Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is a protected area in the
Nepal covering 175 km2 (68 sq mi) of wetlands
in the Sunsari, Saptari and Udayapur Districts. It comprises extensive
mudflats, reed beds, and freshwater marshes in the floodplain of the
Sapta Kosi River, and ranges in altitude from 75 to 81 m (246 to
266 ft). It was established in 1976 and designated as a Ramsar
site in December 1987.
It can be accessed from the Mahendra Highway.
5 External links
During 1997 to 1998, an interview survey was conducted in the Paschim
Kasuha VDC adjacent to the east of the reserve to investigate the
extent of park–people conflict. The findings showed that wild water
buffalo and wild boar were major crop raiders between September and
February. Large numbers of cattle were found grazing freely inside the
reserve. Local people are responsible for illegal utilization of
forest products, poaching and river fishing inside the reserve.
In 2005, the reserve together with the
Koshi Barrage was identified as
one of 27 Important Bird Areas of Nepal.
The vegetation of the reserve is mainly characterised by mixed
deciduous riverine forest, grasslands and marshy vegetation. The
coverage of grasslands is 68%, compared to only about 6% of forest,
which is predominated by Indian rosewood. Patches of catechu forest
are more prevalent towards the northwestern part. The grasslands near
the running water bodies are maintained by the annual flooding and
grazing by wildlife. The
Sapta Koshi River, a tributary of the
Ganges, causes rapid and intense flooding during the rainy season. In
the extensive wetlands, 514 plant species are found including kapok,
sugarcane, reed, cattail, Imperata cylindrica, eel grass, and species
of Eichhornia, Hydrilla,
Azolla and lotus.
A wide range of animals inhabit the protected area. In its water
courses and ponds, 200 species of fish have been recorded, most of
which are resident. Two toad species, nine frog species, six lizard
species, five snake species and eleven turtle species are recorded.
Gharial and mugger crocodile occur as well.
The 31 species of mammals recorded include the Asian elephant, spotted
deer, hog deer, wild boar, smooth-coated otter and golden jackal. The
Ganges river dolphin has been sighted in the Koshi River.
blue bull have declined in numbers. Nepal’s last remaining
population of about 150 wild water buffalo inhabit the area. This
population has now grown to a total of 432 individuals with an annual
growth rate of 7.27 percent, according to the latest census carried
out in 2016. With this upsurge in the population, authorities are
planning a possible transfer of some wild water buffaloes to the flood
Chitwan National Park
Chitwan National Park where they have been extirpated around
1950's. If the proposed translocation happens, this will present a
natural Predator-Prey scenario since wild water buffaloes in Koshi
Tappu has been lacking their natural predators in the form of tiger,
leopard and dhole for quite a long.
Notable among the 485 bird species are watercock, Indian nightjar,
dusky eagleowl, black-headed cuckooshrike, whitetailed stonechat,
striated grassbird, large adjutant stork, Pallas’s fish eagle,
common golden-eye, and gullbilled tern.
Swamp francolin and
rufous-vented grass babbler occur as well.
In spring 2011, 17 Bengal floricans were recorded from nine different
sites along a 39 km (24 mi) north-south stretch of the Koshi
River. Seven were males and 10 were females. Only five individuals
were recorded outside the reserve, two pairs north of Koshi Tappu, and
one female seen twice near the
Koshi Barrage area.
^ GoN/MoFSC (2014).
Nepal Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan
2014-2020. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Forests and Soil
Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal
^ a b c d e Bhuju, U. R., Shakya, P. R., Basnet, T. B., Shrestha, S.
Nepal Biodiversity Resource Book. Protected Areas, Ramsar
Sites, and World Heritage Sites Archived 2011-07-26 at the Wayback
Machine.. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development,
Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, in cooperation with
United Nations Environment Programme, Regional Office for Asia and the
Pacific. Kathmandu, Nepal. ISBN 978-92-9115-033-5
^ Limbu, K. P., Karki, T. B. (2003). Park–people Conflict in Koshi
Tappu Wildlife Reserve. Our Nature (2003) 1: 15–18.
^ Baral, H. S. and C. Inskipp (2005). Important Bird Areas in Nepal:
Key Sites for Conservation. Bird Conservation Nepal, Kathmandu and
BirdLife International, Cambridge
^ a b c d Karki, J. B. (2008). Koshi Tappu Ramsar Site: Updates on
Ramsar Information Sheet on Wetlands. The Initiation 2 (1): 10–16.
^ "Arna population up in Koshi Tappu Reserve".
kathmandupost.ekantipur.com. Retrieved 2016-05-04.
^ "KTWR to shift 30 'Arnas' to Chitwan". kathmandupost.ekantipur.com.
^ Baral, H. S., Ram, A. K., Chaudhary, B., Basnet, S., Chaudhary, H.,
Giri, T. R. and D. Chaudhary (2012). Conservation status of Bengal
Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis bengalensis (Gmelin, 1789)
(Gruiformes: Otididae) in
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and adjoining
Nepal Archived 2012-11-01 at the Wayback Machine..
Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(3): 2464–2469.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve.
Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation: Koshi Tappu
BirdLife International (2013) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Koshi
Tappu Wildlife Reserve
The Ramsar Sites Database
National Parks, Reserves and Ramsar Sites of Nepal
Gokyo Lake Complex