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KERMANSHAH ( Southern Kurdish
Southern Kurdish
: کرماشان - Kirmaşan Persian : کرمانشاه‎‎, Kermānshāh, also known as BAKHTARAN, BāKHTARāN, KERMāNSHāHāN), the capital of Kermanshah Province , is located 525 kilometres (326 miles) from Tehran
Tehran
in the western part of Iran
Iran
. According to the 2011 census, its population is 851,405. People mostly speak Southern Kurdish
Southern Kurdish
. Kermanshah
Kermanshah
has a moderate and mountainous climate. Kermanshah
Kermanshah
is the largest Kurdish-speaking city in Iran. Majority of people in Kermanshah
Kermanshah
are Shia
Shia
Muslims, and there are minorities such as Sunni
Sunni
Muslims, Yarsanism and so on.

CONTENTS

* 1 Prehistoric periods * 2 Historic periods * 3 Islamic periods * 4 Recent * 5 Naming dispute * 6 Climate

* 7 Sightseeing

* 7.1 Taghbostan * 7.2 Behistun * 7.3 Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
monuments

* 8 Bazars * 9 Economy * 10 Higher education * 11 Notable people * 12 Gallery * 13 Footnotes * 14 Twin towns – sister cities * 15 See also * 16 References * 17 Sources * 18 External links

PREHISTORIC PERIODS

A view of Kermanshah
Kermanshah
in mid 19th century- toward south, Farokhshad Mt. and Wasi Mt. are visible at background

Because of its antiquity, attractive landscapes, rich culture and Neolithic
Neolithic
villages, Kermanshah
Kermanshah
is considered one of the cradles of prehistoric cultures. According to archaeological surveys and excavation, the Kermanshah
Kermanshah
area has been occupied by prehistoric people since the Lower Paleolithic
Lower Paleolithic
period, and continued to later Paleolithic
Paleolithic
periods till late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
period. The Lower Paleolithic
Paleolithic
evidence consists of some handaxes found in the Gakia area to the east of the city. The Middle Paleolithic
Paleolithic
remains have been found in the northern vicinity of the city in Tang-e Kenesht and near Taqwasan . Neanderthal
Neanderthal
Man existed in the Kermanshah
Kermanshah
region during this period. The known Paleolithic
Paleolithic
caves in this area are Warwasi
Warwasi
, Qobeh, Malaverd and Do-Ashkaft Cave . The region was also one of the first places in which human settlements including Asiab, Qazanchi, Tappeh Sarab, Chia Jani , and Ganj-Darreh were established between 8,000-10,000 years ago. This is about the same time that the first potteries pertaining to Iran
Iran
were made in Ganj-Darreh, near present-day Harsin . In May 2009, based on a research conducted by the University of Hamedan
Hamedan
and UCL , the head of Archeology Research Center of Iran's Cultural Heritage and Tourism
Tourism
Organization announced that the one of the oldest prehistorian village in the Middle East
Middle East
dating back to 9800 B.P., was discovered in Sahneh , located west of Kermanshah. Remains of later village occupations and early Bronze Age are found in a number of mound sites in the city itself. Interior of the second room of Zagros
Zagros
Paleolithic
Paleolithic
Museum.

HISTORIC PERIODS

Hellenistic-era depiction of Bahram as Hercules
Hercules
carved in 153 BC.

In ancient Iranian mythology, construction of the city is attributed to Tahmuras
Tahmuras
, the third king of Pishdadian dynasty. It is believed that the Sassanids have constructed Kermanshah
Kermanshah
and Bahram IV (he was called Kermanshah, meaning king of Kerman
Kerman
) gave his name to this city. It was a glorious city in Sassanid
Sassanid
period about the 4th century AD when it became the capital city of Persian Empire
Persian Empire
and a significant health center serving as the summer resort for Sassanid
Sassanid
kings. In AD 226, following a two-year war led by the Persian Emperor, Ardashir I
Ardashir I
, against "Kurdish" tribes in the region, the empire reinstated a local "Kurdish" prince, Kayus of Medya, to rule Kermanshah. At the time, the term "Kurd" was used as a social term, designating Iranian nomads, rather than a concrete ethnic group. The word became an ethnic identity in the 12th and 13th century. Within the dynasty known as the House of Kayus (also Kâvusakân) remained a semi-independent kingdom lasting until AD 380 before Ardashir II removed the dynasty's last ruling member.

ISLAMIC PERIODS

Kermanshah
Kermanshah
was conquered by the Arabs
Arabs
in AD 640. Under Seljuk rule in the eleventh century, it became the major cultural and commercial center in western Iran
Iran
and the southern Kurdish-inhabited areas as a whole. The Safavids
Safavids
fortified the town, and the Qajars
Qajars
repulsed an attack by the Ottomans during Fath Ali Shah 's rule (1797–1834). Kermanshah
Kermanshah
was occupied by Ottomans between 1723–1729 and 1731-1732.

RECENT

Occupied by the Imperial Russian army
Imperial Russian army
in 1914, followed by the Ottoman army in 1915 during World War I
World War I
, it was evacuated in 1917 when the British forces arrived there to expel the Ottomans. Kermanshah
Kermanshah
played an important role in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution during the Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
period and the Republic Movement in Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
period. The city was harshly damaged during the Iran–Iraq War
Iran–Iraq War
, and although it was rebuilt, it has not yet fully recovered.

NAMING DISPUTE

After the revolution in 1979, the city was named GHAHRAMANSHAHR for a short period of time, and later the name of the city as well as the province changed to Bakhtaran , apparently due to the presence of the word " Shah
Shah
" in the original name. Bakhtaran means western, which refers to the location of the city and the province within Iran. After the Iran–Iraq War
Iran–Iraq War
, however, the city was renamed Kermanshah, as it resonated more with the desire of its residents, the Persian literature, and the collective memory of the Iranians.

CLIMATE

Kermanshah
Kermanshah
has a climate which is heavily influenced by the proximity of the Zagros
Zagros
mountains, classified as a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa). The city's altitude and exposed location relative to westerly winds makes precipitation a little bit high (more than twice that of Tehran
Tehran
), but at the same time produces huge diurnal temperature swings especially in the virtually rainless summers, which remain extremely hot during the day. Kermanshah
Kermanshah
experiences rather cold winters and there are usually rainfalls in fall and spring. Snow cover is seen for at least a couple of weeks in winter.

CLIMATE DATA FOR KERMANSHAH, IRAN (1961–1990, EXTREMES 1951–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 20.2 (68.4) 21.8 (71.2) 28.4 (83.1) 33.7 (92.7) 38.5 (101.3) 43.0 (109.4) 44.1 (111.4) 44.0 (111.2) 40.4 (104.7) 34.4 (93.9) 28.4 (83.1) 25.4 (77.7) 44.1 (111.4)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 6.5 (43.7) 8.9 (48) 14.3 (57.7) 19.7 (67.5) 25.8 (78.4) 33.3 (91.9) 37.8 (100) 37.0 (98.6) 32.5 (90.5) 25.0 (77) 16.7 (62.1) 9.7 (49.5) 22.3 (72.1)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 0.6 (33.1) 2.5 (36.5) 7.7 (45.9) 12.7 (54.9) 17.6 (63.7) 23.6 (74.5) 28.2 (82.8) 27.2 (81) 22.4 (72.3) 16.0 (60.8) 8.9 (48) 3.5 (38.3) 14.2 (57.6)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −4.3 (24.3) −3.0 (26.6) 1.2 (34.2) 5.1 (41.2) 8.2 (46.8) 11.4 (52.5) 16.1 (61) 15.4 (59.7) 10.6 (51.1) 6.4 (43.5) 1.8 (35.2) 1.7 (35.1) 5.6 (42.1)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −24 (−11) −27.0 (−16.6) −11.3 (11.7) −6.1 (21) −1.0 (30.2) 2.0 (35.6) 8.0 (46.4) 8.0 (46.4) 1.2 (34.2) −3.5 (25.7) −17.0 (1.4) −17 (1) −27.0 (−16.6)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 67.1 (2.642) 62.9 (2.476) 88.9 (3.5) 69.9 (2.752) 33.7 (1.327) 0.5 (0.02) 0.3 (0.012) 0.3 (0.012) 1.3 (0.051) 29.2 (1.15) 54.3 (2.138) 70.3 (2.768) 478.7 (18.846)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 11.4 10.7 12.6 11.0 7.6 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.5 4.9 7.9 9.6 77.3

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 5.9 4.7 1.9 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.1 16.1

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 75 71 62 57 49 28 23 23 25 40 59 71 49

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 134.8 150.1 180.7 204.6 268.0 348.3 349.1 336.7 304.6 242.8 187.6 147.9 2,855.2

Source #1: NOAA

Source #2: Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization (records)

SIGHTSEEING

Anahita
Anahita
on the left as the patron yazata of the Sassanian dynasty behind Emperor Khosrau Parviz with Ahura Mazda presenting the diadem of sovereignty on the right. Taq-e Bostan .

Kermanshah
Kermanshah
sights include Kohneh Bridge , Behistun Inscription , Taghbostan , Temple of Anahita
Anahita
, Dinavar , Ganj Dareh , Essaqwand Rock Tombs , Sorkh Deh chamber tomb , Malek Tomb , Hulwan , Median dakhmeh (Darbad, Sahneh), Parav cave , Do-Ashkaft Cave , Tekyeh Moaven al-molk , Dokan Davood Inscription, Sar Pol-e-Zahab, Tagh e gara, Patagh pass, Sarab Niloufar, Ghoori Ghale Cave, Khajeh Barookh's House, Chiyajani Tappe, Statue of Herakles in Behistun complex , Emad al doleh Mosque, Tekyeh Biglarbeigi, Hunters cave, Jamé Mosque of Kermanshah, Godin Tepe , Bas relief of Gotarzes II of Parthia , and Anobanini bas relief.

TAGHBOSTAN

Main article: Taq-e_Bostan

Taghbostan is a series of large rock reliefs from the era of Sassanid Empire of Persia, the Iranian dynasty which ruled western Asia from 226 to 650 AD. This example of Sassanid
Sassanid
art is located 5 km (3 mi) from the city center of Kermanshah
Kermanshah
in western Iran
Iran
. It is located in the heart of the Zagros
Zagros
mountains , where it has endured almost 1,700 years of wind and rain.

The carvings, some of the finest and best-preserved examples of Persian sculpture under the Sassanids, include representations of the investitures of Ardashir II (379–383) and Shapur III (383–388). Like other Sassanid
Sassanid
symbols, Taghbostan and its relief patterns accentuate power, religious tendencies, glory, honor, the vastness of the court, game and fighting spirit, festivity, joy, and rejoicing.

Sassanid
Sassanid
kings chose a beautiful setting for their rock reliefs along an historic Silk Road
Silk Road
caravan route waypoint and campground. The reliefs are adjacent a sacred spring that empties into a large reflecting pool at the base of a mountain cliff.

Taghbostan and its rock relief are one of the 30 surviving Sassanid relics of the Zagros
Zagros
mountains . According to Arthur Pope , the founder of Iranian art and archeology Institute in the USA, "art was characteristic of the Iranian people and the gift which they endowed the world with."

One of the most impressive reliefs inside the largest grotto or ivan is the gigantic equestrian figure of the Sassanid
Sassanid
king Khosrau II (591-628 AD) mounted on his favorite charger, Shabdiz . Both horse and rider are arrayed in full battle armor. The arch rests on two columns that bear delicately carved patterns showing the tree of life or the sacred tree. Above the arch and located on two opposite sides are figures of two winged angels with diadems . Around the outer layer of the arch, a conspicuous margin has been carved, jagged with flower patterns. These patterns are also found in the official costumes of Sassanid
Sassanid
kings. Equestrian relief panel measured on 16.08.07 approx. 7.45 m across by 4.25 m high.

BEHISTUN

Main article: Behistun Inscription

BISOTUN

UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE

LOCATION Central District , Iran
Iran

COORDINATES 34°19′00″N 47°04′07″E / 34.3167°N 47.0686°E / 34.3167; 47.0686

AREA 97 km2 (1.04×109 sq ft)

CRITERIA ii, iii

REFERENCE 1222

INSCRIPTION 2006 (30th Session )

WEBSITE www.kermanshahcity.ir

Location of Kermanshah
Kermanshah

Behistun inscription is considered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
. The Behistun Inscription (also Bisitun or Bisutun, Modern Persian
Modern Persian
: بیستون ; Old Persian
Old Persian
: Bagastana, meaning "the god's place or land") is a multi-lingual inscription located on Mount Behistun
Mount Behistun
.

The inscription includes three versions of the same text, written in three different cuneiform script languages: Old Persian
Old Persian
, Elamite , and Babylonian . A British army officer, Henry Rawlinson , had the inscription transcribed in two parts, in 1835 and 1843. Rawlinson was able to translate the Old Persian
Old Persian
cuneiform text in 1838, and the Elamite and Babylonian texts were translated by Rawlinson and others after 1843. Babylonian was a later form of Akkadian : both are Semitic languages . In effect, then, the inscription is to cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone
Rosetta Stone
is to Egyptian hieroglyphs : the document most crucial in the decipherment of a previously lost script .

The inscription is approximately 15 metres high by 25 metres wide, and 100 metres up a limestone cliff from an ancient road connecting the capitals of Babylonia
Babylonia
and Media ( Babylon
Babylon
and Ecbatana
Ecbatana
). It is extremely inaccessible as the mountainside was removed to make the inscription more visible after its completion. The Old Persian
Old Persian
text contains 414 lines in five columns; the Elamite text includes 593 lines in eight columns and the Babylonian text is in 112 lines. The inscription was illustrated by a life-sized bas-relief of Darius , holding a bow as a sign of kingship, with his left foot on the chest of a figure lying on his back before him. The prostrate figure is reputed to be the pretender Gaumata . Darius is attended to the left by two servants, and ten one-metre figures stand to the right, with hands tied and rope around their necks, representing conquered peoples. Faravahar
Faravahar
floats above, giving his blessing to the king. One figure appears to have been added after the others were completed, as was (oddly enough) Darius' beard, which is a separate block of stone attached with iron pins and lead .

QAJAR DYNASTY MONUMENTS

See also: Tekyeh Moaven al-molk and Khajeh Barookh\'s House Jame-Shafeie Mosque

During the Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
(1794 to 1925), Kermanshah
Kermanshah
Bazaar , mosques and tekyehs such as Moaven al-molk Mosque , and beautiful houses such as Khajeh Barookh\'s House were built.

Tekyeh Moaven al-molk is unique because it has many pictures on the walls that relate to shahnameh , despite some of its more religious ones.

Khajeh Barookh\'s House is located in the old district of Faizabad, a Jewish
Jewish
neighborhood of the city. It was built by a Jewish
Jewish
merchant of the Qajar period, named Barookh/Baruch. The house, an historical depiction of Iranian architecture, was renamed "Randeh-Kesh House", after the last owner, is a "daroongara"(inward oriented) house and is connected through a vestibule to the exterior yard and through a corridor to the interior yard. Surrounding the interior yard are rooms, brick pillars making the iwans(porches) of the house, and step-like column capitals decorated with brick-stalactite work. This house is among the rare Qajar houses with a private bathroom. Khajeh Barookh's House Interior of the second room of Zagros Paleolithic
Paleolithic
Museum.

BAZARS

* YAHOUDI-HA BAZAR( Jewish
Jewish
Bazar) or (Islami Bazar) - It is one of the oldest shopping centers in Iran
Iran
from Qajar period(1785–present) in which you can find traditional clothes, the Kurdish traditional cloth, miscellaneous spice, Giweh, hand made metal knife, hand made leather, and some blacksmith stores, and some stores which sell distilled water from medical plants and flowers. * THE KURDS BAZAR or (Tarikeh Bazar) - In this shopping center all kinds of jewelry and some special cookies like Nan Berenji Kaak and Naan Khormaei which are the famous souvenirs of Kermanshah
Kermanshah
are sold.

ECONOMY

Kermanshah
Kermanshah
is one of the western agricultural core of Iran
Iran
that produces grain, rice, vegetable, fruits, and oilseeds, however Kermanshah
Kermanshah
is emerging as a fairly important industrial city; there are two industrial centers with more than 256 manufacturing units in the suburb of the city. These industries include petrochemical refinery, textile manufacturing, food processing , carpet making, sugar refining, and the production of electrical equipment and tools. Kermanshah
Kermanshah
Oil Refining Company (KORC) established in 1932 by British companies, is one of the major industries in the city. After recent changes in Iraq
Iraq
, Kermanshah
Kermanshah
has become one of the main importing and exporting gates of Iran
Iran
.

HIGHER EDUCATION

* Islamic Azad University of Kermanshah * Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences * Kermanshah
Kermanshah
University of Technology * Payame Noor University * Razi University

NOTABLE PEOPLE

* Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
, writer, 2007 winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature (born in Kermanshah
Kermanshah
to British parents) * Mojtaba Mirzadeh , master of violin and setar * Shahram Nazeri
Shahram Nazeri
, vocalist and musician * Kayhan Kalhor , musician * Rahim Moeini Kermanshahi , poet, lyricist * Shahram Mokri , film director * Pouran Derakhshandeh , film director, producer, screenwriter * Abdol Ali Badrei , commander of the Imperial Iranian Army and the Imperial Guard * Reza Shafiei Jam , actor * Marganita Vogt-Khofri , pianist, classical musician and vocalist * Karim Sanjabi
Karim Sanjabi
, Iran's attorney during oil nationalization movement, former foreign minister * Massoud Azarnoush , archaeologist * Rashid Yasemi , one of the Five-Masters of Persian Literature * Ali Mohammad Afghani , novelist * Ali Ashraf Darvishian , novelist and writer * Seyed Khalil Alinezhad , Tanbour master * Mirza Mohammad Reza Kalhor , calligrapher * Peter Warr , businessman, racing driver and a manager for several Formula One teams * Abolghasem Lahouti , poet * Sousan (Golandam Taherkhani), singer * Nozar Azadi , actor * Reza Fieze Norouzi , actor * Alexis Kouros , writer, documentary-maker, director and producer * Roknoddin Mokhtari , violin player * Bijan Namdar Zangeneh , minister of Petroleum * Ebrahim Azizi , member and spokesman of the Guardian Council * Mir Jalaleddin Kazzazi , writer * Al-Dinawari , botanist, historian, geographer, astronomer and mathematician * Shahram Amiri , nuclear scientist * Mohammad Ranjbar , former Iran
Iran
national football team player and headcoach * Mohammad Hassan Mohebbi , light heavyweight freestyle wrestler & Iran's national team coach * Kourosh Bagheri , world weightlifting champion * Ali Mazaheri , 2006 Asian Games gold medalist, Asian champion & Olympic boxer * Homa Hosseini , rower * Ali Akbar Moradi , Musician and Tanbour Player * Guity Novin , painter width:187px;line-height:1.3em;padding:2px 6px 1px 6px;margin:0px;border:none;border-width:0px">

Anahita
Anahita
Temple in Kangavar

Mount Dalekhani

Ghouri Ghaleh Cave

Close-Up of Bisotun Inscription

Taghbostan Carving

FOOTNOTES

* ^ Women playing harp while the king is standing in a boat holding his bow and arrows, from 6th century Sassanid
Sassanid
Iran.

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

* Roseburg , United States
United States
of America * Sicily
Sicily
, Italy
Italy
(2010) * Gaziantep
Gaziantep
, Turkey
Turkey
(2010) * Split , Croatia
Croatia
(2011)

SEE ALSO

* Iran
Iran
portal

* Kalhor * Kermanshah Province * Kermanshahi * Warwasi
Warwasi
cave * Visual Art High school of Kermanshah * Ayatollah Ashrafi Esfahani

REFERENCES

* ^ Kermanshah
Kermanshah
can be found at GEOnet Names Server , at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3070245" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database". * ^ soran karimi "Arrest of the Assyrian leader of the Kermanshah Church in iran" Check archiveurl= value (help ). Assistnews.net. Archived from the original on 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2011-12-02. * ^ Iran
Iran
Chamber society: accessed: September 2010. * ^ روزنامه سلام کرمانشاه PERSIAN (KURDISH) * ^ آشنایی با فرهنگ و نژاد استان کرمانشاه(PERSIAN) * ^ سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری استان کرمانشاه بازدید 2010/03/11 * ^ http://www.shahrekhabar.com/economic/1425128820035607 * ^ http://www.kordha.ir/?p=1423 * ^ http://www.mehrnews.com/news/1563659/%DA%A9%D8%B1%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%B4%D8%A7%D9%87-%D9%BE%D8%B1%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%DB%8C%D8%AA-%D8%AA%D8%B1%DB%8C%D9%86-%D8%B4%D9%87%D8%B1-%DA%A9%D8%B1%D8%AF%D9%86%D8%B4%DB%8C%D9%86-%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%86 * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-27. Retrieved 2016-03-18. * ^ www.justice.gov * ^ www.artkermanshah.ir/ * ^ "Most ancient Mid East village discovered in western Iran". 2009. Archived from the original on 2010-02-01. Retrieved 2009-05-23. * ^ "با 11800 سال قدمت، قديمي‌ترين روستاي خاورميانه در كرمانشاه كشف شد". 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-23. * ^ Dehkhoda: Kermanshah
Kermanshah
Archived 2011-05-11 at the Wayback Machine .. * ^ J. Limbert. (1968). The Origins and Appearance of the Kurds
Kurds
in Pre-Islamic Iran. Iranian Studies, 1.2: pp. 41-51. * ^ G. Asatrian. (2009). Prolegemona to the Study of Kurds. Iran and the Caucasus, 13.1: pp. 1-58. * ^ James, Boris. (2006). Uses and Values of the Term Kurd in Arabic Medieval Literary Sources. Seminar at the American University of Beirut, pp. 6-7. * ^ Martin van Bruinessen, "The ethnic identity of the Kurds," in: Ethnic groups in the Republic of Turkey, compiled and edited by Peter Alford Andrews with Rüdiger Benninghaus . Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwich Reichert, 1989, pp. 613–21. excerpt: "The ethnic label "Kurd" is first encountered in Arabic sources from the first centuries of the Islamic era; it seemed to refer to a specific variety of pastoral nomadism, and possibly to a set of political units, rather than to a linguistic group: once or twice, "Arabic Kurds" are mentioned. By the 10th century, the term appears to denote nomadic and/or transhumant groups speaking an Iranian language and mainly inhabiting the mountainous areas to the South of Lake Van and Lake Urmia, with some offshoots in the Caucasus. ... If there was a Kurdish-speaking subjected peasantry at that time, the term was not yet used to include them." * ^ " Kermanshah
Kermanshah
Climate Normals 1961-1990" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved April 8, 2015. * ^ "Highest record temperature in Kermanshah
Kermanshah
by Month 1951–2010". Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015. * ^ "Lowest record temperature in Kermanshah
Kermanshah
by Month 1951–2010". Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015. * ^ "سازمان ميراث فرهنگي، گردشگري و صنايع دستي استان كرمانشاه". Kermanshahmiras.ir. Retrieved 2011-12-02. * ^ iauksh.ac.ir * ^ kut.ac.ir

SOURCES

* Borijan, Habib (2015). "KERMANSHAH i. Geography". Encyclopaedia Iranica. * Borijan, Habib (2016). "KERMANSHAH vii. Languages and Dialects". Encyclopaedia Iranica. * Calmard, Jean (2015). "KERMANSHAH iv. History from the Arab Conquest to 1953". Encyclopaedia Iranica. * Pirnazar, Nahid (2014). "KERMANSHAH viii. The Jewish
Jewish
Community". Encyclopaedia Iranica.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for KERMANSHAH .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to KERMANSHAH .

* * Pictures of Inscription and Bas relief of Darius the Great - Free Pictures of IRAN irantooth.com * Photos from Bisotun Complex - From Online Photo Gallery Of Aryo.ir * Photos from Taqwasan

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