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(i) (i)

The KARAKORAM, or KARAKORUM is a large mountain range spanning the borders of Pakistan
Pakistan
, India
India
, and China
China
, with the northwest extremity of the range extending to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
. It is located in the regions of Gilgit–Baltistan
Gilgit–Baltistan
(Pakistan), Ladakh
Ladakh
(India), and southern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(China), and reaches the Wakhan Corridor (Afghanistan). A part of the complex of ranges from the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
to the Himalayan Range, it is one of the Greater Ranges of Asia
Asia
. The Karakoram
Karakoram
is home to the four most closely located peaks over 8000m in height on earth: K2 , the second highest peak in the world at 8,611 m (28,251 ft), Gasherbrum I
Gasherbrum I
, Broad Peak
Broad Peak
and Gasherbrum II
Gasherbrum II
.

The range is about 500 km (311 mi) in length, and is the most heavily glaciated part of the world outside the polar regions. The Siachen Glacier
Glacier
at 76 kilometres (47 mi) and the Biafo Glacier
Glacier
at 63 kilometres (39 mi) rank as the world's second and third longest glaciers outside the polar regions.

The Karakoram
Karakoram
is bounded on the east by the Aksai Chin
Aksai Chin
plateau, on the northeast by the edge of the Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
, and on the north by the river valleys of the Yarkand
Yarkand
and Karakash rivers beyond which lay the Kunlun Mountains
Kunlun Mountains
. At the northwest corner are the Pamir Mountains . The southern boundary of the Karakoram
Karakoram
is formed, west to east, by the Gilgit , Indus
Indus
, and Shyok Rivers , which separate the range from the northwestern end of the Himalaya
Himalaya
range proper. these rivers flow northwest before making an abrupt turn southwestward towards the plains of Pakistan
Pakistan
. Roughly in the middle of the Karakoram
Karakoram
range is the Karakoram Pass , which was part of a historic trade route between Ladakh
Ladakh
and Yarkand
Yarkand
but now inactive.

The Tashkurghan National Nature Reserve and the Pamir Wetlands National Nature Reserve in the Karalorun and Pamir mountains have been nominated for inclusion in UNESCO
UNESCO
in 2010 by the National Commission of the People's Republic of China
China
for UNESCO
UNESCO
and has tentatively been added to the list.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name * 2 Exploration

* 3 Geology and glaciers

* 3.1 The Karakoram
Karakoram
during the Ice Age

* 4 Highest peaks

* 4.1 K-numbers

* 5 Subranges * 6 Passes * 7 Cultural references * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links

NAME

"Karakoram" is a Turkic word referencing the mountains' black gravel, as seen near Pakistan
Pakistan
's Biafo Glacier
Glacier
.

Karakoram
Karakoram
is a Turkic term meaning black gravel. The name was first applied by local traders to the Karakoram Pass . Early European travellers, including William Moorcroft and George Hayward , started using the term for the range of mountains west of the pass, although they also used the term MUZTAGH (meaning, "Ice Mountain") for the range now known as Karakoram. Later terminology was influenced by the Survey of India
India
, whose surveyor Thomas Montgomerie in the 1850s gave the labels K1 to K6 (K for Karakoram) to six high mountains visible from his station at Mount Haramukh in Kashmir
Kashmir
.

EXPLORATION

Due to its altitude and ruggedness, the Karakoram
Karakoram
is much less inhabited than parts of the Himalayas
Himalayas
further east. European explorers first visited early in the 19th century, followed by British surveyors starting in 1856.

The Muztagh Pass was crossed in 1887 by the expedition of Colonel Francis Younghusband
Francis Younghusband
and the valleys above the Hunza River
Hunza River
were explored by General Sir George K. Cockerill in 1892. Explorations in the 1910s and 1920s established most of the geography of the region.

The name Karakoram
Karakoram
was used in the early 20th century, for example by Kenneth Mason , for the range now known as the Baltoro Muztagh . The term is now used to refer to the entire range from the Batura Muztagh above Hunza in the west to the Saser Muztagh in the bend of the Shyok River in the east.

Floral surveys were carried out in the Shyok River
Shyok River
catchment and from Panamik to Turtuk village by Chandra Prakash Kala during 1999 and 2000.

GEOLOGY AND GLACIERS

Relief map of the Karakoram
Karakoram

The Karakoram
Karakoram
is in one of the world's most geologically active areas, at the plate boundary between the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasian plate . A significant part, 28-50% of the Karakoram
Karakoram
Range is glaciated, compared to the Himalaya
Himalaya
(8-12%) and Alps
Alps
(2.2%). Mountain glaciers may serve as an indicator of climate change, advancing and receding with long-term changes in temperature and precipitation. Karakoram
Karakoram
glaciers are mostly stagnating or enlarging, because, unlike in the Himalayas, many Karakoram
Karakoram
glaciers are covered in a layer of rubble which insulates the ice from the warmth of the sun. Where there is no such insulation, the rate of retreat is high.

THE KARAKORAM DURING THE ICE AGE

In the last ice age , a connected series of glaciers stretched from western Tibet
Tibet
to Nanga Parbat , and from the Tarim basin
Tarim basin
to the Gilgit District . To the south, the Indus
Indus
glacier was the main valley glacier, which flowed 120 kilometres (75 mi) down from Nanga Parbat massif to 870 metres (2,850 ft) elevation. In the north, the Karakoram
Karakoram
glaciers joined those from the Kunlun Mountains
Kunlun Mountains
and flowed down to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) in the Tarim basin.

While the current valley glaciers in the Karakoram
Karakoram
reach a maximum length of 76 kilometres (47 mi), several of the ice-age valley glacier branches and main valley glaciers, had lengths up to 700 kilometres (430 mi). During the Ice age, the glacier snowline was about 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) lower than today.

HIGHEST PEAKS

K2

The highest peaks of the Karakoram
Karakoram
are:

* K2 : 8,611 metres (28,251 ft) * Gasherbrum I
Gasherbrum I
: 8,080 metres (26,510 ft) * Broad Peak
Broad Peak
: 8,051 metres (26,414 ft) * Gasherbrum II
Gasherbrum II
: 8,035 metres (26,362 ft) * Gasherbrum III
Gasherbrum III
: 7,952 metres (26,089 ft) * Gasherbrum IV
Gasherbrum IV
: 7,925 metres (26,001 ft) * Distaghil Sar
Distaghil Sar
: 7,885 metres (25,869 ft) * Kunyang Chhish : 7,852 metres (25,761 ft) * Masherbrum I : 7,821 metres (25,659 ft) * Batura I : 7,795 metres (25,574 ft) * Rakaposhi : 7,788 metres (25,551 ft) * Batura II : 7,762 metres (25,466 ft) * Kanjut Sar : 7,760 metres (25,460 ft) * Saltoro Kangri
Saltoro Kangri
: 7,742 metres (25,400 ft) * Batura III : 7,729 metres (25,358 ft) * Saser Kangri : 7,672 metres (25,171 ft) * Chogolisa
Chogolisa
: 7,665 metres (25,148 ft) * Passu Sar : 7,478 metres (24,534 ft) * Malubiting : 7,458 metres (24,469 ft) * Sia Kangri : 7,442 metres (24,416 ft) * K12 : 7,428 metres (24,370 ft) * Skil Brum
Skil Brum
: 7,410 metres (24,310 ft) * Haramosh Peak
Haramosh Peak
: 7,397 metres (24,268 ft) * Ultar Peak : 7,388 metres (24,239 ft) * Momhil Sar : 7,343 metres (24,091 ft) * Baintha Brakk : 7,285 metres (23,901 ft) * Baltistan Peak
Baltistan Peak
: 7,282 metres (23,891 ft) * Muztagh Tower
Muztagh Tower
: 7,273 metres (23,862 ft) * Diran : 7,266 metres (23,839 ft) * Gasherbrum V : 7,147 metres (23,448 ft)

The majority of the highest peaks are in the Gilgit–Baltistan region of Pakistan. Baltistan has more than 100 mountain peaks exceeding 6,100 metres (20,000 ft) height from sea level.

K-NUMBERS

View from the top of K2

* K1: Masherbrum
Masherbrum
* K2: an unnamed 8,611m peak at the head of the Godwin-Austen Glacier
Glacier
* K3: Gasherbrum IV
Gasherbrum IV
* K3a: Gasherbrum III
Gasherbrum III
* K4: Gasherbrum II
Gasherbrum II
* K5: Gasherbrum I
Gasherbrum I
* K6: Baltistan Peak
Baltistan Peak
* K7: an unnamed 6,934m peak at the head of the Charakusa Valley * K8: an unnamed 7,422m peak on the western flank of the Siachen Glacier
Glacier
* K9: an unnamed 7,000m (approx) peak near Trango Towers * K10: Saltoro Kangri
Saltoro Kangri
I * K11: Saltoro Kangri
Saltoro Kangri
II * K12: an unnamed 7,428m subsidiary peak of Saltoro Kangri
Saltoro Kangri
* K13: Dansam 6,666m peak south west of Saltoro Kangri
Saltoro Kangri
* K22: Saser Kangri I * K25: Pastan Kangri 6,523m peak south of the Saltoro group * K35: Mamostong Kangri

SUBRANGES

View of the moon over Karakoram
Karakoram
Range in Pakistan
Pakistan

The naming and division of the various subranges of the Karakoram
Karakoram
is not universally agreed upon. However, the following is a list of the most important subranges, following Jerzy Wala. The ranges are listed roughly west to east.

* Batura Muztagh
Batura Muztagh
* Rakaposhi-Haramosh Mountains * Spantik-Sosbun Mountains * Hispar Muztagh
Hispar Muztagh
* South Ghujerab Mountains * Panmah Muztagh * Wesm Mountains * Masherbrum
Masherbrum
Mountains * Baltoro Muztagh * Saltoro Mountains * Siachen Muztagh * Rimo Muztagh * Saser Muztagh

PASSES

Chinese and Pakistani border guards at Khunjerab Pass

From west to east

* Kilik Pass
Kilik Pass
* Mintaka Pass
Mintaka Pass
* Khunjerab Pass (the highest paved international border crossing at 4,693 m (15,397 ft)) * Shimshal Pass * Mustagh Pass * Karakoram Pass * Sasser Pass

The Khunjerab Pass is the only motorable pass across the range. The Shimshal Pass (which does not cross an international border) is the only other pass still in regular use.

CULTURAL REFERENCES

The Karakoram
Karakoram
mountain range has been referred to in a number of novels and movies. Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling
refers to the Karakoram
Karakoram
mountain range in his novel Kim , which was first published in 1900. Marcel Ichac made a film titled Karakoram, chronicling a French expedition to the range in 1936. The film won the Silver Lion at the Venice Film Festival of 1937. Greg Mortenson details the Karakoram, and specifically K2 and the Balti , extensively in his book Three Cups of Tea , about his quest to build schools for children in the region. In the Gatchaman
Gatchaman
TV series, the Karakoram
Karakoram
range houses Galactor's headquarters. K2 Kahani (The K2 Story) by Mustansar Hussain Tarar describes his experiences at K2 base camp.

SEE ALSO

* Karakoram Highway
Karakoram Highway
* List of mountain ranges of the world * List of highest mountains
List of highest mountains
(a list of mountains above 7,200 m (23,600 ft)) * Mount Imeon
Mount Imeon

NOTES

* ^ Bessarabov, Georgy Dmitriyevich (7 February 2014). "Karakoram Range". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 3 May 2015. * ^ " Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
Himalayan Region". ICIMOD. Retrieved 17 October 2014. * ^ Voiland, Adam (2013). "The Eight-Thousanders". Nasa Earth Observatory. Retrieved 23 December 2016. * ^ BBC, Planet Earth, "Mountains", Part Three * ^ Tajikistan's Fedchenko Glacier
Glacier
is 77 kilometres (48 mi) long. Baltoro and Batura Glaciers in the Karakoram
Karakoram
are 57 kilometres (35 mi) long, as is Bruggen or Pio XI Glacier
Glacier
in southern Chile. Measurements are from recent imagery, generally supplemented with Russian 1:200,000 scale topographic mapping as well as Jerzy Wala,Orographical Sketch Map: Karakoram: Sheets 1 & 2, Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, Zurich, 1990. * ^ "Karakorum-Pamir". unesco. Retrieved 16 February 2013. * ^ A B C Mason, Kenneth (1928). Exploration of the Shaksgam Valley and Aghil ranges, 1926. pp. 72ff. ISBN 9788120617940 . * ^ Close C, Burrard S, Younghusband F, et al. (1930). "Nomenclature in the Karakoram: Discussion". The Geographical Journal. Blackwell Publishing. 76 (2): 148–158. doi :10.2307/1783980 . JSTOR 1783980 . * ^ French, Patrick . (1994). Younghusband: The Last Great Imperial Adventurer, pp. 53, 56-60. HarperCollinsPublishers, London. Reprint (1995): Flamingo. London. ISBN 0-00-637601-0 . * ^ Kala, Chandra Prakash (2005). "Indigenous Uses, Population Density, and Conservation of Threatened Medicinal Plants in Protected Areas of the Indian Himalayas". Conservation Biology. 19 (2): 368–378. doi :10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00602.x . * ^ Kala, Chandra Prakash (2005). "Health traditions of Buddhist community and role of amchis in trans-Himalayan region of India" (PDF). Current Science. 89 (8): 1331. * ^ Searle, Michael P., Geological evolution of the Karakoram Ranges, Ital.J.Geosci, (Boll.Soc.Geo.It.), Vol. 130, No. 2 (2011), pp. 147-159, 5 figs. (DOI: 10.3301/IJG.2011.08) * ^ Gansser (1975). Geology of the Himalayas. London: Interscience Publishers. * ^ Gallessich, Gail (2011). "Debris on certain Himalayan glaciers may prevent melting". sciencedaily.com. Retrieved January 30, 2011. * ^ Collins, Nick. "Himalayan glaciers growing despite global warming". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved October 11, 2012. * ^ Veettil, B.K. (2012). "A Remote sensing approach for monitoring debris-covered glaciers in the high altitude Karakoram
Karakoram
Himalayas". International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences. 2 (3): 833–841. * ^ A B Kuhle, M. (1988). "The Pleistocene Glaciation of Tibet
Tibet
and the Onset of Ice Ages- An Autocycle Hypothesis. Tibet
Tibet
and High Asia. Results of the Sino-German Joint Expeditions (I)". GeoJournal. 17 (4): 581–596. doi :10.1007/BF00209444 . * ^ Kuhle, M. (2006). "The Past Hunza Glacier
Glacier
in Connection with a Pleistocene Karakoram
Karakoram
Ice Stream Network during the Last Ice Age (Würm)". In Kreutzmann, H.; Saijid, A. Karakoram
Karakoram
in Transition. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press. pp. 24–48. * ^ A B C Kuhle, M. (2011). "The High Glacial (Last Ice Age and Last Glacial Maximum) Ice Cover of High and Central Asia, with a Critical Review of Some Recent OSL and TCN Dates". In Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P.L.; Hughes, P.D. Quaternary Glaciation - Extent and Chronology, A Closer Look. Amsterdam: Elsevier BV. pp. 943–965. (glacier maps downloadable) * ^ A B Kuhle, M. (2001). " Tibet
Tibet
and High Asia
Asia
(VI): Glaciogeomorphology and Prehistoric Glaciation in the Karakoram
Karakoram
and Himalaya". GeoJournal. 54 (1–4): 109–396. doi :10.1023/A:1021307330169 . * ^ Kuhle, M. (1994). "Present and Pleistocene Glaciation on the North-Western Margin of Tibet
Tibet
between the Karakoram
Karakoram
Main Ridge and the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
Supporting the Evidence of a Pleistocene Inland Glaciation in Tibet. Tibet
Tibet
and High Asia. Results of the Sino-German and Russian-German Joint Expeditions (III)". GeoJournal. Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer. 33 (2/3): 133–272. doi :10.1007/BF00812877 .

* ^ Jerzy Wala, Orographical Sketch Map of the Karakoram, Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, Zurich, 1990. * ^ Tarar, Mustansar Hussain (1994). K2 kahani. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel (published in Urdu). p. 179. ISBN 9693505239 .

REFERENCES

* Curzon, George Nathaniel . 1896. The Pamirs and the Source of the Oxus. Royal Geographical Society, London. Reprint: Elibron Classics Series, Adamant Media Corporation. 2005. ISBN 1-4021-5983-8 (pbk); ISBN 1-4021-3090-2 (hbk). * Kreutzmann, Hermann, Karakoram
Karakoram
in Transition: Culture, Development, and Ecology in the Hunza Valley, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-19-547210-3 * Mortenson, Greg and Relin, David Oliver. 2008. Three Cups of Tea
Three Cups of Tea
. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-14-103426-3 (pbk); Viking Books ISBN 978-0-670-03482-6 (hbk); Tantor Media ISBN 978-1-4001-5251-3 (MP3 CD). * Kipling, Rudyard 2002. Kim (novel)
Kim (novel)
; ed. by Zohreh T. Sullivan. New York: W. W. Norton ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Geography of South Asia
Asia

MOUNTAINS AND PLATEAUS

* Himalayas
Himalayas

* Mount Everest
Mount Everest

* Western Ghats
Western Ghats
* Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
* Aravalli Range
Aravalli Range
* Nilgiris * Vindhya Range
Vindhya Range
* Satpura Range
Satpura Range
* Garo Hills * Shivalik Hills * Mahabharat Range * Khasi Hills * Anaimalai Hills
Anaimalai Hills
* Cardamom Hills
Cardamom Hills
* Sulaiman Mountains
Sulaiman Mountains
* Toba Kakar Range * Karakoram * Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
* Chittagong Hill Tracts
Chittagong Hill Tracts
* Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
* Thar Desert
Thar Desert
* Makran
Makran
* Chota Nagpur * Naga Hills
Naga Hills
* Mysore Plateau * Ladakh
Ladakh
Plateau * Gandhamardan Hills * Malwa
Malwa

LOWLANDS AND ISLANDS

* Indo-Gangetic plain * Doab
Doab
* Indus Valley
Indus Valley
* Indus River
Indus River
Delta * Ganges Basin
Ganges Basin
* Ganges Delta
Ganges Delta
* Terai
Terai
* Atolls of the Maldives
Atolls of the Maldives
* Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
* Konkan
Konkan
* Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
* Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
* Sundarbans Reserve Forest
Sundarbans Reserve Forest
* Greater Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Protected areas in Tamil Nadu

BY COUNTRY

* India
India
* Pakistan
Pakistan
* Nepal * Bhutan * Sri Lanka * Bangladesh * Maldives * Afghanistan
Afghanistan

* v * t * e

Mountain ranges of China
China

Geography of China
China

NORTHWEST CHINA

* ALTAI MOUNTAINS * Dzungarian Alatau

* TIAN SHAN

* Borohoro Mountains * Tarbagatai Mountains

* KUNLUN MOUNTAINS

* Altyn-Tagh
Altyn-Tagh
* Qilian Mountains
Qilian Mountains

* Helan Mountains

Qinghai- Tibet
Tibet
and Southwest China
China

* HIMALAYAS * Transhimalaya

* Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains

* KARAKORAM * Argu Tagh * Yengisogat

* KUNLUN MOUNTAINS

* Hoh Xil
Hoh Xil
* BAYAN HAR MOUNTAINS * Amne Machin

* TANGGULA MOUNTAINS * Nyenchen Tanglha Mountains
Nyenchen Tanglha Mountains

* HENGDUAN MOUNTAINS

* Gaoligong Mountains * Yunling Mountains * Ailao Mountains * Qionglai Mountains * Daxue Mountains
Daxue Mountains
* Min Mountains
Min Mountains

NORTHEAST CHINA

* Greater Khingan * Lesser Khingan

* Changbai Mountains
Changbai Mountains

* Wanda Mountains * Qian Mountains

NORTHERN CHINA

* Yin Mountains

* Lang Mountains

* Lüliang Mountains * TAIHANG MOUNTAINS * Zhongtiao Mountains * QINLING * Dabie Mountains
Dabie Mountains
* Mount Tai
Mount Tai

CENTRAL CHINA

* Daba Mountains
Daba Mountains

* Wudang Mountains
Wudang Mountains
* Jingshan Mountains

* Dabie Mountains
Dabie Mountains

* Luoxiao Mountains

* Jiuling Mountains
Jiuling Mountains
* Mufu Mountains * Wugong Mountains

* Huangshan
Huangshan
* Tianmu Mountain
Tianmu Mountain
* Wuling Mountains * Xuefeng Mountains * Yandang Mountains * Wuyi Mountains

SOUTHERN CHINA

* Cang Mountain
Cang Mountain
* Daliang Mountains * Dalou Mountains

* Nanling Mountains
Nanling Mountains

* Jiuyi Mountains * Yuecheng Mountains

* Longmen Mountains * Western Mountains

Landforms of China
China

* v * t * e

Himalayan earthquakes

NOTABLE HIMALAYAN QUAKES

* 1505 Lo Mustang earthquake
1505 Lo Mustang earthquake
* 1897 Assam * 1934 Nepal–Bihar * 1947 Assam * 1950 Assam– Tibet
Tibet
* 1988 Nepal * 1991 Uttarkashi * 1999 Chamoli * 2005 Kashmir
Kashmir
* 2008 Damxung * 2009 Bhutan * 2011 Sikkim * April 2015 Nepal * May 2015 Nepal

PLATE TECTONICS

* Geology of the Himalayas
Himalayas
* Indian Plate * Eurasian Plate
Eurasian Plate
* Oldham Fault * Himalayan Frontal Fault * North Himalayan Normal Fault

* v * t * e

Territory of Gilgit-Baltistan
Gilgit-Baltistan
topics

PASSES

* Karakoram Pass * Gyong La * Gondogoro Pass
Gondogoro Pass
* Bilafond La
Bilafond La

VALLEYS

* Bagrot Valley * Naltar Valley
Naltar Valley
* Astore Valley * Nomal Valley * Gilgit Valley * Skardu Valley * Khaplu Valley * Kharmang * Shigar Valley * Roundu Baltistan * Stak Valley * Galtari

CITIES AND TOWNS

* Skardu
Skardu
* Kargil
Kargil
* Shigar
Shigar
* Khaplu * Kharmang * Roundu Baltistan * Danyor
Danyor
* Jalaalabad * Balghar * Tolti * Jutal * Barah valley * Chalunka * Chorbat Valley * Ghawari * Haldi * Hassanabad * Karimabad * Hushe Valley * Keris Valley * Khane * Kharfak * Korphe * Yugo, Baltistan
Yugo, Baltistan
* Yugupa

RIVERS, GLACIERS AND LAKES

* Baltoro Glacier
Glacier
* Biafo Glacier
Glacier
* Siachen Glacier
Glacier
* Bilafond Glacier
Glacier
* Godwin-Austen Glacier
Glacier
* Trango Glacier
Glacier
* Lake Kharfak * Satpara Lake
Satpara Lake
* Shangrila Lake * Shigar
Shigar
River * Shyok River
Shyok River
* Indus
Indus
* Hushe River * Saltoro River

ARCHITECTURE

* Chaqchan Mosque * Khanaq-e-Mullah Noorbakshia Khaplu Bala * Khaplu Palace * Shigar
Shigar
Fort * Skardu
Skardu
Fort * Baltit Fort
Baltit Fort
* Amburik Mosque

SEE ALSO

* Provincial Highways of Gilgit-Baltistan
Gilgit-Baltistan
* Karakoram Highway
Karakoram Highway
* Ladakh
Ladakh
* Line of Control
Line of Control
* Kargil War
Kargil War
* Balti language
Balti language
* History of Gilgit-Baltistan
Gilgit-Baltistan
* K2 * Balti (food)

* v * t * e

Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
topics

Capital: SRINAGAR (Summer); JAMMU (Winter)

HISTORY

* History of Kashmir
Kashmir
* Kashyapa
Kashyapa
* Dynasties of ancient Kashmir
Kashmir
* Kambojas
Kambojas
* Lalitaditya Muktapida
Lalitaditya Muktapida
* Didda * Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent
* Zain-ul-Abidin * Shah Mir Dynasty
Shah Mir Dynasty
* Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
* Dogra Empire * Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
* Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
* East India
India
Company * Gulab Singh
Gulab Singh
* Zorawar Singh * Jamwal * Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
* British Raj
British Raj
* Kashmir
Kashmir
Committee * Partition of India
India
* Hari Singh
Hari Singh
* Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict * Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts
Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts
* Insurgency * Darbar Move

Government and politics

* Jammu
Jammu
padding:0.35em 1.0em; line-height:1.1em;">Culture and places

* Kashmiriyat * Music * Cuisine * Wazwan
Wazwan
* Kanger * Shikara * Pashmina * Basohli painting
Basohli painting
* Hinduism
Hinduism
* Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism * Sikhism
Sikhism
* Islam
Islam
* Alchi * Bardan * Basgo * Chemrey * Diskit * Hanle * Hemis * Hundur * Korzok * Kursha * Lamayuru * Likir * Lingshed * Mashro * Matho * Mulbekh * Namgyal Tsemo * Phugtal * Phyang * Rangdum * Rizong * Sani * Sankar * Saspul * Shey Monastery * Spituk * Stakna * Stok * Stongdey * Takthok * Thikse * Tonde * Wanla * Zangla * Dzongkhul * Vaishno Devi
Vaishno Devi
* Amarnath * Gulmarg
Gulmarg
* Pahalgam
Pahalgam
* Sonamarg
Sonamarg
* Verinag * Wangath Temple complex * Yusmarg
Yusmarg
* Zanskar
Zanskar
* Forts * National parks * Lakes

DISTRICTS AND DIVISIONS

JAMMU DIVISION

* Kathua * Jammu
Jammu
* Samba
Samba
* Udhampur * Reasi
Reasi
* Rajouri * Poonch
Poonch
* Doda
Doda
* Ramban * Kishtwar
Kishtwar

KASHMIR DIVISION

* Anantnag
Anantnag
* Kulgam * Pulwama * Shopian * Badgam * Srinagar
Srinagar
* Ganderbal * Bandipora
Bandipora
* Baramulla
Baramulla
* Kupwara

LADAKH DIVISION

* Kargil
Kargil
* Leh

CITIES

* Srinagar
Srinagar
* Jammu
Jammu
* Anantnag
Anantnag
* Baramulla
Baramulla
* Pulwama * Kupwara * Budgam
Budgam
* Ganderbal * Shupiyan * Bandipora
Bandipora
* Kulgam * Doda
Doda
* Poonch
Poonch
* Rajauri
Rajauri
* Ramban * Reasi
Reasi
* Samba
Samba
* Udhampur * Kathua * Kishtwar
Kishtwar

TOWNS

* Downtown * Kokernag * Magam
Magam
* Shangus * Bijbehara * Doru * Pahalgam
Pahalgam
* Qazigund * Achabal * Kargil
Kargil
* Awantipora
Awantipora
* Tral * Gurez
Gurez
* Sopore * Pattan * Kangan * Hazratbal
Hazratbal
* Uri * Kreeri * Boniyar
Boniyar
* Tangmarg * Rafaiabad * Badami_Bagh * Buchpora * Munawar_Abad * Nowhatta * Karnah * Kupwara * Lolab * Handwara * Charari Sharief * Beerwah * Chadoora * Khan Sahib * Quimoh * Pahloo * Damhal Hanji Pora

Famous villages

* Padgampora * Iskander Pora * Mazhom * Rathsoon * Botingoo * Fatehpora * Durhama * Hanjiwera * Hardu-Aboora * Kreeri * Ladoora * Ogmuna * Seeloo * Zazun * Wakura * Nawabagh * Ratnipora

REGIONS

* Jammu
Jammu
* Kashmir
Kashmir
* Ladakh
Ladakh

RAILWAYS

* Jammu– Baramulla
Baramulla
line * Bilaspur–Manali–Leh line * Jammu– Poonch
Poonch
line * Srinagar–Kargil–Leh line * Srinagar
Srinagar
railway station * Jammu
Jammu
Tawi railway station * Udhampur railway station * Qazigund railway station * Sadura railway station * Anantnag
Anantnag
railway station * Budgam
Budgam
railway station * Baramulla
Baramulla
railway station * Pampore railway station * Kakapora railway station * Mazhom railway station * Banihal railway station * Bijbehara railway station * Pattan railway station * Sopore railway station * Awantipora
Awantipora
railway station * Katra railway station * Power stations

ROADS

* Mughal Road * Leh–Manali Highway
Leh–Manali Highway
* National Highway 1A * Srinagar
Srinagar
Jammu
Jammu
National Highway * 90 Feet Road * Srinagar– Baramulla
Baramulla
highway * Udhampur– Jammu
Jammu
highway

Legislative Assembly elections

* 2002 * 2008 * 2014

SPORTS

* Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
Cricket Association * Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
cricket team * Jammu
Jammu
& Kashmir
Kashmir
Football Association * Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
football team * Jammu border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Line of Control
Line of Control
* Human rights abuses * Tourism * United Nations Military Observer Group in India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
* Indian Armed Forces and the Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
Floods, 2014 * Tourism

* v * t * e

Xinjiang
Xinjiang
topics

Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(capital )

HISTORY

* Yuezhi
Yuezhi
* Xiongnu
Xiongnu

* Han dynasty
Han dynasty

* Protectorate of the Western Regions
Protectorate of the Western Regions

* Kingdom of Khotan
Kingdom of Khotan
* Sixteen Kingdoms * Gaochang
Gaochang
* Turkic Khaganate
Turkic Khaganate
(Western )

* Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty

* Protectorate General to Pacify the West * Four Garrisons of Anxi
Four Garrisons of Anxi

* Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
* Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur Khaganate
* Kingdom of Qocho
Kingdom of Qocho

* Kara-Khanid Khanate
Kara-Khanid Khanate

* Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang
Xinjiang

* Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
* Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
* Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
* Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
* Moghulistan
Moghulistan
* Kara Del
Kara Del
* Yarkent Khanate

* Dzungar Khanate

* Dzungar conquest of Altishahr
Dzungar conquest of Altishahr
* Dzungar–Qing War
Dzungar–Qing War
* Dzungar genocide
Dzungar genocide

* Kumul Khanate

* Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty

* Qing rule * General of Ili * Reconquest of Xinjiang
Xinjiang

* Republic of China
China

* Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Wars * Ili Rebellion

* People\'s Republic of China
China

* PRC incorporation

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities * Tian Shan
Tian Shan
* Dzungarian Basin * Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
* Gurbantünggüt Desert
Gurbantünggüt Desert
* Kumtag Desert * Taklimakan Desert * Turpan Depression * Karakoram
Karakoram
Mountains * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Kunlun Shan * Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
* Torugart Pass * Irkeshtam Pass * Karakoram Pass * Lanzhou– Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Railway

EDUCATION

* Xinjiang
Xinjiang
University * Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Agricultural University * Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Medical University

CULTURE

* Doppa Festival * Music * Meshrep gathering * Muqam
Muqam

CUISINE

* Dapanji * Sangza * Samsa * Youtazi * Pamirdin * Xurpa * Tohax * Tunurkawab * Chinese Islamic cuisine
Chinese Islamic cuisine

VISITOR ATTRACTIONS

* Apak Khoja and Xiang Fei Tomb * Flaming Mountains
Flaming Mountains
* Jiaohe Ruins
Jiaohe Ruins
* Gaochang
Gaochang
* Grand Bazaar, Ürümqi
Ürümqi
* Id Kah Mosque
Id Kah Mosque
* Karakul Lake * Kizil Caves * Ruins of Niya

XINJIANG CONFLICT

* 1989 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
unrest * Baren Township riot * 1992 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
bombings * Ghulja incident * 1992 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
bombings * 1997 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
bus bombings * Xinjiang
Xinjiang
raid * 2008 Uyghur unrest * 2008 Kashgar attack * Shaoguan incident * July 2009 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
riots * September 2009 Xinjiang
Xinjiang
unrest * 2010 Aksu bombing * 2011 Hotan attack * 2011 Kashgar attacks * Pishan hostage crisis * 2012 Yecheng attack * Tianjin Airlines Flight 7554 * April 2013 Bachu unrest * June 2013 Shanshan riots * 2013 Tiananmen Square attack
2013 Tiananmen Square attack
* 2014 Kunming attack * 2014 China–Vietnam border shootout * April 2014 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
attack * May 2014 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
attack * Assassination of Juma Tayir

PEOPLE

* Amursana
Amursana
* Mingrui * Jahangir Khoja * Yaqub Beg
Yaqub Beg
* Zuo Zongtang
Zuo Zongtang
* Yang Zengxin * Jin Shuren
Jin Shuren
* Sheng Shicai * Ehmetjan Qasim * Wang Zhen * Saifuddin Azizi * Rebiya Kadeer * Nur Bekri * Li Zhi * Wang Lequan * Zhang Chunxian * Ilham Tohti

RELATED

* Uyghur people
Uyghur people
* Migration to Xinjiang
Xinjiang

* East Turkestan
East Turkestan

* Independence movement

* World Uyghur Congress
World Uyghur Congress
* China–Kazakhstan relations * China–Kyrgyzstan relations * China– Pakistan
Pakistan
relations * China–Turkey relations

* CATEGORY * COMMONS

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 247643385 * GND :

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