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The monarchs of the Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks
Franks
in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire
Second French Empire
in 1870, with several interruptions. Sometimes included as "Kings of France"[1] are the kings of the Franks of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled from 486 until 751,[2] and of the Carolingians, who ruled until 987 (with some interruptions). The Capetian dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, included the first rulers to adopt the title of "King of France" for the first time with Philip II (r. 1180–1223). The Capetians ruled continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois (until 1589) and Bourbon (until 1848). During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791
French Constitution of 1791
was in effect (1791–92) and after the July Revolution
July Revolution
in 1830, the style of "King of the French" was used instead of " King of France
King of France
(and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy, which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France.[3] With the House of Bonaparte, "Emperors of the French" ruled in 19th-century France between 1804 and 1814, again in 1815, and between 1852 and 1870.

Contents

1 Titles 2 Frankish Empire

2.1 Merovingian dynasty
Merovingian dynasty
(486–751) 2.2 Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
(751–888) 2.3 Robertian dynasty (888–898) 2.4 Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
(893–922) 2.5 Robertian dynasty (922–923) 2.6 Bosonid dynasty (923–936) 2.7 Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
(936–987)

3 Capetian dynasty
Capetian dynasty
(987–1792)

3.1 Direct Capetians (987–1328) 3.2 House of Valois
House of Valois
(1328–1589) 3.3 House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(1422–1453) (disputed) 3.4 House of Valois
House of Valois
(1328–1589) 3.5 House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(1589–1792)

4 House of Bonaparte, First Empire (1804–1814) 5 Capetian Dynasty
Capetian Dynasty
(1814–1815)

5.1 House of Bourbon, Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
(1814–1815)

6 House of Bonaparte, First Empire (Hundred Days, 1815) 7 Capetian Dynasty
Capetian Dynasty
(1815–1848)

7.1 House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(1815–1830) 7.2 House of Orléans, July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1830–1848)

8 House of Bonaparte, Second Empire (1852–1870) 9 Later pretenders 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References

Titles[edit] Further information: Style of the French sovereign Further information: French monarchs family tree (simple) and French monarchs family tree The title "King of the Franks" (Latin: Rex Francorum) gradually lost ground after 1190, during the reign of Philip II (but FRANCORUM REX continued to be used, for example by Louis XII in 1499, by Francis I in 1515, and by Henry II about 1550. It was used on coins up to the eighteenth century.[n 1] During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–92) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style "King of the French" was used instead of " King of France
King of France
(and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France.[5] In addition to the Kingdom of France, there were also two French Empires, the first from 1804 to 1814 and again in 1815, founded and ruled by Napoleon
Napoleon
I, and the second from 1852 to 1870, founded and ruled by his nephew Napoleon III
Napoleon III
(also known as Louis-Napoleon). They used the title "Emperor of the French".[6][7] This article lists all rulers to have held the title "King of the Franks", "King of France", "King of the French" or "Emperor of the French". For other Frankish monarchs, see List of Frankish kings. In addition to the monarchs listed below, the Kings of England and Great Britain from 1340–60, 1369-1420, and 1422–1801 also claimed the title of King of France. For a short time, this had some basis in fact – under the terms of the 1420 Treaty of Troyes, Charles VI had recognized his son-in-law Henry V of England
Henry V of England
as regent and heir. Henry V predeceased Charles VI and so Henry V's son, Henry VI, succeeded his grandfather Charles VI as King of France. Most of Northern France was under English control until 1435, but by 1453, the English had been expelled from all of France save Calais
Calais
(and the Channel Islands), and Calais
Calais
itself fell in 1558. Nevertheless, English and then British monarchs continued to claim the title for themselves until the creation of the United Kingdom in 1801. Frankish Empire[edit] Main article: List of Frankish kings Merovingian dynasty
Merovingian dynasty
(486–751)[edit] The Merovingians
Merovingians
were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia
Francia
in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century. Their territory largely corresponded to ancient Gaul
Gaul
as well as the Roman provinces of Raetia, Germania Superior and the southern part of Germania. The Merovingian dynasty rose to historical prominence with Childeric I
Childeric I
(c. 457-481), the son of Merovech, leader of the Salian Franks, but it was his famous son Clovis I
Clovis I
(481–511) who united all of Gaul
Gaul
under Merovingian rule.[8]

Portrait Name King from King until Death Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Merovech ? 457 Died aged 43.  • Progenitor of the Merovingians King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Childeric I 457 481 Died of natural causes aged 41. He and was buried in Tournai.  • Son of Merovech King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Clovis I 481 511 Died of natural causes aged 45. Buried at Abbey of St Genevieve
Abbey of St Genevieve
until 18th century. Remains relocated to Basilica of St Denis.  • Son of Childeric I, probably grandson of Merovech King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

After Clovis's death, his kingdom was divided among his four sons, who took up residences in different cities. The number and extent of the parts of the kingdom varied over time. Clothar I, the youngest son, eventually reunited the kingdom.

Theuderic, eldest son of Clovis, became king at Reims. His line ended in 555, after which its lands passed to his youngest brother Chlothar.

Theuderic I (Thierry) 511 533 or 534 Died aged 48.  • Eldest son of Clovis I King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) at Reims

Theudebert I (Thibert) 533 or 534 547 or 548 Killed in a hunting accident, aged 47.  • Son of Theuderic I King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) at Reims

Theudebald (Thibaut) 547 or 548 555 Died aged 20.  • Son of Theudebert I King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) at Reims

Chlodomer, Clovis' second son, became king at Orléans. His sons were murdered and he died shortly afterwards; his realm was divided between his two younger brothers, Childebert and Chlothar.

Chlodomer (Chlodomir) 511 25 June 524 Killed in the Battle of Vézeronce, aged 29.  • Second (surviving) son of Clovis I King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) at Orléans

Childebert, third son of Clovis, became king at Paris. He died in 558 and his lands passed to his youngest brother Chlothar.

Childebert I 511 13 December 558 Died aged 62. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  • Third (surviving) son of Clovis I King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) at Paris

Chlothar, fourth and youngest son of Clovis, became king at Soissons. By 558 he had inherited the lands of his older brothers and thus reunited all of the Frankish territories that had been held by his father.

Chlothar the Old (Clotaire) 511 29 November 561 Died aged 64. Buried at Abbey of St. Medard, Soissons.  • Youngest son of Clovis I King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) at Soissons

After Clothar's death, the kingdom was divided among his four sons. The parts of the kingdom varied over time and eventually developed into three distinct realms. Neustria, centred at Soisson and Paris, Austrasia, centered at Metz, and Burgundy, centered at Orléans. Clothar II, grandson of Clothar I, eventually reunited the kingdom.

Charibert, Chlothar's eldest surviving son, became king of the Franks at Paris. He died without issue in 567 and his realm was partitioned between his younger brothers.

Charibert I (Caribert) 29 November 561 567 Died aged 50. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  • Eldest son of Chlothar I King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) at Paris

Guntram, Chlothar's second surviving son, became king of Burgundy (king of the Franks
Franks
at Orléans). At his death he was succeeded by his nephew Childebert II
Childebert II
of the Franks, who was the son of Guntram's younger brother Sigebert.

Guntram (Gontran) 29 November 561 592 Died aged 60. Buried at Saint Marcellus, Chalon-sur-Saône.  • Second son of Chlothar I King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) at Orléans

Sigebert, Chlothar's second surviving son, became king of Austrasia (king of the Franks
Franks
at Reims/Metz).

Sigebert I 29 November 561 575 Murdered at Vitry-en-Artois, aged 40.  • Third son of Chlothar I King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) at Metz

Childebert II, Sigebert's son, inherited Austrasia
Austrasia
from his father and Burgundy
Burgundy
from his uncle. He was succeeded in Austrasia
Austrasia
by his eldest son Theudebert II
Theudebert II
and in Burgundy
Burgundy
by his yonger son Theuderic II.

Childebert II 575 595 Died aged 24.  • Son of Sigebert I  • Adopted son of Guntram

King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) King of Austrasia
Austrasia
and (after 592) Burgundy

Theudebert II, Childebert II's eldest son, reigned as king in Austrasia
Austrasia
but he and his son were murdered. His lands passed to his younger brother Theuderic II, who reunited the realms of Austrasia
Austrasia
and Burgundy
Burgundy
(which had been both held by their father Childebert II).

Theudebert II (Thibert) 595 612 Murdered, aged 26.  • Older son of Childebert II King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) King of Austrasia

Theuderic II, Childebert II's youngest son, inherited Burgundy
Burgundy
from his father and later Austrasia
Austrasia
from his older brother Theudebert II. He was succeeded by his son Sigebert II.

Theuderic II (Thierry) 595 613 Died, aged 26.  • Younger son of Childebert II King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) King of Burgundy
Burgundy
(595-613) and Austrasia
Austrasia
(612-613)

Sigebert II 613 613 Executed, aged 12.  • Son of Theuderic II King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) King of Austrasia
Austrasia
and Burgundy

Chilperic, youngest son of Chlothar I, reigned as king of Neustria (Soissons). The deaths of his older brothers and their descendants resulted in his son and successor Chlothar II
Chlothar II
once again reuniting the Frankish realms.

Chilperic I (Chilpéric) 29 November 561 584 Died aged 45. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  • Youngest son of Chlothar I King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) at Soissons

Chlothar II
Chlothar II
the Great, the Young (Clotaire) 584 18 October 629 Died aged 45. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  • Son of Chilperic I King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) at Soissons King of Neustria
Neustria
(595-639) King of Burgundy
Burgundy
(613-629) King of Austrasia
Austrasia
(613-623)

Following the reunification of the kingdom, Neustria
Neustria
and Burgundy remained under the direct rule of the King of the Franks, while Austrasia
Austrasia
was soon put under the rule of a junior king. The following list restricts itself to the kings ruling in Neustria
Neustria
and Burgundy.

Dagobert I 18 October 629 19 January 639 Died aged 36. Buried at Basilica of St Denis.  • Son of Chlothar II King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Clovis II
Clovis II
the Lazy c. 634 31 October 657 Died aged 23. Buried at Basilica of St Denis.  • Son of Dagobert I King of Neustria
Neustria
and Burgundy (Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)

Chlothar III (Clotaire) 31 October 657 673 Died aged 24. Buried at Basilica of St Denis.  • Son of Clovis II King of Neustria
Neustria
and Burgundy (Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne) King of Austrasia (661–662)

Childeric II (Childéric) 673 675 Died aged 22. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  • Son of Clovis II  • Younger brother of Chlothar III King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Theuderic III (Thierry) 675 691 Died aged 37.  • Son of Clovis II  • Younger brother of Childeric II King of Neustria (Roi de Neustrie)

King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) (687–691)

Clovis IV 691 695 Died aged 13.  • Son of Theuderic III King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Childebert III
Childebert III
the Just 695 23 April 711 Died aged 28. Buried at Church of St Stephen at Choisy-au-Bac, near Compiègne.  • Son of Theuderic III  • Younger brother of Clovis IV King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Dagobert III 23 April 711 715 Died aged 14.  • Son of Childebert III King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Chilperic II (Chilpéric II) 715 13 February 721 Died aged 49. Buried at Noyon.  • Probably son of Childeric II King of Neustria
Neustria
and Burgundy (Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)

King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) (719–721)

Theuderic IV 721 737 Died aged 25.  • Son of Dagobert III King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

The last Merovingian kings, known as the lazy kings (rois fainéants), did not hold any real political power, while the Mayor of the Palace governed instead. When Theuderic IV
Theuderic IV
died in 737, Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel
Charles Martel
left the throne vacant and continued to rule until his own death in 741. His sons Pepin and Carloman briefly restored the Merovingian dynasty
Merovingian dynasty
by raising Childeric III
Childeric III
to the throne in 743. In 751, Pepin deposed Childeric and became King in his place.

Childeric III (Childéric) 743 November 751 Died aged 37.  • Son of Chilperic II
Chilperic II
or of King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
(751–888)[edit] The Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The family consolidated its power in the late 8th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary and becoming the real powers behind the Merovingian kings. In 751, a Carolingian, Pepin the Younger, dethroned the Merovingians and with the consent of the Papacy
Papacy
and the aristocracy, was crowned King of the Franks.[9]

Portrait Name King from King until Death Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Pepin the Short 751 24 September 768

 • Son of Charles Martel
Charles Martel
and Rotrude of Hesbaye, a maternal granddaughter of Theuderic III King of the Franks

Carloman I 24 September 768 4 December 771

 • Son of Pepin King of the Franks

Charles I the Great Charlemagne 24 September 768 28 January 814

 • Son of Pepin King of the Franks Emperor of the Romans

Louis I the Pious 28 January 814 20 June 840

 • Son of Charlemagne King of the Franks Emperor of the Romans

Charles II the Bald 20 June 840 6 October 877

 • Son of Louis I King of the Franks Emperor of the Romans (875–77)

Louis II the Stammerer 6 October 877 10 April 879

 • Son of Charles II King of the Franks

Louis III 10 April 879 5 August 882

 • Son of Louis II King of the Franks

Carloman II 5 August 882 6 December 884

 • Son of Louis II King of the Franks

Charles III the Fat 20 May 885 13 January 888

 • Son of Louis the German  • Cousin of Louis II and Carloman II  • Grandson of Louis I King of the Franks Emperor of the Romans (881–87)

Robertian dynasty (888–898)[edit] Main article: Robertian dynasty The Robertians were Frankish noblemen owing fealty to the Carolingians, and ancestors of the subsequent Capetian dynasty. Odo, Count of Paris, was chosen by the western Franks
Franks
to be their king following the removal of emperor Charles the Fat. He was crowned at Compiègne
Compiègne
in February 888 by Walter, Archbishop of Sens.[10]

Portrait Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Odo of Paris (Eudes) 29 February 888 1 January 898  • Son of Robert the Strong
Robert the Strong
(Robertians)  • Elected king against young Charles III. King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
(893–922)[edit] Charles, the posthumous son of Louis II, was crowned by a faction opposed to the Robertian Odo at Reims
Reims
Cathedral, though he only became the effectual monarch with the death of Odo in 898.[11]

Portrait Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Charles III the Simple 28 January 898 30 June 922  • Posthumous son of Louis II  • Younger half-brother of Louis III and Carloman II King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Robertian dynasty (922–923)[edit]

Portrait Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Robert I 30 June 922 15 June 923  • Son of Robert the Strong
Robert the Strong
(Robertians)  • Younger brother of Odo King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Bosonid dynasty (923–936)[edit] Main article: Bosonid dynasty The Bosonids were a noble family descended from Boso the Elder, their member, Rudolph (Raoul), was elected "King of the Franks" in 923.

Portrait Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Rudolph (Raoul) 13 July 923 14 January 936  • Son of Richard, Duke of Burgundy
Burgundy
(Bosonids)  • Son-in-law of Robert I King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
(936–987)[edit]

Portrait Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Louis IV of Outremer 19 June 936 10 September 954  • Son of Charles III King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Lothair 12 November 954 2 March 986  • Son of Louis IV King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Louis V 8 June 986 22 May 987  • Son of Lothair King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Capetian dynasty
Capetian dynasty
(987–1792)[edit] Main article: Capetian dynasty After the death of Louis V, the son of Hugh the Great and grandson of Robert I, Hugh Capet, was elected by the nobility as king of France. The Capetian Dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. They were direct descendants of the Robertian kings. The cadet branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois and Bourbon. Not listed below are Hugh Magnus, eldest son of Robert II, and Philip of France, eldest son of Louis VI; both were co-kings with their fathers (in accordance with the early Capetian practice whereby kings would crown their heirs in their own lifetimes and share power with the co-king), but predeceased them. Because neither Hugh nor Philip were sole or senior king in their own lifetimes, they are not traditionally listed as Kings of France, and are not given ordinals. Henry VI of England, son of Catherine of Valois, became titular King of France upon his grandfather Charles VI's death in accordance with the Treaty of Troyes
Treaty of Troyes
of 1420; however this was disputed and he is not always regarded as a legitimate king of France. English claims to the French throne actually date from 1328, when Edward III claimed the throne after the death of Charles IV. Other than Henry VI, none had ever had their claim backed by treaty, and his title became contested after 1429, when Charles VII was crowned. Henry himself was crowned by a different faction in 1431, though at the age of 9, he had yet to come of age. The final phase of the Hundred Years War
Hundred Years War
was fought between these competing factions, resulting in a Valois victory at the Battle of Castillon
Battle of Castillon
in 1453, putting an end to any meaningful claims of the English monarchs over the throne of France, though English (and later British) monarchs would continue to use the title "King of France" until 1801. From 21 January 1793 to 8 June 1795, Louis XVI's son Louis-Charles was the titular King of France
King of France
as Louis XVII; in reality, however, he was imprisoned in the Temple throughout this duration, and power was held by the leaders of the Republic. Upon Louis XVII's death, his uncle (Louis XVI's brother) Louis-Stanislas claimed the throne, as Louis XVIII, but only became de facto King of France
King of France
in 1814. Direct Capetians (987–1328)[edit] Main article: House of Capet The main line of descent from Hugh Capet
Hugh Capet
is generally known as the "direct Capetians". This line became extinct in 1328, precipitating a succession crisis known as the Hundred Years War. While there were numerous claimants to succeed, the two best claimants were the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet.

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Hugh Capet 3 July 987 24 October 996  • Grandson of Robert I King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Robert II the Pious, the Wise 24 October 996 20 July 1031  • Son of Hugh Capet King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Henry I (Henri) 20 July 1031 4 August 1060  • Son of Robert II King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Philip I the Amorous (Philippe) 4 August 1060 29 July 1108  • Son of Henry I King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Louis VI the Fat 29 July 1108 1 August 1137  • Son of Philip I King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Louis VII the Young 1 August 1137 18 September 1180  • Son of Louis VI King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Philip II Augustus (Philippe Auguste) 18 September 1180 14 July 1223  • Son of Louis VII King of the Franks (Roi des Francs) King of France (Roi de France)

Louis VIII the Lion 14 July 1223 8 November 1226  • Son of Philip II Augustus King of France (Roi de France)

Louis IX the Saint (Saint Louis) 8 November 1226 25 August 1270  • Son of Louis VIII King of France (Roi de France)

Philip III the Bold (Philippe) 25 August 1270 5 October 1285  • Son of Louis IX King of France (Roi de France)

Philip IV the Fair, the Iron King (Philippe) 5 October 1285 29 November 1314  • Son of Philip III King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre)

Louis X the Quarreller 29 November 1314 5 June 1316  • Son of Philip IV King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre)

John I the Posthumous (Jean) 15 November 1316 20 November 1316  • Son of Louis X King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre)

Philip V the Tall (Philippe) 20 November 1316 3 January 1322  • Son of Philip IV  • Younger brother of Louis X King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre)

Charles IV the Fair 3 January 1322 1 February 1328  • Son of Philip IV  • Younger brother of Louis X and Philip V King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre)

House of Valois
House of Valois
(1328–1589)[edit] Main article: House of Valois The death of the last Direct Capetian precipitated the Hundred Years' War between the House of Valois
House of Valois
and the House of Plantagenet
House of Plantagenet
over control of the French throne.[12] The Valois claimed the right to the succession by male-only primogeniture, having the closest all-male line of descent from a recent French king. They were descended from the third son of Philip III, Charles, Count of Valois. The Plantagenets based their claim on being closer to a more recent French King, Edward III of England
Edward III of England
being a grandson of Philip IV through his mother, Isabella. The two houses fought the Hundred Years War
Hundred Years War
to enforce their claims; the Valois were ultimately successful, and French historiography counts their leaders as rightful kings. One Plantagenet, Henry VI of England, did enjoy de jure control of the French throne under the terms of the Treaty of Troyes, which formed the basis for continued English claims to the throne of France until the 19th century. The Valois line would rule France until the line became extinct in 1589, in the backdrop of the French Wars of Religion. As Navarre did not have a tradition of male-only primogeniture, the Navarrese monarchy became distinct from the French, with Joan II, a daughter of Louis X, inheriting there.

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Philip VI the Fortunate (Philippe) 1 April 1328 22 August 1350  • Grandson of Philip III of France King of France (Roi de France)

John II the Good (Jean) 22 August 1350 8 April 1364  • Son of Philip VI King of France (Roi de France)

Charles V the Wise 8 April 1364 16 September 1380  • Son of John II King of France (Roi de France)

Charles VI the Beloved, the Mad 16 September 1380 21 October 1422  • Son of Charles V King of France (Roi de France)

House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(1422–1453) (disputed)[edit] Main article: House of Lancaster Further information: English claims to the French throne

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Claim Title

Henry VI of England (Henri VI d'Angleterre) 21 October 1422 19 October 1453 By right of his father Henry V of England, who by the Treaty of Troyes became heir and regent of France. Grandson of Charles VI of France. King of France (Roi de France)

House of Valois
House of Valois
(1328–1589)[edit] Main article: House of Valois

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor Title

Charles VII the Victorious, the Well-Served 21 October 1422 22 July 1461  • Son of Charles VI  • Uncle of Henry VI of England King of France. (Roi de France)

Louis XI the Prudent, the Cunning, the Universal Spider 22 July 1461 30 August 1483  • Son of Charles VII King of France (Roi de France)

Charles VIII the Affable 30 August 1483 7 April 1498  • Son of Louis XI King of France (Roi de France)

Louis XII Father of the People 7 April 1498 1 January 1515  • Great-grandson of Charles V  • Second cousin, and by first marriage son-in-law of Louis XI  • By second marriage husband of Anne of Brittany, widow of Charles VIII King of France (Roi de France)

Francis I the Father and Restorer of Letters (François) 1 January 1515 31 March 1547  • Great-great-grandson of Charles V  • First cousin once removed, and by first marriage son-in-law of Louis XII King of France (Roi de France)

Henry II (Henri) 31 March 1547 10 July 1559  • Son of Francis I/Maternal grandson of Louis XII King of France (Roi de France)

Francis II (François) 10 July 1559 5 December 1560  • Son of Henry II King of France (Roi de France)

King of Scots (1558–1560)

Charles IX 5 December 1560 30 May 1574  • Son of Henry II King of France (Roi de France)

Henry III (Henri) 30 May 1574 2 August 1589  • Son of Henry II King of France (Roi de France)

King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1573–1575)

House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(1589–1792)[edit] Main article: House of Bourbon The Valois line looked strong on the death of Henry II, who left four male heirs. His first son, Francis II, died in his minority. His second son, Charles IX, had no legitimate sons to inherit. Following the premature death of his fourth son Hercule François, and the assassination of his third son, the childless Henry III, France was plunged into a succession crisis over which distant cousin of the king would inherit the throne. The best claimant, King Henry III of Navarre, was a Protestant, and thus unacceptable to much of the French nobility. Ultimately, after winning numerous battles in defense of his claim, Henry converted to Catholicism and was crowned king, founding the House of Bourbon. This marked the second time the thrones of Navarre and France were united under one monarch; as different inheritance laws had caused them to become separated during the events of the Hundred Years Wars. The House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
would be overthrown during the French Revolution, replaced by a short-lived republic.

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Henry IV the Green Gallant Good King Henry (Henri) 2 August 1589 14 May 1610  • Tenth generation descendant of Louis IX in the male line  • By first marriage son in law of Henry II, Brother in law of Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre)

Louis XIII the Just 14 May 1610 14 May 1643  • Son of Henry IV King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre)

Louis XIV the Great the Sun King 14 May 1643 1 September 1715  • Son of Louis XIII King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre)

Louis XV the Beloved 1 September 1715 10 May 1774  • Great-grandson of Louis XIV King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre)

Louis XVI the Restorer of French Liberty 10 May 1774 21 September 1792  • Grandson of Louis XV King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre) (1774–1791)

King of the French (Roi des Français) (1791–1792)

Louis XVII (Claimant) 21 January 1793 8 June 1795  • Son of Louis XVI (Disputed) King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre)

House of Bonaparte, First Empire (1804–1814)[edit] Main articles: House of Bonaparte
House of Bonaparte
and First French Empire The French First Republic
French First Republic
lasted from 1792 to 1804, when its First Consul, Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French.

Portrait Coat of arms Name Emperor from Emperor until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Napoleon
Napoleon
I the Great (Napoléon) 18 May 1804 11 April 1814 Husband of a first cousin once removed of Louis XVII. Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français)

Capetian Dynasty
Capetian Dynasty
(1814–1815)[edit] Following the first defeat of Napoleon
Napoleon
and his exile to Elba, the Bourbon monarchy was restored, with Louis XVI's younger brother Louis Stanislas being crowned as Louis XVIII. Louis XVI's son had been considered by monarchists as Louis XVII but he was never crowned and never ruled in his own right before his own death; he is not usually counted among French monarchs, creating a gap in numbering on most traditional lists of French kings. Napoleon
Napoleon
would briefly regain control of the country during his Hundred Days
Hundred Days
rule in 1815. After his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, Napoleon
Napoleon
attempted to abdicate in favor of his son, but the Bourbon Monarchy was re-established yet again, and would continue to rule France until the July Revolution
July Revolution
of 1830 replaced it with a cadet branch, the House of Orleans. House of Bourbon, Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
(1814–1815)[edit] Main article: Bourbon Restoration

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Louis XVIII the Desired 11 April 1814 20 March 1815  • Grandson of Louis XV  • Younger Brother of Louis XVI  • Brother-in-law of Napoleon
Napoleon
I's wife's great-aunt. King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre)

House of Bonaparte, First Empire (Hundred Days, 1815)[edit] Main article: Hundred Days

Portrait Coat of arms Name Emperor from Emperor until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Napoleon
Napoleon
I the Great (Napoléon) 20 March 1815 22 June 1815 Husband of a grandniece of a sister-in law of Louis XVIII Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français)

Napoleon
Napoleon
II the Eaglet (Napoléon) [n 2] 22 June 1815 7 July 1815  • Son of Napoleon
Napoleon
I (Disputed) Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français)

Capetian Dynasty
Capetian Dynasty
(1815–1848)[edit] House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(1815–1830)[edit]

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Louis XVIII the Desired 7 July 1815 16 September 1824  • Grandson of Louis XV  • Younger Brother of Louis XVI King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre)

Charles X 16 September 1824 2 August 1830  • Grandson of Louis XV  • Younger Brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIII King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre)

Louis XIX Antoine 2 August 1830 2 August 1830 (20 minutes)  • Son of Charles X (Disputed) King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre)

Henry V (Henri) 2 August 1830 9 August 1830 (7 days)  • Grandson of Charles X  • Nephew of Louis Antoine (Disputed) King of France
King of France
and of Navarre (Roi de France et de Navarre)

House of Orléans, July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1830–1848)[edit] Main articles: House of Orléans
House of Orléans
and July Monarchy The Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
came to an end with the July Revolution
July Revolution
of 1830, which deposed Charles X and replaced him with Louis-Philippe I, a distant cousin with more liberal politics. The popular monarchy changed the styles and forms of the ancien régime, replacing them with more populist forms (i.e. replacing "King of France" with "King of the French"). Ultimately, it was overthrown as well during the continent-wide Revolutions of 1848, to be replaced by the French Second Republic.

Portrait Coat of arms Name King from King until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Louis-Philippe I the Citizen King 9 August 1830 24 February 1848  • Sixth generation descendant of Louis XIII in the male line  • Fifth cousin of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X King of the French (Roi des Français)

House of Bonaparte, Second Empire (1852–1870)[edit] Main article: Second French Empire The French Second Republic
French Second Republic
lasted from 1848 to 1852, when its president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French. He took the regnal name of Napoleon
Napoleon
III, after his uncle ( Napoleon
Napoleon
I) and his cousin ( Napoleon
Napoleon
II, who was declared but uncrowned as heir to the Imperial throne). Napoleon III
Napoleon III
would later be overthrown during the events of the Franco-Prussian War. He was the last monarch to rule France; thereafter, the country was ruled by a succession of republican governments (see French Third Republic).

Portrait Coat of arms Name Emperor from Emperor until Relationship with predecessor(s) Title

Napoleon
Napoleon
III (Napoléon) 2 December 1852 4 September 1870  • Nephew of Napoleon
Napoleon
I Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français)

Later pretenders[edit] Various pretenders descended from the preceding monarchs have claimed to be the legitimate monarch of France, rejecting the claims of the President of France, and of each other. These groups are:

Legitimist claimants to the throne of France: descendants of the Bourbons, rejecting all heads of state 1792–1814, 1815, and since 1830. Unionists recognized the Orléanist claimant after 1883. Legitimist-Anjou claimants to the throne of France: descendants of Louis XIV, claiming precedence over the House of Orléans
House of Orléans
by virtue of primogeniture Orléanist claimants to the throne of France: descendants of Louis-Phillippe, himself descended from a junior line of the Bourbon dynasty, rejecting all heads of state since 1848. Bonapartist claimants to the throne of France: descendants of Napoleon I and his brothers, rejecting all heads of state 1815–48, and since 1870. English claimaints to the throne of France: Kings of England and later, of Great Britain (renounced by Hanoverian King George III upon union with Ireland in 1800). Jacobite claimants to the throne of France: senior heirs-general of King Edward III of England
Edward III of England
and thus his claim to the French throne, also claiming England, Scotland, and Ireland.

See also[edit]

Kings of France family tree (detailed) French monarchs family tree (simple) Style of the French sovereign British claims to the French throne List of French consorts List of heirs to the French throne

Notes[edit]

^ 'Louis XII, 1499 [...] LVDOVIVS XII FRANCORUM REX MEDILANI DUX [...] Francis I, 1515 [...] FRANCISCUS REX FRANCORUM PRIMUS DOMINATOR ELVETIORUM [...] Henri II, 1550? [...] HENRICVS II FRANCORVM REX' [4] ^ From 22 June to 7 July 1815, Bonapartists considered Napoleon
Napoleon
II as the legitimate heir to the throne, his father having abdicated in his favor. However, throughout this period he resided in Austria, with his mother. Louis XVIII was reinstalled as king on 7 July.

References[edit]

^ Sullivan, William. Historical causes and effects, from the fall of the Roman empire, 476, to the reformation, 1517. p. 213. Grimshaw, William. The history of France from the foundation of the monarchy to the death of Louis XVI. p. 11 ^ Claudio Rendina & Paul McCusker, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, (New York : 2002), p. 145. ^ Deploige, Jeroen; Deneckere, Gita, eds. (2006). Mystifying the Monarch: Studies on Discourse, Power, and History. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press. p. 182. ISBN 9789053567678.  ^ Potter, David (2008). Renaissance France at War: Armies, Culture and Society, C.1480–1560. Warfare in History Series. 28. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. viii. ISBN 9781843834052. Retrieved 2012-11-27.  ^ Deploige, Jeroen; Deneckere, Gita, eds. (2006). Mystifying the Monarch: Studies on Discourse, Power, and History. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press. p. 182. ISBN 9789053567678.  ^ Le Couronnement de Napoléon Premier, Empereur des Français. Paris, France: Guerin. 1806. p. 1.  ^ Pascal, Adrien (1853). Histoire de Napoléon III, Empereur des Français. Paris, France: Barbier. p. 359.  ^ Brown, Peter (2003). The Rise of Western Christendom. Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. p. 137.  ^ Babcock, Philip (1993). Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. MA, USA: Merriam-Webster. p. 341.  ^ Gwatking, H. M.; Whitney, J. P.; et al. (1930). Cambridge Medieval History: Germany and the Western Empire. Volume III. London: Cambridge University Press.  ^ Parisse, Michael (2005). "Lotharingia". In Reuter, T. The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 900–c. 1024. III. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 313–315.  ^ Knecht, Robert (2004). The Valois: Kings of France 1328–1422. NY, USA: Hambledon Continuum. pp. ix–xii. ISBN 1852854200. 

Hansen, M.H., ed. (1967). Kings, Rulers, and Statesmen. NY, USA: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 103–107. [unreliable source?]

v t e

Heads of state of France

Styled President of the Republic after 1871, except from 1940 to 1944 (Chief of State) and 1944 to 1947 (Chairman of the Provisional Government). Detailed monarch family tree Simplified monarch family tree

Merovingians
Merovingians
(486–751)

Clovis I Childebert I Chlothar I Charibert I Guntram Chilperic I Sigebert I Childebert II Chlothar II Dagobert I Sigebert II Clovis II Chlothar III Childeric II Theuderic III Clovis IV Childebert III Dagobert III Chilperic II Chlothar IV Theuderic IV Childeric III

Carolingians, Robertians and Bosonids (751–987)

Pepin the Short Carloman I Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(Charles I) Louis I Charles II Louis II Louis III Carloman II Charles the Fat OdoR Charles III Robert IR RudolphB Louis IV Lothair Louis V

House of Capet
House of Capet
(987–1328)

Hugh Capet Robert II Henry I Philip I Louis VI Louis VII Philip II Louis VIII Louis IX Philip III Philip IV Louis X John I Philip V Charles IV

House of Valois
House of Valois
(1328–1589)

Philip VI John II Charles V Charles VI Charles VII Louis XI Charles VIII Louis XII Francis I Henry II Francis II Charles IX Henry III

House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(1422–1453)

Henry VI of England

House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(1589–1792)

Henry IV Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis XV Louis XVI Louis XVII

First Republic (1792–1804)

National Convention Directory Consulate

First Empire (1804–1815)

Napoleon
Napoleon
I Napoleon
Napoleon
II

Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
(1815–1830)

Louis XVIII Charles X Louis XIX Henry V

July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1830–1848)

Louis Philippe I

Second Republic (1848–1852)

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure Executive Commission Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte

Second Empire (1852–1870)

Napoleon
Napoleon
III

Government of National Defense (1870–1871)

Louis-Jules Trochu

Third Republic (1871–1940)

Adolphe Thiers Patrice de Mac-Mahon Jules Armand Dufaure* Jules Grévy Maurice Rouvier* Sadi Carnot Charles Dupuy* Jean Casimir-Perier Charles Dupuy* Félix Faure Charles Dupuy* Émile Loubet Armand Fallières Raymond Poincaré Paul Deschanel Alexandre Millerand Frédéric François-Marsal* Gaston Doumergue Paul Doumer André Tardieu* Albert Lebrun

Vichy France
Vichy France
(1940–1944)

Philippe Pétain

Provisional Government (1944–1947)

Charles de Gaulle Félix Gouin Georges Bidault Vincent Auriol Léon Blum

Fourth Republic (1947–1958)

Vincent Auriol René Coty

Fifth Republic (1958–present)

Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher* Georges Pompidou Alain Poher* Valéry Giscard d'Estaing François Mitterrand Jacques Chirac Nicolas Sarkozy François Hollande Emmanuel Macron

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk*. Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before be

.