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Japan

Major Cities Osaka Kobe Kyoto Sakai

Area

 • Metro 13,033 km2 (5,032 sq mi)

Population (Population Census of Japan
Japan
2010)[1]

 • Metro 19,341,976

 • Metro density 1,484/km2 (3,844/sq mi)

Keihanshin
Keihanshin
(京阪神, "Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe") is a metropolitan region in Japan
Japan
encompassing the metropolitan areas of the cities of Kyoto
Kyoto
in Kyoto
Kyoto
Prefecture, Osaka
Osaka
in Osaka
Osaka
Prefecture and Kobe
Kobe
in Hyōgo Prefecture. The entire region has a population (as of 2010[update]) of 19,341,976 over an area of 13,033 km2 (5,032 sq mi).[2] It is the second-most-populated urban region in Japan
Japan
(after the Greater Tokyo
Tokyo
area), containing approximately 15% of Japan's population. The GDP in Osaka- Kobe
Kobe
is $681 billion as measured by PPP as of 2015[update], making it one of the world's most-productive regions, a match with Paris
Paris
and London.[3] MasterCard
MasterCard
Worldwide reported that Osaka
Osaka
is the 19th ranking city of the world's leading global cities and has an instrumental role in driving the global economy.[4] If Keihanshin
Keihanshin
were a country, it would be the 16th-largest economy in the world, with a GDP of nearly $953.9 billion in 2012.[5] The name Keihanshin
Keihanshin
is constructed by extracting a representative kanji from Kyoto
Kyoto
(京都), Osaka
Osaka
(大阪), and Kobe
Kobe
(神戸), but using the Chinese reading instead of the corresponding native reading for each of the characters taken from Osaka
Osaka
and Kobe, and the Kan-on Chinese reading of the character for Kyoto
Kyoto
instead of the usual Go-on Chinese reading.

Contents

1 Definitions

1.1 Range of distance 1.2 Urban Employment Area

1.2.1 Osaka
Osaka
Metropolitan Employment Area 1.2.2 Kyoto
Kyoto
Metropolitan Employment Area 1.2.3 Kobe
Kobe
Metropolitan Employment Area 1.2.4 Himeji
Himeji
Metropolitan Employment Area 1.2.5 Wakayama
Wakayama
Metropolitan Employment Area

1.3 Major Metropolitan Area

2 Cities

2.1 Core cities 2.2 Other cities within the area 2.3 Additional cities

2.3.1 Mie Prefecture 2.3.2 Shiga Prefecture 2.3.3 Wakayama
Wakayama
Prefecture

3 Transportation

3.1 Air 3.2 Rail

3.2.1 High Speed Rail 3.2.2 Commuter Rail 3.2.3 Municipal Subway

4 Economy

4.1 GDP (purchasing power parity) 2015 4.2 Metropolitan Employment Areas 4.3 Prefectures 4.4 GDP (nominal) 2014

5 See also 6 References

Definitions[edit]

Osaka
Osaka
Bay

Range of distance[edit] The Japan
Japan
Statistics Bureau defines the set of municipalities that are entirely or mostly within 50 kilometres (31 miles) of the Municipal Office of Osaka
Osaka
as one measure of the metropolitan area. As of 2010[update], the population for this region was 16,342,641.[6] Urban Employment Area[edit]

A map showing Osaka, Kobe, and Kyoto
Kyoto
Urban Employment Areas.

The Urban Employment Area
Urban Employment Area
is a metropolitan area definition developed at the Faculty of Economics of the University of Tokyo.[7] This definition is comparable to the Metropolitan Statistical Area
Metropolitan Statistical Area
concept used to describe metropolitan areas in the United States. The basic building blocks are municipalities. The core area is the set of municipalities that contain a densely inhabited district (DID) with a population of 10,000 or more. The Urban Employment Area
Urban Employment Area
is called Metropolitan Employment Area, when its core area has 50,000 DID population or more. Otherwise, the area is called Micropolitan Employment Area. A DID is a group of census enumeration districts inhabited at densities of 4,000 or more persons per km². Outlying areas are those municipalities where 10% or more of the employed population work in the core area or in another outlying area. Overlaps are not allowed and an outlying area is assigned to the core area where it has the highest commuter ratio. This definition assigns a Metropolitan Employment Area to the following cities of the Keihanshin
Keihanshin
region: Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto, Himeji, and Wakayama. The lists below indicate which cities belong to which metropolitan area. Towns and villages are not listed. Osaka
Osaka
Metropolitan Employment Area[edit]

The Osaka
Osaka
Metropolitan Employment Area has a population (as of 2010[update]) of 12,238,814[8] and consists of the following cities:

Core cities: Osaka, Higashiosaka, Kadoma, Moriguchi Outlying cities:

Osaka
Osaka
Prefecture (entire prefecture) Hyōgo Prefecture
Hyōgo Prefecture
(southeastern part): Amagasaki, Nishinomiya, Ashiya, Itami, Takarazuka, Kawanishi, Sanda Nara Prefecture
Nara Prefecture
(northern part): Nara, Tenri, Yamatotakada, Yamatokoriyama, Kashihara, Sakurai, Gose, Ikoma, Kashiba, Katsuragi Other cities: Nabari (Mie), Yawata (Kyoto), Hashimoto (Wakayama)

Kyoto
Kyoto
Metropolitan Employment Area[edit]

The Kyoto
Kyoto
Metropolitan Employment Area has a population (as of 2010[update]) of 2,679,094[8] and consists of the following cities:

Core cities: Kyoto Outlying cities

Kyoto
Kyoto
Prefecture (southern part): Uji, Kameoka, Joyo, Muko, Nagaokakyo, Kyotanabe Shiga Prefecture
Shiga Prefecture
(southwestern part): Otsu, Kusatsu

Kobe
Kobe
Metropolitan Employment Area[edit]

The Kobe
Kobe
Metropolitan Employment Area has a population (as of 2010[update]) of 2,431,076[8] and consists of the following cities:

Core cities: Kobe Outlying cities

Hyōgo Prefecture
Hyōgo Prefecture
(southern part): Akashi, Kakogawa, Takasago, Miki, and Awaji

Himeji
Himeji
Metropolitan Employment Area[edit]

The Himeji
Himeji
Metropolitan Employment Area has a population (as of 2010[update]) of 743,427[8] and consists of the following cities:

Core cities: Himeji Outlying cities

Hyōgo Prefecture
Hyōgo Prefecture
(southwestern part): Aioi, Tatsuno

Wakayama
Wakayama
Metropolitan Employment Area[edit]

Wakayama

The Wakayama
Wakayama
Metropolitan Employment Area has a population (as of 2010[update]) of 584,852[8] and consists of the following cities:

Core cities: Wakayama Outlying cities

Wakayama
Wakayama
Prefecture (northwestern part): Kainan

Major Metropolitan Area[edit]

Keihanshin
Keihanshin
MMA as of 2010[update] with core cities in dark blue: Osaka, Sakai, Kyoto, Kobe

The Japan
Japan
Statistics Bureau defines a Major Metropolitan Area or MMA (大都市圏) as a set of municipalities where at least 1.5% of the resident population aged 15 and above commute to school or work in a designated city (defined as the core area).[9] If multiple designated cities are close enough to have overlapping outlying areas, they are combined into a single multi-core area. In the 2010 census, the designated cities used to define the Keihanshin
Keihanshin
MMA were Osaka, Kobe, and Kyoto. Sakai has subsequently become a designated city. This region consists of the combination of the metropolitan areas of Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto, and Himeji, and additionally includes several periurban areas (particularly in southern Shiga Prefecture) that are not part of the four metropolitan areas. As of 2010[update], the entire Keihanshin
Keihanshin
region had a population of 19,341,976 over an area of 13,033 square kilometres (5,032 square miles).[2] Cities[edit]

Sakai

Core cities[edit] The core cities formed Keihanshin
Keihanshin
are government ordinance cities. These cities designated the three largest cities as special cities with Tokyo
Tokyo
in 1889. Kobe
Kobe
designated the six largest cities as special cities in 1922, and adopted the ward system in 1931. Following the World War II, the six largest cities was replaced by the government designated city system in 1956. Afterwards, Sakai became a government designated city in 2006. The core cities of Keihanshin
Keihanshin
are:[10]

Osaka
Osaka
(population 2.66 million) Kobe
Kobe
(population 1.55 million) Kyoto
Kyoto
(population 1.46 million) Sakai (population 842,760)

Other cities within the area[edit]

Nara

Himeji

The other cities in Osaka, Hyogo, Kyoto
Kyoto
and Nara Prefectures include:

Aioi Akashi Amagasaki (pop 460,000) Ashiya Awaji Daitō Fujiidera Gojō Gose Habikino Hannan Higashiōsaka (pop 510,000) Himeji
Himeji
(pop 540,000) Hirakata (pop 410,000) Ibaraki Ikeda Ikoma Itami Izumi Izumiōtsu Izumisano Jōyō Kadoma Kaizuka

Kakogawa Kameoka Kasai Kashiba Kashihara Kashiwara Katano Katō Katsuragi Kawachinagano Kawanishi Kishiwada Kizugawa Kyōtanabe Matsubara Miki Minoh Moriguchi Mukō Nagaokakyō Nantan Nara (pop 370,000) Neyagawa Nishinomiya (pop 480,000)

Nishiwaki Ono Ōsakasayama Sakurai Sanda Sasayama Sennan Settsu Shijōnawate Suita (pop 360,000) Takaishi Takarazuka Takasago Takatsuki (pop 350,000) Tatsuno Tenri Tondabayashi Toyonaka
Toyonaka
(pop 390,000) Uda Uji Yamatokōriyama Yamatotakada Yao Yawata

Additional cities[edit] In the major metropolitan area (MMA) definition used by the Japanese Statistics Bureau, the following cities in Mie, Shiga, Wakayama Prefectures are included: Mie Prefecture[edit]

Nabari

Shiga Prefecture[edit]

Higashiōmi Hikone Kōka Konan Kusatsu Moriyama Takashima Takashima

Ōtsu
Ōtsu
(pop 350,000) Ōmihachiman Rittō Takashima Yasu Ryuo

Wakayama
Wakayama
Prefecture[edit]

Wakayama Hashimoto Iwade Katsuragi Kudoyama

Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Greater Osaka

Kansai
Kansai
International Airport

Special
Special
Rapid Service, the most used high speed commuter train in Japan.

The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge
Akashi Kaikyō Bridge
extends from Kobe
Kobe
to Awaji Island.

Air[edit] There are two major airports. The fairly centrally located Osaka International Airport, laid over the border between the cities of Itami
Itami
and Toyonaka, serves primarily domestic routes. Kansai International Airport
Kansai International Airport
opened in 1994 and is now the main international airport for the region. It sits on an artificial island well off-shore in Osaka
Osaka
Bay towards the Wakayama
Wakayama
outlet. Kansai
Kansai
is the geographical term for the area of western Honshū surrounding Osaka. The airport island link to the mainland via the Skygate Bridge, containing a six lane expressway and the Kasai Airport
Airport
Line, a rail link connecting to the Hanwa Line, which connects Wakayama
Wakayama
to Osaka. Limit express trains offer non-stop service to Osaka
Osaka
and onward to Kyoto. Local connections are made to other areas. Highway buses also offer service to many areas. Kobe
Kobe
Airport, built on a reclaimed island south of Port Island
Port Island
opened in 2006, offering domestic flights. Rail[edit] Greater Osaka
Osaka
has a very extensive network of railway lines, comparable to that of Greater Tokyo. Main rail terminals in the city include, Umeda, Namba, Tennoji, Kyobashi, and Yodoyabashi. High Speed Rail[edit] Main articles: Shin-Ōsaka Station, Tōkaidō Shinkansen, and Sanyō Shinkansen See also: Central Japan
Japan
Railway Company and West Japan
Japan
Railway Company JR Central
JR Central
and JR West
JR West
operate high-speed trains on the Tōkaidō- Sanyō Shinkansen
Sanyō Shinkansen
line. Shin-Ōsaka Station
Shin-Ōsaka Station
acts as the Shinkansen
Shinkansen
terminal station, though the two lines are physically joined, and many trains offer through service. This station is connected to Ōsaka Station
Ōsaka Station
at Umeda
Umeda
by the JR Kyoto
Kyoto
Line and the subway Midōsuji Line. Shin- Osaka
Osaka
Station and Kyoto
Kyoto
Station are the busiest high-speed stations. The smaller stations of Shin-Kobe Station, Nishi-Akashi Station, Himeji
Himeji
Station, and Aioi Station also are within the Keihanshin
Keihanshin
area. All trains on the two Shinkansen
Shinkansen
lines stop at Shin-Ōsaka Station
Shin-Ōsaka Station
and provide connections to other major cities in Japan. The Tokaido Shinkansen
Shinkansen
offers service to the east, stopping in such cities as Kyoto, Nagoya, Yokohama
Yokohama
and Tokyo. From Tokyo
Tokyo
connections can be made to other Shinkansen
Shinkansen
servicing areas north of Tokyo. The Sanyo Shinkansen
Shinkansen
offers service to the west, stopping in such cities as Kobe, Okayama, Hiroshima, and Fukuoka. Through service is also offered to the Kyushu
Kyushu
Shinkansen
Shinkansen
extending service to such cities as Kumamoto and Kagoshima. There are also numerous Limited Express services which operate on conventional lines, but are designed for comfortable long distance travel. Many of these trains operate at speeds that most other countries would consider "high-speed". From Osaka, Limited Express services connect most major cities within the Keihanshin
Keihanshin
area and beyond, and are more popular than the Shinkansen
Shinkansen
for connections within the area due to service to more areas and more centrally located and well connected stations in areas also serviced by Shinkansen. Lower ticket prices also encourages usage, though they are more expensive than the regular/commuter trains which operate on the same lines. Commuter Rail[edit] See also: Keihan Electric Railway, Hankyu Railway, Hanshin Electric Railway, Kintetsu Railway, and Nankai Electric Railway Both JR West
JR West
and private lines connect Osaka
Osaka
and its suburbs. The commuter rail network of JR West
JR West
is called the Urban Network. Major stations on the JR Osaka
Osaka
Loop Line include Osaka
Osaka
(Umeda), Tennōji, Tsuruhashi, and Kyōbashi. JR West
JR West
competes with such private rail operators as Keihan Electric Railway, Hankyu Railway, Hanshin Railway, Kintetsu Railway, and Nankai Electric Railway. The Keihan and Hankyu lines connect to Kyoto; the Hanshin and Hankyu lines connect to Kobe; the Kintetsu lines connect to Nara, Yoshino, Ise and Nagoya; and the Nankai lines connect to Osaka's southern suburbs and Kansai International Airport
Airport
as well as Wakayama
Wakayama
and Mt. Koya. Many lines in Greater Osaka
Osaka
accept either ICOCA
ICOCA
or PiTaPa
PiTaPa
contactless smart cards for payment.[11] Municipal Subway[edit]

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The Osaka
Osaka
Municipal Subway system is a part of Osaka's extensive rapid transit system. The Metro system alone ranks 13th in the world by annual passenger ridership, serving over 912 million people annually (a quarter of Greater Osaka
Osaka
Rail System's 4 billion annual riders), despite being only 8 of more than 70 lines in the metro area. Economy[edit] GDP (purchasing power parity) 2015[edit]

Umeda
Umeda
Sky Building

Compared with other urban regions of the world, the agglomeration of Osaka- Kobe
Kobe
is the ninth largest economy, in terms of gross metropolitan product at purchasing power parity (PPP), in 2015 according to a study by the Brookings Institution.[12]

Rank Metro area Country GDP(PPP) (in billion US$)

1 Tokyo  Japan

1,624

2 New York  United States

1,492

3 Los Angeles  United States

927.6

4 Seoul-Incheon  South Korea

903.5

5 London  United Kingdom

831.1

6 Paris  France

818.5

7 Shanghai  China

809.5

8 Moscow  Russia

749.7

9 Osaka-Kobe  Japan

681.0

10 Beijing  China

663.6

Metropolitan Employment Areas[edit]

GDP based on PPP (in billion US$)[13][14]

Area 1980 1985 1990 1995 2010

Osaka
Osaka
MEA 119.5 162.5 235.7 272.2 406.3

Kyoto
Kyoto
MEA 23.7 34.0 45.7 53.9 90.6

Kobe
Kobe
MEA 22.0 31.0 44.0 48.7 75.5

Himeji
Himeji
MEA 7.3 10.1 13.7 17.3 26.4

Wakayama
Wakayama
MEA 5.7 7.6 8.6 9.7 19.3

Prefectures[edit]

Osaka
Osaka
Bay at night

2014 average exchange rate (1 US dollar
US dollar
= 110 yen)[15]

Prefecture Gross Prefecture Product (in billion yen)[16] Gross Prefecture Product (in billion US$)

 Osaka

37,934

358

 Hyōgo

19,788

187

Kyoto

10,054

95

 Shiga

5,846

55

 Wakayama

3,579

34

 Nara

3,541

33

Kansai
Kansai
Region

80,741

762

GDP (nominal) 2014[edit] Kansai
Kansai
region and Top 20 Countries.[17]

Rank Country GDP (in US$)

1  United States

17.43 trillion

2  China

10.53 trillion

3  Japan

4.85 trillion

・・・

15  Mexico

1.30 trillion

16  Turkey

934.1 billion

17  Indonesia

891.1 billion

18  Netherlands

881.0 billion

( Kansai
Kansai
Region)

762.1 billion

19  Saudi Arabia

756.4 billion

20   Switzerland

709.3 billion

See also[edit]

Osaka
Osaka
portal

Hanshin Industrial Region ( Osaka
Osaka
and Kobe
Kobe
area) Kamigata Kansai
Kansai
region Kansai
Kansai
Science City Keihanshin
Keihanshin
industrial region List of metropolitan areas by population List of metropolitan areas in Asia by population List of metropolitan areas in Japan
Japan
by population

References[edit]

^ Statistics Bureau of Japan ^ a b Japan
Japan
Statistics Bureau - "2010 Census", retrieved August 23, 2015 ^ Brookings Institution
Brookings Institution
report 2015, retrieved August 23, 2015 ^ Mastercard Worldwide - " Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index 2008" page 8 and 22, retrieved June 11, 2008 ^ NationMaster.com ^ Japan
Japan
Statistics Bureau - Basic Figures for Range of Distance ^ University of Tokyo
University of Tokyo
- Overview of Urban Employment Areas Archived 2007-02-02 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d e University of Tokyo
University of Tokyo
- Urban Employment Area
Urban Employment Area
Code Tables ^ Japan
Japan
Statistics Bureau - Definition of Major Metropolitan Area ^ http://www.stat.go.jp/data/jyutaku/2013/pdf/daitoshi-i.pdf ^ JR West. "JRおでかけネット - きっぷ・サービス案内 - ご利用可能エリア 近畿圏エリア" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2008-02-25.  ^ Redefining Global Cities ^ Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo.  ^ Conversion rates - Exchange rates - OECD Data ^ Yearly average currency exchange rates ^ Gross Prefecture Product 2014 ^ World Economic Outlook Database October 2017

v t e

World's twenty most populous metropolitan areas

   

1 Tokyo-Yokohama 2 Shanghai 3 Jakarta 4 Delhi 5 Seoul-Incheon

  6 Karachi   7 Guangzhou   8 Beijing   9 Shenzhen   7 Mexico
Mexico
City

11 São Paulo 12 Lagos 13 Mumbai 14 Cairo 15 New York

16 Osaka 17 Moscow 18 Wuhan 19 Chengdu 20 Dhaka

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

v t e

Metropolitan areas in Japan
Japan
with a population of over a million

Hokkaido
Hokkaido
region

Sapporo(ja)

Ishikari Shiribeshi Sorachi

Tōhoku region

Sendai(ja)

Miyagi

Kantō region

Utsunomiya(ja)

Tochigi

Maebashi(ja)

Gunma

Tokyo(ja)

Saitama Chiba Tokyo Kanangawa Ibaraki Yamanashi

Chūbu region

Niigata(ja)

Niigata

Shizuoka(ja)

Shizuoka

Hamamatsu(ja)

Shizuoka

Nagoya(ja)

Gifu Aichi Mie

Kinki region

Kyoto(ja)

Shiga Kyoto

Osaka(ja)

Kyoto Osaka Hyogo Nara Wakayama

Kobe(ja)

Hyogo

Chūgoku region

Okayama(ja)

Okayama

Hiroshima(ja)

Hiroshima

Kyushu
Kyushu
region

Kitakyushu(ja)

Fukuoka

Fukuoka(ja)

Fukuoka Saga

Kumamoto(

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