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The Kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
(Arabic: المملكة المصرية‎; Egyptian Arabic: المملكه المصريه‎ El-Mamlaka l-Maṣreyya, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty
Muhammad Ali Dynasty
in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom. Until the Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, the Kingdom was only nominally independent, since the British retained control of foreign relations, communications, the military and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Between 1936 and 1952, the British continued to maintain military presence and political advisers, at a reduced level. The legal status of Egypt
Egypt
had been highly convoluted, due to its de facto breakaway from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1805, its occupation by Britain in 1882, and its transformation into a sultanate and British protectorate in 1914. In line with the change in status from sultanate to kingdom, the Sultan of Egypt, Fuad I, saw his title changed to King. The kingdom's sovereignty was subject to severe limitations imposed by the British, who retained enormous control over Egyptian affairs, and whose military continued to occupy the country. Throughout the kingdom's existence Sudan
Sudan
was formally united with Egypt. However, actual Egyptian authority in Sudan
Sudan
was largely nominal due to Britain's role as the dominant power in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. During the reign of King Fuad, the monarchy struggled with the Wafd Party, a broadly based nationalist political organization strongly opposed to British domination, and with the British themselves, who were determined to maintain control over the Suez Canal. Other political forces emerging in this period included the Communist Party (1925), and the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
(1928), which eventually became a potent political and religious force. King Fuad died in 1936 and Farouk inherited the throne at the age of sixteen. Alarmed by Italy's recent invasion of Abyssinia, he signed the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, requiring Britain to withdraw all troops from Egypt, except in the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
Zone (agreed to be evacuated by 1949). The kingdom was plagued by corruption, and its citizens saw it as a puppet of the British. This, coupled with the defeat in the 1948-1949 Palestine War, led to the Egyptian Revolution of 1952
Egyptian Revolution of 1952
by the Free Officers Movement. Farouk abdicated in favour of his infant son Fuad II. In 1953 the monarchy was formally abolished and the Republic of Egypt
Egypt
was established. The legal status of Sudan
Sudan
was only resolved in 1954, when Egypt
Egypt
and Britain agreed that it should be granted independence in 1956.

Contents

1 Sultanate and Kingdom 2 Aftermath of World War I 3 Recognition 4 World War II
World War II
and after 5 Dissolution 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading

Sultanate and Kingdom[edit] Further information: Sultanate of Egypt In 1914, Khedive Abbas II sided with the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Central Powers
Central Powers
in the First World War, and was promptly deposed by the British in favor of his uncle Hussein Kamel. Ottoman sovereignty over Egypt, which had been hardly more than a legal fiction since 1805, now was officially terminated, Hussein Kamel was declared Sultan of Egypt, and the country became a British Protectorate. Aftermath of World War I[edit] A group known as the Wafd
Wafd
(meaning "Delegation") attended the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 to demand Egypt's independence. Included in the group was political leader, Saad Zaghlul, who would later become Prime Minister. When the group was arrested and deported to the island of Malta, a huge uprising occurred in Egypt. From March to April 1919, there were mass demonstrations that turned into uprisings. This is known in Egypt
Egypt
as the First Revolution. British repression of the anti-occupation riots led to the death of some 800 people. In November 1919, the Milner Commission
Milner Commission
was sent to Egypt
Egypt
by the British to attempt to resolve the situation. In 1920, Lord Milner submitted his report to Lord Curzon, the British Foreign Secretary, recommending that the protectorate should be replaced by a treaty of alliance. As a result, Curzon agreed to receive an Egyptian mission headed by Zaghlul and Adli Pasha
Adli Pasha
to discuss the proposals. The mission arrived in London in June 1920 and the agreement was concluded in August 1920. In February 1921, the British Parliament approved the agreement and Egypt
Egypt
was asked to send another mission to London with full powers to conclude a definitive treaty. Adli Pasha
Adli Pasha
led this mission, which arrived in June 1921. However, the Dominion
Dominion
delegates at the 1921 Imperial Conference
Imperial Conference
had stressed the importance of maintaining control over the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
Zone and Curzon could not persuade his Cabinet colleagues to agree to any terms that Adli Pasha
Adli Pasha
was prepared to accept. The mission returned to Egypt
Egypt
in disgust. In December 1921, the British authorities in Cairo
Cairo
imposed martial law and once again deported Zaghlul. Demonstrations again led to violence. In deference to the growing nationalism and at the suggestion of the High Commissioner, Lord Allenby, the UK recognized Egyptian independence in 1922, abolishing the protectorate, and converting the Sultanate of Egypt
Egypt
into the Kingdom of Egypt. Sarwat Pasha
Sarwat Pasha
became prime minister. British influence, however, continued to dominate Egypt's political life and fostered fiscal, administrative, and governmental reforms. Britain retained control of the Canal Zone, Sudan, and Egypt's external protection' the police, army, the railways and communications' the protection of foreign interests, minorities and the Sudan
Sudan
pending a final agreement. Representing the Wafd
Wafd
Party, Zaghlul was elected Prime Minister in 1924. He demanded that Britain recognize the Egyptian sovereignty in Sudan
Sudan
and the unity of the Nile Valley. On November 19, 1924, the British Governor-General of Sudan, Sir Lee Stack, was assassinated in Cairo
Cairo
and pro-Egyptian riots broke out in Sudan. The British demanded that Egypt
Egypt
pay an apology fee and withdraw troops from Sudan. Zaghlul agreed to the first but not the second and resigned. Recognition[edit]

King Farouk I, 1936-1952.

With nationalist sentiment rising, Britain formally recognized Egyptian independence in 1922, and Hussein Kamel's successor, Sultan Fuad I, substituted the title of King for Sultan. However, British occupation and interference in Egyptian affairs persisted. Of particular concern to Egypt
Egypt
was Britain's continual efforts to divest Egypt
Egypt
of all control in Sudan. To both the King and the nationalist movement, this was intolerable, and the Egyptian Government made a point of stressing that Fuad and his son King Farouk I were "King of Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan".[4] World War II
World War II
and after[edit] Main article: Military history of Egypt
Egypt
during World War II Britain used Egypt
Egypt
as a base for Allied operations throughout the region, especially the battles in North Africa against Italy and Germany. its highest priorities were control of the Eastern Mediterranean, and especially keeping the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
open for merchant ships and for military connections with India
India
and Australia.[5] The government of Egypt, and the Egyptian population, played a minor role in the Second World War. When the war began in September 1939, Egypt declared martial law and broke off diplomatic relations with Germany. It did not declare war on Germany, but the Prime Minister associated Egypt
Egypt
with the British war effort. It broke diplomatic relations with Italy in 1940, but never declared war, even when the Italian army invaded Egypt. King Farouk took practically a neutral position, which accorded with elite opinion among the Egyptians. The Egyptian army did no fighting. It was apathetic about the war, with the leading officers looking on the British as occupiers and sometimes holding some private sympathy with the Axis.[6] In June 1940 the King dismissed Prime Minister Aly Maher, who got on poorly with British. A new coalition Government was formed with the Independent Hassan Pasha Sabri as Prime Minister.[7] Following a ministerial crisis in February 1942, the ambassador Sir Miles Lampson, pressed Farouk to have a Wafd
Wafd
or Wafd-coalition government replace Hussein Sirri Pasha's government. On the night of 4 February 1942, British troops and tanks surrounded Abdeen Palace in Cairo
Cairo
and Lampson presented Farouk with an ultimatum. Farouk capitulated, and Nahhas formed a government shortly thereafter. However, the humiliation meted out to Farouk, and the actions of the Wafd
Wafd
in cooperating with the British and taking power, lost support for both the British and the Wafd
Wafd
among both civilians and, more importantly, the Egyptian military.[8] British troops were withdrawn to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
area in 1947, but nationalist, anti-British feelings continued to grow after the War. On July 22–July 23, 1952, the Free Officers Movement, led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
overthrew King Farouk, whom the military blamed for Egypt's poor performance in the 1948 war with Israel, thereby launching the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. Popular expectations for immediate reforms led to the workers' riots in Kafr Dawar
Kafr Dawar
on 12 August 1952, which resulted in two death sentences. Following a brief experiment with civilian rule, the Free Officers abrogated the 1953 constitution and declared Egypt
Egypt
a republic on 18 June 1953. Nasser evolved into a charismatic leader, not only of Egypt
Egypt
but of the Arab World, promoting and implementing "Arab socialism". Dissolution[edit] The reign of Farouk was characterized by ever increasing nationalist discontent over the British occupation, royal corruption and incompetence, and the disastrous 1948 Arab-Israeli War. All these factors served to terminally undermine Farouk's position and paved the way for the Revolution of 1952. Farouk was forced to abdicate in favor of his infant son Ahmed-Fuad who became King Fuad II, while administration of the country passed to the Free Officers Movement under Muhammad Naguib
Muhammad Naguib
and Gamal Abdel Nasser. The infant king's reign—now a pure legal fiction—lasted less than a year and on 18 June 1953, the revolutionaries formally abolished the monarchy and declared Egypt
Egypt
a republic, ending a century and a half of the Muhammad Ali dynasty. See also[edit]

Egyptian Revolution of 1952 History of modern Egypt

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kingdom of Egypt.

References[edit]

^ Article 149 of the 1923 Constitution. ^ Bonné, Alfred (2003) [First published 1945]. The Economic Development of the Middle East: An Outline of Planned Reconstruction after the War. The International Library of Sociology. London: Routledge. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-415-17525-8. OCLC 39915162. Retrieved 2010-07-09.  ^ Shousha, Aly Tewfik (1947). "Cholera Epidemic in Egypt: A Preliminary Report". Bull. World Health Organ. National Center for Biotechnology Information. 1 (2): 371. PMC 2553924 . PMID 20603928.  ^ Michael T. Thornhill, "Informal Empire, Independent Egypt
Egypt
and the Accession of King Farouk." Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 38#2 (2010): 279-302. ^ Steve Morewood, The British Defence of Egypt, 1935-40: Conflict and Crisis in the Eastern Mediterranean (2008). ^ S. K. Rothwell, "Military Ally or Liability? The Egyptian Army 1936–1942." Army Quarterly & Defence Review 128#2 (1998): 180-7. ^ John Marlowe, A History of Modern Egypt
Egypt
and Anglo-Egyptian Relations, 1800-1953 (1954) p 313-15. ^ Marlowe, A History of Modern Egypt
Egypt
and Anglo-Egyptian Relations, 1800-1953 (1954) p 315-19.

Further reading[edit]

Botman, Selma. "The liberal age, 1923–1952." in M.W. Daly, ed. The Cambridge History of Egypt, Vol. 2: Modern Egypt, from 1517 to the End of the Twentieth Century (2008), pp 285-308. Goldschmidt Jr., Arthur. Biographical Dictionary of Modern Egypt (1999). Karakoç, Ulaş. "Industrial growth in interwar Egypt: first estimate, new insights" European Review of Economic History (2018) 22#1 53–72, online Marlowe, John. A History of Modern Egypt
Egypt
and Anglo-Egyptian Relations, 1800-1953 (1954). Morewood, Steve. The British Defence of Egypt, 1935-40: Conflict and Crisis in the Eastern Mediterranean (2008). Rothwell, S. K. "Military Ally or Liability? The Egyptian Army 1936–1942." Army Quarterly & Defence Review 128#2 (1998): 180-7. Royal Institute of International Affairs. Great Britain and Egypt, 1914-1951 (2nd ed. 1952) online at Questia; also online free Thornhill, Michael T. "Informal Empire, Independent Egypt
Egypt
and the Accession of King Farouk." Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 38#2 (2010): 279-302. Tignore, Robert L. Egypt: A Short History (2011) online

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