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Kayaking
Kayaking
is the use of a kayak for moving across water. It is distinguished from canoeing by the sitting position of the paddler and the number of blades on the paddle. A kayak is a low-to-the-water, canoe-like boat in which the paddler sits facing forward, legs in front, using a double-bladed paddle to pull front-to-back on one side and then the other in rotation.[1] Most kayaks have closed decks, although sit-on-top and inflatable kayaks are growing in popularity as well.[2]

Contents

1 History 2 Design 3 Equipment

3.1 Types of kayaks

4 Activities involving kayaks

4.1 Diving 4.2 Fishing 4.3 Ecotourism

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Kayaks were created thousands of years ago by the Inuit, formerly known as Eskimos, of the northern Arctic
Arctic
regions. They used driftwood and sometimes the skeleton of whale, to construct the frame of the kayak, and animal skin, particularly seal skin was used to create the body. The main purpose for creating the kayak, which literally translates to "hunter's boat" was for hunting and fishing.[3] The kayak's stealth capabilities, allowed for the hunter to sneak up behind animals on the shoreline, and successfully catch their prey. By the mid-1800s the kayak became increasingly popular and the Europeans became interested. German and French men began kayaking for sport. In 1931, a man named Adolf Anderle became the first person to kayak down the Salzachofen Gorge, this is where the birthplace of modern-day white-water kayaking is believed to have begun. Kayak
Kayak
races were introduced in the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936. In the 1950s fiberglass kayaks were developed and commonly used, until 1980s when polyethylene plastic kayaks came about. Kayaking
Kayaking
progressed as a fringe sport in the U.S. until the 1970s, when it became a mainstream popular sport. Now, more than 10 white water kayaking events are featured in the Olympics.[4] While kayaking represents a key international watersport, few academic studies have (to date) been conducted on the role kayaking plays in the lives and activities of the public [5] Design[edit] Kayaks can also be classified by their design and the materials from which they are made. Each design has its specific advantage, including performance, manoeuvrability, stability and paddling style. Kayaks can be made of metal, fibreglass, wood, plastic, fabrics, and inflatable fabrics such as PVC
PVC
or rubber, and more recently expensive but feather light carbon fiber. Each material also has its specific advantage, including strength, durability, portability, flexibility, resistance to ultraviolet and storage requirements. For example, wooden kayaks can be created from kits or built by hand. Stitch and glue, plywood kayaks can be lighter than any other material except skin-on frame. Inflatable kayaks, made from lightweight fabric, can be deflated and easily transported and stored, and considered to be remarkably tough and durable compared to some hard-sided boats.[6]

Glowworm Kayaking
Kayaking
at Waimarino Adventure Park

Equipment[edit] There are many types of kayaks used in flat water and white water kayaking. The sizes and shapes vary drastically depending on what type of water to be paddled on and also what the paddler would like to do. The second set of essentials for kayaking is an off-set paddle where the paddle blades are tilted to help reduce wind resistance while the other blade is being used in the water. These vary in length and also shape depending on the intended use, height of the paddler and often, the paddler's preference. Kayaks should be equipped with one or more buoyancy aid (also called flotation) which creates air space that helps prevent a kayak from sinking when filled with water; life jacket should be worn at all times (also called a personal flotation device or PFD), a helmet is also often required for most kayaking and is mandatory for white water kayaking[7].[8] Various other pieces of safety gear include: a whistle for signaling for help; throwing ropes to help rescue other kayakers; and, a diving knife and appropriate water shoes should used depending upon the risks the water and terrain pose. Proper clothing such as a dry suit, wet suit or spray top also help protect kayakers from cold water or air temperatures.[9] Types of kayaks[edit] "Sit on top" kayaks place the paddler in an open, shallowly-concave deck above the water level.[10] "Cockpit style" involves sitting with the legs and hips inside the kayak hull with a spray deck or "spray skirt" that creates a water-resistant seal around the waist. "Inflatables" are a hybrid of the two previous configurations; these boats have an open deck, but the paddler sits below the level of the deck. "Tandems" are configured for multiple paddlers, in contrast to the single person designs featured by most kayaks. Tandems can be used by two or even three paddlers. Activities involving kayaks[edit]

Sea kayaking
Sea kayaking
at Wilson's Promontory
Wilson's Promontory
in Victoria, Australia

Because of their range and adaptability, kayaks can be useful for other outdoor activities such as diving, fishing, wilderness exploration and search and rescue during floods.[11] Diving[edit] Main article: Kayak
Kayak
diving Kayak
Kayak
diving is a type of recreational diving where the divers paddle to a diving site in a kayak carrying all their gear to the place they want to dive. The range can be up to several kilometres along the coastline from the launching point to a place where access would be difficult from the shore, although the sea is sheltered. It is a considerably cheaper alternative to using a powered boat, as well as combining the experience of sea kayaking at the same time. Kayak diving gives the diver independence from dive boat operators, while allowing dives at sites which are too far to comfortably swim, but are sufficiently sheltered.[12] Fishing[edit] Main article: Kayak
Kayak
fishing Kayak
Kayak
fishing is fishing from a kayak. The kayak has long been a means of transportation and a stealth means of approaching easily spooked fish, such as cobia and flounder. Kayak
Kayak
fishing has gained popularity in recent times due to its broad appeal as an environmentally friendly and healthy method of transportation, as well as its relatively low cost of entry compared to motorized boats.[13][14] Ecotourism[edit] Main article: Ecotourism

Ecotour guide stands on a kayak spotting dolphins and manatees, around Lido Key

Ecotourism
Ecotourism
based on kayak trips is gaining in popularity. In warm-water vacation destinations such as Sarasota Keys, guided kayak trips take kayakers on a tour of the local ecosystem. Kayakers can watch dolphins breach and manatees eat sea grass, in shallow bay water.[15] See also[edit] Main article: Outline of canoeing and kayaking

Water sports portal

Kayak Canoeing Whitewater
Whitewater
kayaking Surf kayaking Canoe
Canoe
slalom Canoe
Canoe
polo Quadrathlon

References[edit]

^ "ICF - Canoeing, Kayaking
Kayaking
and Rowing: So what's the difference anyway?". Canoeicf.com. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved 2013-11-07.  ^ " Kayak
Kayak
Review". Kayak
Kayak
Review. Retrieved July 18, 2015.  ^ "The Interesting History of Kayaks and the Sport of Kayaking". surftosummit.com. Archived from the original on 2015-07-06. Retrieved 2015-07-06.  ^ "History of Kayaking
Kayaking
- HowStuffWorks". Retrieved 2015-07-06.  ^ Parker, Christopher J.; May, Andrew; Mitchell, Val (2013). "The Role of VGI and PGI in Supporting Outdoor Activities". Applied Ergonomics. 44 (6): 886-94. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2012.04.013.  ^ Brown, Kevin. "What Is Best For You; An Inflatable Kayak
Kayak
Or A Hard-Shell Kayak?". Surf to Summit. Retrieved July 18, 2015.  ^ " Kayak
Kayak
Safety – Essential Paddling Safety Tips". Globo Outdoors. Retrieved 19 January 2018.  ^ Bigelow, Jodi (2008). Kayaking
Kayaking
for Fitness. The Heliconia Press. Retrieved 13 July 2015.  ^ "American Canoe
Canoe
Association: Paddling 101: A Newcomer's Guide to Safe Canoeing
Canoeing
and Kayaking" (PDF).  ^ "Why a sit-on-top kayak?". Ocean Kayak. Retrieved July 18, 2015.  ^ "Equipments". Wiltshire Search and Rescue. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. Retrieved July 18, 2015.  ^ Francis, John (August 2003). " Kayak
Kayak
diving". How to Scuba Dive. Scuba Diving magazine. Retrieved 23 February 2014.  ^ Routh, Cory (2008) Kayak
Kayak
Fishing : The Complete Guide No Nonsense Guides. ISBN 978-1-892469-19-9; Burnley, Ric (2007) The Complete Kayak
Kayak
Fisherman. Burford Books. ISBN 978-1-58080-147-8; Daubert, Ken (2001) Kayakfishing : The Revolution. Coelacanth Pubns. ISBN 978-0-9678098-2-3; Null, Scott and Mcbride, Joel (2009) Kayak
Kayak
Fishing: The Ultimate Guide 2nd Edition. Heliconia Press. ISBN 978-1-896980-43-0 ^ "Cost Effective Fishing". Retrieved 7 August 2016.  ^ " Kayak
Kayak
Coasting, SRQ Magazine(2015)". Retrieved 2017-04-02. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Kayaking
Kayaking
at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Canoeing
Canoeing
and kayaking

Main disciplines

Canoe
Canoe
sprint Canoe
Canoe
slalom Canoe
Canoe
marathon Canoe
Canoe
polo Wildwater canoeing Canoe
Canoe
sailing Playboating Paracanoe

Olympics

Summer Olympics Male medalists Female medalists Venues

Other disciplines

Creeking Dragon boating Extreme racing Playboating Surf skiing Surf kayaking Snow boating Squirt boating Standup paddleboarding

ICF championships

Sprint (Men's Canadian medalists Women's Canadian medalists Men's kayak medalists Women's kayak medalists Paracanoe medalists) Slalom (Men's canoe medalists Women's canoe medalists Men's kayak medalists Women's kayak medalists Mixed canoe medalists) Slalom Junior & U23 Marathon

Recreation

Small-craft sailing Whitewater
Whitewater
canoeing / kayaking Sea kayaking Canoe
Canoe
camping Kayak
Kayak
fishing Canoe
Canoe
and Kayak
Kayak
diving Dongola racing Canoe
Canoe
orienteering Canoe
Canoe
livery Playboating

Modern boats

Canoe Kayak Concrete canoe Flyak Folding kayak International Canoe Malia Recreational kayak Sprint canoe

Traditional boats

Aleutian kayak Cayuco Chundan Vallam Dugout Fur brigade Outrigger
Outrigger
canoe Pacific Northwest Rabaska Sturgeon-nosed canoe Taimen Umiak Waka War canoe

Techniques

Canoe
Canoe
paddle strokes Eskimo
Eskimo
Rescue Kayak
Kayak
roll Portage

Equipment

Artificial whitewater Albano buoy system Outrigger Paddle Paddle
Paddle
float Paddle
Paddle
leash Royalex Sea sock Spray deck Tuilik

Kayakers

Doug Ammons Jimmy Blakeney Tyler Bradt Paul Caffyn Tad Dennis Chris Duff Nigel Foster Maria Francis Douglas C. Gordon Štěpánka Hilgertová Freya Hoffmeister Eric Jackson Ramo Kolenović Brad Ludden Andrew McAuley Mark Pollock Oskar Speck Rush Sturges Clay Wright Alexander Yermilov

Venues

Canoeing
Canoeing
and kayaking venues

Competitions

List of world records in canoeing Adirondack Canoe
Canoe
Classic Au Sable River Canoe
Canoe
Marathon Devizes to Westminster International Canoe
Canoe
Marathon Dusi Canoe
Canoe
Marathon Hawkesbury Canoe
Canoe
Classic YMCA Massive Murray Paddle National Student Rodeo Thameside Series Waterside Series Riverland Paddling Marathon

Festivals

Canadian International Dragon Boat Festival Duanwu Festival Hong Kong Dragon Boat Festival in New York Houston Dragon Boat Festival Lethbridge Dragon Boat Festival Ottawa Dragon Boat Festival Toronto International Dragon Boat Race Festival

Governing bodies

European Canoe
Canoe
Association American Canoe
Canoe
Association Australian Canoeing British Canoeing British Dragon Boat Racing Association Canoe
Canoe
Kayak
Kayak
Canada Canoe
Canoe
Wales Croatian Canoe
Canoe
Federation Israel Canoe
Canoe
Association Scottish Canoe
Canoe
Association Portuguese Canoe
Canoe
Federation USA Canoe/Kayak

Other organisations

Association of International Paddle
Paddle
Sport Federations Canadian Canoe
Canoe
Museum International Dragon Boat Federation Sir Alexander Mackenzie Canada Sea-to-Sea Bicentennial Expeditions UK Rivers Access Campaign

Media

La Chasse-galerie Paddle-to-the-Sea
Paddle-to-the-Sea
(film) The Rise and Fall of the Great

.