Kodaikanal is a city in the hills of the
Dindigul district in the
state of Tamil Nadu, India. Its name in the
Tamil language means
"The Gift of the Forest".
Kodaikanal is referred to as the
"Princess of Hill stations" and has a long history as a retreat and
popular tourist destination.
Kodaikanal was established in 1845 as a refuge from the high
temperatures and tropical diseases of the plains. Much of the local
economy is based on the hospitality industry serving tourism. As of
2011, the city had a population of 36,501.
Kodaikanal Mercury Poisoning
12 Civil Society
13 Places of interest
16 Further reading
17 External links
History of Kodaikanal
History of Kodaikanal § Etymology
It is not known who first used this name or what they intended it to
Kodaikanal is an amalgamation of two words: kodai and kanal.
Tamil language has at least four possible interpretations of the
By pronouncing the first syllable of
Kodaikanal with a long Tamil 'O',
as in koe-dei, it means "summer", whilst the final two syllables kanal
can mean "to see", rendering
Kodaikanal as a "place to see in summer".
Kodaikanal is a summer forest, and it is a place that the first
missionaries used as a refuge to escape the overbearing and
mosquito-ridden heat of the plains — a place that they would have
counted on seeing in the summer!
Kanal, in Tamil, can mean dense or closed forest. In this case, Kodai
can have at least four meanings. By pronouncing Kodai with the long
Tamil 'O' and short 'e', Ko-dai means "the end".
Kodaikanal could mean
"the end of the forest" which makes poetic and geographical sense —
Kodaikanal is at the crown of the
Palani Hills and is effectively
surrounded and protected by thick forests.
By pronouncing Kodai with the short Tamil 'O' (as in Kodi), it means
"creepers" or vines.
Kodaikanal could mean "forest of creepers" or the
forest of vines. "The forest of creepers" is thought to be the English
language meaning given in 1885 during the early western habitation of
the place and is still accepted.
By pronouncing Kodai with a short Tamil 'O', and a long 'E', it might
be interpreted to mean "gift", rendering "Kodaikanal" as "gift of the
forest". Keeping the short Tamil 'O' but adding a long 'A', Kodai
could be understood as the Tamil word for umbrella, where Kodaikanal
is a forest fashioned like a protecting umbrella. Or perhaps
'umbrella' just because of the once pristine shola, it rained so much
Another Tamil word for creeper or vine is valli, the honey collecting
daughter of the chief of the Veddas mountain tribe. The chief and his
wife prayed to the Mountain God for a girl and their prayers were
answered when the chief found a newborn girl child during a hunting
expedition. As she was found among creeper plants, they named her
Valli and she grew up as princess of the tribe in Kurinji and became
the consort of lord Murugan. The romantic traditions of
Sangam literature are thus associated with the name Kodaikanal.
Main article: History of Kodaikanal
The earliest residents of
Kodaikanal were the
Palaiyar tribal people.
The earliest specific references to
Kodaikanal and the
are found in Tamil
Sangam literature of the early Common era.
Kodaikanal was established by American
and British bureaucrats in 1845, as a refuge from the high
temperatures and tropical diseases of the plains. In the 20th
century a few elite Indians came to realise the value of this
enchanting hill station and started relocating here.
Tourism has been impacted by industrial pollution issues including the
closure of a mercury factory owned by Unilever's Indian subsidiary
Unilever after evidence of widespread mercury pollution.
To date no proper clean-up operation has been mounted. The issue
gained prominence in early 2015 when "
Kodaikanal Won't", a rap music
about mercury pollution in the region went viral globally getting more
than a million views in 4 days.
1955 Topographic map of Kodaikanal
The town of
Kodaikanal sits on a plateau above the southern escarpment
of the upper
Palani Hills at 2,133 metres (6,998 ft), between the
Parappar and Gundar Valleys. These hills form the eastward spur of the
Western Ghats on the Western side of South India. It has an irregular
basin as its heartland, the centre of which is now
Kodaikanal Lake a 5
kilometres (3.1 mi) circumference manmade lake. A few kilometers
Kodaikanal a small village named Vattakanal is located in
Dindigul District on the southern tip of the upper
Palani hills in
the state of Tamil Nadu, along the eastern coast of the Western Ghats.
Vattakanal is better known as 'Vatta', which means Circle and by most
or 'Little Israel' by the villagers that observe a large number of
Israeli tourists who flock there from October onwards.
Meadows and grasslands cover the hillsides. Gigantic
and shola forests flourish in the valleys. Mighty rocks and cascading
streams lie above the valleys. There are many high waterfalls and
ubiquitous gardens and flower beds in bloom.
Kodaikanal is known for its rich flora. Of the big trees, cypress,
eucalyptus and acacia are the dominant varieties. Pear trees are
numerous and the fruits are of high quality. Competing with the fruit
trees are the flowering ones - mainly rhododendron and magnolia. Large
dahlias of different hues are the main attraction of Bryant Park,
situated close to the Kodai lake. Water lilies in the park's pond are
another pleasing sight. The town abounds in a kind of beautiful yellow
North of the town, high hills that slope down into the villages of
Vilpatti stand guard. On the east the hill slopes less
abruptly into the lower Palnis. A precipitous escarpment facing the
Cumbum Valley is on the south. On the west is a plateau leading to
Manjampatti Valley, Indira Gandhi National Park, the Anamalai Hills
and the main body of the
Western Ghats of Kerala boarder.
Kodaikanal has a monsoon-influenced subtropical highland climate (Cfb,
according to the Köppen climate classification, with a Cwb tendency).
The temperatures are cool throughout the year due to the high
elevation of the city.
Climate data for Kodaikanal
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Source: World Meteorological Organization.
According to the 2011 census,
Kodaikanal had a population of 36,501
with a sex-ratio of 1,004 females for every 1,000 males, much above
the national average of 929. A total of 3,893 were under the age
of six, constituting 1,945 males and 1,948 females. Scheduled Castes
and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 19.86% and .28% of the population
respectively. The average literacy of the city was 79.78%, compared to
the national average of 72.99%. The city had a total of :
9442 households. There were a total of 14,103 workers, comprising 163
cultivators, 744 main agricultural labourers, 130 in household
industries, 12,118 other workers, 948 marginal workers, 10 marginal
cultivators, 51 marginal agricultural labourers, 34 marginal workers
in household industries and 853 other marginal workers. As per the
religious census of 2011,
Kodaikanal had 48.84% Hindus, 12.0% Muslims,
38.69% Christians, 0.02% Sikhs, 0.22% Buddhists, 0.04% Jains, 0.15%
following other religions and 0.04% following no religion or did not
indicate any religious preference.
Poombarai Village . Above, terraced farming in Kodaikanal.
The economy of
Kodaikanal predominantly depends on tourism. The number
of tourists increased from two million in 1999 to 3.2 million in
2009. The town's infrastructure changes every year in preparation
for the peak tourist season. Major roads are converted into one-way
lanes to regulate the constant inflow of traffic and special police
are brought in for the safety of the tourists and protection of local
businesses. Hotels are often fully booked during the high season, and
remain virtually empty during the off-season. Due to the rapid
development of nearby cities such as
Madurai and Coimbatore, the town
is learning to deal with year-round tourism.
Plums, pears, chile peppers, carrots, cauliflower, cabbage, garlic and
onions are cultivated by terrace farmers in surrounding villages. Most
are trucked to other parts of
India and some are sold in the local
market. Popular tourist souvenirs include handcrafts, home-made
chocolates, postcards and
Due to its relatively unpolluted image, various locations within
Kodaikanal are used for movie shootings as well. Some examples being
Jo Jeeta Wohi Sikandar though depicted as Dehradun, the Tamil
movie Guna, Manmadhan Ambu,
The major medical facilities are KHMS Hospital, Van Allen Hospital and
the Government Hospital and The Prana Spa. These hospitals treat
patients with common ailments and injuries and perform child delivery
and care, but are not equipped with modern medical equipment for
complicated diagnoses and surgery.
KHMS hospital in 2009 was formed to provide quality health care to
residents and visitors.
In April 1915, Dr. Van Allen raised funds to construct the first unit
of the hospital at the entrance of Coaker's walk. It was named after
him. Facilities got updated from time to time and now it has X-ray
machine, well equipped pathological lab, and operation theatre with
blood transfusion facilities.
The Government Hospital is situated on the hillside near Rock Cottage
Shola Road. It was a small municipal hospital until 1927. Now
it has X-ray, Dental, and Maternity wards and other facilities.
Kodaikanal Mercury Poisoning
Air and water-borne mercury emissions have contaminated large areas of
Kodaikanal and the surrounding forests. A study conducted by the
Department of Atomic Energy confirmed that
Kodaikanal Lake has been
contaminated by mercury emissions.
Mercury pollution was reported in
Kodaikanal affecting lakes in the
area. The causes, originating from a Hindustan
factory nearby, were reported to be dispersal of elemental mercury
into the atmosphere from improper storage and dispersal into the water
from surface effluents from the factory. Apart from tests conducted on
Kodaikanal lake, moss samples collected from trees surrounding the
Berijam Lake, located 20 km (12.4 mi) from the factory were
also tested. These showed mercury levels in the range of
0.2 µg/kg, while in
Kodaikanal lake the lichen and moss levels
were 7.9 µg/kg and 8.3 µg/kg, respectively. Fish samples
Kodaikanal lake also showed Hg levels in the range of 120
to 290 mg/kg confirming that pollution of the lake had taken
place due to mercury emissions from the factory.
Unilever thermometer factory caused widespread mercury
pollution through improper disposal of broken thermometer waste
containing large quantities of mercury. The factory sold much of this
waste to a junkyard in
Kodaikanal and also dumped large quantities in
the forest behind the factory. The factory was eventually closed in
2001 after 18 years of operation. Hindustan Lever, have used
considerable legal manoeuvering to avoid paying compensation to the
ex-workers and their families, many of whom died or became physically
handicapped as a result of mercury poisoning.
The ex-workers joined to form the 559-strong Ex-Mercury Employees
Welfare Association and in 2006 filed a Public Interest Litigation
(PIL) suit in the Madras High Court. The association wants an economic
rehabilitation scheme, healthcare treatment and a monitoring programme
at the company's expense for everyone who ever worked in the factory.
It also wants the company prosecuted. Hindustan
Unilever denies that
any of the health problems of the workers or their families were the
result of mercury exposure in the factory. In 2010 the workers were
still fighting for compensation.
In June 2007, the
Madras High Court
Madras High Court constituted a five-member expert
committee to decide on the mercury workers' health claims. The last
court hearing was in June 2008. The committee later failed to find
sufficient evidence to link the current clinical condition of the
factory workers to past mercury exposure in the factory.
In November 2011, a Ministry of Labour, Government of India
commissioned report made the following observations to the Hon'ble
Madras High Court:
"The committee is of the opinion that there is a prima-facie evidence
from the personal & medical investigation of victims during the
field visit to HLL Factory,
Kodaikanal on 4th, 5th & 6th October,
2011 that not only the ex-workers of the HLL, Kodiakanal, but also
their new born children have suffered on account of mercury exposure
such as Tremor, knee pain, Loss of memory, Loss of teeth, Irregular
menstrual period for women, Infertility, Skin problems, Premature
delivery of baby by pregnant women and children having ailments like
Mental retardation, Deformity of organ, Birth defect like blue baby
and Loss of memory were also noticed."
Additional site remediation studies are being undertaken by national
institutions, as desired by the
Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board
(TNPCB) and the Court's Scientific Experts Committee (SEC) during the
project review meeting in January 2010.
IIT Delhi is revalidating the
risk assessment study and site-specific clean-up standards; the
National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, is studying the impact
on trees and preservation of trees; and the Centre for Soil and Water
Conservation Research and Training Institute, Ooty, is studying the
impact on soil and soil erosion. Based on the above study findings,
results of remediation trials and recommendations of the SEC, the
TNPCB will take a final decision on the clean-up standards. Hindustan
Unilever Ltd. (HUL) will commence soil remediation work at the factory
site once a decision on clean-up standards is taken and consent is
given by TNPCB.
Bhavan's Gandhi Vidyashram
Brindavan Public School
Kodaikanal International School
Kodaikanal Public School
Pck Presentation Convent Primary School
R.C.Town Higher Secondary School
St. John's Girls Higher Secondary School
St. Joseph's Public School
St. Peter's School, Kodaikanal
St. Xavier's High School
SRI Sankara Vidhyalaya MHSS
Zion Matriculation High School
Government Higher Secondary School Varkala
Kodai International Business School
Kodaikanal Institute of Technology
Mother Teresa Women's University
The Kuzhanthai Velappar Temple (Kulandai Velayudha Swami
Tirukkovil) has three thousand years of history and was consecrated
by Bhogar. The idol is made of Navabashanam. This temple comes under
Pazhani Devasthanam. Every year Poombarai celebrates the Ther
Thiruvizha procession for Lord Muruga. It falls on Kettai nakshatra
which comes after Thaip Poosam. Normally in Thai or Maasi
month..This Temple has built by
Chera dynasty still
holding 3000 Years inscriptions.
Kodaikanal was founded by the American and European
Christian churches are abundant. They include the Church
India (opposite Bryant Park), St. Peters Church (near Coakers
Walk), Gorapur, Lake End, La Salette, Lutheran Mission, Sacred Heart
(Munjikal), Saint Antony's (Antonyar Kovil Street), Saint Francis
Xavier, Saint Joseph's, Saint Mary's and Saint Peter's (Coakers Walk
Road). Amongst the most popular is Union Church with a large Tamil
congregation and Margaret Eddy Memorial Chapel at Kodai International
School with lively services in a typically American style and
distinctive stone architecture.
There are many Hindu Temples in
Kodaikanal including the Durgai Amman
Kovil, Kurinji Andavar Kovil,
Mariamman Kovil, Observatory Murugan
Vinayagar Kovil. The Muslim mosques are Ellis Villa and
Munjikal. There is an active community of Tibetan
Kodaikanal Golf Club
Kodaikanal has several clubs and civil society organizations operating
for social, charitable and environmental goals. Established clubs in
Kodaikanal are the
Kodaikanal Lions Club (est. 1985) under the
Lions Clubs International
Lions Clubs International (district 324B); Kodaikanal
Boat Club (est. 1890) with nearly 650 permanent members; Kodaikanal
Golf Club (est. 1895) with over 600 members and an 18-hole golf
course, spread over 143 acres (0.58 km2); The Indian Club (est.
1915) on Poet Thyagarajar Road and The Rotary Club of Kodaikanal.
In 1890, the
Kodaikanal Missionary Union (KMU) was formed to enable
missionaries of the various denominations to come together for
recreation and to develop mission strategy and outreach in cooperation
with each other. In 1923 it built an
Edwardian style clubhouse with
large central hall for social events and afternoon teas, 6 tennis
courts, a reading room, and other spaces for meetings. With the
decline of missionary activity in India, the KMU was wound up in the
1980s, and the property was turned over to
School. The KMU library with many valuable old books besides newer
materials, is still functioning in one room, and provides something of
a social venue. The valuable original KMU archives materials have been
incorporated into the archives of the school, which has hired an
archivist and is in process of converting the whole original KMU
building into an archives and display centre for the school and the
Kodaikanal lake View showing: Mount Perumal, Boat house, Carlton
Kodaikanal International School, Fish hatchery, Lake Road.
Kodaikanal has several
Social service societies which promote local
trade and increase employment of rural villagers in the town's
periphery by participating in its tourism fuelled growth. These
Kodaikanal People Development Group (KOPDEG) which has
been successful in providing employment for marginalized women and
marketing their products. The Made-in-
India tagged products from
Kopedeg are unique to
Kodaikanal and are targeted at foreign tourists
who regularly buy them as souvenirs.
The Cottage Crafts Shop at Anna Salai, is run by the voluntary
organisation, Coordinating Council for Social Concerns in Kodai
(CORSOK). They sell goods crafted by development groups and uses the
commission charged to help the needy.
In 1994 the "Potter's Shed" was inaugurated. This pottery and craft
Kodaikanal has made and sold hundreds of thousands of fine
pieces of locally made pottery. All profits from this business are
contributed to the Bethania Kids, Center For Children with
Kodaikanal Lake Protection Council and Vattakkanal Organization
for Youth, Community and Environment (VOYCE) are active in preserving
Kodaikanal's environment. Plastic bags are banned and almost all shops
and roadside vendors heed the rule and use recycled paper bags in fear
of a social reprisal. Local hotels have also participated in improving
the environment by placing garbage cans all across the town, with
their prominent donated by signs acting as silent salesmen.
Places of interest
Kodaikanal has several scenic natural attractions which are enjoyed by
its visitors and make it a popular romantic destination for newlyweds.
It is also a place for lot of young people to come for bike trips and
leisure. It is also famous for home made chocolates and eucalyptus
oil. These are described in order of distance from the bus-stand.
Kodaikanal Lake, is an artificial, roughly star-shaped 45 ha (60
acres) lake built in 1863. It is recognized as Kodaikanal's most
popular geographic landmark and tourist attraction. Rowboats and
pedalos can be hired at the
Kodaikanal Boat Club. Horses and bicycles
can be hired beside the lake for short periods. The 5 kilometres
(3.1 mi) path that skirts the periphery of this lovely lake is a
favourite walk for the locals and tourists alike.
Bryant Park: Just east of the lake and 500 metres (1,600 ft) from
the bus stand, is a wonderfully maintained 20.5 acres (8.3 ha)
botanical garden. The park was planned and built in 1908 by a forest
officer from Madurai, H.D.Bryant, and named after him. With 325
species of trees, shrubs and cacti, the park is a rainbow of stunning
flowers during the peak season. A large section is dedicated to nearly
740 varieties of roses. There is an 1857
Eucalyptus tree and a Bodhi
tree which adds a religious significance to the park. Ornamental
plants are cultivated in a nursery for sale. The park organizes
horticultural exhibits and flower shows every summer, to coincide with
the peak season. The entrance fee to the park is nominal, and it is
open all year.
Coaker's Walk (1900)
Coaker's Walk, 500 metres (1,600 ft) from the bus-stand,
constructed by Lt.Coaker in 1872, is a 1-kilometre (3,300 ft)
paved pedestrian path running along the edge of steep slopes on the
southern side of Kodai. The walk, winding around Mount Nebo, starts in
front of the Van Allen hospital, running parallel to the Van Allen
Hospital Road and joins the main road beside St.Peter's Church,
providing a stunning panoramic view of the plains. On a clear day one
can view as far as Dolphin's Nose in the south, the valley of the
Pambar River in the southeast,
Periyakulam town and even the city of
Madurai. A fascinating rare phenomenon called
Brocken spectre can be
witnessed, when a person can see his shadow on the clouds with a
rainbow halo. This occurs when the sun is behind the viewer and clouds
and mist are to the front. There is an observatory with a telescope
halfway along the walk. Entrance fee to the walkway is nominal and it
is open all year.
Poombarai Village(Kudhanthai Velappar Temple), 15 kilometres
(9.3 mi) from the bus-stand,In poombarai village there is a
temple of Lord
Muruga 10/12 centuries When Bogar returned from China
Palani andavar statue he built one more Navabasanam
Statue at mid of
Palani and Poombari Western gates now a days the
place is called as Yanai Gejam. As per inscriptions in the temple
which temple has built by king of Chera dynasty,. There is a
song-poem(Poombarai Velan) by Aruna giri nathar who lived during the
15th century while visited this temple this god has saved Arunagiri
nathar from one devil by acted as a Baby(Kulanthai) , The peoples is
trusting because of this incident only Poombarai
Murugan has called as
‘Kuzhanthai Velappar’ .The Poombarai Village is fully covered by
Reserve forest. The final approach to this quiet area is a gently
Poombarai Village view
Green Valley View, (formerly called Suicide Point) 5.5 kilometres
(3.4 mi) from the bus-stand and near the golf course, has an
excellent panoramic view of the plains and a sheer drop of 1,500
metres (4,900 ft) overlooking the
Vaigai Dam to the south. The
stairway leading up to it is highly commercialized and lined with rows
of shops to tempt tourists.
Pine forests, In 1906, with a view to growing valuable timber, Mr.
Bryant started the
Kodaikanal pine plantations in the south-west of
Shembaganur Museum of Natural History, 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from
the bus-stand, founded in 1895, is open to the public (except
Tuesdays) for viewing their outstanding taxidermy collection of more
than 500 species of animals, birds and insects and a living collection
of over 300 exotic orchid species. The museum is affiliated with
Loyola College in
Chennai and exhibits artifacts of the ancient
Palaiyar tribes people whose descendants still live in these
Kodaikanal Solar Observatory
Kodaikanal Solar Observatory, 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from the
bus-stand on Observatory Road, at 2,343 metres (7,687 ft) is the
highest location near Kodai. The first observations were commenced
here in 1901. Former Director
John Evershed discovered the
phenomenon of radial motion in sunspots, now known as the Evershed
Kodaikanal Terrestrial Telescope can view a grand panorama
including: Sothupparai Dam, Vaigai Dam,
Periyakulam and Varaha river.
Indian Institute of Astrophysics
Indian Institute of Astrophysics facility has a comprehensive
Science museum with organized public tours, access to the
astronomy library, and scheduled night-time telescopic sky viewing. It
is open daily to the public during peak season, and a few hours each
Friday the rest of the year.
Silver Cascade Waterfall is formed from the outflow of
Pillar Rocks, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the bus-stand, is a set
of three giant rock pillars which stand 122 metres (400 ft)
high. Managed by the
Tamil Nadu Forest Department, The viewpoint
can be crowded but is not commercialized. There is an excellent public
garden adjacent to the viewpoint.
Guna caves, made popular by the Tamil movie Gunaa, previously
called Devil's Kitchen, are deep bat-infested chambers between the
three gigantic boulders that are the Pillar Rocks. The deep narrow
ravines of the caves are now closed to public due to the tragic deaths
of twelve youths there. These dangerous caves are highly protected
now, and tourists can see sections of the cave system from afar.
In the late 1970s the inside of the caves was well photographed.
Silver Cascade, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from
Kodaikanal at a wide
bend in the long and winding Laws Ghat Road, at altitude 1,800 metres
(5,900 ft), is a 55-metre (180 ft) waterfall formed from the
Kodaikanal Lake. The water quality is reportedly poor
and not good enough for bathing. This impressive waterfall is a
popular stop for first-time visitors. There are a few souvenir and
fruit vendors and many monkeys here. There is also a smaller but more
serene waterfall below the bridge which crosses the stream here.
Dolphin's Nose, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the bus stand, is flat
rock projecting over a breathtaking chasm 6,600 feet (2,000 m)
deep. It is an undisturbed area 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) down a very
steep rocky trail beginning soon after Pambar Bridge. Orange juice
vendors along the trail offer a welcome rest stop. Beautiful views of
steep rocky escarpments rising from the plains can be seen. The old
village of Vellagavi can be reached through a rugged bridle path here.
A short paved walkway leads from the road here to Pambar falls (which
is also locally addressed as 'Liril Falls' after the famous Liril Soap
Advertisement filming in 1985).
Murugan temple, 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the
bus-stand, is famous for its Kurinji flower which blossoms in the area
only once every 12 years. The deity here is called Sri Kurinji
Easwaran, who is Lord Murugan. This temple was built in 1936 by a
European lady, who on coming to Ceylon, converted to Hinduism.She
changed her name to Leelavathi and married Mr.Ponnambalam Ramanathan.
She is also known as Lady Ramanathan. This temple was handed over to
Arulmighu Dhandayuthapani Swamy Thiru Kovil,
Palani by Devi Prasad
Bhaskaran (also known as Padmini, niece and adopted daughter of S
Natesan Pillai, son in-law of Lady Ramanathan) and her husband R.
Berijam Lake is surrounded by nature at a distance of around
20 km from Kodaikanal. Boating is prohibited as the lake is a
source of water for villages. Forest department permission is required
and limited number of vehicles (up to 80) are allowed to enter the
forest area where the lake is situated. Entry is restricted into the
Berijam Lake area to between 9.30 a.m. and 3 p.m. Bison, deer,
panthers and snakes are often spotted in this area. The fire tower,
Silent Valley, Medicine Forest, and Lake View are other attractions
around the lake. Psilocybin mushrooms which produce hallucinogenic
effects when consumed, and other poisonous mushrooms grow around
Berijam. Medicine Forest has a certain species of trees whose
fragrance is believed to be having hallucinogenic effects. To enter
Berijam Lake permission must be obtained from the Forest
Department. Usually they give permission around 8 a.m. every day
except on Tuesdays. They give permission to about 80 to 100 vehicles
per day and collect the entry fee of around Rs.150 depending upon the
vehicle. There are some local food joints which offer the local south
Indian food. There is also a Tibetan Restaurant which is manned by the
Tibetans, offers the sumptuous Tibetan food.
Almost all distances from
Kodaikanal are calculated with the lake as
the central point of reference.
The nearest airports are as follows:-
Madurai International Airport (115 kilometer or 80 miles)
Coimbatore International Airport (170 kilometres or 110 miles)
Tiruchirapalli International Airport
Tiruchirapalli International Airport (197 kilometres or 122 miles)
Tuticorin Airport (262 kilometres or 163 miles)
The nearest railway stations are
Palani Station (64 kilometres or 40
Kodaikanal Road Station (80 kilometres or 50 miles) south east,
Dindigul Junction (100 kilometres or 62 miles) east.
Madurai Junction(114 kilometres or 71 miles) nearly east.
Madurai Aarappalayam bus stand and
Batlagundu frequent bus
services are available. Also bus available from Kodai road &
The 2–3-hour drive to
Kodaikanal via the steep and winding Ghat
Palani is a memorable experience. Travellers
may stop at turnouts on the road and enjoy the scenic beauty of the
Palani hills. There is a 49 km shortcut road from Periyakulam
Kodaikanal via Kumbakarai and Adukkam, was laid recently. Bicycle
rental, taxis, vans and limited city buses are available. Auto
rickshaws are not available.
Kodaikanal Department Of Municipal Administration And Water Supply,
Historical Moments Archived 24 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine.,
^ "Aringnar Anna Zoological Park". Tamilnadu.com. 8 February
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^ a b c "About City". Government of Tamil Nadu.
Of Municipal Administration And Water Supply. Archived from the
original on 16 March 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
^ a b Mitchell Nora, Indian Hill Station: Kodaikanal, University of
Chicago, Dept. of Geography, ch 2, Rational for Tropical Hill Sations,
pp13-15, 1972. Original from the University of California Digitized 28
^ The Cyclopaedia of
India and of Eastern and Southern Asia by Edward
Balfour, Published by B. Quaritch, 1885, Item notes: vol.2 H-NYSA,
P583, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 29 Jan 2008
^ Mitchell Nora, Indian Hill Station: Kodaikanal, University of
Chicago, Dept. of Geography, place creepers, p. 98, 1972. Original
from the University of California, digitized 28 Jan 2008
^ Sangam landscape#Kurinji .E2.80.93 Mountainous Region
^ Mitchell Nora, Indian Hill Station: Kodaikanal, University of
Chicago, Dept. of Geography,
Kodaikanal Sangam, p97, 1972 Original
from the University of California Digitized 28 Jan 2008
^ a b
Tourism Development Corporation and Department of
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kodaikanal.
"Kodaikanal". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.).
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kodaikanal.
State of Tamil Nadu
Srivilliputhur Andal Temple
Srivilliputhur Andal Temple Gopuram
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