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Khakas (Khakas: Хакас тілі, Xakas tili) is a Turkic language spoken by the Khakas people, who mainly live in the southwestern Siberian Khakas Republic, or Khakassia, in Russia. The Khakas number 73,000, of whom 42,000 speak the Khakas language, most of whom are bilingual in Russian.[6] Traditionally, the Khakas language is divided into several closely related dialects, which take their names from the different tribes: Sagay (ru), Kacha (ru), Koybal, Beltir, and Kyzyl. In fact, these names represent former administrative units rather than tribal or linguistic groups. The people speaking all these dialects simply referred to themselves as Tadar (i.e. Tatar).

Contents

1 History and documentation 2 Classification 3 Phonology 4 Orthography 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

History and documentation[edit] The people who speak the Fuyu Kyrgyz language
Fuyu Kyrgyz language
originated in the Yenisei region of Siberia
Siberia
but were relocated into the Dzungar Khanate by the Dzungars, and then the Qing moved them from Dzungaria
Dzungaria
to northeastern China
China
in 1761, and the name may be due to the survival of a common tribal name.[7][8] The Yenisei Kirghiz were made to pay tribute in a treaty concluded between the Dzungars
Dzungars
and Russians in 1635.[9] Sibe Bannermen were stationed in Dzungaria
Dzungaria
while Northeastern China
China
(Manchuria) was where some of the remaining Öelet Oirats were deported to.[10] The Nonni basin was where Oirat Öelet deportees were settled. The Yenisei Kirghiz were deported along with the Öelet.[11] Chinese and Oirat replaced Oirat and Kirghiz during Manchukuo as the dual languages of the Nonni-based Yenisei Kirghiz.[12] The present-day Kyrgyz people
Kyrgyz people
originally lived in the same area that the speakers of Fuyu Kyrgyz at first dwelled within modern-day Russia. These Kyrgyz were known as the Yenisei Kyrgyz. It is now spoken in northeastern China's Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
province, in and around Fuyu County, Qiqihar (300 km northwest of Harbin) by a small number of passive speakers who are classified as Kyrgyz nationality.[13] The first major recordings of the Khakas language originate from the middle of the 19th century. The Finnish linguist Matthias Castrén, who travelled through northern and Central Asia between 1845–1849, wrote a treatise on the Koybal dialect, and recorded an epic. Wilhelm Radloff traveled the southern Siberian region extensively between 1859 and 1870. The result of his research was, among others, published in his four-volume dictionary, and in his ten-volume series of Turkic texts. The second volume contains his Khakas materials, which were provided with a German translation. The ninth volume, provided with a Russian translation, was prepared by Radloff's student Katanov, who was a Sagay himself, and contains further Khakas materials. The Khakas literary language, which was developed only after the Russian Revolution of 1917, is based on the central dialects Sagay and Kacha; the Beltir dialect has largely been assimilated by Sagay, and the Koybal dialect by Kacha. In 1924, a Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet was devised, which was replaced by a Latin alphabet in 1929, and by a new Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet in 1939. In 2012, an Enduring Voices expedition documented the "Xyzyl (pronounced hizzle) language from the Republic of Khakassia. Officially considered a dialect of Khakas, its speakers regard Xyzyl as a separate language of its own.[14] Classification[edit] The Khakas language is part of the Northeastern (Siberian) Turkic languages, which includes Shor, Chulym, Tuvan, Tofa, Sakha (Yakut), and Dolgan. It has also been part of a wider language area covering the Southern Samoyedic languages
Samoyedic languages
Kamassian and Mator. A distinctive feature that these languages share with Khakas and Shor is a process of nasal assimilation, whereby a word-initial palatal stop (in all of these languages from an earlier palatal approximant *j) develops into an alveolar nasal /n/ or a palatal nasal /ɲ/, when followed by another word-internal nasal consonant.[15] Phonology[edit]

Khakas vowels[16]

Front Central Back

Close и [i] ии [iː] ӱ [y] ӱӱ [yː] ы [ɨ] ыы [ɨː] у [u] уу [uː]

Mid e [e] ee [eː] ö [ø] öö [øː]

o [o] oo [oː]

Open

a [a] aa [aː]

Khakas consonants[16]

Labial Dental Lateral Palatal Velar

Plosive voiceless п [p] т [t]

к [k]

voiced б [b] д [d]

г [ɡ]

Fricative voiceless ф [f] c [s]

ш [ʃ] x [x]

voiced в [v] з [z]

ж [ʒ] ғ [ɣ]

Affricate voiceless

ч [tʃ]

voiced

ӌ [dʒ]

Nasal м [m] н [n]

ң [ŋ]

Liquid

p [r] л [l]

Approximant

й [j]

Orthography[edit] Latin alphabet:

A a B b C c Ç ç D d Ə ə F f G g

Ƣ ƣ I i Į
Į
į J j K k L l M m N n

Ņ
Ņ
ņ O o Ɵ ɵ P p R r S s Ş ş T t

U u V v X x Y y Z z Ƶ ƶ Ь ь

Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet:

А а Б б В в Г г Ғ ғ Д д Е е Ё ё

Ж ж З з И и Й й І і К к Л л М м

Н н Ң ң О о Ӧ ӧ П п Р р С с Т т

У у Ӱ ӱ Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ӌ ӌ Ш ш

Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

References[edit]

^ Khakas at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Gregory D. S. Anderson (2005). Language Contact in South Central Siberia. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-3-447-04812-5.  ^ Bernard Comrie (4 June 1981). The Languages of the Soviet Union. CUP Archive. pp. 53–. GGKEY:22A59ZSZFJ0.  ^ https://culture19.ru/news/3059-natsionalnyiy-prazdnik-tun-payram-popal-v-kalendar-kulturnyih-sobyitiy-rossii.html ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Khakas". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Население по национальности и владению русским языком (in Russian). Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Archived from the original (Microsoft Excel) on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-02-16.  ^ Tchoroev (Chorotegin) 2003, p. 110. ^ Pozzi & Janhunen & Weiers 2006, p. 113. ^ Millward 2007, p. 89. ^ Juha Janhunen (1996). Manchuria: An Ethnic History. Finno-Ugrian Society. p. 112. ISBN 978-951-9403-84-7.  ^ Juha Janhunen (1996). Manchuria: An Ethnic History. Finno-Ugrian Society. pp. 111–112. ISBN 978-951-9403-84-7.  ^ Juha Janhunen (1996). Manchuria: An Ethnic History. Finno-Ugrian Society. p. 59. ISBN 978-951-9403-84-7.  ^ Hu & Imart 1987, p. 1 ^ Andrew Howley (2012-05-21). "NG Explorers Help Record Xyzyl Language". National Geographic Explorers Journal. Retrieved 2012-10-21.  ^ Helimski, Eugene (2003). "Areal groupings (Sprachbünde) within and across the borders of the Uralic language family: A survey" (PDF). Nyelvtudományi Közlemenyek. 100: 158. ISSN 0029-6791.  ^ a b Donidze, 1997, p. 460-461.

Further reading[edit]

Castrén, M. A. (1857). Versuch einer koibalischen und karagassischen Sprachlehre nebst Wörterverzeichnissen aus den tatarischen mundarten des minussinschen Kreises. St. Petersburg.  Radloff, W. (1893–1911). Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türk-Dialecte I-IV. St. Petersburg.  Radloff, W. (1867). Proben der Volkslitteratur der türkischen Stämme Süd-Sibiriens. II. Theil: die Abakan-Dialecte (der Sagaische, Koibalische, Katschinzische), der Kysyl-Dialect und der Tscholym-Dialect (Küerik). St. Petersburg.  Katanov, N. F. (1907). Proben der Volkslitteratur der türkischen Stämme. IX. Theil: Mundarten der Urianchaier (Sojonen), Abakan-Tataren und Karagassen. St. Petersburg.  Anderson, G. D. S. (1998). Xakas. Languages of the world: Materials: 251. München.  Fuchs Christian; Lars Johanson; Éva Ágnes Csató Johanson (29 April 2015). The Turkic Languages. Routledge. pp. 100–. ISBN 978-1-136-82527-9. 

External links[edit]

Khakas language test of at Wikimedia Incubator

Hakas People and Hakasia Khakasian Alphabet Khakas-Russian On-Line Dictionary Endangered languages project - Khakas OLAC resources in and about the Khakas language

v t e

Turkic languages

Italics indicate extinct languages

Proto-language

Proto-Altaic Proto-Turkic

Common Turkic

Arghu

Khalaj

Karluk

Äynu1 Khorezmian Turki1 Chagatai Ili Turki Lop Uyghur Uzbek

Kipchak

Ponto-Caspian

Cuman Crimean Tatar Karachay-Balkar Karaim Kipchak Krymchak Kumyk Urum2

Aralo-Caspian

Siberian Tatar Fergana Kipchak Karakalpak Kazakh Kyrgyz Nogai

Uralo-Caspian

Bashkir Old Tatar Tatar

Oghuz

Afshar Azerbaijani

Salchuq

Crimean Turkish Gagauz Balkan Gagauz Turkish Khorasani Turkic Old Anatolian Turkish Ottoman Turkish Pecheneg2 Qashqai Salar (Anatolian) Turkish Turkmen Urum2

Siberian

Altai Chulym Dolgan Fuyu Kyrgyz Khakas Old Turkic Old Uyghur Shor Tofa Tuvan

Dukhan

Yakut (Sakha) Western Yugur2

Oghur

Bulgar Chuvash Khazar

1 Mixed language. 2 Classification disputed.

v t e

State languages of Russia

Federal language

Russian

State languages of federal subjects

Abaza Adyghe Agul Altai Avar Azerbaijani Bashkir Buryat Chechen Chuvash Crimean Tatar Dargwa Erzya Ingush Kabardian Kalmyk Karachay-Balkar Khakas Komi Kumyk Lak Lezgian Mari

Hill Meadow

Moksha Nogai Ossetic Rutul Sakha Tabasaran Tat Tatar Tsakhur Tuvan Ukrainian Udmurt

Languages with official status

Chukchi Dolgan Even Evenki Finnish Karelian Kazakh Khanty Komi-Permyak Mansi Nenets Selkup Veps Yukaghir

Scripts

Cyrillic Cyrillic
Cyrillic
Braille

Authority control

GND: 44103

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