaliji music,[196][197][198] Kuwaitis were the first commercial recording artists in the Gulf region.[196][197][198] The first known Kuwaiti recordings were made between 1912 and 1915.[199] The Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Cultural Centre
Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Cultural Centre
contains the largest opera house in the Middle East.[200] Kuwait
Kuwait
is home to various music festivals, including the International Music Festival hosted by the National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters (NCCAL).[201][202] Kuwait
Kuwait
has several academic institutions specializing in university-level music education.[203][204][205] The Higher Institute of Musical Arts was established by the government to provide bachelor's degrees in music.[203][204][205] In addition, the College of Basic Education offers bachelor's degrees in music education.[203][204][205] The Institute of Musical Studies offers degrees equivalent to secondary school.[203][205][204] Museums[edit] Main article: List of museums in Kuwait

Sadu House.

Sadu House
Sadu House
is among Kuwait's most important cultural institutions. Bait Al-Othman is the largest museum specializing in Kuwait's history. The Scientific Center is one of the largest science museums in the Middle East. The Museum of Modern Art showcases the history of modern art in Kuwait
Kuwait
and the region.[206] The National Museum, established in 1983, has been described as "underused and overlooked".[207] Several Kuwaiti museums are devoted to Islamic art, most notably the Tareq Rajab Museums and Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah cultural centres.[208][209] The Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah cultural centres include education wings, conservation labs, and research libraries.[210][211][212] There are several art libraries in Kuwait.[213][212][214] Many museums in Kuwait
Kuwait
are private enterprises.[215][208] In contrast to the top-down approach in other Gulf states, museum development in Kuwait
Kuwait
reflects a greater sense of civic identity and demonstrates the strength of civil society in Kuwait, which has produced many independent cultural enterprises.[216][208][215] The Amiri Diwan is currently developing the new Kuwait
Kuwait
National Cultural District (KNCD), which comprises various cultural projects including Sheikh Abdullah Al Salem Cultural Centre, Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre, Al Shaheed Park, and Al Salam Palace.[54][55] Sport[edit] Football is the most popular sport in Kuwait. The Kuwait
Kuwait
Football Association (KFA) is the governing body of football in Kuwait. The KFA organises the men's, women's, and futsal national teams. The Kuwaiti Premier League is the top league of Kuwaiti football, featuring eighteen teams. They have been the champions of the 1980 AFC Asian Cup, runners-up of the 1976 AFC Asian Cup, and have taken third place of the 1984 AFC Asian Cup. Kuwait
Kuwait
has also been to one FIFA World Cup, in 1982, but tied 1–1 with Czechoslovakia on the first round. Kuwait is home to many football clubs including Al-Arabi, Al-Fahaheel, Al-Jahra, Al-Kuwait, Al-Naser, Al-Salmiya, Al-Shabab, Al Qadsia, Al-Yarmouk, Kazma, Khaitan, Sulaibikhat, Sahel, and Tadamon. The biggest football rivalry in Kuwait
Kuwait
is between Al-Arabi and Al Qadsia. Basketball is one of the country's most popular sports. The Kuwait national basketball team is governed by the Kuwait
Kuwait
Basketball Association (KBA). Kuwait
Kuwait
made its international debut in 1959. The national team has been to the FIBA Asian Championship
FIBA Asian Championship
in basketball eleven times. The Kuwaiti Division I Basketball League is the highest professional basketball league in Kuwait. Cricket in Kuwait
Kuwait
is governed by the Kuwait
Kuwait
Cricket Association. Other growing sports include rugby union. Handball is widely considered to be the national icon of Kuwait, although football is more popular among the overall population. Ice hockey in Kuwait
Kuwait
is governed by the Kuwait
Kuwait
Ice Hockey Association. Kuwait
Kuwait
first joined the International Ice Hockey Federation
International Ice Hockey Federation
in 1985, but was expelled in 1992 due to a lack of ice hockey activity.[217] Kuwait
Kuwait
was re-admitted into the IIHF in May 2009.[218] In 2015, Kuwait won the IIHF Challenge Cup of Asia.[219][220] Gallery[edit]

Built in 1979, the Kuwait
Kuwait
Towers are the most famous landmark in Kuwait
Kuwait
City.

Seif Palace

Al Hamra Tower
Al Hamra Tower
is the tallest sculpted tower in the world.

Majlis Al-Umma
Majlis Al-Umma
(مجلس الأمة, "The Council of the Nation"), the Kuwaiti parliament

Arraya Tower
Arraya Tower
complex

Water towers are a feature of Kuwait
Kuwait
City

Kuwait
Kuwait
Towers

Liberation Tower

City skyline

Kuwait
Kuwait
Stock Exchange

See also[edit]

Middle East
Middle East
portal

List of twin towns and sister cities in Asia#Kuwait JW Marriott Hotel Madinat al-Hareer

References[edit]

^ Al-Jassar, Mohammad Khalid A. (May 2009). Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait
Kuwait
City: The Socio-cultural Dimensions of the Kuwait Courtyard and Diwaniyya (PhD thesis). The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-109-22934-9.  ^ Bell, Gawain, Sir (1983). Shadows on the Sand: The Memoirs of Sir Gawain Bell. p. 222. Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ "ʻAlam-i Nisvāṉ". 2 (1–2). University of Karachi. 1995: 18. Kuwait
Kuwait
became an important trading port for import and export of goods from India, Africa
Africa
and Arabia.  ^ a b Al-Jassar, Mohammad Khalid A. (May 2009). Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait
Kuwait
City: The Socio-cultural Dimensions of the Kuwait
Kuwait
Courtyard and Diwaniyya (PhD thesis). The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. p. 66.  ^ a b Bennis, Phyllis; Moushabeck, Michel, eds. (1991). Beyond the Storm: A Gulf Crisis Reader. Brooklyn, New York: Olive Branch Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-940793-82-8.  ^ Lauterpacht, Elihu; Greenwood, C. J.; Weller, Marc (1991). The Kuwait
Kuwait
Crisis: Basic Documents. Cambridge international documents series, Issue 1. Cambridge, UK: Research Centre for International Law, Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-521-46308-9.  ^ a b Al-Jassar, Mohammad Khalid A. (May 2009). Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait
Kuwait
City: The Socio-cultural Dimensions of the Kuwait
Kuwait
Courtyard and Diwaniyya (PhD thesis). The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. p. 67.  ^ Abdullah, Thabit A. J. (2001). Merchants, Mamluks, and Murder: The Political Economy of Trade in Eighteenth-Century Basra. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-7914-4807-6.  ^ Sagher, Mostafa Ahmed. The impact of economic activities on the social and political structures of Kuwait
Kuwait
(1896–1946) (PDF) (PhD). Durham, UK: Durham University. p. 108. Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ Sweet, Louise Elizabeth (1970). Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East: Cultural depth and diversity. American Museum of Natural History, Natural History Press. p. 156. The port of Kuwait
Kuwait
was then, and is still, the principal dhow-building and trading port of the Persian Gulf, though offering little trade itself.  ^ Nijhoff, M. (1974). Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde (in Dutch). Volume 130. Leiden, Netherlands: Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. p. 111.  ^ Aggarwal, Jatendra M., ed. (1965). Indian Foreign Affairs. Volume 8. p. 29.  ^ Sanger, Richard Harlakenden (1970). The Arabian Peninsula. Books for Libraries
Libraries
Press. p. 150.  ^ Al-Jassar, Mohammad Khalid A. Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait
Kuwait
City: The Socio-cultural Dimensions of the Kuwait
Kuwait
Courtyard and Diwaniyya (PhD thesis). The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. p. 68.  ^ Hasan, Mohibbul, ed. (2007) [First published 1968]. Waqai-i manazil-i Rum: Tipu Sultan's mission to Constantinople. Delhi, India: Aakar Books. p. 18. ISBN 9788187879565. For owing to Basra's misfortunes, Kuwait
Kuwait
and Zubarah became rich.  ^ Fattah, Hala Mundhir (1997). The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf, 1745–1900. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-7914-3113-9.  ^ Donaldson, Neil (2008). The Postal Agencies in Eastern Arabia
Arabia
and the Gulf. Lulu.com. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-4092-0942-3.  ^ Agius, Dionisius A. (2012). Seafaring in the Arabian Gulf and Oman: People of the Dhow. New York: Routledge. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-136-20182-0.  ^ Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce (2009). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 321. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7.  ^ a b c d e Al-Jassar, Mohammad Khalid A. (May 2009). Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait
Kuwait
City: The Socio-cultural Dimensions of the Kuwait
Kuwait
Courtyard and Diwaniyya (PhD thesis). The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. p. 80.  ^ a b c d e Casey, Michael S. (2007). The History of Kuwait. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-313-34073-4.  ^ a b c Al Sager, Noura, ed. (2014). Acquiring Modernity: Kuwait's Modern Era Between Memory and Forgetting. National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters. p. 7. ISBN 9789990604238.  ^ a b Al-Nakib, Farah, ed. (2014). "Kuwait's Modernity Between Memory and Forgetting". Academia.edu. p. 7.  ^ a b Farid, Alia (2014). "Acquiring Modernity: Kuwait
Kuwait
at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition". aliafarid.net.  ^ Gonzales, Desi (November–December 2014). "Acquiring Modernity: Kuwait
Kuwait
at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition". Art Papers.  ^ Tsourapas, Gerasimos (2016-07-02). "Nasser's Educators and Agitators across al-Watan al-'Arabi: Tracing the Foreign Policy Importance of Egyptian Regional Migration, 1952–1967". British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 43 (3): 324–341. doi:10.1080/13530194.2015.1102708. ISSN 1353-0194.  ^ "Looking for Origins of Arab Modernism in Kuwait". Hyperallergic.  ^ Al-Nakib, Farah (1 March 2014). "Towards an Urban Alternative for Kuwait: Protests and Public Participation". Built Environment. 40 (1): 101–117.  ^ a b c d "Cultural developments in Kuwait". March 2013.  ^ Chee Kong, Sam (1 March 2014). "What Can Nations Learn from Norway and Kuwait
Kuwait
in Managing Sovereign Wealth Funds". Market Oracle.  ^ al-Nakib, Farah (17 September 2014). "Understanding Modernity: A Review of the Kuwait
Kuwait
Pavilion at the Venice Biennale". Jadaliyya.  ^ a b Sajjad, Valiya S. " Kuwait
Kuwait
Literary Scene A Little Complex". Arab Times. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. A magazine, Al Arabi, was published in 1958 in Kuwait. It was the most popular magazine in the Arab world. It came out it in all the Arabic countries, and about a quarter million copies were published every month.  ^ Gunter, Barrie; Dickinson, Roger, eds. (2013). News Media in the Arab World: A Study of 10 Arab and Muslim Countries. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-4411-0239-3.  ^ Sager, Abdulaziz; Koch, Christian; Tawfiq Ibrahim, Hasanain, eds. (2008). Gulf Yearbook 2006–2007. I. B. Tauris. p. 39. The Kuwaiti press has always enjoyed a level of freedom unparalleled in any other Arab country.  ^ Muslim Education Quarterly. 8. Islamic Academy. 1990. p. 61. Kuwait
Kuwait
is a primary example of a Muslim society which embraced liberal and Western attitudes throughout the sixties and seventies.  ^ Rubin, Barry, ed. (2010). Guide to Islamist Movements. Volume 1. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-7656-4138-0.  ^ Wheeler, Deborah L. The Internet In The Middle East: Global Expectations And Local Imaginations. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-7914-6586-8.  ^ "Kuwait's Souk al-Manakh Stock Bubble". Stock-market-crash.net. 23 June 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2013.  ^ Bansal, Narottam P.; Singh, Jitendra P.; Ko, Song; Castro, Ricardo; Pickrell, Gary; Manjooran, Navin Jose; Nair, Mani; Singh, Gurpreet (eds.). "Processing and Properties of Advanced Ceramics and Composites". 240. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons: 205. ISBN 978-1-118-74411-6.  ^ a b " Kuwait
Kuwait
unveils $775M Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre". 7 December 2016.  ^ "Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait; 1990". Acig.org. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ a b Gregory, Derek (2004). The Colonial Present: Afghanistan, Palestine, Iraq. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-57718-090-6. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ " Iraq
Iraq
and Kuwait: 1972, 1990, 1991, 1997". Earthshots: Satellite Images of Environmental Change. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2013.  ^ " Iraq
Iraq
and Kuwait
Kuwait
Discuss Fate of 600 Missing Since Gulf War". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. 9 January 2003.  ^ " Kuwait
Kuwait
ranks top among Arab states in human development – UNDP report". KUNA. 2009.  ^ " Human Development Index
Human Development Index
2009" (PDF). Human Development Report. hdr.undp.org. p. 143.  ^ " Human Development Index
Human Development Index
2007/2008" (PDF). Human Development Report. p. 233.  ^ " Human Development Index
Human Development Index
2006" (PDF). Human Development Report. p. 283.  ^ a b " Kuwait
Kuwait
highest in closing gender gap: WEF".  ^ a b "The Global Gender Gap Index 2014 – World Economic Forum". World Economic Forum.  ^ a b "Global Gender Gap Index Results in 2015". World Economic Forum.  ^ a b "Sea City achieves the impossible". The Worldfolio. March 2016.  ^ a b " Kuwait
Kuwait
develops 'sea city' that brings Persian Gulf 6 miles inland". Daily Mail.  ^ a b c d " Kuwait
Kuwait
National Cultural District Museums Director" (PDF). 28 August 2017.  ^ a b c " Kuwait
Kuwait
National Cultural District".  ^ "Opening of the Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre
Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre
a milestone in the illustrious company's history". 7 December 2016.  ^ a b "أمير الكويت يدشن أكبر مركز ثقافي في الشرق الأوسط.. و4 جواهر تضيء شاطئ الخليج". Oman
Oman
Daily (in Arabic).  ^ "UK Trade & Investment" (PDF). UK Trade & Investment. June 2016. p. 3.  ^ "Current Members - Global Cultural Districts Network". Global Cultural Districts Network.  ^ "The origins of Kuwait's National Assembly" (PDF). London School of Economics. p. 7.  ^ a b c Bary Rubin. Crises in the Contemporary Persian Gulf. p. 92. Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ a b F. Gregory Gause. Oil Monarchies: Domestic and Security Challenges in the Arab Gulf States. pp. 69–70. Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ a b " Kuwait
Kuwait
Country Report" (PDF). Bertelsmann Foundation. p. 17.  ^ a b c Nathan J. Brown. "Mechanisms of accountability in Arab governance: The present and future of judiciaries and parliaments in the Arab world" (PDF). pp. 8–18. Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ " Kuwait
Kuwait
court ruling may threaten economic recovery". Reuters. 15 May 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013.  ^ a b c " Kuwait
Kuwait
leads Gulf states in women in workforce". Gulf News.  ^ Lindsey Stephenson (2011). "Women and the Malleability of the Kuwaiti Diwaniyya". Academia.edu.  ^ a b "Kuwait: Selected Issues" (PDF). p. 17. Kuwait
Kuwait
has higher female labor market participation than other GCC countries; further improvements in labor force participation can support future growth prospects. Kuwait’s labor force participation rate for Kuwaiti women (53 percent) is slightly above the world average (51 percent) and much higher than the MENA average (21 percent).  ^ "Kuwait: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix". International Monetary Fund. 2012. p. 43.  ^ "Kuwait: Security, Reform, and U.S. Policy" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. 30 August 2013. p. 10.  ^ a b Yetiv, Steve (1995). America and the Persian Gulf: The Third Party Dimension in World Politics. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 51. ISBN 9780275949730.  ^ Panaspornprasit, Chookiat (2005). US-Kuwaiti Relations, 1961–1992: An Uneasy Relationship. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. p. 75. ISBN 9781135767228.  ^ Wallace, Charles P. (20 July 1987). "No Military Bases for U.S., Kuwait
Kuwait
Says". Los Angeles Times.  ^ a b c "Kuwait". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 10 April 2015.  ^ " Bubiyan
Bubiyan
(island, Kuwait)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ "Structurae [en]: Bubiyan
Bubiyan
Bridge (1983)". En.structurae.de. 19 October 2002. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ Pendick, Daniel. "Kuwaiti Oil Lakes". Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009.  ^ "The Economic and Environmental Impact of the Gulf War
Gulf War
on Kuwait
Kuwait
and the Persian Gulf". American.edu. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ " Kuwait
Kuwait
(country)". Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009.  ^ a b "Where is the world's hottest city?". the Guardian. Retrieved 3 March 2016.  ^ "World Weather Information Service – Kuwait
Kuwait
City". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 19 February 2014.  ^ " Kuwait
Kuwait
International Airport Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 15 January 2015.  ^ "Dr.Jeff Masters' article published January 2013". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2015.  ^ "10 Most Valuable Currencies in the World". Silicon India. 21 March 2012.  ^ a b " GDP
GDP
per capita, PPP (current international $)", World Development Indicators database, World Bank. Database updated on 14 April 2015. ^ GDP
GDP
– per capita (PPP), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. ^ Economic Outlook Database, October 2015, International Monetary Fund. Database updated on 6 October 2015. ^ a b "The World Factbook". CIA Factbook.  ^ Al-Kharafi, Naeimah (12 October 2014). "Encouraging social entrepreneurship in Kuwait
Kuwait
Special
Special
report". Kuwait
Kuwait
Times.  ^ Saltzman, Jason (11 November 2014). "Keeping Up With Kuwaiti Connection: The Startup Circuit In Kuwait
Kuwait
Is Up And At 'Em". Entrepreneur Middle East.  ^ Etheridge, Jamie (27 February 2014). "What's behind the growth of Kuwait's informal economy". Kuwait
Kuwait
Times.  ^ Greenfield, Rebecca (12 July 2013). "In Kuwait, Instagram Accounts Are Big Business". The Wire: News for the Atlantic.  ^ Kuo, Lily; Foxman, Simone (16 July 2013). "A rising class of Instagram entrepreneurs in Kuwait
Kuwait
is selling comics, makeup and sheep". Quartz.  ^ "Kuwait's booming Instagram economy". kottke.org. 12 July 2013.  ^ " Kuwait
Kuwait
Investment Authority Profile Page". Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute. Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "The Wages of Oil: Parliaments and Economic Development in Kuwait
Kuwait
and the UAE". Michael Herb.  ^ "Mega-projects boost hospital capacity in Kuwait". Oxford Business Group. 2016.  ^ "MidEast's largest hospital to open in Kuwait
Kuwait
by end of 2016". 2016.  ^ " Patents
Patents
By Country, State, and Year – All Patent Types". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ "Arab World to have more than 197 million Internet users by 2017, according to Arab Knowledge Economy Report". To date, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) have granted 858 patents to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, positioning it 29th in the world. Kuwait is at second place with 272 patents and Egypt
Egypt
at third with 212 patents, so far.  ^ a b "Arab Economy Knowledge Report 2014" (PDF). pp. 20–22.  ^ "UNESCO Science Report 2005" (PDF). p. 162.  ^ a b c "A Mixed Bag of Scientific Commitment". MIT Technology Review. Archived from the original on 13 July 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Regional Profile of the Information Society
Society
in Western Asia" (PDF). p. 53.  ^ "Arab states" (PDF). pp. 264–265.  ^ "Science and Technology in the OIC
OIC
Member Countries" (PDF). p. 7.  ^ a b " Kuwait
Kuwait
Sees Fastest Growth of GCC Countries in Obtaining U.S. Patents". Yahoo News. Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ "Arab World needs to rise to the literacy challenge". Emirates 247. 28 July 2010.  ^ Ministry of Education.Education Indicators in the State of Kuwait 2004-2005 report  ^ Kuwait
Kuwait
Education Indicators Report 2007, Executive Summary  ^ a b c "New schools to meet growing demand in Kuwait".  ^ "Kuwait's new curriculum to be ready in two years".  ^ "Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2015" (PDF). World Travel & Tourism Council.  ^ "Kuwait's investments in travel and tourism sector to grow by 4.3% per annum". BQ Magazine.  ^ " Kuwait
Kuwait
tenth in total Arab countries' tourism revenue".  ^ a b "Hala February kicks off with a bang". Kuwait
Kuwait
Times.  ^ "Hala Febrayer 2016 Carnival attracts thousands of participants". Al Bawaba.  ^ "Ooredoo Sponsors Kuwait's Biggest Annual Festival".  ^ "Flag-hoisting ceremony signals start of Kuwait
Kuwait
national celebrations of 2017". Kuwait
Kuwait
Times. 3 February 2017. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.  ^ " Yachting
Yachting
royalty". Ocean Magazine. September 2015.  ^ "Gulf Craft to add two new boatyards in the UAE". The National. March 2016.  ^ "Gulf boating developments". Mike Derrett.  ^ "Tamdeen Group's US$ 700 million Al Khiran development to bolster Kuwait's retail and tourism growth". Tamdeen Group.  ^ "Kuwait's ports continue to break records – Transportation". ArabianBusiness.com. 4 June 2007. Retrieved 28 June 2015.  ^ John Pike. "Mina Al Ahmadi, Kuwait". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 28 June 2015.  ^ Clive Holes (2004). Modern Arabic: Structures, Functions, and Varieties. Georgetown University Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-58901-022-2.  ^ Ali Alawi. "Ali's roadtrip from Bahrain
Bahrain
to Kuwait
Kuwait
(PHOTOS)". The trip to Kuwait
Kuwait
– a country that has built a deep connection with people in the Persian Gulf thanks to its significant drama productions in theater, television, and even music – started with 25 kilometers of spectacular sea view  ^ Zubir, S.S.; Brebbia, C.A., eds. (2014). The Sustainable City VIII (2 Volume Set): Urban Regeneration and Sustainability. Volume 179 of WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment. Ashurst, Southampton, UK: WIT Press. p. 599. ISBN 978-1-84564-746-9.  ^ Alazemi, Einas. The role of fashion design in the construct of national identity of Kuwaiti women
Kuwaiti women
in the 21st century (PhD). University of Southampton. p. 140-199.  ^ "The Situation of Women in the Gulf States" (PDF). p. 18.  ^ Karen E. Young. "Small Victories for GCC Women: More Educated, More Unemployed". The Arab Gulf States Institute.  ^ Karen E. Young. "More Educated, Less Employed: The Paradox of Women's Employment in the Gulf" (PDF). pp. 7–8.  ^ Stephenson, Lindsey. "Women and the Malleability of the Kuwaiti Diwaniyya". p. 190.  ^ a b Al Mukrashi, Fahad (22 August 2015). "Omanis turn their backs on local dramas". Gulf News. Kuwait's drama industry tops other Gulf drama as it has very prominent actors and actresses, enough scripts and budgets, produces fifteen serials annually at least.  ^ a b c Hammond, Andrew, ed. (2017). Pop Culture in North Africa
Africa
and the Middle East: Entertainment and Society
Society
Around the World. California: ABC-CLIO. p. 143-144. ISBN 9781440833847.  ^ "Closer cultural relations between the two countries". Oman
Oman
Daily Observer. 20 February 2017. The Kuwaiti television is considered the most active in the Gulf region, as it has contributed to the development of television drama in Kuwait
Kuwait
and the Gulf region. Therefore, all the classics of the Gulf television drama are today Kuwaiti dramas by Kuwaiti actors  ^ "Big plans for small screens". BroadcastPro Me. Around 90% of Khaleeji productions take place in Kuwait.  ^ Papavassilopoulos, Constantinos (10 April 2014). "OSN targets new markets by enriching its Arabic content offering". IHS Inc.  ^ Fattahova, Nawara (26 March 2015). "First Kuwaiti horror movie to be set in 'haunted' palace". Kuwait
Kuwait
Times. Kuwait's TV soaps and theatrical plays are among the best in the region and second most popular after Egypt
Egypt
in the Middle East.  ^ Bjørn T. Asheim. "An Innovation driven Economic Diversification Strategy for Kuwait" (PDF). Kuwait
Kuwait
Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences. p. 9.  ^ "Kuwaiti Drama Museum: formulating thoughts of the Gulf". 23 May 2014.  ^ Mansfield, Peter (1990). Kuwait: vanguard of the Gulf. Hutchinson. p. 113.  ^ "مريم حسين ترحل إلى "هوليوود الخليج".. وتتبرأ من العقوق في "بنات سكر نبات"". MBC (in Arabic). 29 August 2015.  ^ "هيفاء حسين : الكويت هي هوليود الخليج" (in Arabic). 8 July 2015.  ^ "منى البلوشي: الكويت هي هوليود الخليج ويقصدونها للشهرة" (in Arabic). 25 August 2013.  ^ "ارحمة لـ الشرق: أبحث دائماً عن التميّز والكويت هوليود الخليج" (in Arabic). 21 December 2014.  ^ ""السليم لـ «الراي": الدراما منتعشة ... والكويت «هوليوود الخليج". Al Rai (in Arabic). 3 February 2016.  ^ "زينب العسكري: الكويت هوليوود الخليج". Al-Anba (in Arabic). 28 February 2007.  ^ "النجم الكوميدي داوود حسين الكويت هوليود الخليج غصب عن خشم أكبر رأس". Scope. 26 May 2016.  ^ ""أحمد الجسمي: عاتب على «دبي" و«أم بي سي". Al Khaleej (in Arabic). 3 July 2016.  ^ "!طلال السدر في الديوانية: انجذابي لـ"هوليوود الخليج"..أقدار". Al Watan (in Arabic). 4 April 2012.  ^ "ريم أرحمة: حريصة على اختيار نصوص جيدة أكثر من الظهور في رمضان". Al-Jarida (in Arabic). 7 June 2016.  ^ "وفاء مكي: موزة تعيش في ذاكرتي". Al-Qabas (in Arabic). 13 March 2009. [permanent dead link] ^ "مي أحمد: المواهب الشابة لا تقلّّ رقياً عن الفنانين الكبار". Al-Jarida (in Arabic). 19 February 2010.  ^ "الإماراتي أحمد الخميس: لن أنسى ما فعله طارق العلي معي!" (in Arabic). 6 March 2016.  ^ "سناء: الكويت هوليوود الخليج". Al-Qabas (in Arabic). 17 December 2015. [permanent dead link] ^ "فيديو – رئيس مجلس إدارة نقابة الفنانين الكويتية د. نبيل الفيلكاوي: الكويت "هوليوود الخليج" لكنها لاتملك أكاديمية للفنون". Al Watan (in Arabic). 22 April 2015.  ^ "فايز بن دمخ: نفخر باسم الأمير سعود بن محمد". Annahar (in Arabic). 1 June 2016.  ^ " Kuwait
Kuwait
an urban spectacle". Muscat
Muscat
Daily. 26 March 2015.  ^ "الله… الله عليك يا الكويت". Al-Jarida (in Arabic). 28 July 2011.  ^ "الأردنية عبير عيسى لـ "الانباء": أتمنى استمرار مشاركاتي في الدراما الكويتية". Al Anba (in Arabic). 12 August 2013.  ^ " Kuwait
Kuwait
Cultural Days kick off in Seoul". Kuwait
Kuwait
News Agency (in Arabic). 18 December 2015.  ^ a b Hammond, Andrew (2007). Popular Culture in the Arab World: Arts, Politics, and the Media. Cario, Egypt: American University in Cairo Press. p. 277. ISBN 9789774160547.  ^ Cavendish, Marshall (2006). World and Its Peoples, Volume 1. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish. p. 244. ISBN 9780761475712.  ^ Watson, Katie (18 December 2010). "Reviving Kuwait's theatre industry". BBC News.  ^ a b Herbert, Ian; Leclercq, Nicole, eds. (2000). "An Account of the Theatre
Theatre
Seasons 1996–97, 1997–98 and 1998–99". The World of Theatre
Theatre
(2000 ed.). London: Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-415-23866-3.  ^ Rubin, Don, ed. (1999). "Kuwait". The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre. Volume 4: The Arab world. London: Taylor & Francis. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-415-05932-9.  ^ Alhajri, Khalifah Rashed. A Scenographer's Perspective on Arabic Theatre
Theatre
and Arab-Muslim Identity (PDF) (PhD). Leeds, UK: University of Leeds. p. 207.  ^ a b "Shooting the Past". y-oman.com. 11 July 2013. Most Omanis who get to study drama abroad tend to go to Kuwait
Kuwait
or Egypt. In the Gulf, Kuwait
Kuwait
has long been a pioneer in theatre, film and television since the establishment of its Higher Institute of Dramatic Arts (HIDA) in 1973. By contrast, there is no drama college or film school in Oman, although there is a drama course at Sultan Qaboos University.  ^ Herbert, Ian; Leclercq, Nicole, eds. (2003). "World of Theatre
Theatre
2003 Edition: An Account of the World's Theatre
Theatre
Seasons". The World of Theatre
Theatre
(2003 ed.). London: Taylor & Francis. p. 214. ISBN 9781134402120.  ^ Fiona MacLeod. "The London musician who found harmony in Kuwait". Financial Times.  ^ a b Bloom, Jonathan; Sheila, Blair, eds. (2009). Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set (2009 ed.). London: Oxford University Press. p. 405. ISBN 9780195309911.  ^ Zuhur, Sherifa, ed. (2001). Colors of Enchantment: Theater, Dance, Music, and the Visual Arts of the Middle East
Middle East
(2001 ed.). New York: American University in Cairo
Cairo
Press. p. 383. ISBN 9781617974809.  ^ Bjørn T. Asheim. "An Innovation driven Economic Diversification Strategy for Kuwait" (PDF). Kuwait
Kuwait
Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences. pp. 49–50.  ^ Al Qassemi, Sultan Sooud (22 November 2013). "Correcting misconceptions of the Gulf's modern art movement". Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East.  ^ "Kuwait". Atelier Voyage.  ^ Kristine Khouri. "Mapping Arab Art through the Sultan Gallery". ArteEast.  ^ "The Sultan Gallery – Kristine Khouri".  ^ "Culture of Kuwait". Kuwait
Kuwait
Embassy in Austria.  ^ "Art Galleries and Art Museums in Kuwait". Art Kuwait.  ^ "Egyptian Artist Fatma, talks about the gateway to human faces and equality for all". Reconnecting Arts.  ^ "Kuwaiti Artist Rua AlShaheen tells us about recycling existing elements to tell a new narrative". Reconnecting Arts.  ^ "Farah Behbehani & the Story of the letter Haa '". Al Ostoura Magazine.  ^ Muayad H., Hussain (2012). Modern Art from Kuwait: Khalifa Qattan and Circulism (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Birmingham.  ^ "Khalifa Qattan, Founder of Circulism".  ^ "Interview with Ali Al-Youha - Secretary General of Kuwait
Kuwait
National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters (NCCAL)" (PDF). oxgaps.org.  ^ " Kuwait
Kuwait
celebrates formative arts festival". Kuwait
Kuwait
News Agency (KUNA).  ^ "KAA honors winners of His Highness Amir formative arts award". Kuwait
Kuwait
News Agency (KUNA).  ^ a b "12th Kuwait
Kuwait
International Biennial". AsiaArt archive.  ^ a b Rolf Killius. "The Cradle of Arabic Sawt Music: The Early Musician Generations in Kuwait". Qatar
Qatar
Digital Library.  ^ "Opportunity report for Dutch businesses in Gulf region – Creative Industries" (PDF). Government of Netherlands. p. 10.  ^ "Kuwait's musical heritage: The heartbeat of a nation".  ^ Sophie Chamas. "Ya Bahr". Brownbook.  ^ "The Innerworkings of Kuwaiti Pearl
Pearl
Diving: Ghazi AlMulaifi".  ^ Rolf Killius. "Hidden Treasures: Reflections on Traditional Music in Kuwait". Qatar
Qatar
Digital Library.  ^ a b Mustafa Said. "History of Recording in the Gulf area, Part 1". Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ a b Ulaby, Laith. Performing the Past: Sea Music in the Arab Gulf States (PDF) (PhD). University of California, Los Angeles. p. 99.  ^ a b Mustafa Said. "History of Recording in the Gulf area, Part 2". Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ "A Gulfie record collector writes".  ^ "Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre". jacc-kw.com.  ^ "International Music Festival opens in Kuwait" (PDF).  ^ "Int'l Music Festival opens in Kuwait". Kuwait
Kuwait
News Agency.  ^ a b c d Al-Faraj, Hamed. Kuwait
Kuwait
music educators' perspectives regarding the general goals for music education in Kuwait
Kuwait
(PhD). Case Western Reserve University. p. 23-26.  ^ a b c d Alderaiwaish, Ahmad. Teaching the Clarinet in Kuwait: Creating A Curriculum for the Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (PDF) (PhD). University of Southampton. p. 51-55.  ^ a b c d Alyoser, Abdulaziz Z. Self-Reported Attitudes and Practices of Music Instructors in Kuwait
Kuwait
regarding Adult Music Learners (PhD). Case Western Reserve University. p. 12.  ^ " Kuwait
Kuwait
Museum of Modern Art". myartguides.com.  ^ Gonzales, Desi (November–December 2014). "Acquiring Modernity: Kuwait
Kuwait
at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition". Art Papers. Art Papers.  ^ a b c Exell, Karen (2016). Modernity and the Museum in the Arabian Peninsula. Taylor & Francis. pp. 147–179. ISBN 9781317279006.  ^ "About Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah". darmuseum.org.kw.  ^ "Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah at Amricani Cultural Centre". darmuseum.org.kw.  ^ "Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah at Yarmouk Cultural Centre". darmuseum.org.kw.  ^ a b " Libraries
Libraries
- Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah". darmuseum.org.kw.  ^ "Abous Us - CAPKuwait". capkuwait.com.  ^ "First Art Library in Kuwait". artkuwait.org.  ^ a b Excell, Karen; Wakefield, Sarina, eds. (2016). Museums in Arabia: Transnational Practices and Regional Processes. Taylor & Francis. pp. 137–158. ISBN 9781317092766.  ^ Exell, Karen (2016). Modernity and the Museum in the Arabian Peninsula. Taylor & Francis. p. 176. ISBN 9781317279006.  ^ Szemberg, Szymon; Podnieks, Andrew (2008). "Story #42;Breakup of old Europe creates a new hockey world". International Ice Hockey Federation. Retrieved 9 June 2009. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Welcome, Georgia & Kuwait". International Ice Hockey Federation. 13 May 2009. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2009.  ^ " Kuwait
Kuwait
wins IIHF Ice Hockey Challenge Cup of Asia". 12 June 2015.  ^ " Kuwait
Kuwait
top ice hockey Challenge Cup". 12 June 2015. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kuwait
Kuwait
City.

Kuwait
Kuwait
City travel guide from Wikivoyage

v t e

Kuwait
Kuwait
City

History Timeline

Districts and streets

Sharg Jibla Mirgab Gulf Road

Landmarks

Buildings and cultural centres

Kuwait
Kuwait
Towers (Freedom Towers) Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre Al Shaheed Park Sheikh Abdullah Al Salem Cultural Centre Al Salam Palace Kuwait
Kuwait
National Cultural District Liberation Tower National Assembly of Kuwait

building

Al-Hashemi-II

Museums

Sheikh Abdullah Al Salem Cultural Centre Kuwait
Kuwait
National Cultural District Kuwait
Kuwait
Scientific Center Bait Al-Othman Museum Al Salam Palace Al Shaheed Park Museums Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah Museum of Modern Arts Tareq Rajab Museum Science and Natural History Museum Bait Dickson Kuwait
Kuwait
National Museum Historical, Vintage, and Classical Cars Museum Sadu House

Shopping malls

The Avenues 360 Mall Souq Sharq

Historical sougs

Souq Al Mubarakeya Souk Al-Manakh Ṣafāt Square

Scientific centres

Kuwait
Kuwait
Institute for Scientific Research Dasman Diabetes Institute Kuwait
Kuwait
Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences Kuwait
Kuwait
Science Club

Educational institutions and libraries

Kuwait
Kuwait
University National Library of Kuwait

Historical palaces

Seif Palace Bayān Palace Red Palace (in Jahra, Kuwait)

Other landmarks

Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital Amiri Hospital Kuwait
Kuwait
International Airport

Events

Nuqat Hala Febrayer Layali Febrayer Grane Cultural Festival Kuwait
Kuwait
International Fair Kuwait
Kuwait
International Book Fair

v t e

Kuwait articles

History

Battle of Chains Sheikhdom Kuwait- Najd
Najd
War Gulf War Timeline of Kuwait
Kuwait
City

Geography

Geology Islands Rivers

Politics

Administrative divisions Constitution Emir Elections Foreign relations Government

Prime Minister

Human rights Legislature Military Political parties

Economy

Central Bank Dinar (currency) Stock Exchange Telecommunications Tourism Transport

Culture

Museums Art Music Kuwait
Kuwait
National Cultural District Cinema Kuwaiti television Cuisine Demographics Education Languages Public holidays Religion Sport

Outline Index

Category Portal

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

v t e

Capitals of Arab countries

Africa Asia

Algiers, Algeria Cairo, Egypt Djibouti, Djibouti

El Aaiun
El Aaiun
(proclaimed)   Tifariti
Tifariti
(de facto), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1

Khartoum, Sudan Mogadishu, Somalia Moroni, Comoros Nouakchott, Mauritania Rabat, Morocco Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Baghdad, Iraq Beirut, Lebanon Damascus, Syria Doha, Qatar

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(proclaimed)   Ramallah
Ramallah
(de facto), Palestine1

Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain Muscat, Oman Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation

v t e

Arab Capital of Culture

Cairo
Cairo
1996 (Egypt) Tunis
Tunis
1997 (Tunisia) Sharjah
Sharjah
1998 (United Arab Emirates) Beirut
Beirut
1999 (Lebanon) Riyadh
Riyadh
2000 (Saudi Arabia) Kuwait
Kuwait
City 2001 (Kuwait) Amman
Amman
2002 (Jordan) Rabat
Rabat
2003 (Morocco) San'a
San'a
2004 (Yemen) Khartoum
Khartoum
2005 (Sudan) Muscat
Muscat
2006 (Oman) Algiers
Algiers
2007 (Algeria) Damascus
Damascus
2008 (Syria) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
2009 (State of Palestine) Doha
Doha
2010 (Qatar) Sirte
Sirte
2011 (Libya) Manama
Manama
2012 (Bahrain) Baghdad
Baghdad
2013 (Iraq) Tripoli
Tripoli
2014 (Libya) Constantine 2015 (Algeria) Sfax
Sfax
2016 (Tunisia)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 34144648253842392280 LCCN: n81102869 GND: 4033875-7 BNF:

.