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Kirkuk
Kirkuk
(Arabic: كركوك‎ Karkūk; Kurdish: کەرکووک‎ Kerkûk; Turkish: Kerkük) is an Iraqi city and the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate
Kirkuk Governorate
of Iraq, 238 kilometres (148 miles) north of Baghdad.[2] Kirkuk
Kirkuk
lies in a wide zone with an enormously diverse population and has been multilingual for centuries. There were dramatic demographic changes during Kirkuk's urbanization in the twentieth century, which saw the development of distinct ethnic groups.[3] Kurds, Turkmen, Arabs
Arabs
and Assyrians lay conflicting claims to this zone, and all have their historical accounts and memories to buttress their claims.[4] Iraqi Turkmens
Iraqi Turkmens
consider Kirkuk
Kirkuk
to be the capital of Turkmeneli.[5] The city sits on the ruins of the original Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Citadel, site of the ancient mid 3rd millennium BC, Assyrian city of Arrapha,[6] and which sits near the Khasa River. The city is mentioned during the Sumero-Akkadian
Sumero-Akkadian
period of Assyria
Assyria
in cuneiform script from about 2400 BC.[7] The region became a part of the Akkadian empire
Akkadian empire
(2335–2154 BC) which united all of the Akkadian and Sumerian speaking Mesopotamians under one rule. After its collapse, the language isolate speaking Gutians, a pre-Iranic race from Ancient Iran, overran the region for a few decades, making Arrapha
Arrapha
their capital, before being ejected from Mesopotamia by the Sumerians during the Neo-Sumerian Empire (2112–2004 BC). The city later came to be dominated by the Hurrians
Hurrians
from eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
before being incorporated into the Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1750 BC), after which Arrapha
Arrapha
and the whole of northern Mesopotamia, together with parts of north east Syria and south east Turkey, became a part of Assyria
Assyria
proper. During the late 15th century BC Assyria
Assyria
and Arrapha
Arrapha
was under the domination of the short-lived Mittani-Hurrian empire, but after the Assyrians overthrew and destroyed the Hurri- Mitanni
Mitanni
in the early 14th century BC the city was once more under Assyrian rule. Arrapha
Arrapha
remained an important Assyrian city until the fall of the Assyrian empire
Assyrian empire
between 615–599 BC. After this it remained a part of the geo-political province of Assyria
Assyria
(Achaemenid Assyria, Athura, Seleucid
Seleucid
Syria, Assyria
Assyria
(Roman province) and Assuristan) under various foreign empires, and between the 2nd century BC and 3rd century AD became the capital of the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
state of Beth Garmai
Beth Garmai
before this was conquered into the Sassanid empire
Sassanid empire
and became a part of Assuristan. The Arab
Arab
Islamic conquest of the 7th century AD saw the dissolution of Assyria
Assyria
as a geo-political entity. Kurds[8][9] and Turkmens[10] have claimed the city as a cultural capital. It was named the "capital of Iraqi culture" by the Iraqi ministry of culture in 2010.[11] The city currently consists mainly of people who self-identify as Kurds, Arabs, Iraqi Turkmens
Iraqi Turkmens
and Assyrians, with changes in population after the fall of Saddam Hussein, the US invasion, and the war against the Islamic State.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Ancient history 2.2 After the Islamic Conquests 2.3 British occupation 2.4 Entry into the Kingdom of Iraq 2.5 Discovery of oil 2.6 1970 Autonomy Agreement 2.7 Kirkuk
Kirkuk
after 2003

3 Demographics

3.1 Ethnic groups

3.1.1 Kurdish people 3.1.2 Turkmen people 3.1.3 Arab
Arab
people 3.1.4 Assyrians 3.1.5 Armenians 3.1.6 Jews

4 Main sites 5 Geography

5.1 Climate

6 Notable people 7 See also 8 Notes

8.1 References

9 Further reading 10 External links

Etymology[edit] The ancient name of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
was the Assyrian Arrap'ha. During the Parthian era, a Korkura/Corcura (Ancient Greek: Κόρκυρα) is mentioned by Ptolemy, which is believed to refer either to Kirkuk
Kirkuk
or to the site of Baba Gurgur
Baba Gurgur
4.5 kilometres (2.8 mi) from the city.[12] Since the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
it was known as Karkha D-Bet Slokh, which means 'Citadel of the House of Seleucid'[13] in Mesopotamian Aramaic, the lingua franca of the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
in that era.[14] The region around Kirkuk
Kirkuk
was known historically in the Eastern Aramaic and Syriac Assyrian sources as "Beth Garmai" (Syriac: ܒܝܬܓܪܡܝ‎). The name "Beth Garmai" or "Beth Garme" may be of Syriac origin which meaning "the house of bones",[15] which is thought to be a reference to bones of slaughtered Achaemenids
Achaemenids
after a decisive battle[which?] between Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Darius III
Darius III
on the plains between the Upper Zab
Upper Zab
and Diyala river.[16] It was one of a number of independent Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
states which flourished during the Parthian empire
Parthian empire
(150 BC-226 AD). Kirkuk
Kirkuk
itself was the Assyrian Karkha D'Beth Slokh, the metropolitan centre of Beth Garmai. It is also thought that region was known during the Parthian and Sassanid
Sassanid
periods as Garmakan, which means the 'Land of Warmth' or the 'Hot Land'. In Persian "Garm" means warm;[17] During the Seleucid
Seleucid
period, the city was renamed after king Seleucus, Karkha d' Beth Slokh ("Fort Seleucus"), a corruption of which is at the root of modern name Karkuk/Kirkuk. After the 7th century, Muslim writers used the name Kirkheni (Syriac for "citadel"[18]) to refer to the city.[19] Others used other variant, such as Bajermi (a corruption of Aramaic "B'th Garmayeh" or Jermakan (a corruption of Persian Garmakan) .[17] A cuneiform script found in 1927 at the foot of Kirkuk Citadel stated that the city of Erekha of Babylonia was on the site of Kirkuk. Other sources consider Erekha to have been simply one part of the larger Arrapha
Arrapha
metropolis. History[edit] Ancient history[edit] It is suggested that Kirkuk
Kirkuk
was one of the places occupied by Neanderthals
Neanderthals
based on archeological findings in the Shanidar Cave settlement.[20] A large amount of pottery shards dating to the Ubaid period were also excavated from several Tells in the city.[21] Ancient Arrapkha
Arrapkha
was a part of Sargon of Akkad's Akkadian Empire (2335–2154 BC),[22] and city was exposed to the raids of the Lullubi during Naram-Sin's reign.[23] Later the city was occupied around 2150 BC by language Isolate speaking Zagros Mountains dwellers who were known as the Gutian people by the Semitic and Sumerian of Mesopotamians. Arraphkha was the capital of the short lived Guti kingdom (Gutium), before it was destroyed and the Gutians
Gutians
driven from Mesopotamia by the Neo-Sumerian Empire c. 2090 BC.[7][24] Arrapkha
Arrapkha
became a part of the Old Assyrian Empire (c.2025–1750 BC), before Hammurabi
Hammurabi
briefly subjected Assyria to the short lived Babylonian Empire, after which it again became a part of Assyria
Assyria
c.1725 BC. However, by the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. the Indo-Aryan Mittani
Mittani
of Anatolia
Anatolia
formed a ruling class over the language isolate speaking Hurrians, and began to expand into a Hurri- Mitanni
Mitanni
Empire. In the 1450s they attacked Assyria, sacking Assur, and bringing the cities of Gasur
Gasur
and Arrapkha
Arrapkha
under their control.[25] From c.1450 to 1393 BC the kings of Assyria
Assyria
paid tribute to the kingdom of Mittani.[25] The Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
(1365–1020 BC) overthrew the Hurri- Mitanni
Mitanni
in the mid 14th century BC and Arrapha
Arrapha
once more became incorporated into Assyria
Assyria
proper. In the 11th and 10th centuries BC the city rose to prominence, becoming an important city in Assyria until the fall of the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire (911–605 BC).[26] The Hurri- Mitanni
Mitanni
domination of Assyria
Assyria
was broken in the 1390s BC, and Arrapkha
Arrapkha
once more became an integral part of Assyria
Assyria
with the Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
(1365–1020 BC) which saw the Hurrian population driven from the region. It remained as such throughout the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire (911–605 BC) where it became an important Assyrian city. After the fall of Assyria
Assyria
between 612–599 BC it was still an integral part of the geo-political province of Assyria
Assyria
– Achaemenid Assyria, Athura, Seleucid
Seleucid
Syria, Assyria
Assyria
(Roman province) and Assuristan. In the Parthian and Sassanid
Sassanid
eras Kirkuk
Kirkuk
was capital of the small Assyrian state of Beth Garmai
Beth Garmai
(c.160 BC-250 AD).[27] The city briefly came to be part of the short lived Median Empire before falling to the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(546–332 BC) where it was incorporated into the province of Athura
Athura
(Achaemenid Assyria).[28][29] Later it became part of the Macedonian Empire
Macedonian Empire
(332–312 BC) and succeeding Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
(311–150 BC) before falling to the Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
(150 BC-224 AD) as a part of Athura. The Parthians seemed to only exercise loose control, and a number of small Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
kingdoms sprang up in the region between the 2nd century BC and 4th century AD, one such kingdom named "ܒܝܬܓܪܡܝ", (that is Bit Garmai in Syriac) had Arrapha
Arrapha
as its capital.[30] Christianity also arose during this period, with Arrapha
Arrapha
and its surrounds being influenced by the Assyrian Church of the East. The Sassanid
Sassanid
Empire destroyed these kingdoms during 3rd and early 4th centuries AD, and Arrapha
Arrapha
was incorporated into Sassanid
Sassanid
ruled Assuristan
Assuristan
(Sassanid Assyria). In AD 341, the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
Shapur II
Shapur II
ordered the massacre of all Assyrian Christians
Assyrian Christians
in the Persian Sassanid
Sassanid
Empire. During the persecution, about 1,150 were martyred in Arrapha.[31] The city appears on the Peutinger Map
Peutinger Map
of this time. The city remained a part of the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
until the Islamic conquest
Islamic conquest
in the mid 7th century AD. After the Islamic Conquests[edit] Arab
Arab
Muslims
Muslims
fought the Sassanid empire
Sassanid empire
in the 7th century AD, conquering the region. The city was a part of the Islamic Caliphate until the tenth century. Kirkuk
Kirkuk
and the surrounding areas were then ruled by the Seljuk Turks for many years. After the divided empire collapsed, the city became a part of Turkic Zengid dynasty
Zengid dynasty
for a century. After the Mongol invasion, the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
State was founded in the region and the city became a part of the Mongol Ilkhanate. The Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
region was then conquered by the Black Sheep Turkomans and White Sheep Turkomans. Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
took control of Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Hejaz
Hejaz
in the early 16th century. Turkish rule continued until World War I
World War I
when the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was overthrown in the region by the British Empire. British occupation[edit] At the end of World War I, the British occupied Kirkuk
Kirkuk
on 7 May 1918. Abandoning the city after about two weeks, the British returned to Kirkuk
Kirkuk
a few months later after the Armistice of Mudros. Kirkuk avoided the troubles caused by the British-backed Shaykh Mahmud, who quickly attempted to defy the British and establish his own fiefdom in Sulaymaniyah. Entry into the Kingdom of Iraq[edit] As both Turkey
Turkey
and Great Britain desperately wanted control of the Vilayet of Mosul
Vilayet of Mosul
(of which Kirkuk
Kirkuk
was a part), the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 failed to solve the issue. For this reason, the question of Mosul
Mosul
was sent to the League of Nations. A committee travelled to the area before coming to a final decision: the territory south of the "Brussels line" belonged to Iraq. By the Treaty of Angora of 1926, Kirkuk
Kirkuk
became a part of the Kingdom of Iraq. Discovery of oil[edit] Main article: Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Field

Baba Gurgur

In 1927, Iraqi and American drillers working for the foreign-owned and British-led Iraq
Iraq
Petroleum
Petroleum
Company (IPC) struck a huge oil gusher at Baba Gurgur
Baba Gurgur
("St. Blaze" or father blaze in Kurdish) near Kirkuk. The IPC began exports from the Kirkuk
Kirkuk
oil field in 1934. The Company moved its headquarters from Tuz Khormatu to a camp on the outskirts of Kirkuk, which they named Arrapha
Arrapha
after the ancient city. Arrapha remains a large neighborhood in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
to this day. The IPC exercised significant political power in the city and played a central role in Kirkuk's urbanization, initiating housing and development projects in collaboration with Iraqi authorities in the 1940s and 1950s.[32] The presence of the oil industry had an effect on Kirkuk's demographics. The exploitation of Kirkuk's oil, which began around 1930, attracted both Arabs
Arabs
and Kurds
Kurds
to the city in search of work. Kirkuk, which had been a predominantly Turkmen city, gradually lost its uniquely Turkmen character.[33][34][35] At the same time, large numbers of Kurds
Kurds
from the mountains were settling in the uninhabited but cultivable rural parts of the district of Kirkuk. The influx of Kurds
Kurds
into Kirkuk
Kirkuk
continued through the 1960s.[36] According to the 1957 census, Kirkuk
Kirkuk
city was 37.63% Iraqi Turkmen, 33.26% Kurdish with Arabs
Arabs
and Assyrians making up less than 23% of its population.[37][38] Some analysts believe that poor reservoir-management practices during the Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
years may have seriously, and even permanently, damaged Kirkuk's oil field. One example showed an estimated 1,500,000,000 barrels (240,000,000 m3) of excess fuel oil being reinjected. Other problems include refinery residue and gas-stripped oil. Fuel oil reinjection has increased oil viscosity at Kirkuk
Kirkuk
making it more difficult and expensive to get the oil out of the ground.[39] Over all, between April 2003 and late December 2004 there were an estimated 123 attacks on Iraqi energy infrastructures, including the country's 7,000 km-long pipeline system. In response to these attacks, which cost Iraq
Iraq
billions of US dollars in lost oil-export revenues and repair costs, the US military set up the Task Force Shield to guard Iraq's energy infrastructure and the Kirkuk- Ceyhan
Ceyhan
Oil Pipeline in particular. In spite of the fact that little damage was done to Iraq's oil fields during the war itself, looting and sabotage after the war ended was highly destructive and accounted for perhaps eighty percent of the total damage.[40] The discovery of vast quantities of oil in the region after World War I provided the impetus for the annexation of the former Ottoman Vilayet of Mosul
Vilayet of Mosul
(of which the Kirkuk
Kirkuk
region was a part), to the Iraqi Kingdom, established in 1921. Since then and particularly from 1963 onwards, there have been continuous attempts to transform the ethnic make-up of the region. Pipelines from Kirkuk
Kirkuk
run through Turkey
Turkey
to Ceyhan
Ceyhan
on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and were one of the two main routes for the export of Iraqi oil under the Oil-for-Food Programme
Oil-for-Food Programme
following the Gulf War of 1991. This was in accordance with a United Nations mandate that at least 50% of the oil exports pass through Turkey. There were two parallel lines built in 1977 and 1987. 1970 Autonomy Agreement[edit] On paper, the Autonomy Agreement of 11 March 1970, recognized the legitimacy of Kurdish participation in government and Kurdish language teaching in schools. However, it reserved judgment on the territorial extent of Kurdistan, pending a new census.[33] The 1970 peace agreement did not last long, and in 1974, the Iraqi government unilaterally decreed a new statute. The new statute was a far cry from the 1970 Manifesto, and its definition of the Kurdish autonomous area explicitly excluded the oil-rich areas of Kirkuk, Khanaqin
Khanaqin
and Shingal/Sinjar. In tandem with the 1970–1974 autonomy process, the Iraqi regime carried out a comprehensive administrative reform, in which the country's sixteen provinces, or governorates, were renamed and in some cases had their boundaries altered. The old province of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
was split in half. The area around the city itself was named At-Ta'mim
At-Ta'mim
(Arabic: التأميم‎) ("nationalization"), and its boundaries were redrawn so as to give an Arab
Arab
majority.[41] According to Human Rights Watch, from the 1991 Gulf War
Gulf War
until 2003, the former Iraqi government systematically expelled an estimated 500,000 Kurds
Kurds
and some Assyrians from Kirkuk
Kirkuk
and other towns and villages in this oil-rich region. Most have settled in the Kurdish-controlled northern provinces. Meanwhile, the Iraqi government resettled Arab
Arab
families in their place in an attempt to reduce the political power and presence of ethnic minorities, a process known as Arabization.[42] The Arabization
Arabization
of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
and other oil-rich regions is not a recent phenomenon. Successive governments have sought at various times to reduce the ethnic minority populations residing there since the discovery of significant oil deposits in the 1920s. By the mid-1970s, the Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
government that seized power in 1968 embarked on a concerted campaign to alter the demographic makeup of multi-ethnic Kirkuk. The campaign involved the massive relocation of tens of thousands of ethnic minority families from Kirkuk, Sinjar, Khanaqin, and other areas, transferring them to purpose-built resettlement camps. This policy was intensified after the failed Kurdish uprising in March 1991.[43][44][45][46][47][48] Those expelled included individuals who had refused to sign so-called "nationality correction" forms, introduced by the authorities prior to the 1997 population census, requiring members of ethnic groups residing in these districts to relinquish their Kurdish or Assyrian identities and to register "officially as Arabs." The Iraqi authorities also seized their property and assets; those who were expelled to areas controlled by Peshmerga
Peshmerga
were stripped of all possessions and their ration cards were withdrawn.[49] Kirkuk
Kirkuk
after 2003[edit]

Iraqi Personnel Graduate From Kirkuk

American and British military forces led an invasion of Iraq
Iraq
in March 2003, driving Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
and his Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
from power. A caretaker government was created until the establishment of a democratically elected government. Since April 2003, thousands of internally displaced Kurds
Kurds
have returned to Kirkuk
Kirkuk
and other Arabized regions to take back their homes and lands which have since been conquered by Arabs
Arabs
from central and southern Iraq. Under the supervision of chief executive of Coalition Provisional Authority L. Paul Bremer, a convention was held on 24 May 2003 to select the first City Council in the history of this oil-rich, ethnically divided city. Each of the city's four major ethnic groups was invited to send a 39-member delegation from which they would be allowed to select six to sit on the City Council. Another six council members were selected from among 144 delegates to represent independents social groups such as teachers, lawyers, religious leaders and artists. Kirkuk's 30 members council is made up of five blocs of six members each. Four of those blocs are formed along ethnic lines—Kurds, Arabs, Assyrian and Turkmen—and the fifth is made up of independents. Turkmen and Arabs
Arabs
complained that the Kurds
Kurds
allegedly hold five of the seats in the independent block. They were also infuriated that their only representative at the council's helm was an assistant mayor whom they considered pro-Kurdish. Abdul Rahman Mustafa (Arabic: عبدالرحمن مصطفى‎), a Baghdad-educated lawyer was elected mayor by 20 votes to 10. The appointment of an Arab, Ismail Ahmed Rajab Al Hadidi (Arabic: اسماعيل احمد رجب الحديدي‎), as deputy mayor went some way towards addressing Arab
Arab
concerns. On 30 June 2005, through a secret direct voting process, with the participation of the widest communities in the province and despite all the political legal security complexities of this process in the country generally and in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
in particular, Kirkuk
Kirkuk
witnessed the birth of its first elected Provincial Council. The Independent Electoral Commission of Iraq
Iraq
IECI approved and announced the outcomes of this process, which filled the 41 seats of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Provincial Council as follows:

26 seats 367 List Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Brotherhood List KBL 8 seats 175 List Iraqi Turkmen
Iraqi Turkmen
Front ITF 5 seats 299 List Iraqi Republic Gathering 1 seats 178 List Turkmen Islamic Coalition 1 seats 289 List Iraqi National Gathering

The new Kirkuk Provincial Council started its second turn on 6 March 2005. Its inaugural session was dedicated to the introduction of its new members, followed by an oath ceremony supervised by Judge Thahir Hamza Salman, the Head of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Appellate Court. Five churches in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
were targeted with bombs in August 2011[50] On 12 July 2013, Kirkuk
Kirkuk
was hit by a deadly bomb, killing 38 people in an attack on a café. The blast happened shortly after 22:00 local time (19:00 (GMT). It comes after more than 40 people died in a series of bombings and shootings across Iraq, including in Kirkuk, on 11 July 2013.[51] On 12 June 2014, the town was taken by Kurdish forces when Iraqi army fled following the success of ISIS 2014 Northern Iraq
Iraq
offensive in securing control of nearby Tikrit, as well as neighboring areas in Syria.[52][53] On 21 October 2016, ISIL launched multiple attacks in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
to divert Iraqi military resources during the Battle of Mosul. Witnesses reported multiple explosions and gun battles in the city, most centered on a government compound. At least 11 workers, including several Iranians, were killed by a suicide bomber at a power plant in nearby Dibis.[54] The attack was brought to an end by 24 October, with 74 militants being killed and others including the leader of the attackers being arrested.[55] On 16 October 2017, the Iraqi national army and PMF militia retook control[56] of Kirkuk, which had been under Kurdish Peshmerga
Peshmerga
control since 2014.[57]. Demographics[edit] The most reliable census concerning the ethnic composition of Kirkuk dates back to 1957. Kirkuk
Kirkuk
province borders were later altered, the province was renamed al-Ta'mim and Kurdish dominated districts were added to Erbil
Erbil
and Sulamaniya provinces.[58]

Census Results for the Liva (whole governate) of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
in 1957[59]

Ethnic Group by Mother Tongue Absolute numbers Percentage

Kurdish 187,593 48.2%

Arabic 109,620 28.2%

Turkmen 83,371 21.4%

Syriac 1,605 0.4%

Hebrew 123 0.03%

Total 388,829

Census Results for the City Proper of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
in 1957[59]

Ethnic Group by First Language

Percentage

Turkmens 45,306 37.6%

Kurdish 40,047 33.3%

Arabic 27,127 22.5%

Syriac 1,509 1.3%

Hebrew 101 0.1%

Total 120,402

Census results for Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Governorate[37]

Ethnic group 1957 Percentage 1977 Percentage 1997 Percentage

Arabs 109,620 28.2% 218,755 45% 544,596 72%

Kurds 187,593 48.2% 184,875 38% 155,861 21%

Turkmens 83,371 21.4% 80,347 17% 50,099 7%

Assyrians 1,605 0.4%

Jews 123 0.03%

Other 6,545 1.77% 0 0% 2,189 0.3%

Total 388,829 100% 483,977 100% 752,745 100%

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
and its environs in 2014[dubious – discuss], at the time of the capture of the area by Kurdish forces.

The three largest ethnicities in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
are Turkmen, Kurdish and Arabs. Kurdish people[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2017)

Kurds
Kurds
have a long history in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
before the Baban
Baban
family.[citation needed] The Baban
Baban
family was a Kurdish family that, in the 18th and 19th centuries, dominated the political life of the province of Sharazor, in present-day Iraqi Kurdistan. The first member of the clan to gain control of the province and its capital, Kirkuk, was Sulayman Beg. Enjoying almost full autonomy, the Baban
Baban
family established Kirkuk
Kirkuk
as their capital. It was from this time that Kurds
Kurds
in Iraq began to view Kirkuk
Kirkuk
as their capital. This persisted even after the Babans moved their administration to the new town of Sulaymaniya, named after the dynasty's founder, in the late 18th century.[60] Turkmen people[edit]

The Republic of Turkey's borders according to the National Pact

The Turkmens are descendants of Turkic migrants to Iraq
Iraq
dating back to the Umayyads
Umayyads
and Abbasid
Abbasid
eras, when they arrived as military recruits.[61] Considerable Turcoman settlement began during the Seljuq era when Toghrul entered Iraq
Iraq
in 1055 with his army composed mostly of Oghuz Turks. Kirkuk
Kirkuk
remained under the control of the Seljuq Empire for 63 years. The Turcoman settlement in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
was further expanded later during the Ottoman Era, when people were brought to the city from there. Kirkuk
Kirkuk
had a population near 30,000 in the late 1910s, Turkmens were majority in the city center, dominating the political and economic life of the area.[62][63] During the Ottoman period the Turcoman were the predominant population of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
city and its close environs but Kurds
Kurds
constituted the majority of the rural population of Kirkuk.[36] Currently Iraqi Turkmen
Iraqi Turkmen
politicians hold just over 20 percent of seats on Kirkuk's city council, while Turkmen leaders say they make up nearly a third of the city.[64] Arab
Arab
people[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2017)

The principal Arab
Arab
extended families in the city of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
were: the Tikriti and the Hadidi (Arabic: حديدي‎). The Tikriti family was the main Arab
Arab
family in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
coming from Tikrit
Tikrit
in the 17th century. Other Arab
Arab
tribes who settled in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
during the Ottoman Period are the Al-Ubaid (Arabic: آل عبيد‎) and the Al-Jiburi (Arabic: آل جبور‎). The Al-Ubaid came from just northwest of Mosul
Mosul
when they were forced out of the area by other Arab
Arab
tribes of that region. They settled in the Hawija
Hawija
district in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
in 1805 during the Ottoman Period.[65] Assyrians[edit] The Assyrians have an ancient history in Kirkuk, as they do throughout northern Iraq. As Arrapha
Arrapha
it was a part of the Old Assyrian Empire (c.1975–1750 BC), and fully incorporated into Assyria
Assyria
proper by the 14th century BC during the Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
(1365–105 BC), and remained so until the downfall of the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire between 615 and 599 BC. After this it was an integral part of Achaemenid Assyria (Athura), and during the Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
was centre to an independent Neo Assyrian state named Beth Garmai, before being incorporated into Assuristan
Assuristan
by the Sassanid
Sassanid
Empire. The Seleucid
Seleucid
town, like many other Upper Mesopotamian cities had a significant indigenous Assyrian population. Christianity was established among them in the 2nd century by the bishop Tuqrītā (Theocritos).[66] During the Sasanian times the town became an important centre of the Assyrian Church of the East, with several of its bishops rising to the rank of Patriarch. Tensions among Christians and Zoroastrians led to a severe persecution of Christians during the reign of Shapur II
Shapur II
(309–379 A.D.) as recorded in the Acts of the Persian Martyrs. Persecution resumed under Yazdegerd II
Yazdegerd II
in 445 A.D. who massacred thousands of them. Their situation greatly improved under the Sasanians in the following two centuries after the advent of a national Persian church of free of Byzantine
Byzantine
influence, namely Nestorianism.[67] During the Sasanian times the town became an important centre of the Church of the East, with several of its bishops rising to the rank of Patriarch. Tensions among Christians and Zoroastrians led to a severe persecution of Christians during the reign of Shapur II
Shapur II
(309-79 A.D.) as recorded in the Acts of the Persian Martyrs. Their situation greatly improved under the Sasanians in the following two centuries.[67] During the Sasanian times the town became an important centre of the Church of the East, with several of its bishops rising to the rank of Patriarch. Persecution resumed under Yazdegerd II
Yazdegerd II
in 445 A.D. who massacred thousands of them. Tradition puts the death toll at 12,000 among them the patriarch Shemon Bar Sabbae.[68] The city was known as the centre of the prosperous Ecclesiastical Province of Beth Garmai
Beth Garmai
which lingered until the conquests of Timur Leng
Timur Leng
in 1400 A.D. During the Ottoman period most of Kirkuk's Christians followed the Chaldean Catholic Church
Chaldean Catholic Church
whose bishop resided in the Cathedral of the Great Martyrion which dates back to the 5th century. The Cathedral was however used as a powder storage and was blown up as the Ottomans retreated in 1918.[69] The discovery of oil brought more Christians to Kirkuk, however they were also affected by the Arabization
Arabization
policy of the Baath Party.[70] Their numbers continued to plummet after the American invasion,[71] and they occupy 4% of municipal offices, a percentage thought to be representative of their numbers in the city.[72] They number around 2,000.[73] Armenians[edit] The Armenians of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
established a church in the old part of the city in 1906, and the population grew afterwards with the arrival of refugees from the Armenian Genocide. During the rule of Saddam Hussein, many Armenians were killed and deported. There are currently around 500 in the city.[citation needed] Jews[edit] Jews
Jews
had a long history in Kirkuk. Ottoman records show that in 1560 there were 104 Jewish homes in Kirkuk,[74] and in 1896 there were 760 Jews
Jews
in the city.[75] After World War I, the Jewish population increased, especially after Kirkuk
Kirkuk
became a petroleum center; in 1947 there were 2,350 counted in the census. Jews
Jews
were generally engaged in commerce and handicraft. Social progress was slow, and it was only in the 1940s that some Jewish students acquired secondary academic education. By 1951 almost all of the Jews
Jews
had left for Israel and those who stayed were disappeared[vague] by the local government.[76] Main sites[edit] Ancient architectural monuments of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
include:

the citadel the qishla the Prophet Daniel's Tomb the market Bazari Pirehmerd Qaysareyah of Kirkuk

The archaeological sites of Qal'at Jarmo
Jarmo
and Yorgan Tepe
Yorgan Tepe
are found at the outskirts of the modern city. In 1997, there were reports that the government of Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
"demolished Kirkuk's historic citadel with its mosques and ancient church".[77][78] The architectural heritage of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
sustained serious damage during World War I
World War I
(when some pre-Muslim Assyrian Christian monuments were destroyed) and, more recently, during the Iraq
Iraq
War. Simon Jenkins reported in June 2007 that "eighteen ancient shrines have been lost, ten in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
and the south in the past month alone".[79] Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Kirkuk
Kirkuk
experiences a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSh) with extremely hot and dry summers and cool, rainy winters. Snow is rare but it has fallen in 22 February 2004,[80] and from 10 to 11 January 2008.[81]

Climate data for Kirkuk
Kirkuk
(1976–2008)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 13.8 (56.8) 15.7 (60.3) 20.1 (68.2) 26.3 (79.3) 33.7 (92.7) 39.8 (103.6) 43.2 (109.8) 42.8 (109) 38.7 (101.7) 31.4 (88.5) 22.6 (72.7) 15.8 (60.4) 28.66 (83.58)

Daily mean °C (°F) 9.1 (48.4) 10.7 (51.3) 14.6 (58.3) 20.1 (68.2) 26.7 (80.1) 32.2 (90) 35.4 (95.7) 35.0 (95) 31.0 (87.8) 24.8 (76.6) 16.9 (62.4) 11.1 (52) 22.3 (72.15)

Average low °C (°F) 4.4 (39.9) 5.7 (42.3) 9.0 (48.2) 13.8 (56.8) 19.6 (67.3) 24.5 (76.1) 27.5 (81.5) 27.1 (80.8) 23.2 (73.8) 18.1 (64.6) 11.2 (52.2) 6.3 (43.3) 15.87 (60.57)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 68.3 (2.689) 66.7 (2.626) 57.3 (2.256) 44.1 (1.736) 13.4 (0.528) 0.1 (0.004) 0.2 (0.008) 0.0 (0) 0.7 (0.028) 12.4 (0.488) 39.1 (1.539) 59.0 (2.323) 361.3 (14.225)

Average precipitation days 11 11 11 9 5 0 0 0 0 5 7 10 69

Source: WMO[82]

Notable people[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2016)

Ibtisam Abdallah ( Arab
Arab
novelist) Mohsen Abdel Hamid (Kurdish politician) Ismail Ahmed Rajab Al Hadidi ( Arab
Arab
politician) Hajim al-Hassani
Hajim al-Hassani
( Arab
Arab
politician) Fadhil Al Azzawi ( Arab
Arab
writer and poet) Najmiddin Karim
Najmiddin Karim
(former Kurdish Governor of Kirkuk, Neurosurgeon, and founder of The Washington Kurdish Institute) Herdi Noor Al-Deen ( Arab
Arab
soccer player) Osama Rashid (Arab-Dutch soccer player) Adnan Adil ( Arab
Arab
writer and poet) Rafiq Hilmi (Kurdish poet, writer and academic) Sheikh Rezza Talabani
Sheikh Rezza Talabani
(Kurdish poet) Najiba Ahmad (Kurdish writer and poet) Nemir Kirdar (Turkmen CEO of Investcorp) Ali Askari (Kurdish politician) Chopy Fatah
Chopy Fatah
(Kurdish singer) Rafiq Hilmi (Kurdish poet, writer and academic) Rashad Mandan Omar (Turkmen Minister of Science and Technology in the Interim Iraq
Iraq
Governing Council and the Iraqi Interim Government) Adnan Karim
Adnan Karim
(Kurdish singer) Mama Risha (Kurdish revolutionary and prominent member of the Peshmerga) Ferhad Shakely
Ferhad Shakely
(Kurdish writer and poet) Bakr Sidqi
Bakr Sidqi
(Kurdish General) Riza Talabani
Riza Talabani
(Kurdish poet) Narsai Toma (Assyrian bishop for the Diocese of Kirkuk) Ali Mardan (Kurdish musician) Abdul Rahman Mustafa
Abdul Rahman Mustafa
(Kurdish former governor of Kirkuk) Younis Mahmoud
Younis Mahmoud
(Turkmen Captain of the Iraqi soccer team) Mehmet Türkmehmet (Turkmen soccer player) Abdurrahman Kızılay (Turkmen singer) Saadeddin Arkej (Turkmen, Honorary Leader of Iraqi Turkmen
Iraqi Turkmen
Front) Arshad al-Salihi (Turkmen, President of Iraqi Turkmen
Iraqi Turkmen
Front) Hijri Dede (Turkmen poet) Yalman Haceroğlu (Turkmen General manager of Türkmeneli TV) Talib Mushtaq (Turkmen Leading diplomat and Arab
Arab
nationalist in Iraq during the 1930s) Kevork Hovnanian
Kevork Hovnanian
(Armenian founder of Hovnanian Enterprises) Gökhan Kırdar (Turkish musician of Iraqi Turkmen
Iraqi Turkmen
descent)

See also[edit]

Assyrian settlements Assyrian homeland Jerusalem Kirkuk
Kirkuk
(Chaldean Archdiocese) Operation Fath 1

Notes[edit]

^ "World Gazetteer". World Gazetteer. 26 January 2009. Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 2009-01-26.  ^ "Google Maps Distance Calculator". Daftlogic.com. 12 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ Bet-Shlimon, Arbella. 2012. Group Identities, Oil, and the Local Political Domain in Kirkuk: A Historical Perspective. Journal of Urban History 38, no. 5. ^ "Kirkuk". Cities in transition.  ^ Ezzat 2012, p. 1. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History – Page 17 by John Boardman ^ a b William Gordon East, Oskar Hermann Khristian Spate (1961). The Changing Map of Asia: A Political Geography, 436 pages, p: 105 ^ Claims in conflict: reversing ethnic cleansing in northern Iraq. Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
(Organization). 16. August 2004. p. 54.  ^ Cocks, Tim (21 July 2009). "U.N. wants Iraq
Iraq
Kurds
Kurds
to drop Kirkuk vote-diplomat". ofReuters.  ^ "The Identity of Kirkuk" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 August 2011. Conclusion  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2009.  ^ Edward Balfour, Encyclopaedia Asiatica, p. 214, Cosmo Publications, 1976 ^ The Acts of Mar Mari the Apostle By Amir Harrak. p. 27. ^ The World's Greatest Story: The Epic of the Jewish People in Biblical Times By Joan Comay. p. 384. ^ "Garmai is the plural of Garma/Garmo meaning "bone"". Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.  ^ Grant, Asahel (1841). Nestorians. Harper. p. 52.  ^ a b Iraq’s Policy of Ethnic Cleansing: Onslaught to change national/demographic characteristics of the Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Region by Nouri Talabany Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ meaning of Karkha in Syriac Archived 27 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Syriac dictionary ^ Kirkuk
Kirkuk
and its dependencies: Historically part of Kurdistan
Kurdistan
– II by Mufid Abdulla Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Edwards, Gadd & Hammond 1991, p. 256 ^ Edwards, Gadd & Hammond 1991, p. 374 ^ Edwards, Charlesworth & Boardman 1970, p. 433 ^ Edwards, Charlesworth & Boardman 1970, p. 443 ^ Georges Roux- Ancient Iraq ^ a b Chahin, M (1996). Before the Greeks. James Clarke & Co. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-7188-2950-6. Retrieved 3 January 2013.  ^ Talabany, Nouri (1999). "Iraq's Policy of Ethnic Cleansing: Onslaught to change national/demographic characteristics of the Kirkuk Region". Archived from the original on 9 September 2001. Retrieved 5 June 2006.  ^ "BĒṮ GARMĒ". Iranica. Retrieved 3 May 2012.  ^ Martin Sicker. The Pre-Islamic Middle East, Page 68. ^ I. E. S. Edwards, John Boardman, John B. Bury, S. A. Cook. The Cambridge Ancient History. p. 178-179. ^ Mohsen, Zakeri (1995). Sasanid soldiers in early Muslim society: the origins of 'Ayyārān and Futuwwa. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 135. ISBN 978-3-447-03652-8.  ^ "OCA – Hieromartyr Simeon the Bishop in Persia, and those with him in Persia". Ocafs.oca.org. 17 April 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2013.  ^ Bet-Shlimon, Arbella. 2013. The Politics and Ideology of Urban Development in Iraq's Oil City: Kirkuk, 1946–58. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 33, no. 1. ^ a b Book IV. Ethno-nationalism in Iraq. – 16. The Kurds
Kurds
under the Baath, 1968–1975, page 329–330. // A Modern History of the Kurds. Author: David McDowall. Third edition. First published in 1996. Third revised and updated edition published in 2004, reprinted in 2007. London: I.B. Tauris, 2007, 515 pages. ISBN 9781850434160

“ It now began to look as if the Baath were playing for time and the year 1971 brought a disintegration of trust between the two parties. The central issue was a demographic one. The census (Article 14) for disputed areas planned for December 1970 had been postponed till the spring by mutual agreement, but when spring came it was unilaterally postponed sine die. Mulla Mustafa accused the government of resettling Arabs
Arabs
in the contested areas, Kirkuk, Khanaqin
Khanaqin
and Sinjar, and told the government he would not accept the census results if they indicated an Arab
Arab
majority. He also dismissed the offer of the 1965 census, which he said was forged. When the government proposed to apply the 1957 census to Kirkuk, Mulla Mustafa refused it, since this was bound to show that the Turkomans, although outnumbered in the governorate as a whole, were still predominant in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
town. Given the residual animosity after the events of July 1959, the Turkomans were likely to opt for Baati rather than Kurdish rule. The Baath thought the Kurds
Kurds
might be packing disputed areas with Kurds
Kurds
from Iran and Turkey, but the real tensions surfaced over the Faili Kurds, resident in Iraq
Iraq
since Ottoman days and yet without Iraqi citizenship. The government argued they were Iranians, and now determined their fate by the simple expedient of expelling roughly 50,000 of them from September onwards. ”

^ Chapter 1: Introduction: Kurdish Identity and Social Formation, page 3. // A Modern History of the Kurds. Author: David McDowall. Third edition. First published in 1996. Third revised and updated edition published in 2004, reprinted in 2007. London: I.B. Tauris, 2007, 515 pages. ISBN 9781850434160

“ Few Kurds
Kurds
would claim quite as much today, but would still claim the city of Kirkuk, even though it had a larger Turkoman population as recently as 1958. ”

^ Book IV. Ethno–nationalism in Iraq. – 15. The Kurds
Kurds
in Revolutionary Iraq, page 305. // A Modern History of the Kurds. Author: David McDowall. Third edition. First published in 1996. Third revised and updated edition published in 2004, reprinted in 2007. London: I.B. Tauris, 2007, 515 pages. ISBN 9781850434160

“ Tension had been growing for some time between Turkomans, the originally predominant element, and Kurds
Kurds
who had settled increasingly during the 1930's and 1940's, driven from the land by landlord rapacity and drawn by the chance for employment in the burgeoning oil industry. By 1959 half the population of qo,ooo were Turkoman, rather less than half were Kurds
Kurds
and the balance Arabs, Assyrians and Armenians. ”

^ a b Bruinessen, Martin van, and Walter Posch. 2005. Looking into Iraq. Paris: European Union Institute for Security Studies. ^ a b Part I. Kirkuk
Kirkuk
and its environs. – Chapter 2. Kirkuk
Kirkuk
in the Twentieth Century, page 43. // Crisis in Kirkuk: The Ethnopolitics of Conflict and Compromise. Authors: Liam Anderson, Gareth Stansfield. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011, 312 pages. ISBN 9780812206043 ^ Understanding radical Islam: medieval ideology in the twenty-first century,Brian R. Farmer, page 154, 2007 ^ "Kirkuk". GlobalSecurity.org. 9 July 2005. Retrieved 2006-06-05.  ^ "Iraq". Country Analysis Briefs. Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original on 6 June 2006. Retrieved 5 June 2006.  ^ "Ba'athis and Kurds". Genocide in Iraq. Human Rights Watch. July 1993. Retrieved 2006-06-05.  ^ "Iraq: Impending Inter-Ethnic Violence in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. 28 March 2003. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ https://www.hrw.org/reports/1994/iraq/TEXT.htm ^ "Iraq:". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "Mena 6". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ " Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
World Report 2003: Middle East & Northern Africa: Iraq
Iraq
and Iraqi Kurdistan". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "Mideast". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ " Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
- Defending Human Rights Worldwide". 3 August 2012. Archived from the original on 3 August 2012.  ^ " Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
World Report 2001: Iraq
Iraq
and Iraqi Kurdistan: Human Rights Developments". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ Barnabas Fund. ^ "Iraqi city of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
hit by deadly bomb attack". BBC News. Retrieved 13 July 2013.  ^ Iraq
Iraq
crisis: Baghdad
Baghdad
prepares for the worst as Islamist militants vow to capture the capital, UK Independent, accessed 13 June 2014. ^ " Kurds
Kurds
take oil-rich Kirkuk
Kirkuk
amid advance of ISIL insurgency in Iraq". Al Jazeera America. Al Jazeera. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.  ^ "Isil launches bomb and gunfire attacks in Iraqi oil city to divert attention from Mosul
Mosul
battle". The Daily Telegraph. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.  ^ "Attack in Iraq's Kirkuk
Kirkuk
over, 74 IS jihadists killed: Governor". The New Indian Express. 24 October 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2016.  ^ "Iraqi troops seize parts of oil-rich Kurdish region that voted for independence". CNBC. 15 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.  ^ "Iraqi Kurdish forces take Kirkuk
Kirkuk
as Isis sets its sights on Baghdad". The Guardian. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ Dagher, Sam (25 April 2008). "Can the U.N. avert a Kirkuk
Kirkuk
border war?". CS Monitor. Retrieved 2 August 2012.  ^ a b "Iraq". www.let.uu.nl. Retrieved 2016-10-16.  ^ Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, Baban
Baban
Family Entry, p.70 ^ Matthew Gordon, The Breaking of a Thousand Swords: A History of the Turkish Military of Samarra, A.H. 200-275/815-889 C.E., SUNY Press, 2001, p.1 ^ Türkmenler ^ Bruinessen, Martin van, and Walter Posch Looking into Iraq
Iraq
2005. ^ "The Turkmen of Iraq: Between a rock and a hard place". Retrieved 20 August 2015.  ^ Book Bedouins, Part I: Mesopotamia, Syria, northern Iraq, Al-Ubaid, Author Max Oppenheim ^ Morony, Michael (1989). "BĒṮ SELŌḴ". Encyclopedia Iranica. IV. p. 188. Retrieved 24 June 2014.  ^ a b Bosworth 1954, p. 144 ^ Afram I Barsoum; Moosa, Matti (2003). The Scattered Pearls: A History of Syriac Literature and Sciences. Gorgias Press LLC. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-931956-04-8.  ^ Bosworth 1954, p. 145 ^ Anderson & Stansfield 2013, p. 51 ^ Anderson & Stansfield 2013, p. 6 ^ Anderson & Stansfield 2013, p. 161 ^ Kirkuk
Kirkuk
and environs – Ethnic composition, 2014 Created by Mehrdad Izady, Gulf 2000 Project. Columbia University. ^ "Diplomatic Observer". Diplomatic Observer. 2 December 2004. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ "Who Owns Kirkuk? The Kurdish Case :: Middle East Quarterly". Meforum.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "Kirkuk". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "Who Owns Kirkuk? The Kurdish Case :: Middle East Quarterly". Meforum.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ John Pike. " Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Citadel". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ Jenkins, Simon (7 June 2007). "In Iraq's four-year looting frenzy, the allies have become the vandals". The Guardian. London.  ^ Cole, William (23 February 2004). "Rare Iraq
Iraq
snowfall lifts troops' spirits". The Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved 3 March 2013.  ^ " Iraq
Iraq
under cold front bringing snow and below zero temperatures". Indian Muslims. Kuwait News Agency (KUNA). 11–12 January 2008. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2013. BAGHDAD, Jan 11 (KUNA) – Snow fell on large areas of Iraq following two days of low temperature. Dr. Daoud Shaker, head of the Iraqi weather bureau told the Kuwait News Agency (KUNA) snow fell in Baghdad
Baghdad
during two hours in the morning on Friday after coming under the effect of two pressure systems, one cold originating from Siberia and the other warm coming from the sea. He said the temperature on Friday was "below zero in several Iraqi areas" resulting in snowfalls Thursday in several western areas. But the snowfall continued on Friday along with the low temperatures, he added. He predicted that the snowfalls and rain would subside as of Friday night paving the way for subzero temperatures in the next few days that could reach six degrees Celsius below zero specifically at night. He added that the snow that fell on Baghdad
Baghdad
has melted. But in Kirkuk
Kirkuk
and several northern cities including Suleimaniah, snow fell again on Friday along with very low temperatures. According to weather sources, up to four millimeters of snow fell on Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Friday.  ^ WMO. "World Weather Information Service". World Weather Information Service. 

References[edit]

Anderson, Liam; Stansfield, Gareth (2011). Crisis in Kirkuk: The Ethnopolitics of Conflict and Compromise. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-0604-5.  Bosworth (1954). The Encyclopaedia of Islam Vol. V. Brill. pp. 144–147. ISBN 90-04-06056-1.  Edwards, I. E. S.; Gadd, C. J.; Hammond, N. G. L. (1991). The Cambridge Ancient History: Vol. 1, pt. 1. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 3 January 2013.  Edwards, Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen; Charlesworth, Martin Percival; Boardman, John (1970). The Cambridge Ancient History: Vol. 1, part 2. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 3 January 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Published in the 19th century

Edward Balfour, ed. (1871). "Kirkook". Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia (2nd ed.). Madras.  Charles Wilson, ed. (1895), "Kirkuk", Handbook for Travellers in Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, Persia, etc., London: John Murray, OCLC 8979039 

Published in the 20th century

"Kerkuk", Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopædia Britannica Co., 1910, OCLC 14782424  "Kerkuk", Palestine and Syria (5th ed.), Leipzig: Karl Baedeker, 1912 

Published in the 21st century

Michael R.T. Dumper; Bruce E. Stanley, eds. (2008), "Kirkuk", Cities of the Middle East and North Africa, Santa Barbara, USA: ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1576079198 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kirkuk.

Iraq
Iraq
Image – Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Satellite Observation Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
Report: Kurdish Autonomy and Arabization, 1993 Human Rights Developments in Government-controlled Iraq, 2001 IRAQ: PEOPLE COME FIRST, 2003 International Humanitarian Law Issues In A Potential War In Iraq, 2003 Amnesty International Report: Decades of human rights abuse in Iraq, 2003 Reversing Arabization
Arabization
of Kirkuk, 2004 Iraq: In Kurdistan, Land Disputes Fuel Unrest, 2004 German-kurdish homepage for politics and culture Insurgents stir up strife in Kirkuk Kurds
Kurds
flee Iraqi town, 15 March 2003; named Kurds' preferred capital Key Targets in Iraq, Anthony H. Cordesman, CSIS, February 1998; information about the oil resources and facilities Brief Summary of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
History Kirkuk
Kirkuk
in Old Ages Numerous research about Kirkuk[permanent dead link]

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(Sulaymaniya)

Wasit Governorate

Badra District (Badra) al-Hai District (Al-Hai) Kut District (Kut) al-Nu'maniya District (Al-Nu'maniya) al-Suwaira District (Al-Suwaira)

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Iraq Largest cities in Iraq
Iraq
(geonames.org)

Rank Name Governorate Pop.

Baghdad

Basra 1 Baghdad Baghdad 9,500,000

Mosul

Arbil

2 Basra Basra 2,300,125

3 Mosul Ninawa 2,000,000

4 Arbil Arbil 1,100,000

5 Kirkuk Kirkuk 1,100,000

6 Sulaymaniya Sulaymaniya 1,000,000

7 Hilla Babil 1,000,000

8 Karbala Karbala 800,347

9 Najaf Najaf 800,137

10 Al Nasiri

.