HOME
ListMoto - Khwarazmian Dynasty


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i)

The Khwarazmian dynasty
Khwarazmian dynasty
(/kwəˈræzmiən/;[4] also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from (Persian: خوارزمشاهیان‎, translit. Khwārazmshāhiyān "Kings of Khwarezmia") was a Persianate[5][6][7] Sunni Muslim
Sunni Muslim
dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin.[8][9] The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran
Iran
during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs[10] and Qara-Khitan,[11] and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia
Khwarezmia
in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah
Shah
of Khwarezm.[12]

History of the Turkic peoples Pre-14th century

Turkic Khaganate
Turkic Khaganate
552–744

  Western Turkic

  Eastern Turkic

Khazar Khaganate 618–1048

Xueyantuo
Xueyantuo
628–646

Great Bulgaria 632–668

  Danube Bulgaria

  Volga Bulgaria

Kangar union
Kangar union
659–750

Turk Shahi
Turk Shahi
665–850

Turgesh
Turgesh
Khaganate 699–766

Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur Khaganate
744–840

Karluk Yabgu State 756–940

Kara-Khanid Khanate
Kara-Khanid Khanate
840–1212

  Western Kara-Khanid

  Eastern Kara-Khanid

Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom
Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom
848–1036

Qocho
Qocho
856–1335

Pecheneg Khanates 860–1091 Kimek confederation 743–1035

Cumania 1067–1239 Oghuz Yabgu State 750–1055

Ghaznavid Empire
Empire
963–1186

Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
1037–1194

  Sultanate of Rum

Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century

Khwarazmian Empire
Empire
1077–1231

Naiman Khanate –1204

Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266

Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
1206–1526

  Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty

  Khalji dynasty

  Tughlaq dynasty

Golden Horde
Golden Horde
[13][14][15] 1240s–1502

Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517

  Bahri dynasty

  Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1299–1923

Other Turkic dynasties 

in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynasty

This box:

view talk edit

Part of a series on the

History of Afghanistan

Timeline

Ancient

Indus Valley Civilisation 2200–1800 BC

Oxus civilization 2100–1800 BC

Aryans 1700–700 BC

Median Empire 728–550 BC

Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BC

Seleucid Empire 330–150 BC

Maurya Empire 305–180 BC

Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 256–125 BC

Parthian Empire 247 BC–224 AD

Indo-Greek Kingdom 180–130 BC

Indo-Scythian Kingdom 155–80? BC

Kushan Empire 135 BC – 248 AD

Indo-Parthian Kingdom 20 BC – 50? AD

Sasanian Empire 230–651

Kidarite Kingdom 320–465

Alchon Huns 380–560

Hephthalite Empire 410–557

Nezak Huns 484–711

Medieval

Kabul Shahi 565–879

Principality of Chaghaniyan 7th–8th centuries

Rashidun Caliphate 652–661

Umayyads 661–750

Abbasids 750–821

Tahirids 821–873

Saffarids 863–900

Samanids 875–999

Ghaznavids 963–1187

Ghurids before 879–1215

Seljuks 1037–1194

Khwarezmids 1215–1231

Qarlughids 1224–1266

Ilkhanate 1258–1353

Chagatai Khanate 1225–1370

Khaljis 1290–1320

Karts 1245–1381

Timurids 1370–1507

Arghuns 1479–1522

Modern

Mughals 1501–1738

Safavids 1510–1709

Hotak dynasty 1709–1738

Afsharid dynasty 1738–1747

Durrani Empire 1747–1826

Emirate of Afghanistan 1826–1919

Kingdom of Afghanistan 1919–1973

Republic of Afghanistan 1973–1978

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan 1978–1992

Islamic State of Afghanistan 1992–2001

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 1996–2004

Interim/Transitional Administration 2001–2004

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since 2004

Book Category Portal

v t e

History of Greater Iran

Pre-Islamic BCE / BC

Prehistory

Kura–Araxes culture c. 3400 – c. 2000

Proto-Elamite
Proto-Elamite
civilization 3200–2800

Elamite dynasties 2800–550

Jiroft culture

Mannaeans

Lullubi

Gutians

Cyrtian

Corduene

Bactria–Margiana Complex 2200–1700

Kingdom of Mannai 10th–7th century

Neo-Assyrian Empire 911–609

Urartu 860–590

Median Empire 728–550

Scythian Kingdom 652–625

Achaemenid Empire 550–330

Ancient kingdom of Armenia 331 BCE – 428 CE

Seleucid Empire 330–150

Caucasian Iberia c. 302 BCE – 580 CE

Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 250–125

Parthian Empire 248 BCE–224 CE

Caucasian Albania 2nd century BCE – 8th century CE

Roman Empire 27 BCE – 330 CE

CE / AD

Kushan Empire 30–275

Sasanian Empire 224–651

Afrighid dynasty 305–995

Hephthalite Empire 425–557

Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi
kingdom 565–879

Dabuyid dynasty 642–760

Bagratid Armenia 880s – 1045

Alania 8th/9th century – 1238 / 9

Kingdom of Georgia 1008–1490

Islamic

Patriarchal Caliphate 637–651

Umayyad Caliphate 661–750

Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258

Shirvanshah 799–1607

Tahirid dynasty 821–873

Dulafid dynasty 840–897

Zaydis of Tabaristan 864–928

Saffarid dynasty 861–1003

Samanid Empire 819–999

Sajid dynasty 889/90–929

Ziyarid dynasty 928–1043

Buyid dynasty 934–1055

Sallarid dynasty 941–1062

Ghaznavid Empire 975–1187

Ghurid dynasty pre-879 – 1215

Seljuk Empire 1037–1194

Khwarazmian dynasty 1077–1231

Sultanate of Rum 1077–1307

Salghurids 1148–1282

Ilkhanate 1256–1353

Kartids dynasty 1231–1389

Ottoman Empire 1299–1923

Muzaffarid dynasty 1314–1393

Chupanid dynasty 1337–1357

Jalairid Sultanate 1339–1432

Timurid Empire 1370–1507

Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans 1407–1468

Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
Turcomans 1378–1508

Safavid Empire 1501–1722

Mughal Empire 1526–1857

Hotak dynasty 1722–1729

Afsharid dynasty 1736–1750

Zand dynasty 1750–1794

Durrani Empire 1794–1826

Qajar dynasty 1794–1925

v t e

Contents

1 History 2 Mongol
Mongol
invasion and collapse 3 Mercenaries 4 Rulers of Khwarezm

4.1 Mamunid Governors of Khwarezm 4.2 Altun-Tashid Governors of Khwarezm 4.3 Non-dynastic Governor 4.4 Governor Anushtigin 4.5 Non-dynastic Governor 4.6 Anushtiginid Shahs

5 Family tree of Anushtiginid Dynasty 6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 Further reading

History See also: Timeline of the Turks (500–1300) The date of the founding of the Khwarazmian dynasty
Khwarazmian dynasty
remains debatable. During a revolt in 1017, Khwarezmian rebels murdered Abu'l-Abbas Ma'mun and his wife, Hurra-ji, sister of the Ghaznavid sultan Mahmud.[16] In response, Mahmud invaded and occupied the region of Khwarezm, which included Nasa and the ribat of Farawa.[17] As a result, Khwarezm
Khwarezm
became a province of the Ghaznavid Empire
Empire
from 1017 to 1034. In 1077 the governorship of the province, which since 1042/1043 belonged to the Seljuqs, fell into the hands of Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkic slave of the Seljuq sultan. In 1141, the Seljuq Sultan Ahmed Sanjar
Ahmed Sanjar
was defeated by the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
at the battle of Qatwan, and Anush Tigin's grandson Ala ad-Din Atsiz became a vassal to Yelü Dashi
Yelü Dashi
of the Qara Khitan.[18] Sultan Ahmed Sanjar
Ahmed Sanjar
died in 1156. As the Seljuk state fell into chaos, the Khwarezm-Shahs expanded their territories southward. In 1194, the last Sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire, Toghrul III, was defeated and killed by the Khwarezm
Khwarezm
ruler Ala ad-Din Tekish, who conquered parts of Khorasan and western Iran. In 1200, Tekish died and was succeeded by his son, Ala ad-Din Muhammad, who initiated a conflict with the Ghurids
Ghurids
and was defeated by them at Amu Darya (1204).[19] Following the sack of Khwarizm, Muhammad appealed for aid from his suzerain, the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
who sent him an army.[20] With this reinforcement, Muhammad won a victory over the Ghorids at Hezarasp (1204) and forced them out of Khwarizm. Ala ad-Din Muhammad's alliance with his suzerain was short-lived. He again initiated a conflict, this time with the aid of the Kara-Khanids, and defeated a Qara-Khitai army at Talas (1210),[21] but allowed Samarkand
Samarkand
(1210) to be occupied by the Qara-Khitai.[22] He overthrew the Karakhanids
Karakhanids
(1212)[23] and Ghurids
Ghurids
(1215). In 1212, he shifted his capital from Gurganj to Samarkand. Thus incorporating nearly the whole of Transoxania[citation needed] and present-day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
into his empire, which after further conquests in western Persia
Persia
(by 1217) stretched from the Syr Darya
Syr Darya
to the Zagros Mountains, and from the northern parts of the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
to the Caspian Sea. By 1218, the empire had a population of 5 million people.[24] Mongol
Mongol
invasion and collapse Main article: Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Khwarezmia
Khwarezmia
and Eastern Iran In 1218, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
sent a trade mission to the state, but at the town of Otrar
Otrar
the governor, suspecting the Khan's ambassadors to be spies, confiscated their goods and executed them. Genghis Khan demanded reparations, which the Shah
Shah
refused to pay. Genghis retaliated with a force of 200,000 men, launching a multi-pronged invasion. In February 1220 the Mongolian army crossed the Syr Darya. The Mongols stormed Bukhara, Gurganj and the Khwarezmid capital Samarkand. The Shah
Shah
fled and died some weeks later on an island in the Caspian Sea. The son of Ala ad-Din Muhammad, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
became the new Sultan (he rejected the title Shah). He attempted to flee to India, but the Mongols caught up with him before he got there, and he was defeated at the Battle of Indus. He escaped and sought asylum in the Sultanate of Delhi. Iltumish
Iltumish
however denied this to him in deference to the relationship with the Abbasid caliphs. Returning to Persia, he gathered an army and re-established a kingdom. He never consolidated his power, however, spending the rest of his days struggling against the Mongols, the Seljuks of Rum, and pretenders to his own throne. He lost his power over Persia
Persia
in a battle against the Mongols in the Alborz
Alborz
Mountains. Escaping to the Caucasus, he captured Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in 1225, setting up his capital at Tabriz. In 1226 he attacked Georgia and sacked Tbilisi. Following on through the Armenian highlands he clashed with the Ayyubids, capturing the town Ahlat
Ahlat
along the western shores of the Lake Van, who sought the aid of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. Sultan Kayqubad I
Kayqubad I
defeated him at Arzinjan on the Upper Euphrates
Euphrates
at the Battle of Yassıçemen in 1230. He escaped to Diyarbakir, while the Mongols conquered Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in the ensuing confusion. He was murdered in 1231 by Kurdish highwaymen.[25] Mercenaries

Eurasia
Eurasia
c. 1200, on the eve of the Mongol
Mongol
invasions.

Though the Mongols had destroyed the Khwarezmian Empire
Empire
in 1220, many Khwarezmians survived by working as mercenaries in northern Iraq. Sultan Jalal ad-Din's followers remained loyal to him even after his death in 1231, and raided the Seljuk lands of Jazira and Syria
Syria
for the next several years, calling themselves the Khwarezmiyya. Ayyubid Sultan as-Salih Ayyub, in Egypt, later hired their services against his uncle as-Salih Ismail. The Khwarezmiyya, heading south from Iraq towards Egypt, invaded Crusader Christian-held Jerusalem
Jerusalem
along the way, on July 11, 1244. The city's citadel, the Tower of David, surrendered on August 23, the Crusader Christian population of the city was expelled. This triggered a call from Europe for the Seventh Crusade, but the Crusaders would never again be successful in retaking Jerusalem. After being conquered by the Khwarezmian forces, the city stayed under Muslim control until 1917, when it was taken from the Ottomans by the British. After taking Jerusalem, the Khwarezmian forces continued south, and on October 17 fought on the side of the Ayyubids
Ayyubids
at the Battle of Harbiyah, northeast of Gaza, killing the remains of the Crusader Christian army there, some 1,200 knights. It was the largest battle involving the crusaders since the Battle of the Horns of Hattin in 1187.[26] The remains of the Muslim Khwarezmians served in Egypt as Mamluk mercenaries until they were finally beaten by al-Mansur Ibrahim some years later. Khwarizmi war captives assimilated into the Mongols, forming the modern Mongolian clan Sartuul. Rulers of Khwarezm Mamunid Governors of Khwarezm

Titular Name Personal Name Reign

Amir امیر‬ Abu'l-Ali Ma'mun ibn Muhammad ابو علی المأمون ابن محمد‬ 995–997 C.E.

Amir امیر‬ Abu'l-Hasan Ali ibn Ma'mun ابو الحسن علی ابن المأمون‬ 997–1008/9 C.E.

Amir امیر‬ Abu'l-Abbas Ma'mun ibn Ma'mun ابو العباس مأمون ابن المأمون‬ 1008/9–1017 C.E.

Amir امیر‬ Abu'l-Harith Muhammad ibn Ali ابو الحارث محمد ابن علی‬ 1017 C.E.

Absorbed into the Ghaznavid Empire
Empire
by Mahmud ibn Sebuktigin;he made Altun Tash its governor.

Blue Row Signifies vassalage of Samanid Empire.

Green Rows Signify vassalage of Ghaznavid Empire.

Altun-Tashid Governors of Khwarezm

Titular Name Personal Name Reign

Amir امیر‬ Abu Sa'id Altun-Tash ابو سعید التون طاش‬ 1017–1032 C.E.

Amir امیر‬ Harun ibn Altun-Tash ہارون ابن التون طاش‬ 1032–1034 C.E.

Amir امیر‬ Ismail Khandan ibn Altun-Tash اسماعیل خاندان ابن التون طاش‬ 1034–1041 C.E.

Re-conquest by Ghaznavid Empire
Empire
under Mas'ud ibn Mahmud ibn Sebuktigin who sent his general Shah
Shah
Malik, the Oghuz Turk

Green Rows Signify Ghaznavid Empire
Empire
rule.

Non-dynastic Governor

Titular Name Personal Name Reign

Amir امیر‬ Abul-Fawaris أبو الفوارس‬ Shah-Malik ibn Ali شاہ ملک ابن علی‬ 1041–1042 C.E.

Conquest of Khwarezm
Khwarezm
by Tughril
Tughril
Beg and Chaghri
Chaghri
Beg of the Seljuq Empire.

Green Row Signifies rule of Ghaznavid Empire.

Governor Anushtigin

Title Personal Name Reign

Shihna ؟‬ Anush Tigin Gharchai أنوش طگین غارچائی‬ 1077–1097 C.E.

Purple Row Signifies rule of Seljuq Empire.

Non-dynastic Governor

Title Personal Name Reign

Shihna ؟‬ Ekinchi ibn Qochqar ایکینچی بن قوچار‬ 1097 C.E.

Purple Row Signifies rule of Seljuq Empire.

Anushtiginid Shahs

Titular Name Personal Name Reign

Shah شاہ‬ Qutb ad-Din Abul-Fath قطب الدین ابو الفتح‬ Arslan Tigin Muhammad ibn Anush Tigin ارسلان طگین محمد ابن أنوش طگین ‬ 1097–1127/28 C.E.

Shah شاہ‬ Ala al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Muzaffar علاء الدنیا و الدین، ابو المظفر‬ Qizil Arslan Atsiz ibn Muhammad قزل ارسلان أتسز بن محمد‬ 1127 - 1156 C.E.

Shah شاہ‬ Taj al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Fath تاج الدنیا و الدین، ابو الفتح‬ Il-Arslan
Il-Arslan
ibn Qizil Arslan Atsiz ایل ارسلان بن قزل ارسلان أتسز ‬

1156–1172 C.E.

Shah شاہ‬ Ala al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Muzaffar علاء الدنیا و الدین، ابو المظفر‬ Tekish ibn Il-Arslan تکش بن ایل ارسلان ‬

1172–1200 C.E.

Shah شاہ‬ Jalal al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Qasim جلال الدنیا و الدین، ابو القاسم‬ Mahmud Sultan Shah
Shah
ibn Il-Arslan محمود سلطان شاہ ابن ایل ارسلان‬ Initially under regency of Turkan Khatun, his mother. He was a younger half-brother and rival of Tekish in Upper Khurasan 1172–1193 C.E.

Shah شاہ‬ Ala al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Fath علاء الدنیا و الدین، ابو الفتح‬ Muhammad ibn Tekish محمد بن تکش‬ 1200–1220 C.E.

Genghis Khan چنگیز خان‬ Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
invades Khwarezmia
Khwarezmia
forcing Muhammad ibn Tekish to flee along with his son to an island in the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
where he would die of pleurisy.

Jalal al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Muzaffar جلال الدنیا و الدین، ابو المظفر‬ Mingburnu ibn Muhammad مِنکُبِرنی ابن محمد‬ 1220–1231 C.E.

Establishment of Mongol
Mongol
Ilkhanate

Purple Row Signifies Seljuq Empire
Seljuq Empire
rule.

Pink Row Signifies suzerainty shifting between Qara-Khitai & Seljuq Empire

Orange Rows Signify suzerainty of Qara-Khitai

Family tree of Anushtiginid Dynasty

v t e

Anushtiginid Dynasty family tree

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anushtigin Gharchai (r. 1077-1097) Shihna of Khwarezm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad I (r. 1097-1127) Shah
Shah
of Khwarezm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inaltigin Prince

 

Atsiz (r. 1127-1156) Shah
Shah
of Khwarezm

 

Yusuf Prince

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Atliq Prince

 

Il-Arslan (r. 1156-1172) Shah
Shah
of Khwarezm

 

Hitan-Khan Prince

 

Suleiman-Shah Prince

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tekish (r. 1172-1200) Shah
Shah
of Khwarezm

 

Sultan-Shah (r. 1172-1193) Shah
Shah
of Khwarezm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yunus-Khan Prince

 

Ali-Shah (b. ? -d. 1215) Prince

 

Shah-Khatun Princess

 

Muhammad II (r. 1200-1220) Shah
Shah
of Khwarezm

 

Toghan-Toghdi Prince

 

Malik-Shah (b. ? -d. 1197) Prince

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Erboz-Khan Prince

 

Hindu-Khan Prince

 

Arslan-Khan Prince

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ak-Shah (b. ? -k. 1221) Prince

 

Uzlaq-Shah (b. ? -k. 1221) Crown prince

 

Khan-Sultan Princess

 

Qursanjdi (b. ? -k. 1222) Sultan of Persian Iraq

 

Manguberdi (r. 1220-1231) Sultan of Khwarezm

 

Pir-Shah (b. ? -k. 1229) Sultan of Kirman

 

Kumakhti-Shah Prince

 

Yahya Hur-Shah (b. ? -k. 1221) Prince

 

Aysi Khatun Princess

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Qutuz (r. 1259-1260) Sultan of Egypt

 

 

 

 

 

Manqatuy-Shah Prince

 

Qaymaqar-Shah Prince

Notes

Ziya Bunyadov. In Russian, Государство Хорезмшахов-Ануштегинидов. 1097-1231. (State of the Khwarezmshahs-Anushtiginids. 1097-1231). Page 142. PDF

See also

Full list of Persian Kingdoms Khwarezmia List of Sunni Muslim
Sunni Muslim
dynasties

Notes and references

^ Kathryn Babayan, Mystics, monarchs, and messiahs: cultural landscapes of early modern Iran, (Harvard Center for Middle Eastern Studies, 2003), 14. ^ Bobodzhan Gafurovich Gafurov, Central Asia:Pre-Historic to Pre-Modern Times, Vol.2, (Shipra Publications, 1989), 359. ^ Rein Taagepera
Rein Taagepera
(September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 497. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. Retrieved 16 September 2016.  ^ "Khwarazmian: definition". Merriam Webster. n.d. Retrieved 21 October 2010.  ^ C. E. Bosworth: KHWARAZMSHAHS i. Descendants of the line of Anuštigin. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." ^ Homa Katouzian, "Iranian history and politics", Published by Routledge, 2003. pg 128: "Indeed, since the formation of the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
state in the tenth century until the fall of Qajars at the beginning of the twentieth century, most parts of the Iranian cultural regions were ruled by Turkic-speaking dynasties most of the time. At the same time, the official language was Persian, the court literature was in Persian, and most of the chancellors, ministers, and mandarins were Persian speakers of the highest learning and ability" ^ "Persian Prose Literature." World Eras. 2002. HighBeam Research. (September 3, 2012);"Princes, although they were often tutored in Arabic and religious subjects, frequently did not feel as comfortable with the Arabic language and preferred literature in Persian, which was either their mother tongue—as in the case of dynasties such as the Saffarids (861–1003), Samanids (873–1005), and Buyids (945–1055)—or was a preferred lingua franca for them—as with the later Turkish dynasties such as the Ghaznawids (977–1187) and Saljuks (1037–1194)". [1] ^ Bosworth in Camb. Hist. of Iran, Vol. V, pp. 66 & 93; B.G. Gafurov & D. Kaushik, "Central Asia: Pre-Historic to Pre-Modern Times"; Delhi, 2005; ISBN 81-7541-246-1 ^ C. E. Bosworth, "CHORASMIA ii. In Islamic times" in: Encyclopaedia Iranica (reference to Turkish scholar Kafesoğlu), v, p. 140, Online Edition: "The governors were often Turkish slave commanders of the Saljuqs; one of them was Anūštigin Ḡaṛčaʾī, whose son Qoṭb-al-Dīn Moḥammad began in 490/1097 what became in effect a hereditary and largely independent line of ḵǰᵛārazmšāhs." (LINK) ^ Rene Grousset, The Empire
Empire
of the Steppes:A History of Central Asia, Transl. Naomi Walford, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 159. ^ Biran, Michel, The Empire
Empire
of the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
in Eurasian history, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 44. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty", (LINK) ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364.  ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280.  ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162.  ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids:994-1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 237. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids:994-1040, 237. ^ Biran, Michel, The Empire
Empire
of the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
in Eurasian History, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 44. ^ Rene, Grousset, The Empire
Empire
of the Steppes:A History of Central Asia, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 168. ^ Rene, Grousset, 168. ^ Rene, Grousset, 169. ^ Rene, Grousset, 234. ^ Rene, Grousset, 237. ^ John Man, "Genghis Khan: Life, Death, and Resurrection", Feb. 6 2007. Page 180. ^ http://persian.packhum.org/persian/pf?file=90001012&ct=107&rqs=68&rqs=491&rqs=893 ^ Riley-Smith The Crusades, p. 191

v t e

Empires

Ancient

Akkadian Egyptian Assyrian Babylonian Carthaginian Chinese

Qin Han Jin Northern Wei Tang

Hellenistic

Macedonian Seleucid

Hittite Indian

Nanda Maurya Satavahana Shunga Gupta Harsha

Iranian

Elamite Median Achaemenid Parthian Sasanian

Kushan Mongol

Xianbei Xiongnu

Roman

Western Eastern

Teotihuacan

Post-classical

Arab

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Fatimid Córdoba

Aragonese Angevin Aztec Benin Bornu Bruneian Bulgarian

First Second

Byzantine

Nicaea Trebizond

Carolingian Chinese

Sui Tang Song Yuan

Ethiopian

Zagwe Solomonic

Georgian Hunnic Inca Indian

Chola Gurjara-Pratihara Pala Eastern Ganga dynasty Delhi Vijayanagara

Iranian

Samanid

Kanem Khmer Latin Majapahit Malaccan Mali Mongol

Yuan Golden Horde Chagatai Khanate Ilkhanate

Moroccan

Idrisid Almoravid Almohad Marinid

North Sea Oyo Roman Serbian Somali

Ajuran Ifatite Adalite Mogadishan Warsangali

Songhai Srivijaya Tibetan Turko-Persian

Ghaznavid Great Seljuk Khwarezmian Timurid

Vietnamese

Ly Tran Le

Wagadou

Modern

Ashanti Austrian Austro-Hungarian Brazilian Central African Chinese

Ming Qing China Manchukuo

Ethiopian French

First Second

German

First/Old Reich Second Reich Third Reich

Haitian

First Second

Indian

Maratha Sikh Mughal British Raj

Iranian

Safavid Afsharid

Japanese Johor Korean Mexican

First Second

Moroccan

Saadi Alaouite

Russian USSR Somali

Gobroon Majeerteen Hobyo Dervish

Swedish Tongan Turkish

Ottoman Karaman Ramazan

Vietnamese

Tay Son Nguyen Vietnam

Colonial

American Belgian British

English

Danish Dutch French German Italian Japanese Omani Norwegian Portuguese Spanish Swedish

Lists

Empires

largest

ancient great powers medieval great powers modern great powers

Further reading

M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India
India
and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth, member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN&#

.

Time at 25407602.833333, Busy percent: 30
***************** NOT Too Busy at 25407602.833333 3../logs/periodic-service_log.txt
1440 = task['interval'];
25408741.35 = task['next-exec'];
25407301.35 = task['last-exec'];
daily-work.php = task['exec'];
25407602.833333 Time.

10080 = task['interval'];
25415941.3 = task['next-exec'];
25405861.3 = task['last-exec'];
weekly-work.php = task['exec'];
25407602.833333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25408741.833333 = task['next-exec'];
25407301.833333 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicStats.php = task['exec'];
25407602.833333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25408741.85 = task['next-exec'];
25407301.85 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicBuild.php = task['exec'];
25407602.833333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25408741.9 = task['next-exec'];
25407301.9 = task['last-exec'];
cleanup.php = task['exec'];
25407602.833333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25408741.916667 = task['next-exec'];
25407301.916667 = task['last-exec'];
build-sitemap-xml.php = task['exec'];
25407602.833333 Time.