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Kashmir
Kashmir
is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley
Kashmir Valley
between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range. Today, it denotes a larger area that includes the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
(which includes the region of Jammu, Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley, Ladakh
Ladakh
and Siachen), the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir
Azad Kashmir
and Gilgit-Baltistan, and Chinese-administered territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract.[1][2][3] In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region
Kashmir region
became an important centre of Hinduism
Hinduism
and later of Buddhism; later still, in the ninth century, Kashmir Shaivism
Kashmir Shaivism
arose.[4] In 1339, Shah Mir
Shah Mir
became the first Muslim
Muslim
ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Shah Mir
Shah Mir
dynasty.[5] Kashmir
Kashmir
was part of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
from 1586 to 1751,[6] and thereafter, until 1820, of the Afghan Durrani Empire.[5] That year, the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir.[5] In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War, and upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, became the new ruler of Kashmir. The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until the partition of India
India
in 1947, when the former princely state of the British Raj
British Raj
was claimed by both Pakistan
Pakistan
and India. Since 1947, the greater region of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
has been embroiled in a territorial dispute between India, Pakistan
Pakistan
and China
China
— with India
India
controlling approximately 43% of the region and 70% of its population. Pakistan
Pakistan
controls roughly 37% of the region while China controls the remaining 20%.[7][1][2] Kashmir
Kashmir
is widely regarded as the world's most militarized zone — the region has witnessed three major wars between India
India
and Pakistan, another limited war between India
India
and China, numerous border skirmishes, high mountainous warfare, an ongoing insurgency, a mass Hindu
Hindu
exodus and internal civilian unrest.[8]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
in Kashmir 2.2 Shah Mir
Shah Mir
Dynasty 2.3 Mughal rule 2.4 Afghan rule 2.5 Sikh rule 2.6 Princely state 2.7 1947 and 1948 2.8 Current status and political divisions

3 Demographics 4 Economy

4.1 Transport

5 See also 6 Notes 7 Bibliography 8 Historical sources 9 External links

Etymology[edit] The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word for Kashmir
Kashmir
was káśmīra.[9] The Nilamata Purana describes the Valley's origin from the waters, a lake called Sati-saras.[10][11] A popular, but uncertain, local etymology of Kashmira is that it is land desiccated from water.[12] An alternative, but also uncertain, etymology derives the name from the name of the sage Kashyapa
Kashyapa
who is believed to have settled people in this land. Accordingly, Kashmir
Kashmir
would be derived from either kashyapa-mir (Kashyapa's Lake) or kashyapa-meru (Kashyapa's Mountain).[12] The Ancient Greeks called the region Kasperia which has been identified with Kaspapyros of Hecataeus of Miletus
Hecataeus of Miletus
(apud Stephanus of Byzantium) and Kaspatyros of Herodotus
Herodotus
(3.102, 4.44). Kashmir
Kashmir
is also believed to be the country meant by Ptolemy's Kaspeiria.[13] Cashmere is an archaic spelling of present-Kashmir, and in some countries it is still spelled this way. In the Kashmiri language, Kashmir
Kashmir
itself is known as Kasheer.[14] History[edit] Main article: History of Kashmir Further information: Timeline of the Kashmir conflict
Kashmir conflict
and Kashmir conflict Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
in Kashmir[edit] Further information: Buddhism
Buddhism
in Kashmir
Kashmir
and Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism

Surya
Surya
temple at Martand, photographed by John Burke, 1868.

Martand
Martand
Sun temple, built in 8th-century CE in Anantnag, Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
is dedicated to Mārtanda.

This general view of the unexcavated Buddhist
Buddhist
stupa near Baramulla, with two figures standing on the summit, and another at the base with measuring scales, was taken by John Burke in 1868. The stupa, which was later excavated, dates to 500 CE.

During ancient and medieval period, Kashmir
Kashmir
has been an important centre for the development of a Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
syncretism, in which Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
and Yogachara
Yogachara
were blended with Shaivism
Shaivism
and Advaita Vedanta. The Buddhist
Buddhist
Mauryan emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
is often credited with having founded the old capital of Kashmir, Shrinagari, now ruins on the outskirts of modern Srinagar. Kashmir
Kashmir
was long to be a stronghold of Buddhism.[15] As a Buddhist
Buddhist
seat of learning, the Sarvastivada school strongly influenced Kashmir.[16] East and Central Asian Buddhist
Buddhist
monks are recorded as having visited the kingdom. In the late 4th century CE, the famous Kuchanese monk Kumārajīva, born to an Indian noble family, studied Dīrghāgama and Madhyāgama in Kashmir under Bandhudatta. He later became a prolific translator who helped take Buddhism
Buddhism
to China. His mother Jīva is thought to have retired to Kashmir. Vimalākṣa, a Sarvāstivādan Buddhist
Buddhist
monk, travelled from Kashmir
Kashmir
to Kucha
Kucha
and there instructed Kumārajīva
Kumārajīva
in the Vinayapiṭaka. Karkoṭa Empire
Karkoṭa Empire
(625 CE – 885 CE) was a powerful Hindu
Hindu
empire, which originated in the region of Kashmir.[17] It was founded by Durlabhvardhana during the lifetime of Harsha. The dynasty marked the rise of Kashmir
Kashmir
as a power in South Asia.[18] Avanti Varman ascended the throne of Kashmir
Kashmir
on 855 CE, establishing the Utpala dynasty and ending the rule of Karkoṭa dynasty.[19] According to tradition, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
visited the pre-existing Sarvajñapīṭha (Sharada Peeth) in Kashmir
Kashmir
in the late 8th century or early 9th century CE. The Madhaviya Shankaravijayam states this temple had four doors for scholars from the four cardinal directions. The southern door of Sarvajna Pitha was opened by Adi Shankara.[20] According to tradition, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
opened the southern door by defeating in debate all the scholars there in all the various scholastic disciplines such as Mīmāṃsā, Vedanta
Vedanta
and other branches of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy; he ascended the throne of Transcendent wisdom of that temple.[21] Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
(c. 950–1020 CE[22][23]) was one of India's greatest philosophers, mystics and aestheticians. He was also considered an important musician, poet, dramatist, exegete, theologian, and logician[24][25] – a polymathic personality who exercised strong influences on Indian culture.[26][27] He was born in the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley[28] in a family of scholars and mystics and studied all the schools of philosophy and art of his time under the guidance of as many as fifteen (or more) teachers and gurus.[29] In his long life he completed over 35 works, the largest and most famous of which is Tantrāloka, an encyclopaedic treatise on all the philosophical and practical aspects of Trika and Kaula
Kaula
(known today as Kashmir Shaivism). Another one of his very important contributions was in the field of philosophy of aesthetics with his famous Abhinavabhāratī commentary of Nāṭyaśāstra of Bharata Muni.[30] In the 10th century Mokshopaya
Mokshopaya
or Moksopaya Shastra, a philosophical text on salvation for non-ascetics (moksa-upaya: 'means to release'), was written on the Pradyumna hill in Srinagar.[31][32] It has the form of a public sermon and claims human authorship and contains about 30,000 shloka's (making it longer than the Ramayana). The main part of the text forms a dialogue between Vashistha
Vashistha
and Rama, interchanged with numerous short stories and anecdotes to illustrate the content.[33][34] This text was later (11th to the 14th century CE)[35] expanded and vedanticised, which resulted in the Yoga Vasistha.[36] Queen Kota Rani was medieval Hindu
Hindu
ruler of Kashmir, ruling until 1339. She was a notable ruler who is often credited for saving Srinagar
Srinagar
city from frequent floods by getting a canal constructed, named after her "Kutte Kol". This canal receives water from Jhelum River at the entry point of city and again merges with Jhelum river beyond the city limits.[37] Shah Mir
Shah Mir
Dynasty[edit]

Gateway of enclosure, (once a Hindu
Hindu
temple) of Zein-ul-ab-ud-din's Tomb, in Srinagar. Probable date 400 to 500 CE, 1868. John Burke. Oriental and India
India
Office Collection. British Library.

Shams-ud-Din Shah Mir
Shah Mir
(reigned 1339–42) was the first Muslim
Muslim
ruler of Kashmir[38] and founder of the Shah Mir
Shah Mir
dynasty.[38][39] Kashmiri historian Jonaraja, in his Dvitīyā Rājataraṅginī mentioned Shah Mir was from Swat, and his ancestors were Kshatriya, who converted to Islam.

Shāh Mīr arrived in Kashmir
Kashmir
in 1313, along with his family, during the reign of Sūhadeva (1301–20), whose service he entered. In subsequent years, through his tact and ability, Shāh Mīr rose to prominence and became one of the important personalities of the time. Later, after the death in 1338 of Udayanadeva, the brother of Sūhadeva, he was able to assume the kingship himself and thus laid the foundation of permanent Muslim
Muslim
rule in Kashmir. Dissensions among the ruling classes and foreign invasions were the two main factors which contributed towards the establishment of Muslim
Muslim
rule in Kashmir.[40]

Rinchan, from Ladakh, and Lankar Chak, from Dard territory near Gilgit, came to Kashmir
Kashmir
and played a notable role in the subsequent political history of the Valley. All the three men were granted Jagirs (feudatory estates) by the King. Rinchan became the ruler of Kashmir for three years. Shah Mir
Shah Mir
was the first ruler of Shah Mir
Shah Mir
dynasty, which had established in 1339 CE. Muslim
Muslim
ulama, such as Mir Sayyid
Sayyid
Ali Hamadani, arrived from Central Asia to proselytize in Kashmir
Kashmir
and their efforts converted thousands of Kashmiris
Kashmiris
to Islam[41] and Hamadani's son also convinced Sikander Butshikan to enforce Islamic law. By the late 1400s most Kashmiris
Kashmiris
had accepted Islam.[42] Mughal rule[edit] The Mughal padishah (emperor) Akbar
Akbar
conquered Kashmir, taking advantage of Kashmir's internal Sunni-Shia divisions,[43] and thus ended indigenous Kashmiri Muslim
Muslim
rule.[6] Akbar
Akbar
added it in 1586 to Kabul Subah, but Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
carved it out as a separate subah (imperial top-level province) with seat at Srinagar. Afghan rule[edit] The Afghan Durrani dynasty's Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
controlled Kashmir
Kashmir
from 1751, when weakling 15th Mughal padshah (emperor) Ahmad Shah Bahadur's viceroy Muin-ul-Mulk was defeated and reinstated by the Durrani founder Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
(who conquered, roughly, modern day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
from the Mughals and local rulers), until the 1820 Sikh triumph. The Afghan rulers brutally repressed Kashmiris
Kashmiris
of all faiths (according to Kashmiri historians).[44] Sikh rule[edit] In 1819, the Kashmir Valley
Kashmir Valley
passed from the control of the Durrani Empire of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to the conquering armies of the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
of the Punjab,[45] thus ending four centuries of Muslim rule under the Mughals and the Afghan regime. As the Kashmiris
Kashmiris
had suffered under the Afghans, they initially welcomed the new Sikh rulers.[46] However, the Sikh governors turned out to be hard taskmasters, and Sikh rule was generally considered oppressive,[47] protected perhaps by the remoteness of Kashmir
Kashmir
from the capital of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
in Lahore.[48] The Sikhs enacted a number of anti-Muslim laws,[48] which included handing out death sentences for cow slaughter,[46] closing down the Jamia Masjid in Srinagar,[48] and banning the adhan, the public Muslim
Muslim
call to prayer.[48] Kashmir
Kashmir
had also now begun to attract European visitors, several of whom wrote of the abject poverty of the vast Muslim
Muslim
peasantry and of the exorbitant taxes under the Sikhs.[46][49] High taxes, according to some contemporary accounts, had depopulated large tracts of the countryside, allowing only one-sixteenth of the cultivable land to be cultivated.[46] Many Kashmiri peasants migrated to the plains of the Punjab.[50] However, after a famine in 1832, the Sikhs reduced the land tax to half the produce of the land and also began to offer interest-free loans to farmers;[48] Kashmir
Kashmir
became the second highest revenue earner for the Sikh Empire.[48] During this time Kashmiri shawls became known worldwide, attracting many buyers, especially in the West.[48] The state of Jammu, which had been on the ascendant after the decline of the Mughal Empire, came under the sway of the Sikhs in 1770. Further in 1808, it was fully conquered by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Gulab Singh, then a youngster in the House of Jammu, enrolled in the Sikh troops and, by distinguishing himself in campaigns, gradually rose in power and influence. In 1822, he was anointed as the Raja of Jammu.[51] Along with his able general Zorawar Singh Kahluria, he conquered and subdued Rajouri (1821), Kishtwar
Kishtwar
(1821), Suru valley and Kargil
Kargil
(1835), Ladakh
Ladakh
(1834–1840), and Baltistan
Baltistan
(1840), thereby surrounding the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley. He became a wealthy and influential noble in the Sikh court.[52] Princely state[edit] Main article: Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
(princely state)

1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir
Kashmir
and Jammu. The names of regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red.

In 1845, the First Anglo-Sikh War
First Anglo-Sikh War
broke out. According to The Imperial Gazetteer of India,

" Gulab Singh
Gulab Singh
contrived to hold himself aloof till the battle of Sobraon (1846), when he appeared as a useful mediator and the trusted advisor of Sir Henry Lawrence. Two treaties were concluded. By the first the State of Lahore (i.e. West Punjab) handed over to the British, as equivalent for one crore indemnity, the hill countries between the rivers Beas and Indus; by the second the British made over to Gulab Singh
Gulab Singh
for 75 lakhs all the hilly or mountainous country situated to the east of the Indus and the west of the Ravi i.e. the Vale of Kashmir)."[45]

Drafted by a treaty and a bill of sale, and constituted between 1820 and 1858, the Princely State of Kashmir
Kashmir
and Jammu
Jammu
(as it was first called) combined disparate regions, religions, and ethnicities:[53] to the east, Ladakh
Ladakh
was ethnically and culturally Tibetan and its inhabitants practised Buddhism; to the south, Jammu
Jammu
had a mixed population of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs; in the heavily populated central Kashmir
Kashmir
valley, the population was overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim, however, there was also a small but influential Hindu minority, the Kashmiri brahmins or pandits; to the northeast, sparsely populated Baltistan
Baltistan
had a population ethnically related to Ladakh, but which practised Shia Islam; to the north, also sparsely populated, Gilgit
Gilgit
Agency, was an area of diverse, mostly Shi'a groups; and, to the west, Punch was Muslim, but of different ethnicity than the Kashmir
Kashmir
valley.[53] After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, in which Kashmir
Kashmir
sided with the British, and the subsequent assumption of direct rule by Great Britain, the princely state of Kashmir
Kashmir
came under the suzerainty of the British Crown. In the British census of India
India
of 1941, Kashmir
Kashmir
registered a Muslim majority population of 77%, a Hindu
Hindu
population of 20% and a sparse population of Buddhists and Sikhs comprising the remaining 3%.[54] That same year, Prem Nath Bazaz, a Kashmiri Pandit
Kashmiri Pandit
journalist wrote: “The poverty of the Muslim
Muslim
masses is appalling. ... Most are landless laborers, working as serfs for absentee [Hindu] landlords ... Almost the whole brunt of official corruption is borne by the Muslim masses.”[55] Under the Hindu
Hindu
rule, Muslims faced hefty taxation, discrimination in the legal system and were forced into labor without any wages.[56] Conditions in the princely state caused a significant migration of people from the Kashmir Valley
Kashmir Valley
to Punjab
Punjab
of British India.[57] For almost a century until the census, a small Hindu
Hindu
elite had ruled over a vast and impoverished Muslim
Muslim
peasantry.[54][58] Driven into docility by chronic indebtedness to landlords and moneylenders, having no education besides, nor awareness of rights,[54] the Muslim
Muslim
peasants had no political representation until the 1930s.[58] 1947 and 1948[edit] Further information: Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict, Timeline of the Kashmir conflict, 1947 Poonch
Poonch
Rebellion, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, 1947 Jammu
Jammu
massacres, and 1947 Mirpur massacre

The prevailing religions by district in the 1901 Census of the Indian Empire.

Ranbir Singh's grandson Hari Singh, who had ascended the throne of Kashmir
Kashmir
in 1925, was the reigning monarch in 1947 at the conclusion of British rule of the subcontinent and the subsequent partition of the British Indian Empire
British Indian Empire
into the newly independent Dominion of India
India
and the Dominion of Pakistan. In the run up to 1947 there were two major parties in the princely state: the National Conference and the Muslim
Muslim
Conference. The National Conference was led by the charismatic Kashmiri leader Sheikh Abdullah who tilted towards favouring the accession of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
to India
India
whilst the Muslim
Muslim
Conference tilted towards favouring the accession of the princely state to Pakistan.[59] The National Conference enjoyed popular support in the Kashmir Valley
Kashmir Valley
whilst the Muslim
Muslim
Conference was more popular in the Jammu
Jammu
region.[60] The Hindus and Sikhs of the state were firmly in favour of joining India, as were the Buddhists.[61] However, the sentiments of the state's Muslim population were divided. Scholar Christopher Snedden states that the Muslims of Western Jammu, and also the Muslims of the Frontier Districts Province, strongly wanted Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
to join Pakistan.[62] The ethnic Kashmiri Muslims
Kashmiri Muslims
of the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley, on the other hand, were ambivalent about Pakistan[63] (possibly due to their secular nature)[64] although Snedden claims that the best-informed English language newspaper on the state's affairs, the CMG, reported on 21 October 1947 that there had been a massive upsurge in favour of Pakistan
Pakistan
in the southern section of the Kashmir Valley-which was the stronghold of the socialist Kisan Mazdoor Conference party led by Kashmiri Pandit
Kashmiri Pandit
Prem Nath Bazaz.[65] Many supporters of National Conference and Sheikh Abdullah
Sheikh Abdullah
also did support Jinnah and the Muslim
Muslim
League.[66] Conversely, The Times reported that Sheikh Abdullah's influence in Srinagar
Srinagar
was 'paramount'.[67] The fact that Kashmiris
Kashmiris
were not particularly enamoured with the idea of Pakistan
Pakistan
reflected the failure of the idea of Pan-Islamic identity in satisfying the political urges of Kashmiris.[68] At the same time there was also a lack of interest in merging with Indian nationalism.[69] According to Burton Stein's History of India,

" Kashmir
Kashmir
was neither as large nor as old an independent state as Hyderabad; it had been created rather off-handedly by the British after the first defeat of the Sikhs in 1846, as a reward to a former official who had sided with the British. The Himalayan kingdom was connected to India
India
through a district of the Punjab, but its population was 77 per cent Muslim
Muslim
and it shared a boundary with Pakistan. Hence, it was anticipated that the maharaja would accede to Pakistan
Pakistan
when the British paramountcy ended on 14–15 August. When he hesitated to do this, Pakistan
Pakistan
launched a guerrilla onslaught meant to frighten its ruler into submission. Instead the Maharaja appealed to Mountbatten[70] for assistance, and the governor-general agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India. Indian soldiers entered Kashmir
Kashmir
and drove the Pakistani-sponsored irregulars from all but a small section of the state. The United Nations was then invited to mediate the quarrel. The UN mission insisted that the opinion of Kashmiris
Kashmiris
must be ascertained, while India
India
insisted that no referendum could occur until all of the state had been cleared of irregulars."[71]

In the last days of 1948, a ceasefire was agreed under UN auspices. However, since the referendum demanded by the UN was never conducted, relations between India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
soured,[71] and eventually led to two more wars over Kashmir
Kashmir
in 1965 and 1999. India
India
has control of about half the area of the former princely state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, while Pakistan
Pakistan
controls a third of the region, the Northern Areas and Kashmir. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, "Although there was a clear Muslim
Muslim
majority in Kashmir
Kashmir
before the 1947 partition and its economic, cultural, and geographic contiguity with the Muslim-majority area of the Punjab
Punjab
(in Pakistan) could be convincingly demonstrated, the political developments during and after the partition resulted in a division of the region. Pakistan
Pakistan
was left with territory that, although basically Muslim
Muslim
in character, was thinly populated, relatively inaccessible, and economically underdeveloped. The largest Muslim
Muslim
group, situated in the Valley of Kashmir
Kashmir
and estimated to number more than half the population of the entire region, lay in Indian-administered territory, with its former outlets via the Jhelum valley route blocked."[72]

Topographic map
Topographic map
of Kasmir

Current status and political divisions[edit] Main articles: Aksai Chin, Azad Kashmir, Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, Gilgit–Baltistan, and Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract The eastern region of the former princely state of Kashmir
Kashmir
is also involved in a boundary dispute that began in the late 19th century and continues into the 21st. Although some boundary agreements were signed between Great Britain, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Russia
Russia
over the northern borders of Kashmir, China
China
never accepted these agreements, and China's official position has not changed following the communist revolution of 1949 that established the People's Republic of China. By the mid-1950s the Chinese army had entered the north-east portion of Ladakh.[72]

"By 1956–57 they had completed a military road through the Aksai Chin area to provide better communication between Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and western Tibet. India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian war of October 1962."[72]

The region is divided amongst three countries in a territorial dispute: Pakistan
Pakistan
controls the northwest portion (Northern Areas and Kashmir), India
India
controls the central and southern portion ( Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir) and Ladakh, and the People's Republic of China
China
controls the northeastern portion ( Aksai Chin
Aksai Chin
and the Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract). India controls the majority of the Siachen
Siachen
Glacier area, including the Saltoro Ridge passes, whilst Pakistan
Pakistan
controls the lower territory just southwest of the Saltoro Ridge. India
India
controls 101,338 km2 (39,127 sq mi) of the disputed territory, Pakistan
Pakistan
controls 85,846 km2 (33,145 sq mi), and the People's Republic of China
China
controls the remaining 37,555 km2 (14,500 sq mi). Jammu
Jammu
and Azad Kashmir
Azad Kashmir
lie outside Pir Panjal
Pir Panjal
range, and are under Indian and Pakistani control respectively. These are populous regions. Gilgit–Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is a group of territories in the extreme north, bordered by the Karakoram, the western Himalayas, the Pamir, and the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
ranges. With its administrative centre in the town of Gilgit, the Northern Areas cover an area of 72,971 square kilometres (28,174 sq mi) and have an estimated population approaching 1 million (10 lakhs). Ladakh
Ladakh
is a region in the east, between the Kunlun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south.[73] Main cities are Leh
Leh
and Kargil. It is under Indian administration and is part of the state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir. It is one of the most sparsely populated regions in the area and is mainly inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.[73] Aksai Chin
Aksai Chin
is a vast high-altitude desert of salt that reaches altitudes up to 5,000 metres (16,000 ft). Geographically part of the Tibetan Plateau, Aksai Chin is referred to as the Soda Plain. The region is almost uninhabited, and has no permanent settlements. Though these regions are in practice administered by their respective claimants, neither India
India
nor Pakistan
Pakistan
has formally recognised the accession of the areas claimed by the other. India
India
claims those areas, including the area "ceded" to China
China
by Pakistan
Pakistan
in the Trans-Karakoram Tract in 1963, are a part of its territory, while Pakistan
Pakistan
claims the entire region excluding Aksai Chin
Aksai Chin
and Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract. The two countries have fought several declared wars over the territory. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
established the rough boundaries of today, with Pakistan
Pakistan
holding roughly one-third of Kashmir, and India one-half, with a dividing line of control established by the United Nations. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
resulted in a stalemate and a UN-negotiated ceasefire. Demographics[edit] In the 1901 Census of the British Indian Empire, the population of the princely state of Kashmir
Kashmir
and Jammu
Jammu
was 2,905,578. Of these, 2,154,695 (74.16%) were Muslims, 689,073 (23.72%) Hindus, 25,828 (0.89%) Sikhs, and 35,047 (1.21%) Buddhists (implying 935 (0.032%) others).

A Muslim
Muslim
shawl-making family shown in Cashmere shawl manufactory, 1867, chromolith., William Simpson.

A group of Kashmiri Pandits, natives of Kashmir Valley
Kashmir Valley
belong to one of the prominent Shaiva sects of Hinduism, shown in 1895.

Among the Muslims of the Kashmir
Kashmir
province within the princely state, four divisions were recorded: "Shaikhs, Saiyids, Mughals, and Pathans. The Shaikhs, who are by far the most numerous, are the descendants of Hindus, but have retained none of the caste rules of their forefathers. They have clan names known as krams ..."[74] These kram names included "Tantre", "Shaikh", "Bat", "Mantu", "Ganai", "Dar", "Damar", "Lon", etc. The Saiyids "could be divided into those who follow the profession of religion and those who have taken to agriculture and other pursuits. Their kram name is 'Mir.' While a Saiyid retains his saintly profession Mir is a prefix; if he has taken to agriculture, Mir is an affix to his name."[74] The Mughals who were not numerous had kram names like "Mir" (a corruption of "Mirza"), "Beg", "Bandi", "Bach" and "Ashaye". Finally, it was recorded that the Pathans "who are more numerous than the Mughals, ... are found chiefly in the south-west of the valley, where Pathan colonies have from time to time been founded. The most interesting of these colonies is that of Kuki-Khel Afridis at Dranghaihama, who retain all the old customs and speak Pashto."[74] Among the main tribes of Muslims in the princely state are the Butts, Dar, Lone, Jat, Gujjar, Rajput, Sudhan and Khatri. A small number of Butts, Dar and Lone use the title Khawaja. The Khatri
Khatri
use the title Shaikh and the Gujjar use the title Chaudhary. All these tribes are indigenous to the princely state which converted to Islam
Islam
from Hinduism
Hinduism
during its arrival in the region. The Hindus were found mainly in Jammu, where they constituted a little less than 60% of the population.[74] In the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley, the Hindus represented "524 in every 10,000 of the population (i.e. 5.24%), and in the frontier wazarats of Ladhakh and Gilgit
Gilgit
only 94 out of every 10,000 persons (0.94%)."[74] In the same Census of 1901, in the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley, the total population was recorded to be 1,157,394, of which the Muslim
Muslim
population was 1,083,766, or 93.6% and the Hindu population 60,641.[74] Among the Hindus of Jammu
Jammu
province, who numbered 626,177 (or 90.87% of the Hindu
Hindu
population of the princely state), the most important castes recorded in the census were "Brahmans (186,000), the Rajputs (167,000), the Khattris (48,000) and the Thakkars (93,000)."[74] In the 1911 Census of the British Indian Empire, the total population of Kashmir
Kashmir
and Jammu
Jammu
had increased to 3,158,126. Of these, 2,398,320 (75.94%) were Muslims, 696,830 (22.06%) Hindus, 31,658 (1%) Sikhs, and 36,512 (1.16%) Buddhists. In the last census of British India
India
in 1941, the total population of Kashmir
Kashmir
and Jammu
Jammu
(which as a result of the second world war, was estimated from the 1931 census) was 3,945,000. Of these, the total Muslim
Muslim
population was 2,997,000 (75.97%), the Hindu
Hindu
population was 808,000 (20.48%), and the Sikh 55,000 (1.39%).[75] The Kashmiri Pandits, the only Hindus of the Kashmir
Kashmir
valley, who had stably constituted approximately 4 to 5% of the population of the valley during Dogra
Dogra
rule (1846–1947), and 20% of whom had left the Kashmir valley
Kashmir valley
by 1950,[76] began to leave in much greater numbers in the 1990s. According to a number of authors, approximately 100,000 of the total Kashmiri Pandit
Kashmiri Pandit
population of 140,000 left the valley during that decade.[77] Other authors have suggested a higher figure for the exodus, ranging from the entire population of over 150[78] to 190 thousand (1.5 to 190,000) of a total Pandit population of 200 thousand (200,000)[79] to a number as high as 300 thousand[80] (300,000). People in Jammu
Jammu
speak Hindi, Punjabi and Dogri, the Vale of Kashmir speaks Kashmiri and the sparsely inhabited Ladakh
Ladakh
region speaks Tibetan and Balti.[81] The total population of India's division of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
is 12,541,302[82] and Pakistan's division of Kashmir
Kashmir
is 2,580,000 and Gilgit-Baltistan
Gilgit-Baltistan
is 870,347.[83]

Administered by Area Population % Muslim % Hindu % Buddhist % Other

 India Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley ~4 million (4 million) 95% 4%* – –

Jammu ~3 million (3 million) 30% 66% – 4%

Ladakh ~0.25 million (250,000) 46% – 50% 3%

 Pakistan Azad Kashmir ~4 million (4 million) 100% – – –

Gilgit–Baltistan ~2 million (2 million) 99% – – –

 China Aksai Chin – – – – –

Trans-Karakoram – – – – –

Statistics from the BBC
BBC
In Depth report.

Brokpa
Brokpa
women from Kargil, northern Ladakh, in local costumes

Economy[edit]

Srinagar, the largest city of Kashmir

Further information: Azad Kashmir
Azad Kashmir
§ Economy, and Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
§ Economy Kashmir's economy is centred around agriculture. Traditionally the staple crop of the valley was rice, which formed the chief food of the people. In addition, Indian corn, wheat, barley and oats were also grown. Given its temperate climate, it is suited for crops like asparagus, artichoke, seakale, broad beans, scarletrunners, beetroot, cauliflower and cabbage. Fruit trees are common in the valley, and the cultivated orchards yield pears, apples, peaches, and cherries. The chief trees are deodar, firs and pines, chenar or plane, maple, birch and walnut, apple, cherry. Historically, Kashmir
Kashmir
became known worldwide when Cashmere wool
Cashmere wool
was exported to other regions and nations (exports have ceased due to decreased abundance of the cashmere goat and increased competition from China). Kashmiris
Kashmiris
are well adept at knitting and making Pashmina shawls, silk carpets, rugs, kurtas, and pottery. Saffron, too, is grown in Kashmir. Efforts are on to export the naturally grown fruits and vegetables as organic foods mainly to the Middle East. Srinagar
Srinagar
is known for its silver-work, papier-mâché, wood-carving, and the weaving of silk. The economy was badly damaged by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which, as of 8 October 2005, resulted in over 70,000 deaths in the Pakistan-controlled part of Kashmir
Kashmir
and around 1,500 deaths in Indian controlled Kashmir. The Indian-administered portion of Kashmir is believed to have potentially rich rocks containing hydrocarbon reserves.[84][85] Transport[edit] Transport is predominantly by air or road vehicles in the region.[86] Kashmir
Kashmir
has a 135 km (84 mi) long modern railway line that started in October 2009, and was last extended in 2013 and connects Baramulla
Baramulla
in the western part of Kashmir
Kashmir
to Srinagar
Srinagar
and Banihal. It is expected to link Kashmir
Kashmir
to the rest of India
India
after the construction of the railway line from Katra to Banihal
Banihal
is completed.[87] See also[edit]

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Jammu Ladakh Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict Kashmiris List of Kashmiri people 1941 Census of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir Line of Control Human rights abuses in Kashmir List of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir-related articles Cashmere (other)

Notes[edit]

^ a b "Kashmir: region, Indian subcontinent". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 July 2016.  Quote: "Kashmir, region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent. It is bounded by the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
to the northeast and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the east (both parts of China), by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab
Punjab
to the south, by Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west, and by Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to the northwest. The northern and western portions are administered by Pakistan
Pakistan
and comprise three areas: Azad Kashmir, Gilgit, and Baltistan, ... The southern and southeastern portions constitute the Indian state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir. The Indian- and Pakistani-administered portions are divided by a “line of control” agreed to in 1972, although neither country recognizes it as an international boundary. In addition, China
China
became active in the eastern area of Kashmir
Kashmir
in the 1950s and since 1962 has controlled the northeastern part of Ladakh
Ladakh
(the easternmost portion of the region)." ^ a b " Kashmir
Kashmir
territories profile". BBC. Retrieved 16 July 2016.  Quote: "The Himalayan region of Kashmir
Kashmir
has been a flashpoint between India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
for over six decades. Since India's partition and the creation of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947, the nuclear-armed neighbours have fought three wars over the Muslim-majority territory, which both claim in full but control in part. Today it remains one of the most militarised zones in the world. China
China
administers parts of the territory." ^ " Kashmir
Kashmir
profile — timeline". BBC. Retrieved 16 July 2016.  Quote: "1950s – China
China
gradually occupies eastern Kashmir
Kashmir
(Aksai Chin). 1962 – China
China
defeats India
India
in a short war for control of Aksai Chin. 1963 – Pakistan
Pakistan
cedes the Trans-Karakoram Tract
Trans-Karakoram Tract
of Kashmir
Kashmir
to China." ^ Basham, A. L. (2005) The wonder that was India, Picador. Pp. 572. ISBN 0-330-43909-X, p. 110. ^ a b c Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. Oxford University Press, Oxford and London. pp. 93–95. ^ a b Puri, Balraj (June 2009), "5000 Years of Kashmir", Epilogue, 3 (6), pp. 43–45, retrieved 31 December 2016, It was emperor Akbar
Akbar
who brought an end to indigenous Kashmiri Muslim
Muslim
rule that had lasted 250 years. The watershed in Kashmiri history is not the beginning of the Muslim
Muslim
rule as is regarded in the rest of the subcontinent but the changeover from Kashmiri rule to a non-Kashmiri rule.  ^ Margolis, Eric (2004). War at the Top of the World: The Struggle for Afghanistan, Kashmir
Kashmir
and Tibet (paperback ed.). Routledge. p. 56. ISBN 9781135955595.  ^ Coleman, Peter (2011). The Five Percent: Finding Solutions to Seemingly Impossible Conflicts (paperback ed.). Hachette UK. ISBN 9781586489229.  ^ "A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages". Dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2015-05-29.  ^ Akbar, M. J. (1991), Kashmir, behind the vale, Viking, p. 9  ^ Raina, Mohini Qasba (October 2013), Kashur The Kashmiri Speaking People, Trafford Publishing, pp. 3–, ISBN 978-1-4907-0165-3  ^ a b Snedden, Christopher (2015), Understanding Kashmir
Kashmir
and Kashmiris, Oxford University Press, pp. 22–, ISBN 978-1-84904-342-7  ^ Khan, Ruhail (2017-07-06). Who Killed Kasheer?. Notion Press. ISBN 9781947283107.  ^ P. iv ' Kashmir
Kashmir
Today' by Government, 1998 ^ A.K. Warder, Indian Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass 2000, page 256. ^ A.K. Warder, Indian Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass 2000, pages 263–264. ^ Life in India, Issue 1. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016.  ^ Kalhana (1147–1149); Rajatarangini. ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. p. 295. ISBN 978-8122-411-98-0.  ^ Shyama Kumar Chattopadhyaya (2000) The Philosophy of Sankar's Advaita Vedanta, Sarup & Sons, New Delhi ISBN 81-7625-222-0, ISBN 978-81-7625-222-5 ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002), Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, pp. 186–195  ^ Triadic Heart of Shiva, Paul E. Muller-Ortega, page 12 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 27 ^ Re-accessing Abhinavagupta, Navjivan Rastogi, page 4 ^ Key to the Vedas, Nathalia Mikhailova, page 169 ^ The Pratyabhijñā Philosophy, Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare, page 12 ^ Companion to Tantra, S.C. Banerji, page 89 ^ Doctrine of Divine Recognition, K. C. Pandey, page V ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 35 ^ Luce dei Tantra, Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta, Raniero Gnoli, page LXXVII ^ Slaje, Walter. (2005). "Locating the Mokṣopāya", in: Hanneder, Jürgen (Ed.). The Mokṣopāya, Yogavāsiṣṭha and Related Texts Aachen: Shaker Verlag. (Indologica Halensis. Geisteskultur Indiens. 7). p. 35. ^ Gallery – The journey to the Pradyumnaśikhara Archived 23 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Leslie 2003, pp. 104–107 ^ Lekh Raj Manjdadria. (2002?) The State of Research to date on the Yogavastha (Moksopaya) Archived 15 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Hanneder, Jürgen; Slaje, Walter. Moksopaya Project: Introduction. Archived 28 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Chapple, Christopher; Venkatesananda (1984), "Introduction", The Concise Yoga Vāsiṣṭha, Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. x–xi, ISBN 0-87395-955-8, OCLC 11044869  ^ Culture and political history of Kashmir, Prithivi Nath Kaul Bamzai, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1994. ^ a b Concise Encyclopeida Of World History By Carlos Ramirez-Faria, page 412 ^ The Pearson Indian History Manual for the UPSC Civil Services Page 104 "However, the situation changed with the ending of the Hindu
Hindu
rule and founding of the Shahmiri dynasty by Shahmir or Dhams-ud-din (1339–1342). The devastating attack on Kashmir
Kashmir
in 1320 by the Mongol leader, Dalucha, was a prelude to it. It is said ... The Sultan was himself a learned man, and composed poetry. He was ..." ^ Baloch, N. A.; Rafiqi, A. Q. (1998), "The Regions of Sind, Baluchistan, Multan and Kashmir" (PDF), in M. S. Asimov; C. E. Bosworth, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV, Part 1 — The age of achievement: A.D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century — The historical, social and economic setting, UNESCO, pp. 297–322, ISBN 978-92-3-103467-1  ^ Amin, Tahir; Schofield, Victoria. Kashmir. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. A large number of Muslim
Muslim
ʿulamāʿ came from Central Asia to Kashmir
Kashmir
to preach; Sayyid
Sayyid
Bilāl Shāh, Sayyid Jalāluddīn of Bukhara, Sayyid
Sayyid
Tajuddīn, his brother Sayyid
Sayyid
Ḥusayn Sīmānī, Sayyid
Sayyid
ʿAlī Ḥamadānī, his son Mir Muḥammad Hamadānī, and Shaykh Nūruddīn are some of the well-known ʿulamāʿ who played a significant role in spreading Islam.  ^ Amin, Tahir; Schofield, Victoria. Kashmir. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. The contribution of Sayyid
Sayyid
ʿAlī Hamadānī, popularly known as Shah-yi Hamadān, is legendary. Born at Hamadān (Iran) in 1314 and belonging to the Kubrawīyah order of Ṣūfīs, a branch of the Suhrawardīyah, he paid three visits to Kashmir
Kashmir
in 1372, 1379, and 1383; together with several hundred followers, he converted thousands of Kashmiris
Kashmiris
to Islam. His son Sayyid
Sayyid
Muḥammad Hamadānī continued his work, vigorously propagating Islam
Islam
as well as influencing the Muslim
Muslim
ruler Sikander (1389–1413) to enforce Islamic law and to establish the office of the Shaykh al-Islām (chief religious authority). By the end of the fifteenth century, the majority of the people had embraced Islam.  ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir
Kashmir
and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. p. 29. ISBN 9781849043427. Similarly, Sunni and Shia Kashmiris
Kashmiris
had troubles at times, with their differences offering the third Mughal Emperor, Akbar
Akbar
(ruled 1556–1605), a pretext to invade Kashmir, and capture it, in 1586.  ^ Zutshi, Chitralekha (2004). Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 35. ISBN 9781850657002. Most historians of Kashmir
Kashmir
agree on the rapacity of the Afghan governors, a period unrelieved by even brief respite devoted to good work and welfare for the people of Kashmir. According to these histories, the Afghans were brutally repressive with all Kashmiris, regardless of class or religion  ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. "Kashmir: History". pp. 94–95. ^ a b c d Schofield, Kashmir
Kashmir
in Conflict 2003, pp. 5–6 ^ Madan, Kashmir, Kashmiris, Kashimiriyat 2008, p. 15 ^ a b c d e f g Zutshi, Languages of Belonging 2004, pp. 39–41 ^ Amin, Tahir; Schofield, Victoria. Kashmir. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. During both Sikh and Dogra
Dogra
rule, heavy taxation, forced work without wages (begār), discriminatory laws, and rural indebtedness were widespread among the largely illiterate Muslim population.  ^ Zutshi, Chitralekha (2004). Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 40. ISBN 9781850656944. Kashmiri histories emphasize the wretchedness of life for the common Kashmiri during Sikh rule. According to these, the peasantry became mired in poverty and migrations of Kashmiri peasants to the plains of the Punjab
Punjab
reached high proportions. Several European travelers' accounts from the period testify to and provide evidence for such assertions.  ^ Panikkar 1930, p. 10–11, 14–34. ^ Schofield, Kashmir
Kashmir
in Conflict 2003, pp. 6–7. ^ a b Bowers, Paul. 2004. "Kashmir." Research Paper 4/28 Archived 26 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine., International Affairs and Defence, House of Commons Library, United Kingdom. ^ a b c Bose 2005, pp. 15–17 ^ Quoted in Bose 2005, pp. 15–17 ^ Kashmir. OUP.  ^ Sumantra Bose (16 September 2013). Transforming India. Harvard University Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-674-72820-2. [permanent dead link] ^ a b Talbot & Singh 2009, p. 54 ^ Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir-The Untold Story. HarperCollins Publishers India. p. 22. ISBN 9789350298985. In 1947, J&K's political scene was dominated by two parties: the All J&K National Conference (commonly called the National Conference) and the All J&K Muslim
Muslim
Conference (commonly called the Muslim Conference). Each conference had a different aspiration for J&K's status: the National Conference opposed J&K joining Pakistan; the Muslim
Muslim
Conference favoured this option.  ^ Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir-The Untold Story. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 9789350298985. The National Conference was strongest in the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley... conversely, outside the Kashmir Valley its support was much less, with perhaps five to 15 per cent of the population supporting it. The Muslim
Muslim
Conference had a lot of support in Jammu
Jammu
Province and much less in the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley.  ^ Snedden, Christopher (2012). The Untold Story of the People of Azad Kashmir. Hurst. p. 35. ISBN 9781849041508. Retrieved 30 December 2016. Those Hindus and Sikhs who comprised a majority in the eastern parts of Jammu
Jammu
province were strongly pro-Indian. Their dislike of Pakistan
Pakistan
and pro-Pakistani J&K Muslims was further heightened by the arrival of angry and agitated Hindu
Hindu
and Sikh refugees from western (Pakistani) Punjab
Punjab
after 15 August 1947. Accession to Pakistan
Pakistan
therefore, would almost certainly have seen these people either fight to retain their land or take flight to India. In the event of accession to Pakistan, Hindu
Hindu
Pandits and Sikhs in the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley, most of whom probably favoured J&K joining India, might also have fled to pro-Indian parts of J&K, or to India. Although their position is less clear, Ladakhi Buddhists probably favoured India
India
also.  ^ Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir-The Untold Story. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 9789350298985. Similarly, Muslims in Western Jammu
Jammu
Province, particularly in Poonch, many of whom had martial capabilities, and Muslims in the Frontier Districts Province strongly wanted J&K to join Pakistan.  ^ Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir-The Untold Story. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 9789350298985. An important trait evident among Kashmiris
Kashmiris
partially explains why Kashmiri Muslims
Kashmiri Muslims
were ambivalent about Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947.  ^ Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir-The Untold Story. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 9789350298985. One significant result of the concept of Kashmiriness was that Kashmiris
Kashmiris
may have been naturally attracted to secular thinking.  ^ Snedden, Christopher (2012). The Untold Story of the People of Azad Kashmir. Hurst. p. 24. ISBN 9781849041508. Retrieved 30 December 2016. The CMG, the best-informed English-language newspaper on J&K affairs, on 21 October 1947 reported that the southern Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley, which apparently was the 'stronghold' of the Kisan Mazdoor Conference, 'last week witnessed a massive upsurge in favour of Pakistan'. However, the CMG's report predated the tribal invasion of Kashmir
Kashmir
Province by one day, after which support for pro-Pakistan parties may have lessened, at least in the short term, even though southern Kashmir
Kashmir
was not directly affected by this invasion.  ^ D. A. Low (18 June 1991). Political Inheritance of Pakistan. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 237–. ISBN 978-1-349-11556-3.  ^ Snedden, Christopher (2012). The Untold Story of the People of Azad Kashmir. Hurst. p. 24. ISBN 9781849041508. Retrieved 30 December 2016. According to The Times' Special
Special
Correspondent in late October 1947, it was 'a moot point how far Abdullah's influence extends among the Kashmiri Muslims...but in Srinagar
Srinagar
his influence is paramount'.  ^ Chowdhary, Rekha (2015). Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir: Politics of Identity and Separatism. Routledge. ISBN 9781317414049. That is why, Kashmiris were not particularly enamoured with the idea of Pakistan. The developments of 1930s (when Muslim
Muslim
Conference was converted into the National Conference) and 1940s (when Kashmiri leadership took a deliberated decision to demand self-government) clearly reflected the failure of pan-Islamic identity satisfying the political urges of Kashmiris.  ^ Chowdhary, Rekha (2015). Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir: Politics of Identity and Separatism. Routledge. p. 20. ISBN 9781317414056. However, even while rejecting Pakistan, Sheikh did not agree to accept union with India
India
in an unconditional manner. He was very firm about protecting the rights and identity of Kashmiris. As Puri argues, it was the same reason that compelled the Kashmiri leaders to distance themselves from the Muslim
Muslim
politics of pre-partition India, which reflected a lack of urge to merge with Indian nationalism.  ^ Viscount Louis Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of British India, stayed on in independent India
India
from 1947 to 1948, serving as the first Governor-General of the Union of India. ^ a b Stein, Burton. 2010. A History of India. Oxford University Press. 432 pages. ISBN 978-1-4051-9509-6. Page 358. ^ a b c Kashmir. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 March 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived 13 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Jina, Prem Singh (1996), Ladakh: The Land and the People, Indus Publishing, ISBN 81-7387-057-8  ^ a b c d e f g Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. Oxford University Press, Oxford and London. pp. 99–102. ^ Brush, J. E. (1949). "The Distribution of Religious Communities in India". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 39 (2): 81–98. doi:10.1080/00045604909351998.  ^ Zutshi 2003, p. 318 Quote: "Since a majority of the landlords were Hindu, the (land) reforms (of 1950) led to a mass exodus of Hindus from the state. ... The unsettled nature of Kashmir's accession to India, coupled with the threat of economic and social decline in the face of the land reforms, led to increasing insecurity among the Hindus in Jammu, and among Kashmiri Pandits, 20 per cent of whom had emigrated from the Valley by 1950." ^ Bose 1997, p. 71, Rai 2004, p. 286, Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 274 Quote: "The Hindu
Hindu
Pandits, a small but influential elite community who had secured a favourable position, first under the maharajas, and then under the successive Congress regimes, and proponents of a distinctive Kashmiri culture that linked them to India, felt under siege as the uprising gathered force. Of a population of some 140,000, perhaps 100,000 Pandits fled the state after 1990; their cause was quickly taken up by the Hindu
Hindu
right." ^ Malik 2005, p. 318 ^ Madan 2008, p. 25 ^ CIA Factbook: India–Transnational Issues ^ " Kashmir
Kashmir
region, Indian subcontinent". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-04-05.  ^ "India, Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
population statistics". GeoHive. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
population statistics". GeoHive. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2015.  ^ Iftikhar Gilani. "Italian company to pursue oil exploration in Kashmir". Daily Times. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2009.  ^ Ishfaq-ul-Hassan. "India, Pakistan
Pakistan
to explore oil jointly". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 20 November 2009.  ^ "Local Transport in Kashmir
Kashmir
– Means of Transportation Kashmir
Kashmir
– Mode of Transportation Kashmir
Kashmir
India". Bharatonline.com. Retrieved 3 August 2012.  ^ "How to Reach Kashmir
Kashmir
by Train, Air, Bus?". Baapar.com. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 

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Evans, Alexander (2008), "Kashmiri Exceptionalism", in Rao, Aparna, The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?, pp. 713–741  Kaw, Mushtaq A. (2008), "Land Rights in Rural Kashmir: A Study in Continuity and Change from Late-Sixteenth to Late-Twentieth Centuries", in Rao, Aparna, The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?, pp. 207–234  Khan, Mohammad Ishaq (2008), "Islam, State and Society in Medieval Kashmir: A Revaluation of Mir Sayyid
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Kashmir
History", in Rao, Aparna, The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?, pp. 563–604  Witzel, Michael (2008), "The Kashmiri Pandits: Their Early History", in Rao, Aparna, The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?, pp. 37–96  Zutshi, Chitraleka (2008), "Shrines, Political Authority, and Religious Identities in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-century Kashmir", in Rao, Aparna, The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?, pp. 235–258 

Schaffer, Howard B. (2009), The Limits of Influence: America's Role in Kashmir, Brookings Institution Press, ISBN 978-0-8157-0370-9  Schofield, Victoria (2003) [First published in 2000], Kashmir
Kashmir
in Conflict, London and New York: I. B. Taurus & Co, ISBN 1860648983  Singh, Bawa Satinder (1971), "Raja Gulab Singh's Role in the First Anglo-Sikh War", Modern Asian Studies, 5 (1): 35–59, doi:10.1017/s0026749x00002845, JSTOR 311654  Zutshi, Chitralekha, Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 978-1-85065-700-2 

Historical sources[edit]

Blank, Jonah. "Kashmir–Fundamentalism Takes Root", Foreign Affairs, 78,6 (November/December 1999): 36–42. Drew, Federic. 1877. The Northern Barrier of India: a popular account of the Jammoo and Kashmir
Kashmir
Territories with Illustrations; 1st edition: Edward Stanford, London. Reprint: Light & Life Publishers, Jammu. 1971. Evans, Alexander. Why Peace Won't Come to Kashmir, Current History (Vol 100, No 645) April 2001 p. 170–175. Hussain, Ijaz. 1998. " Kashmir
Kashmir
Dispute: An International Law Perspective", National Institute of Pakistan
Pakistan
Studies. Irfani, Suroosh, ed "Fifty Years of the Kashmir
Kashmir
Dispute": Based on the proceedings of the International Seminar held at Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
24–25 August 1997: University of Azad Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, AJK, 1997. Joshi, Manoj Lost Rebellion: Kashmir
Kashmir
in the Nineties (Penguin, New Delhi, 1999). Khan, L. Ali The Kashmir
Kashmir
Dispute: A Plan for Regional Cooperation 31 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 31, p. 495 (1994). Knight, E. F. 1893. Where Three Empires Meet: A Narrative of Recent Travel in: Kashmir, Western Tibet, Gilgit, and the adjoining countries. Longmans, Green, and Co., London. Reprint: Ch'eng Wen Publishing Company, Taipei. 1971. Knight, William, Henry. 1863. Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet. Richard Bentley, London. Reprint 1998: Asian Educational Services, New Delhi. Köchler, Hans. The Kashmir
Kashmir
Problem between Law and Realpolitik. Reflections on a Negotiated Settlement. Keynote speech delivered at the "Global Discourse on Kashmir
Kashmir
2008." European Parliament, Brussels, 1 April 2008. Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George. 1841. Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh
Ladakh
and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara... from 1819 to 1825, Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971. Neve, Arthur. (Date unknown). The Tourist's Guide to Kashmir, Ladakh, Skardo &c. 18th Edition. Civil and Military Gazette, Ltd., Lahore. (The date of this edition is unknown – but the 16th edition was published in 1938). Stein, M. Aurel. 1900. Kalhaṇa's Rājataraṅgiṇī–A Chronicle of the Kings of Kaśmīr, 2 vols. London, A. Constable & Co. Ltd. 1900. Reprint, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1979. Younghusband, Francis and Molyneux, Edward 1917. Kashmir. A. & C. Black, London. Norelli-Bachelet, Patrizia. " Kashmir
Kashmir
and the Convergence of Time, Space and Destiny", 2004; ISBN 0-945747-00-4. First published as a four-part series, March 2002 – April 2003, in 'Prakash', a review of the Jagat Guru
Guru
Bhagavaan Gopinath Ji Charitable Foundation. [1] Muhammad Ayub. An Army; Its Role & Rule (A History of the Pakistan Army from Independence to Kargil
Kargil
1947–1999) Rosedog Books, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA 2005. ISBN 0-8059-9594-3.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kashmir.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kashmir.

Instrument of Accession United Nations Military Observers Group in Kashmir Official website of the Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Government (Indian-administered Kashmir) Official website of the Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Government (Pakistan-administered Kashmir)

Coordinates: 34°30′N 76°00′E / 34.5°N 76°E / 34.5; 76

v t e

Azad Kashmir
Azad Kashmir
topics

History

History of Kashmir History of Azad Kashmir History of Gilgit–Baltistan Dynasties of ancient Kashmir Sayyid
Sayyid
Dynasty Mughal Empire Durrani Empire Sikh Empire

Modern history

British East India
India
Company Princely state
Princely state
of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir Poonch
Poonch
jagir British Raj Kashmir
Kashmir
Committee 1931 agitation Partition of India 1947 Poonch
Poonch
Rebellion First Kashmir
Kashmir
War Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict Timeline of the Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict Indo-Pakistani wars Line of Control Shaksgam tract Simla Agreement Kashmir
Kashmir
insurgency Jammu
Jammu
Kashmir
Kashmir
Liberation Front Hizbul Mujahideen Kashmir
Kashmir
Solidarity Day Kashmir
Kashmir
earthquake

Government and politics

Karachi Agreement Presidents Prime Ministers Ministry of Kashmir
Kashmir
Affairs Legislative Assembly Flag Anthem Seal

Culture and places

Kashmiris
Kashmiris
(List) Language Cuisine Music Literature Ethnic groups of Azad Kashmir Diaspora Kashmiriyat

Geography

Districts Cities Pothohar Plateau Poonch
Poonch
River Neelum River Chicken's Neck (Pakistan) Line of Control

Districts

Bhimber Kotli Mirpur Muzaffarabad Hattian Bala Neelam Poonch Haveli Bagh Sudhanoti

Cities & Town

Muzaffarabad Mirpur Rawalakot Bagh Kotli

Economy

Mangla Dam Remittances to Azad Kashmir Japan
Japan
International Cooperation Agency

Education

Mirpur University of Science and Technology University of Azad Jammu
Jammu
& Kashmir University of Poonch Women University of Azad Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, Bagh Al-Khair University Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University

Sport

Quaid-e-Azam Stadium Bagh stadium

Others

Mughal Road Human rights abuses UN mediation of Kashmir

v t e

Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
topics

Capital: Srinagar
Srinagar
(Summer); Jammu
Jammu
(Winter)

History

History of Kashmir Kashyapa Dynasties of ancient Kashmir Kambojas Lalitaditya Muktapida Didda Muslim
Muslim
conquests on the Indian subcontinent Zain-ul-Abidin Shah Mir
Shah Mir
Dynasty Durrani Empire Dogra
Dogra
Empire Sikh Empire Mughal Empire East India
India
Company Gulab Singh Zorawar Singh Jamwal Indian Rebellion of 1857 British Raj Kashmir
Kashmir
Committee Partition of India Hari Singh Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict Indo-Pakistani wars
Indo-Pakistani wars
and conflicts Insurgency Darbar Move

Government and politics

Jammu
Jammu
& Kashmir
Kashmir
National Conference Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Peoples Democratic Party Instrument of Accession Article 370 All Parties Hurriyat Conference 1974 Indira-Sheikh accord Simla Agreement Sheikh Abdullah Karan Singh Omar Abdullah Syed Ali Shah Geelani Mirwaiz Umar Farooq

Culture and places

Kashmiriyat Music Cuisine Wazwan Kanger Shikara Pashmina Basohli painting Hinduism Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism Sikhism Islam Alchi Bardan Basgo Chemrey Diskit Hanle Hemis Hundur Korzok Kursha Lamayuru Likir Lingshed Mashro Matho Mulbekh Namgyal Tsemo Phugtal Phyang Rangdum Rizong Sani Sankar Saspul Shey Monastery Spituk Stakna Stok Stongdey Takthok Thikse Tonde Wanla Zangla Dzongkhul Vaishno Devi Amarnath Gulmarg Pahalgam Sonamarg Verinag Wangath Temple complex Yusmarg Zanskar Forts National parks Lakes

Districts and divisions

Jammu
Jammu
Division

Kathua Jammu Samba Udhampur Reasi Rajouri Poonch Doda Ramban Kishtwar

Kashmir
Kashmir
Division

Anantnag Kulgam Pulwama Shopian Badgam Srinagar Ganderbal Bandipora Baramulla Kupwara

Ladakh
Ladakh
Division

Kargil Leh

Cities

Srinagar Jammu Anantnag Baramulla Pulwama Kupwara Budgam Ganderbal Shupiyan Bandipora Kulgam Doda Poonch Rajauri Ramban Reasi Samba Udhampur Kathua Kishtwar

Towns

Downtown Kokernag Magam Shangus Bijbehara Doru Pahalgam Qazigund Achabal Kargil Awantipora Tral Gurez Sopore Pattan Kangan Hazratbal Uri Kreeri Boniyar Tangmarg Rafaiabad Badami_Bagh Buchpora Munawar_Abad Nowhatta Karnah Kupwara Lolab Handwara Charari Sharief Beerwah Chadoora Khan Sahib Quimoh Pahloo Damhal Hanji Pora

Famous villages

Padgampora Iskander Pora Mazhom Rathsoon Botingoo Fatehpora Durhama Hanjiwera Hardu-Aboora Kreeri Ladoora Ogmuna Seeloo Zazun Wakura Nawabagh Ratnipora

Regions

Jammu Kashmir Ladakh

Railways

Jammu– Baramulla
Baramulla
line Bilaspur–Manali– Leh
Leh
line Jammu– Poonch
Poonch
line Srinagar–Kargil– Leh
Leh
line Srinagar
Srinagar
railway station Jammu
Jammu
Tawi railway station Udhampur
Udhampur
railway station Qazigund
Qazigund
railway station Sadura railway station Anantnag
Anantnag
railway station Budgam
Budgam
railway station Baramulla
Baramulla
railway station Pampore railway station Kakapora railway station Mazhom railway station Banihal
Banihal
railway station Bijbehara
Bijbehara
railway station Pattan
Pattan
railway station Sopore
Sopore
railway station Awantipora
Awantipora
railway station Katra railway station Power stations

Roads

Mughal Road Leh–Manali Highway National Highway 1A Srinagar
Srinagar
Jammu
Jammu
National Highway 90 Feet Road Srinagar– Baramulla
Baramulla
highway Udhampur– Jammu
Jammu
highway

Legislative Assembly elections

2002 2008 2014

Sports

Sports in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Cricket Association Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
cricket team Jammu
Jammu
& Kashmir
Kashmir
Football Association Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
football team Jammu
Jammu
& Kashmir
Kashmir
International Cricket Stadium Kashmir
Kashmir
International Half Marathon Royal Springs Golf Course, Srinagar Ladakh
Ladakh
Marathon

Other topics

Line of Control Human rights abuses Tourism United Nations Military Observer Group in India
India
and Pakistan Indian Armed Forces and the Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Floods, 2014 Tourism

v t e

Territorial disputes in East, South, and Southeast Asia

Land Islands and waters

Bhutanese enclaves
Bhutanese enclaves
( ) Bolshoy Ussuriysky/Heixiazi Island1 ( ) Kashmir2 ( ) Khao Phra Wihan1 ( ) Kalapani Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
( )

Mainland China
China
( ) North Borneo (Sabah)1 ( ) Sixty-Four Villages East of the River1 ( ) South Tibet / Arunachal Pradesh ( ) Tannu Tuva
Tuva
( ) Mongolia1 ( ) Jiangxinpo / Northern Kachin1 ( )

Kuril ( ) Liancourt Rocks ( ) Noktundo1 ( ) Paracels ( ) Senkaku ( ) Scarborough Shoal ( )

Sir Creek1 ( ) Spratlys2 ( ) Taiwan
Taiwan
Area ( ) Bạch Long Vĩ island1 ( ) Pedra Branca, Middle Rocks and South Ledge ( )

1: Inactive dispute 2: Divided among multiple claimants

v t e

Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict

Timeline of the Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict

1846–1946 1947–present

Wars & conflicts

Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 Siachen
Siachen
conflict Kargil
Kargil
War 2001–02 India– Pakistan
Pakistan
standoff 2008 Indo-Pakistani standoff

Border skirmishes

2011 2013 2014–15 2016–present

2016 Uri attack 2016 Baramulla
Baramulla
attack 2016 Nagrota army base attack

Operations

1947 Poonch
Poonch
Rebellion Operation Gibraltar Operation Grand Slam Operation Tupac Operation Bison Operation Eraze Operation All Out

Negotiations

Jinnah–Mountbatten talks UN mediation of the Kashmir
Kashmir
dispute Simla Agreement

Related

Kashmir
Kashmir
region Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
(princely state) 1947 Jammu
Jammu
massacres Rape during the Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 25357

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