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Kendal
Kendal
/ˈkɛndəl/, anciently known as Kirkby in Kendal
Kendal
or Kirkby Kendal, is a market town and civil parish within the South Lakeland District of Cumbria, England. Historically in Westmorland, it is situated about 8 miles (13 km) south-east of Windermere, 19 miles (31 km) north of Lancaster, 23 miles (37 km) north-east of Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
and 38 miles (61 km) north-west of Skipton. The town lies in the valley or "dale" of the River Kent, from which it derives its name, and has a total resident population of 28,586,[2] making it the third largest settlement in Cumbria
Cumbria
behind Carlisle and Barrow-in-Furness. Kendal
Kendal
today is known largely as a centre for tourism, as the home of Kendal
Kendal
mint cake, and as a producer of pipe tobacco and tobacco snuff. Its buildings, mostly constructed with the local grey limestone, have earned it the nickname Auld Grey Town.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Roman fort 1.2 Transport 1.3 Kendal
Kendal
Mint Cake 1.4 Tobacco and snuff

2 Governance

2.1 Civic history 2.2 Parliamentary representation

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Economy 5 Transport 6 Education 7 Places of interest 8 Notable people 9 Kendal
Kendal
dialect 10 Kendal
Kendal
Mountain Search and Rescue Team 11 Twin towns 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

History[edit] Kendal
Kendal
is listed in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
as part of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
with the name Cherchebi.[3] For many centuries it was called Kirkbie Kendal, meaning "village with a church in the valley of the River Kent". The earliest castle was a Norman motte and bailey (now located on the west side of the town) when the settlement went under the name of Kirkbie Strickland.[citation needed] A chartered market town, the centre of Kendal
Kendal
is structured around a high street with fortified alleyways, known locally as yards, off to either side which allowed the local population to seek shelter from the Anglo-Scottish raiding parties known as the Border Reivers. The main industry in these times was the manufacture of woollen goods, the importance of which is reflected in the town's coat of arms and in its Latin motto "Pannus mihi panis", meaning wool (literally 'cloth') is my bread. " Kendal
Kendal
Green" was hard-wearing wool-based fabric specific to the local manufacturing process, and was supposedly sported by the Kendalian archers who were instrumental in the English victory over the French at the Battle of Agincourt. Kendal
Kendal
Green was also worn by slaves in the Americas, and is mentioned in songs and literature from that time. Kendal
Kendal
Green was traditionally the colour of clothing worn by foresters and as such was mentioned by Shakespeare
Shakespeare
in Henry IV, Part 1. The site of several (ruined) castles, the most recent one constructed in the late 12th century, Kendal
Kendal
Castle, has a long history as a stronghold of one kind or another. It was the castle of the Barony of Kendal, the part of Westmorland
Westmorland
ruled from here. The castle is best known for being the home of the Parr family, who represent one of the lines of heirs of these barons. The Parrs inherited the castle through marriage during the reign of Edward III of England. Rumours still circulate that King Henry VIII's sixth wife Catherine Parr
Catherine Parr
was born at Kendal
Kendal
Castle, but based on the evidence available this is very unlikely. By the time Catherine was born the castle was beyond repair and her father was already based in Blackfriars, London, as a member of the court of King Henry VIII.[4]

The site of the Roman fort at Watercrook across the River Kent

Roman fort[edit] Main article: Alavana A Roman fort existed about 2 miles south of the present-day town centre, at a site known as Watercrook.[5] It was built in about AD 90, originally as a timber structure, and then rebuilt with stone in about 130 during the reign of Hadrian. The fort was abandoned for about 20 years during the Antonine re-occupation of Scotland. It was then rebuilt during the reign of Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and occupied until roughly 270. That was probably the last time it was held for military purposes.[6] What remains of the stone structure is now buried under a field. Many of the Roman artefacts from this site may be found in the Kendal
Kendal
museum. The roman site was built on a pre existing iron age fort. Transport[edit] Early travellers to Kendal
Kendal
complained of eight miles of "nothing but a confused mixture of Rockes and Boggs."[7] Riding horseback was the fastest form of travelling for the road was "no better than the roughest fell tracks on high ground and spongy, miry tracks in the vallies." It became evident that it was unjust and beyond the power of the thinly scattered rural population thereabouts be called upon to maintain a road used for through traffic. "Whereas the road is very ruinous, and some parts thereof almost impassable and could not, by the ordinary course appointed by the Laws then in being for repairing the highways, be amended and kept in good repair, unless some further provision was made." In 1703 by Order of the Quarter Sessions of the Barony of Kendall the surveyors of highways was to make the roads good and sufficient for the passage of coaches, carts and carriages. In 1753 The Keighley and Kendal Turnpike
Keighley and Kendal Turnpike
brought the stage coach from Yorkshire
Yorkshire
to Kendal.[8] Kendal
Kendal
Mint Cake[edit] Main article: Kendal
Kendal
Mint Cake

Kendal mint cake
Kendal mint cake
with chocolate coating

Kendal
Kendal
is known for Kendal
Kendal
mint cake, a glucose-based type of confectionery reputedly discovered accidentally by Joseph Wiper during his search for a clear glacier mint. Used on numerous expeditions to mountaintops (including Mount Everest and K2) and both poles of the Earth, its popularity is mainly due to the very astute decision of the original manufacturer's great-nephew to market it as an energy food, and to supply Ernest Shackleton's 1914–17 Trans-Antarctic Expedition. By the time the business was sold to competitor Romney's
Romney's
in 1987 there were several rival mint cake producers, many of which are still in business. Tobacco and snuff[edit] Snuff production in Kendal
Kendal
dates from 1792, when Kendalian Thomas Harrison returned from Glasgow, Scotland, where he had learned the art of snuff manufacture. He also brought with him 50 tons of second-hand equipment, all carried on horse back. Pipe tobacco and other tobacco products were subsequently added to the firm's production. Ownership of his firm passed eventually to his son-in-law, Samuel Gawith, whose eponymic firm, Samuel Gawith & Co., continues in business to this day. Following Samuel Gawith's death in 1865, the firm passed into the hands of his two eldest sons. During this time the business was administered initially by trustees, including Henry Hoggarth, and John Thomas Illingworth. Illingworth left the firm in 1867 to start his own firm, which remained in business until the 1980s. The youngest son of Samuel Gawith the First subsequently teamed with Henry Hoggarth to form Gawith Hoggarth TT, Ltd. Both Samuel Gawith & Company and Gawith Hoggarth TT continue in business today in Kendal, producing snuffs and tobacco products still used around the world. Samuel Gawith and Company also hold the distinction of employing the oldest piece of industrial equipment still in production use in the world, a device manufactured in the 1750s. Governance[edit] Civic history[edit] The municipal borough of Kendal
Kendal
was created in 1835 and until 1894 the town was also an urban sanitary district. The borough boundaries were altered in 1935 by gaining a small part of South Westmorland
Westmorland
Rural District under a County Review Order. The civil parishes of Kirkland and Nether Graveship were abolished in 1908 and became part of Kendal
Kendal
Civil Parish whose boundaries were after that the same as the borough. Kendal
Kendal
was, from 1888 to 1974, the administrative centre of the administrative county of Westmorland
Westmorland
although Appleby is the traditional county town. The borough of Kendal
Kendal
was abolished in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972 to become a part of South Lakeland
South Lakeland
district of Cumbria. The town was a successor parish, and thus kept its own town council. Parliamentary representation[edit] Kendal
Kendal
is part of the Westmorland
Westmorland
and Lonsdale parliamentary constituency of which Tim Farron
Tim Farron
is the current MP representing the Liberal Democrats.[9] Geography[edit] Kendal
Kendal
stands on the River Kent, surrounded by low hills. It is near (but not in) the Lake District National Park.[10] When the National Park was formed in 1951 the boundary was deliberately shaped to exclude Kendal.[citation needed] Although a relatively small town, it is an important commercial centre for a wide area thanks to its rural location. It is affectionately referred to as "The Gateway to The Lakes".

Places adjacent to Kendal

Burneside

Underbarrow and Bradleyfield

Kendal

Sedbergh

Oxenholme

Climate[edit] Kendal
Kendal
has a marine west coast climate, category Cfb on the Köppen Climate Classification. It has moderately warm summers and mild winters, with precipitation at all times of year. In July and August the average daily maximum and minimum are 19C and 11C respectively. The corresponding averages in January and February are 6C and 1C.[11] [12] Economy[edit] Kendal's early prosperity was based largely on cloth manufacture. In the 19th century it became a centre for the manufacture of snuff and shoes; the K Shoes company remained a major employer in the town until its factory closed in 2003.[13] There are still a number of industries based in the town, such as Gilbert Gilkes & Gordon (manufacturers of pumps and turbines), James Cropper paper makers (based in Burneside and who make, at no profit, the paper for the Remembrance poppies for The Royal British Legion), Mardix (switchgear), Lakeland and Kendal Nutricare, who have a facility making baby milk in the north of the town. Tourism is now one of the main employers, but there is also a significant IT and design sector in the town, enabled by increased broadband availability. On 26 February 2003 Kendal
Kendal
was granted Fairtrade Town
Fairtrade Town
status. Transport[edit]

A bridge over the old course of the Lancaster Canal, now used as a footpath

Kendal railway station
Kendal railway station
is situated on the Windermere Branch Line
Windermere Branch Line
and gives connections to Windermere railway station
Windermere railway station
to the north, and Oxenholme
Oxenholme
Lake District railway station (on the West Coast Main Line) and Lancaster railway station
Lancaster railway station
to the south. Kendal
Kendal
is around 8 miles (12 km) from the M6 motorway, and is bypassed on the west by the A591 road, linking it to Windermere, Keswick and the A590 leading to Barrow, as well as being the terminus of the A65 road to Kirkby Lonsdale, Skipton
Skipton
and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and a destination on the A6 road to Penrith. Kendal
Kendal
is signposted off the M6 at Junctions 36 (A65, A590), Junction 37 (A684 road), Junction 38 (A685 road) and Junction 39 (A6). The three-mile £1.9m A591 bypass opened on 29 August 1971. The Lancaster Canal
Lancaster Canal
was built as far as Kendal
Kendal
in 1819, but the northern section was rendered unnavigable by the construction of the M6. Part of this section was also drained and filled in to prevent leakage, and the course of the canal through Kendal
Kendal
has now been developed. The canal towpath, however, remains as a footpath through Kendal. A campaign is currently underway to restore the canal as far as Kendal. Kendal
Kendal
is served by a long distance coach service from London
London
(once per day) and local buses run from the bus station to destinations such as Ambleside, Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
and Lancaster. Education[edit]

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The Queen Katherine School, on Appleby Road, is a secondary school with academy status. The school also operates a sixth form.[14] Kirkbie Kendal
Kendal
School, formerly known as Kendal
Kendal
Grammar School, is a secondary school Business and Enterprise College that serves the area around the town and rural countryside. Kirkbie Kendal School operates as a foundation school with academy status; its previous pupils include the historian David Starkey
David Starkey
and clinical psychologist Vanessa Jones. Kendal College is a further education college that provides further and higher education, as well as training for employers. The college is judged Outstanding by Ofsted, has over 4,000 students and employs over 150 staff. There are numerous primary schools in the area, including Castle Park, Stramongate School, Heron Hill, Ghyllside, Vicarage Park, St Thomas's and Dean Gibson. In the nearby village of Natland, there is St Mark's School. Places of interest[edit]

Holy Trinity Church which includes the Parr Chapel and Prayers written by the hand of Queen Catherine Parr.

Kendal
Kendal
Castle

Kendal Museum
Kendal Museum
– one of the oldest in the country, it includes exhibits on area history, culture, archaeology, geology, local and world natural history, Roman Britain, Ancient Egypt Abbot Hall Art Gallery
Abbot Hall Art Gallery
(housed in a Georgian villa), it mounts nationally important exhibitions, such as David Bomberg: Spirit in the Mass (17 July – 28 October 2006). Permanent collection includes George Romney, JMW Turner, John Ruskin, Ben Nicholson, Paula Rego, Lucian Freud, Stanley Spencer
Stanley Spencer
and Barbara Hepworth. Museum of Lakeland Life located in the original stables of Abbot Hall, it contains exhibits on farming life in the Lake District and a permanent collection of author Arthur Ransome's books and belongings. Castle Howe, Kendal's undisputed first castle, lies on the hill side overlooking the town. The earthwork remains are sandwiched between Gillinggate and Beast Banks[15] Kendal
Kendal
Castle, to the east of the earthworks, probably built while Castle Howe
Castle Howe
was still being used Friends' Meeting House, home of the Quaker Tapestry The Brewery Arts Centre (offering theatre, dance, exhibitions, cinemas, music, workshops, youth drama, dance and food and drink) Kendal
Kendal
Leisure Centre Kendal Parish Church
Kendal Parish Church
(Holy Trinity) Lakeland Radio Stadium official football ground of Kendal
Kendal
Town F.C. Netherfield Cricket Club Ground – home ground of Netherfield Cricket Club and Cumberland County Cricket Club The Queen Katherine Street drill hall where troops were mobilised for the First World War[16]

Notable people[edit] An alphabetical list of people born in Kendal
Kendal
or with significant connections there:

Desmond Bagley (1923–1983), thriller writer Matt Bigland (born 1985), guitarist and lead singer for alternative rock band Dinosaur Pile-Up. Jonathan Dodgson Carr
Jonathan Dodgson Carr
(died 1884), founder of Carr's breadmakers and social reform campaigner Ephraim Chambers (c. 1680–1740), encyclopaedist Isaac Crewdson
Isaac Crewdson
(1780–1844), Quaker minister born in Kendal John Cunliffe (born 1933), children's author, creator of Postman Pat John Dalton
John Dalton
(1766–1844), chemist and physicist Sir Arthur Eddington (1882–1944), astrophysicist James Ellison (born 1980) and Dean Ellison
Dean Ellison
(born 1977), motorcycle racers Tim Farron
Tim Farron
(born 1970), Leader of the Liberal Democrats and MP ( Westmorland
Westmorland
and Lonsdale) Nicholas Freeston (1907–1978), award-winning Lancashire poet, born in Kendal Daniel Gardner
Daniel Gardner
(1750–1805), portrait painter Steven Hall, Britain's Got Talent Finalist 2011, comedy dancer Steve Hogarth
Steve Hogarth
(born 1959), vocalist of rock band Marillion Francis Nigel Lee
Francis Nigel Lee
(1934–2011), theologian Ken Major (1928–2009), architect, author and molinologist, attended Kendal
Kendal
School Caroline Moir (living), author George Romney (1734–1802), portrait painter David R. Russell
David R. Russell
(1935–2018), antique woodworking tool collector Keith Stainton (1921–2001), politician and Second World War hero in France David Starkey
David Starkey
(born 1945), constitutional historian Alfred Wainwright
Alfred Wainwright
(1907–1991), guidebook author and walker Wild Beasts, indie-rock band Keith Wilkinson (living), ITV television news reporter John Wilson (1741–1793), mathematician and astronomer Yan, Hamilton and Wood of the indie-rock band British Sea Power, brought up in Natland, a nearby village.

Kendal
Kendal
dialect[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2008)

The Kendal
Kendal
dialect known as Kendalian, is a variant of the Cumbrian dialect spoken around the Kendal
Kendal
area. Kendal
Kendal
Mountain Search and Rescue Team[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2008)

Kendal
Kendal
has for many years maintained a voluntary mountain search and rescue team based at Busher Walk. They have performed numerous rescues around the Kendal
Kendal
area, and along with other local mountain rescue teams, helped at the Grayrigg derailment. Twin towns[edit] Kendal
Kendal
is twinned with:

– Rinteln, Lower Saxony, Germany – Killarney, County Kerry, Munster, Ireland

See also[edit]

Cumbria
Cumbria
portal

Kendal
Kendal
Choral Society Listed buildings in Kendal Kendal
Kendal
Mountain Festival Kendal
Kendal
Town F.C.

References[edit]

^ http://www.kendaltowncouncil.gov.uk/ ^ "Lead Dataset List". statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2011.  ^ Mills, A.D., Dictionary of English Place Names, Oxford University Press, 1998 ^ Linda Porter. Katherine, the Queen, MacMillan, 2010. pg 21. ^ Esmonde Cleary, A., R. Warner, R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 89102 (Alone?/Alauna?)". Pleiades. Retrieved 12 February 2013. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ David Shotter. "The Roman fort at Watercrook (Kendal)" (PDF).  ^ Being a Relation of a Short Survey of 26 Counties, briefly describing the Citties and their Scytuations, and the Corporate Towns and Castles Herein. By a Captaine, a Lieutennt. and an Ancient, All three of the Military Company at Norwich. British Museum MSS. 34754, pp.19–20 ^ Introduction To The Main Roads of Kendale British Historyac.uk. Accessed 30 September 2012 ^ "Tim Farron". theyworkforyou.com.  ^ "Lake District National Park area map and South extension area" (PDF). Lake District National Park Authority. 2016. p. 2. Retrieved 11 January 2017.  ^ "marine west coast climate – climatology". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ " Kendal
Kendal
Climate Guide". worldclimateguide.co.uk.  ^ "Industries of Cumbria
Cumbria
– Footwear". Cumbria-industries.org.uk. 2 May 2003. Retrieved 31 May 2013.  ^ "Meet the Head". Queen Katherine School. Archived from the original on 10 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  ^ Kendal
Kendal
– Castle Howe ^ "Kendal". The Drill Hall Project. Retrieved 1 September 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kendal.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kendal.

Kendal
Kendal
Town Council The Northern Reaches—Restoration of the canal to Kendal Kendal
Kendal
Museum

v t e

Ceremonial county of Cumbria

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Cumbria
Portal

Boroughs or districts

City of Carlisle Borough of Allerdale Borough of Barrow-in-Furness Borough of Copeland District of Eden District of South Lakeland

Major settlements

Alston Ambleside Appleby-in-Westmorland Aspatria Barrow-in-Furness Bowness-on-Windermere Brampton Broughton-in-Furness Carlisle Cleator Moor Cockermouth Dalton-in-Furness Egremont Grange-over-Sands Harrington Kendal Keswick Kirkby Lonsdale Kirkby Stephen Longtown Maryport Millom Penrith Sedbergh Silloth Ulverston Whitehaven Wigton Windermere Workington See also: List of civil parishes in Cumbria

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