KOINE GREEK (UK English /ˈkɔɪniː/ , US English /kɔɪˈneɪ/ ,
/ˈkɔɪneɪ/ or /kiːˈniː/ ; from
Koine Greek ἡ κοινὴ
διάλεκτος, "the common dialect"), also known as ALEXANDRIAN
DIALECT, COMMON ATTIC, HELLENISTIC or BIBLICAL GREEK (
Modern Greek :
Ελληνιστική Κοινή, "Hellenistic Koiné", in the sense
of "Hellenistic supraregional language "), was the common
supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during Hellenistic and
Roman antiquity and the early
Byzantine era , or
Late Antiquity . It
evolved from the spread of Greek following the conquests of Alexander
the Great in the 4th century BC, and served as the lingua franca of
much of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the
following centuries. It was based mainly on Attic and related Ionic
speech forms, with various admixtures brought about through dialect
levelling with other varieties.
Koine Greek included styles ranging from more conservative literary
forms to the spoken vernaculars of the time. As the dominant language
Byzantine Empire , it developed further into Medieval Greek,
which it turned into Modern Greek. Koine remained the court language
Byzantine Empire until its ending in 1453, while Medieval and
Modern Greek were everyday’s language.
Literary Koine was the medium of much of post-classical Greek
literary and scholarly writing, such as the works of
Polybius . Koine is also the language of the Christian New Testament
, of the
Septuagint (the 3rd-century BC Greek translation of the
Hebrew Bible ), and of most early Christian theological writing by the
Church Fathers . In this context,
Koine Greek is also known as
"Biblical", "New Testament", "ecclesiastical" or "patristic" Greek.
It continues to be used as the liturgical language of services in the
Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church .
* 1 Name
* 2 Origins and history
* 3 Sources
* 4 Types
* 4.1 Biblical Koine
New Testament Greek
* 4.2 Patristic Greek
* 5 Differences between Attic and
* 5.1 Differences in grammar
New Testament Greek phonology
* 6 Sample Koine texts
* 6.1 Sample 1 – A Roman decree
* 6.2 Sample 2 – Greek
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links
The word koinē (κοινή) is the Greek word for "common", and is
here understood as referring to "the common dialect" (ἡ κοινὴ
διάλεκτος). The word is pronounced /kɔɪˈneɪ/ ,
/ˈkɔɪneɪ/ or /kiːˈniː/ in US English and /ˈkɔɪniː/ in UK
English. The pronunciation of the word in Koine gradually changed from
Greek pronunciation: (close to the Classical Attic pronunciation
Greek pronunciation: ) to Greek pronunciation: . Its pronunciation
Modern Greek is .
The term was applied in several different senses by ancient scholars.
A school of scholars such as
Apollonius Dyscolus and Aelius Herodianus
maintained the term Koine to refer to the Proto-
Greek language , while
others used it to refer to any vernacular form of Greek speech which
differed somewhat from the literary language.
Koine Greek became a language of literature by the 1st century
BC, some people distinguished it into two forms: written (Greek) as
the literary post-classical form (which should never be confused with
Atticism ), and vernacular as the day to day spoken form. Others
chose to refer to Koine as the Alexandrian dialect (ἡ
Ἀλεξανδρέων διάλεκτος) or the dialect of
Alexandria , or even the universal dialect of its time. The former was
often used by modern classicists.
ORIGINS AND HISTORY
Greek-speaking areas during the
Hellenistic period (323 to 31
* Dark blue: areas where Greek speakers probably were a majority.
* Light blue: areas that were Hellenized.
Koine Greek arose as a common dialect within the armies of Alexander
the Great . Under the leadership of Macedon , their newly formed
common variety was spoken from the
Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the
Seleucid Empire of
Mesopotamia . It replaced existing ancient Greek
dialects with an everyday form that people anywhere could understand.
Though elements of
Koine Greek took shape in
Classical Greece , the
post-Classical period of Greek is defined as beginning with the death
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great in 323 BC, when cultures under Greek sway in
turn began to influence the language. The passage into the next
period, known as
Medieval Greek , dates from the foundation of
Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great in 330. The post-Classical
period of Greek thus refers to the creation and evolution of Koine
Greek throughout the entire Hellenistic and Roman eras of history
until the start of the Middle Ages.
The linguistic roots of the Common Greek dialect had been unclear
since ancient times. During the
Hellenistic period , most scholars
thought of Koine as the result of the mixture of the four main Ancient
Greek dialects, "ἡ ἐκ τῶν τεττάρων
συνεστῶσα" (the composition of the Four). This view was
supported in the early twentieth century by
Paul Kretschmer in his
book Die Entstehung der Koine (1901), while Ulrich von
Antoine Meillet , based on the intense
Ionic elements of the Koine — such as σσ instead of ττ and ρσ
instead of ρρ (θάλασσα — θάλαττα,
ἀρσενικός — ἀρρενικός) — considered Koine to
be a simplified form of Ionic .
The view accepted by most scholars today was given by the Greek
Georgios Hatzidakis , who showed that, despite the
"composition of the Four", the "stable nucleus" of
Koine Greek is
Attic. In other words,
Koine Greek can be regarded as Attic with the
admixture of elements especially from Ionic, but also from other
dialects. The degree of importance of the non-Attic linguistic
elements on Koine can vary depending on the region of the Hellenistic
In that respect, the varieties of Koine spoken in the Ionian colonies
Anatolia (e.g. Pontus ) would have more intense Ionic Greek
characteristics than others and those of Laconia and
preserve some Doric and Arcadocypriot characteristics, respectively.
The literary Koine of the Hellenistic age resembles Attic in such a
degree that it is often mentioned as Common Attic.
The first scholars who studied Koine, both in Alexandrian and
contemporary times, were classicists whose prototype had been the
Attic Greek of the Classical period and frowned upon any
other variety of
Ancient Greek .
Koine Greek was therefore considered
a decayed form of Greek which was not worthy of attention.
The reconsideration on the historical and linguistic importance of
Koine Greek began only in the early 19th century, where renowned
scholars conducted a series of studies on the evolution of Koine
throughout the entire
Hellenistic period and
Roman Empire . The
sources used on the studies of Koine have been numerous and of unequal
reliability. The most significant ones are the inscriptions of the
post-Classical periods and the papyri , for being two kinds of texts
which have authentic content and can be studied directly.
Other significant sources are the
Septuagint , the somewhat literal
Greek translation of the
Old Testament , and the Greek
New Testament .
The teaching of the Testaments was aimed at the most common people,
and for that reason they use the most popular language of the era.
Information can also be derived from some Atticist scholars of the
Hellenistic and Roman periods, who, in order to fight the evolution of
the language, published works which compared the supposedly "correct"
Attic against the "wrong" Koine by citing examples. For example,
Phrynichus Arabius during the second century AD wrote:
Βασίλισσα οὐδείς τῶν Ἀρχαίων εἶπεν,
ἀλλὰ βασίλεια ἢ βασιλίς.
Basilissa (queen) none of the Ancients said, but basileia (queen) or
Διωρία ἐσχάτως ἀδόκιμον, ἀντ' αυτοῦ
δὲ προθεσμίαν ἐρεῖς.
Dioria (deadline) is extremely disreputable, instead you will say
prothesmia (appointed time).
Πάντοτε μὴ λέγε, ἀλλὰ ἑκάστοτε καὶ
Do not say pantote (always), but hekastote (every time) and dia
Other sources can be based on random findings such as inscriptions on
vases written by popular painters, mistakes made by Atticists due to
their imperfect knowledge of
Attic Greek or even some surviving
Greco-Latin glossaries of the Roman period, e.g.:
Bono die, venisti?
Good day, you came?
Ἐὰν θέλεις, ἐλθὲ μεθ' ἡμῶν.
Si vis, veni mecum.
If you want, come with us.
Πρὸς φίλον ἡμέτερον Λεύκιον.
Ad amicum nostrum Lucium.
To our friend Lucius.
Τί γὰρ ἔχει;
Quid enim habet?
Indeed, what does he have?
What is it with him?
Finally, a very important source of information on the ancient Koine
is the modern
Greek language with all its dialects and its own Koine
form, which have preserved some of the ancient language's oral
linguistic details which the written tradition has lost. For example,
Cappadocian Greek preserved the ancient pronunciation of η
as ε (νύφε, συνέλικος, τίμεσον, πεγάδι for
Modern Greek νύφη, συνήλικος, τίμησον,
πηγάδι etc.), while the
Tsakonian language preserved the long
α instead of η (ἁμέρα, ἀστραπά, λίμνα, χοά
etc.) and the other local characteristics of
Doric Greek .
Dialects from the Southern part of the Greek-speaking regions
Cyprus etc.), preserve the pronunciation of the double
similar consonants (ἄλ-λος, Ἑλ-λάδα, θάλασ-σα),
while others pronounce in many words υ as ου or preserve ancient
double forms (κρόμμυον — κρεμ-μυον, ράξ —
ρώξ etc.). Linguistic phenomena like the above imply that those
characteristics survived within Koine, which in turn had countless
variations in the Greek-speaking world.
Papyrus 46 is one of the oldest extant
New Testament manuscripts
in Greek , written on papyrus , with its 'most probable date' between
"Biblical Koine" refers to the varieties of
Koine Greek used in Bible
translations into Greek and related texts. Its main sources are:
Septuagint , a 3rd-century BC Greek translation of the Hebrew
Bible and texts not included in the
Hebrew Bible ;
* The Greek
New Testament , compiled originally in Greek.
There has been some debate to what degree biblical Greek represents
the mainstream of contemporary spoken Koine and to what extent it
contains specifically Semitic substratum features. These could have
been induced either through the practice of translating closely from
Biblical Hebrew or Aramaic originals, or through the influence of the
regional non-standard Greek spoken by originally Aramaic-speaking Jews
Some of the features discussed in this context are the Septuagint's
normative absence of the particles μέν and δέ, and the use of
ἐγένετο to denote "it came to pass." Some features of biblical
Greek which are thought to have originally been non-standard elements
eventually found their way into the main of the Greek language.
New Testament Greek
The Greek of the
New Testament is less distinctively Semitic than
that of the
Septuagint because it is largely a de novo composition in
Greek , not primarily a translation from Hebrew and Aramaic.
The term patristic Greek is sometimes used for the Greek written by
Church Fathers , the Early Christian theologians in late
antiquity. Christian writers in the earliest time tended to use a
simple register of Koiné, relatively close to the spoken language of
their time, following the model of the Bible. After the 4th century,
when Christianity became the state church of the
Roman Empire , more
learned registers of Koiné also came to be used.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ATTIC AND KOINE GREEK
The study of all sources from the six centuries which are
symbolically covered by Koine reveals linguistic changes from ancient
Greek on elements of the spoken language including, grammar , word
formation , vocabulary and phonology (sound system).
Most new forms start off as rare and gradually become more frequent
until they are established. As most of the changes between modern and
ancient Greek were introduced via Koine, Koine is largely familiar and
at least partly intelligible to most writers and speakers of Modern
DIFFERENCES IN GRAMMAR
Koine Greek grammar
Koine Greek phonology ,
Ancient Greek phonology , and
Modern Greek phonology
During the period generally designated as
Koine Greek a great deal of
phonological change occurred. At the start of the period pronunciation
was virtually identical to
Ancient Greek phonology , whereas in the
end it had much more in common with
Modern Greek phonology .
The three most significant changes were the loss of vowel length
distinction, the replacement of the pitch accent system by a stress
accent system , and the monophthongization of several diphthongs:
* The ancient distinction between long and short vowels was
gradually lost, and from the second century BC all vowels were
isochronic (all vowels having equal length).
* From the second century BC, the
Ancient Greek pitch accent was
replaced with a stress accent .
Psilosis : loss of rough breathing , /h/.
Rough breathing had
already been lost in the
Ionic Greek varieties of
Anatolia and the
Aeolic Greek of
* ᾱͅ, ῃ, ῳ /aːi eːi oːi/ were simplified to ᾱ, η, ω
/aː eː oː/.
* The diphthongs αι, ει, and οι became monophthongs . αι,
which had already been pronounced as /ɛː/ by the Boeotians since the
4th century BC and written η (e.g. πῆς, χῆρε,
μέμφομη), became in Koine, too, first a long vowel /ɛː/ and
then, with the loss of distinctive vowel length and openness
distinction /e/, merging with ε. The diphthong ει had already
merged with ι in the 5th century BC in
Argos , and by the 4th century
Corinth (e.g. ΛΕΓΙΣ), and it acquired this pronunciation
also in Koine. The diphthong οι fronted to /y/, merging with υ. The
diphthong υι came to be pronounced , but eventually lost its final
element and also merged with υ. The diphthong ου had been already
raised to /u/ in the 6th century BC, and remains so in Modern Greek.
* The diphthongs αυ and ευ came to be pronounced (via ), but
are partly assimilated to before the voiceless consonants θ, κ, ξ,
π, σ, τ, φ, χ, and ψ.
* Simple vowels mostly preserved their ancient pronunciations. η
/e/ (classically pronounced /ɛː/) was raised and merged with ι. In
the 10th century AD, υ/οι /y/ unrounded to merge with ι. These
changes are known as iotacism .
* The consonants also preserved their ancient pronunciations to a
great extent, except β, γ, δ, φ, θ, χ and ζ. Β, Γ, Δ, which
were originally pronounced /b ɡ d/, became the fricatives /v/ (via ),
/ɣ/, /ð/, which they still are today, except when preceded by a
nasal consonant (μ, ν); in that case, they retain their ancient
pronunciations (e.g. γαμβρός > γαμπρός , ἄνδρας >
άντρας , ἄγγελος > άγγελος ). The latter three
(Φ, Θ, Χ), which were initially pronounced as aspirates (/pʰ tʰ
kʰ/ respectively), developed into the fricatives /f/ (via ), /θ/,
and /x/. Finally ζ, which is still metrically categorised as a double
consonant with ξ and ψ because it may have initially been pronounced
as σδ or δσ , later acquired its modern-day value of /z/.
New Testament Greek Phonology
Koine Greek in the table represents a reconstruction of New
Testament Koine Greek, deriving to some degree from the dialect spoken
in Judea and
Galilee during the first century and similar to the
dialect spoken in
Alexandria , Egypt. The realizations of certain
phonemes differ from the more standard Attic dialect of Koine.
Note that γ has spirantized, with palatal allophone before
front-vowels and a plosive allophone after nasals, while β is
beginning to develop a fricative articulation intervocalically. φ,
θ and χ still preserve their ancient aspirated plosive values, while
the unasipirated stops π, τ, κ have perhaps begun to develop voiced
allophones after nasals. Initial aspiration has also likely become an
optional sound for many speakers of the popular variety.
Monophthongization (including the initial stage in the fortition of
the second element in the αυ/ευ diphthongs) and the loss of
vowel-timing distinctions are carried through, but there is still a
distinction between the four front vowels /e/, /e̝/, /i/, and /y/
(which is still rounded).
/yi/ (or /y/)
SAMPLE KOINE TEXTS
The following texts show differences from
Attic Greek in all aspects
– grammar, morphology, vocabulary and can be inferred to show
differences in phonology.
The following comments illustrate the phonological development within
the period of Koine. The phonetic transcriptions are tentative, and
are intended to illustrate two different stages in the reconstructed
development, an early conservative variety still relatively close to
Classical Attic, and a somewhat later, more progressive variety
Modern Greek in some respects.
SAMPLE 1 – A ROMAN DECREE
The following excerpt, from a decree of the Roman Senate to the town
of Thisbae in
Boeotia in 170 BC, is rendered in a reconstructed
pronunciation representing a hypothetical conservative variety of
mainland Greek Koiné in the early Roman period. The transcription
shows raising of η to /eː/, partial (pre-consonantal/word-final)
raising of ῃ and ει to /iː/, retention of pitch accent, and
retention of word-initial /h/ (the rough breathing ).
περὶ ὧν Θισεῖς λόγους ἐποιήσαντο·
περὶ τῶν καθ᾿αὑοὺς πραγμάτων,
οἵτινες ἐν τῇ φιλίᾳ τῇ ἡμετέρᾳ
ἐνέμειναν, ὅπως αὐτοῖς δοθῶσιν ἷς
τὰ καθ᾿ αὑτοὺς πράγματα
ἐξηγήσωνται, περὶ τούτου τοῦ
πράγματος οὕτως ἔδοξεν· ὅπως
Κόιντος Μαίνιος στρατηγὸς τῶν ἐκ
τῆς συνκλήτου έντε ἀποτάξῃ οἳ ἂν
αὐτῷ ἐκ τῶν δημοσίων πραάτων καὶ
τῆς ἰδίας πίστεως φαίνωνται.
Concerning those matters about which the citizens of Thisbae made
representations. Concerning their own affairs: the following decision
was taken concerning the proposal that those who remained true to our
friendship should be given the facilities to conduct their own
affairs; that our praetor/governor Quintus Maenius should delegate
five members of the senate who seemed to him appropriate in the light
of their public actions and individual good faith.
SAMPLE 2 – GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
The following excerpt, the beginning of the
Gospel of John
Gospel of John , is
rendered in a reconstructed pronunciation representing a progressive
popular variety of Koiné in the early Christian era. Modernizing
features include the loss of vowel length distinction,
monophthongization, transition to stress accent, and raising of η to
/i/. Also seen here are the bilabial fricative pronunciation of
diphthongs αυ and ευ, loss of initial /h/, fricative values for β
and γ, and partial post-nasal voicing of voiceless stops.
Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν
πρὸς τὸν θεόν, καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος.
οὗτος ἦν ἐν ἀρχῇ πρὸς τὸν θεόν.
πάντα δι᾽ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ χωρὶς
αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο οὐδὲ ἕν ὃ γέγονεν.
ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἦν, καὶ ἡ ζωὴ ἦν τὸ
φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων. καὶ τὸ φῶς ἐν τῇ
σκοτίᾳ φαίνει, καὶ ἡ σκοτία αὐτὸ οὐ
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the
Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made
by him; and without him was not anything made that was made. In him
was life, and the life was the light of men. And the light shines in
darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.
* ^ "Koine". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
* ^ "koine", Merriam-Webster .
* ^ "Koine".
Random House .
* ^ A B Bubenik, V. (2007). "The rise of Koiné". In A. F.
Christidis. A history of Ancient Greek: from the beginnings to late
antiquity. Cambridge: University Press. pp. 342–345.
* ^ Horrocks, Geoffrey (1997). "4–6". Greek: a history of the
language and its speakers. London: Longman.
* ^ Horrocks, Geoffrey C. (2010). Greek: a history of the language
and its speakers (2nd ed.). London: Longman. p. xiii. ISBN
978-1-4051-3415-6 . Retrieved 14 September 2011.
* ^ A history of ancient Greek by Maria Chritē, Maria Arapopoulou,
Centre for the Greek Language (Thessalonikē, Greece) pg 436 ISBN
* ^ Victor Roudometof and Vasilios N. Makrides, eds. Orthodox
Christianity in 21st Century Greece, Ashgate Publishing, 2010. "A
proposal to introduce
Modern Greek into the Divine Liturgy was
rejected in 2002"
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T Andriotis, Nikolaos P.
History of the Greek Language.
* ^ Pollard, Elizabeth (2015). Worlds Together Worlds Apart. 500
Fifth Ave New York, NY: W.W. Norton& Company Inc. p. 202. ISBN
* ^ Augsburg.
* ^ The Latin gloss in the source erroneously has "with me", while
the Greek means "with us".
* ^ On the other hand, not all scholars agree that the Pontic
pronunciation of η as ε is an archaism. Apart from the improbability
that the sound change /ɛː/>/e̝(ː)/>/i/ did not occur in this
important region of the Roman Empire, Horrocks notes that ε can be
written in certain contexts for any letter or digraph representing /i/
in other dialects––e.g. ι, ει, οι, or υ, which never
pronounced /ɛː/ in Ancient Greek––not just η (c.f. óvερov,
κoδέσπεvα, λεχάρι for standard óvειρo,
oικoδέσπoιvα, λυχάρι.) He therefore attributes this
feature of East Greek to vowel weakening, paralleling the omission of
unstressed vowels. Horrocks (2010: 400)
Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare (1856-1924)
* ^ Horrocks (1997: ch.5.11.)
* ^ Horrocks (2010: 162)
* ^ Horrocks (2010: 167) citing Teodorsson, S.-T. (1974) The
phonology of Ptolemaic Koine, Göteborg.
* ^ For evidence c.f. Gignac, Francis T. "The Pronunciation of
Greek Stops in the Papyri". The Johns Hopkins University Press. JSTOR
2936047 . Missing or empty url= (help )
* ^ Horrocks (2010): 111, 170-1
* ^ Horrocks (2010): 171, 179.
* ^ For convenience, the rough breathing mark represents /h/, even
if it was not commonly used in contemporary orthography. Parentheses
denote the loss of the sound.
* ^ For convenience, the mid-vowel value of ε/αι is transcribed
here as /e/, rather than /e̞/ or /ɛ̝/. The two mid vowels ε and η
were apparently still distinguished in quality, as they are far less
confused than ει is with ι, ω with o and οι with υ. η perhaps
represented a near-close vowel /e̝/, not fully merged with /i/, cf.
Horrocks (2010: 118, 168.)
* ^ G. Horrocks (1997), Greek: A history of the language and its
speakers, p. 87, cf. also pp. 105-109.
* ^ Horrocks (1997: 94).
* Abel, F.-M. Grammaire du grec biblique.
* Allen, W. Sidney, Vox Graeca: a guide to the pronunciation of
classical Greek – 3rd ed., Cambridge University Press, 1987. ISBN
* Andriotis, Nikolaos P. History of the Greek Language
* Buth, Randall, Ἡ κοινὴ προφορά:
Koine Greek of
Early Roman Period
* Bruce, Frederick F. The Books and the Parchments: Some Chapters on
the Transmission of the Bible. 3rd ed. Westwood, NJ: Revell, 1963.
Chapters 2 and 5.
* Conybeare, F.C. and Stock, St. George.
Grammar of Septuagint
Greek: With Selected Readings, Vocabularies, and Updated Indexes.
* Horrocks, Geoffrey C. (2010). Greek: A history of the language and
its speakers (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.
* Smyth, Herbert Weir (1956), Greek Grammar, Harvard University
Press, ISBN 0-674-36250-0 .
* Stevens, Gerald L.
New Testament Greek Primer. ISBN 0-7188-9206-2
* Stevens, Gerald L.
New Testament Greek Intermediate. From
Morphology to Translation. ISBN 0-7188-9200-3
* Easterling, P ;background:none
* Cycladic civilization
* Mycenaean civilization
Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
* Archaic period
Ancient Greek colonies
* City states
* Graphē paranómōn
Antigonid Macedonian army
* Army of Macedon
Sacred Band of Thebes
List of ancient Greeks
* Kings of
* Archons of Athens
* Kings of Athens
* Kings of Commagene
* Kings of Lydia
* Kings of Macedonia
* Kings of Paionia
* Attalid kings of
* Kings of Pontus
* Kings of
* Tyrants of Syracuse
Diogenes of Sinope
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
Milo of Croton
* Philip of Macedon
Ancient Greek tribes
* Thracian Greeks
* Ancient Macedonians
* Funeral and burial practices
* Olympic Games
* Wedding customs
* Architecture (
Greek Revival architecture
Greek Revival architecture )
* Music (Musical system )
* Funeral and burial practices
* mythological figures
Theatre of Dionysus
Tunnel of Eupalinos
* Athena Nike
* Hera (Olympia)
* Zeus (Olympia)
* in Epirus
* Place names
ORIGIN AND GENEALOGY
Mycenaean Greek (c. 1600–1100 BC)
Ancient Greek (c. 800–300 BC)
Koine Greek (c. 300 BC–AD 330)
Jewish Koine Greek
Medieval Greek (c. 330–1453)
Modern Greek (since 1453)
* Attic and Ionic
* Ancient (accent /teaching )
* Standard Modern
* Ancient (tables )
Koine Greek grammar
* Standard Modern
* Archaic forms
* Cyrillization and Romanization
PROMOTION AND STUDY
Hellenic Foundation for Culture
Center for the Greek Language
* Morphemes in English
* Terms of endearment
* Place names
Greek language question
Ages of Greek
C. 3rd millenium BC
C. 1600–1100 BC
C. 800–300 BC
C. 300 BC – AD 330