KANGCHENJUNGA (Nepali : कञ्चनजङ्घा,
Kañcanajaṅghā), also spelled KANCHENJUNGA, is the third highest
mountain in the world , and lies partly in
Nepal and partly in Sikkim,
India . It rises with an elevation of 8,586 m (28,169 ft) in a
section of the
Kangchenjunga Himal that is limited in
the west by the
Tamur River , in the north by the Lhonak Chu and
Jongsang La , and in the east by the
Teesta River .
Kangchenjunga lies about 125 km (78 mi) east-south-east of
Mount Everest . It is the second highest mountain of the Himalayas.
Three of the five peaks – Main, Central and South – are on the
border between North
Sikkim and Nepal. Two peaks are in Nepal's
Taplejung District .
Kangchenjunga Main is the highest mountain in India, and the
easternmost of the mountains higher than 8,000 m (26,000 ft). It is
called Five Treasures of Snow after its five high peaks, and has
always been worshipped by the people of
Kangchenjunga was assumed to be the highest mountain in
the world , but calculations based on various readings and
measurements made by the
Great Trigonometrical Survey of
India in 1849
came to the conclusion that Mount Everest, known as Peak XV at the
time, was the highest. Allowing for further verification of all
calculations, it was officially announced in 1856 that Kangchenjunga
is the third highest mountain in the world.
Kangchenjunga was first climbed on 25 May 1955 by Joe Brown and
George Band , who were part of a British expedition . They stopped
short of the summit in accordance with the promise given to the
Chogyal that the top of the mountain would remain inviolate. Every
climber or climbing group that has reached the summit has followed
this tradition. Other members of this expedition included John Angelo
Jackson and Tom Mackinon.
* 1 Names
* 2 Protected areas
* 3 Geography
* 4 Climbing routes
* 5 Climbing history
* 5.1 Early reconnaissances and attempts
* 5.3 Other notable ascents
* 6 Tourism
* 7 In myth
* 8 In literature
* 9 Further reading
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 12 External links
Kangchenjunga is the official spelling adopted by Douglas Freshfield
Alexander Mitchell Kellas
Alexander Mitchell Kellas , and the
Royal Geographical Society
Royal Geographical Society that
gives the best indication of the Tibetan pronunciation. Freshfield
referred to the spelling used by the Indian Government since the late
19th century. There are a number of alternative spellings including
Kangchendzönga, Khangchendzonga, and Kanchenjunga. Nepali people
spell it KANCHANJANGA.
The brothers Hermann , Adolf and
Robert Schlagintweit explained the
local name Kanchinjínga (Tibetan :
གངས་ཆེན་མཛོད་ལྔ་, Wylie : gangs chen
mdzod lnga, Sikkimese IPA: ) meaning "The five treasures of the high
snow" as originating from the Tibetan word (following IPA given in
Sikkimese ) gangs /k̀ʱɐŋ/ meaning "snow, ice"; chen /t͡ɕʰẽ/
meaning "great"; mdzod /d͡zø/ meaning "treasure"; lnga /̃ŋɐ/
meaning "five". It means "The Five repositories or ledges of great
snow" and is physically descriptive of its five peaks. Local Lhopo
people believe that the treasures are hidden but reveal to the devout
when the world is in peril; the treasures comprise salt , gold ,
turquoise and precious stones , sacred scriptures, invincible armor or
ammunition, grain and medicine.
Kangchenjunga's name in the
Limbu language is Senjelungma or
Seseylungma, and is believed to be an abode of the omnipotent goddess
Yuma Sammang .
Kangchenjunga landscape is a complex of three distinct ecoregions
: the eastern Himalayan broad-leaved and coniferous forests , the
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows and the Terai-Duar savanna
and grasslands . The
Kangchenjunga transboundary landscape is shared
Nepal , and comprises 14 protected areas
with a total of 6,032 km2 (2,329 sq mi):
Kanchenjunga Conservation Area
Kanchenjunga Conservation Area .
* Sikkim, India:
Khangchendzonga National Park , Barsey Rhododendron
Fambong Lho Wildlife Sanctuary , Kyongnosla Alpine
Maenam Wildlife Sanctuary , Shingba
Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary
Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary
Darjeeling , India:
Jore Pokhri Wildlife Sanctuary , Singalila
National Park ,
Senchal Wildlife Sanctuary , Mahananda Wildlife
Neora Valley National Park
Neora Valley National Park .
Torsa Strict Nature Reserve
These protected areas are habitats for many globally significant
plant species such as rhododendrons and orchids and many endangered
flagship species such as snow leopard ,
Asian black bear
Asian black bear , red panda ,
white-bellied musk deer , blood pheasant and chestnut-breasted
Panorama of the
Kangchenjunga massif from Tiger Hill,
Kangchenjunga Himal section of the
Himalayas lies both in Nepal
and India, and encompasses 16 peaks over 7,000 m (23,000 ft). In the
north, it is limited by the Lhonak Chu , Goma Chu and Jongsang La ,
and in the east by the Teesta River. The western limit runs from the
Jongsang La down the Gingsang and
Kangchenjunga glaciers and the
rivers of Ghunsa and Tamur . Kanchenjunga rises about 20 km (12 mi)
south of the general alignment of the Great Himalayan range about 125
km (78 mi) east-south-east of
Mount Everest as the crow flies. South
of the southern face of Kanchenjunga runs the 3,000–3,500 m
(9,800–11,500 ft) high
Singalila Ridge that separates
Nepal and northern
West Bengal .
Kangchenjunga and its satellite peaks form a huge mountain massif.
The massif's five highest peaks are listed in the following table.
NAME OF PEAK
NEAREST HIGHER NEIGHBOR
27°42′11″N 88°08′52″E / 27.70306°N 88.14778°E
/ 27.70306; 88.14778
Mount Everest – South Summit
Sikkim , Sikkim,
Province No. 1
Province No. 1 , Nepal
KANGCHENJUNGA WEST (YALUNG KANG)
27°42′18″N 88°08′12″E / 27.70500°N 88.13667°E
/ 27.70500; 88.13667
Taplejung, Province No. 1, Nepal
27°41′46″N 88°09′04″E / 27.69611°N 88.15111°E
/ 27.69611; 88.15111
North Sikkim, Sikkim,
India / Taplejung, Province No. 1, Nepal
27°41′30″N 88°09′15″E / 27.69167°N 88.15417°E
/ 27.69167; 88.15417
North Sikkim, Sikkim,
India / Taplejung, Province No. 1, Nepal
27°42′42″N 88°06′30″E / 27.71167°N 88.10833°E
/ 27.71167; 88.10833
Taplejung, Province No. 1, Nepal
Kangchenjunga map by Garwood, 1903 South-west (Yalung)
Kangchenjunga seen from
The main ridge of the massif runs from north-north-east to
south-south-west and forms a watershed to several rivers. Together
with ridges running roughly from east to west they form a giant cross.
These ridges contain a host of peaks between 6,000 and 8,586 m
(19,685 and 28,169 ft). The northern section includes Yalung Kang,
Kangchenjunga Central and South, Kangbachen,
Kirat Chuli and Gimmigela
Chuli , and runs up to the Jongsang La. The eastern ridge in Sikkim
Siniolchu . The southern section runs along the Nepal-Sikkim
border and includes
Kabru I to III. This ridge extends southwards to
Singalila Ridge . The western ridge culminates in the
Kumbhakarna, also known as
Four main glaciers radiate from the peak, pointing roughly to the
north-east, south-east, north-west and south-west. The Zemu glacier in
the north-east and the Talung glacier in the south-east drain to the
Teesta River; the Yalung glacier in the south-west and the Kangchen
glacier in the north-west drain to the Arun and Kosi rivers . The
glaciers spread over the area above approximately 5,000 m (16,000 ft),
and the glacialized area covers about 314 km2 (121 sq mi) in total.
There are 120 glaciers in the Kanchenjunga Himal, of which 17 are
debris -covered. Between 1958 and 1992, more than half of 57 examined
glaciers had retreated, possibly due to rising of air temperature .
Kangchenjunga Main is the highest elevation of the Brahmaputra River
basin, which forms part of the southeast Asian monsoon regime and is
among the globally largest river basins.
Kangchenjunga is one of six
peaks above 8,000 m (26,000 ft) located in the basin of the Koshi
river , which is among the largest tributaries of the
Ganges . The
Kangchenjunga massif forms also part of the
Ganges Basin .
Although it is the third highest peak in the world,
only ranked 29th by topographic prominence , a measure of a mountain's
independent stature. The key col for
Kangchenjunga lies at a height of
4,664 metres (15,302 ft), along the watershed boundary between Arun
and Brahmaputra rivers in Tibet. It is however, the 4th most
prominent peak in the Himalaya, after Everest, and the western and
eastern anchors of the Himalaya,
Nanga Parbat and
Namcha Barwa ,
Kanchenjunga-north from base camp in
There are four climbing routes to reach the summit of Kangchenjunga,
three of which are in
Nepal from the southwest, northwest and
northeast, and one from northeastern
Sikkim in India. To date, the
northeastern route from
Sikkim has been successfully used only three
times. The Indian government has banned expeditions to Kanchenjunga,
and therefore this route has been closed since 2000.
Painting of Kanchinjínga as seen from the
Singalila Ridge by
Hermann Schlagintweit , 1855 Sunset on Kangchenjunga, 1905
South face of
Kangchenjunga seen from
Goecha La ,
Sikkim at 4,940
m (16,210 ft)
Kangchenjunga seen from
Darjeeling War Memorial
EARLY RECONNAISSANCES AND ATTEMPTS
* Between April 1848 and February 1849, Joseph Dalton Hooker
explored parts of northern
Sikkim and eastern Nepal, mainly to collect
plants and study the distribution of Himalayan flora. He was based in
Darjeeling, and made repeated excursions in the river valleys and into
the foothills of
Kangchenjunga up to an altitude of 15,620 ft (4,760
* In spring 1855, the German explorer Hermann Schlagintweit
Darjeeling but was not allowed to proceed further north
due to the
Nepalese-Tibetan War . In May, he explored the Singalila
Ridge up to the peak of Tonglo for a meteorological survey.
* In 1879,
Sarat Chandra Das and Lama Ugyen-gyatso crossed into
Tibet west of "Kanchanjinga" via eastern
Nepal and the Tashilhunpo
Monastery en route to Lhasa . They returned along the same route in
* In 1883, a party of
William Woodman Graham together with two Swiss
mountaineers climbed in the area of Kangchenjunga. They were the first
Kabru within 30–40 ft (9.1–12.2 m) below the summit.
They crossed the Kang La pass, and climbed a peak of nearly 19,000 ft
(5,800 m) from which they examined Jannu. They concluded it was too
late in the year for an attempt and returned once again to Darjeeling.
* Between October 1885 and January 1886, Rinzin Namgyal surveyed the
unexplored north and west sides of Kangchenjunga. He was the first
native surveyor to map the circuit of
Kangchenjunga and provided
sketches of each side of the peak and the adjoining valleys. He also
defined the frontiers of Nepal, Tibet and
Sikkim in this area.
* In 1899, British mountaineer
Douglas Freshfield set out with his
party comprising the Italian photographer
Vittorio Sella . They were
the first mountaineers to examine the lower and upper ramparts, and
the great western face of Kangchenjunga, rising from the Kangchenjunga
* In 1905, a party headed by
Aleister Crowley was the first attempt
at climbing the mountain .
Aleister Crowley had been part of the team
attempting the 1902 ascent of K2 . The team reached an estimated
altitude of 6,500 m (21,300 ft) on the southwest side of the mountain
before turning back. The exact height reached is somewhat unclear;
Crowley stated that on 31 August, "We were certainly over 21,000 ft
(6,400 m) and possibly over 22,000 ft (6,700 m)", when the team was
forced to retreat to Camp 5 by the risk of avalanche. On 1 September,
they evidently went further; some members of the team, Reymond, Pache
and Salama, "got over the bad patch" that had forced them to return to
Camp 5 the day before, and progressed "out of sight and hearing"
before returning to Crowley and the men with packs, who could not
cross the dangerous section unassisted with their burdens. It is not
clear how far Reymond, Pache and Salama had ascended – but in
summarizing, Crowley ventured "We had reached a height of
approximately 25,000 ft (7,600 m)." Attempting a "mutinous"
late-in-the-day descent from Camp 5 to Camp 4, climber Alexis Pache
(who earlier that day had been one of three to ascend possibly higher
than any before), and three local porters, were killed in an
avalanche. Despite the insistence of one of the men that "The demon of
Kangchenjunga was propitiated with the sacrifice", Crowley decided
enough was enough and that it was inappropriate to continue.
* In 1907, two Norwegians set about climbing Jongri via the Kabru
glacier to the south, an approach apparently rejected by Graham's
party. Progress was very slow, partly because of problems with
supplies and porters, and presumably also lack of fitness and
acclimatisation. However, from a high camp at about 22,600 ft (6,900
m) they were eventually able to reach a point 50 or 60 ft (15 or 18 m)
below the summit before they were turned back by strong winds.
* In 1929, the German Paul Bauer led an expedition team that reached
7,400 m (24,300 ft) on the northeast spur before being turned back by
a five-day storm .
* In May 1929, the American E. F. Farmer left
Darjeeling with native
porters, crossed the Kang La into
Nepal and climbed up towards the
Talung Saddle. When his porters refused to go any further, he climbed
alone further upwards through drifting mists but did not return.
* In 1930,
Günter Dyhrenfurth led an international expedition
comprising the German Uli Wieland, Austrian Erwin Schneider and
Frank Smythe who attempted to climb Kangchenjunga. They
failed due to poor weather and snow conditions.
* In 1931, Paul Bauer led a second German expedition team who
attempted the northeast spur before being turned back by bad weather,
illnesses, and deaths. The team retreated after climbing only a little
higher than the 1929 attempt.
* In 1954, John Kempe led a party comprising J. W. Tucker, S. R.
Jackson, G. C. Lewis, T. H. Braham and medical officer Dr. D. S.
Mathews. They explored the upper Yalung glacier with the intention to
discover a practicable route to the great ice-shelf that runs across
the south-west face of Kangchenjunga. This reconnaissance led to the
route used by the successful 1955 expedition.
A sign board on the last traversable road to
First ascent reunion of 1990- front (left to right): Neil Mather,
John Angelo Jackson , Charles Evans and Joe Brown and rear (left to
right): Tony Streather,
Norman Hardie ,
George Band and Professor John
In 1955, Joe Brown and
George Band made the first ascent on 25 May,
Norman Hardie and
Tony Streather on 26 May. The full team
also included John Clegg (team doctor), Charles Evans (team leader),
John Angelo Jackson , Neil Mather, and Tom Mackinnon.
The ascent proved that
Aleister Crowley 's 1905 route (also
investigated by the 1954 reconnaissance) was viable. The route starts
on the Yalung
Glacier to the southwest of the peak, and climbs the
Yalung Face, which is 3,000 metres (10,000 ft) high. The main feature
of this face is the "Great Shelf", a large sloping plateau at around
7,500 metres (24,600 ft), covered by a hanging glacier. The route is
almost entirely on snow, glacier , and one icefall ; the summit ridge
itself can involve a small amount of travel on rock. The first ascent
expedition made six camps above their base camp, two below the Shelf,
two on it, and two above it. They started on 18 April, and everyone
was back to base camp by 28 May.
OTHER NOTABLE ASCENTS
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* 1973 Yutaka Ageta and Takeo Matsuda of the Japanese expedition
Kangchenjunga West (Yalung Kang) by climbing the SW Ridge.
* 1977 The second ascent of Kangchenjunga, by an Indian Army team
Colonel Narendra Kumar . They completed the northeast spur, the
difficult ridge that defeated German expeditions in 1929 and 1931.
* 1978 Polish teams made the first successful ascents of the summits
Kangchenjunga South (Wojciech Wróż and Eugeniusz Chrobak , 19 May)
Kangchenjunga Central (Wojciech Brański, Zygmunt Andrzej Heinrich
, Kazimierz Olech, 22 May).
* 1979 The third ascent, on 16 May, and the first without oxygen, by
Doug Scott ,
Peter Boardman and
Joe Tasker establishing a new route on
the North Ridge
* 1982 The 6th of May sees Ang Dorje, Friedel Mutschlechner, and
Reinhold Messner (suffering from amoebic liver abscess ) reach the top
by a variation on the North Face route without supplemental oxygen.
* 1983 Pierre Beghin made the first solo ascent. It was accomplished
without the use of supplemental oxygen.
* 1986 On 11 January,
Krzysztof Wielicki and
Jerzy Kukuczka , Polish
climbers, made the first winter ascent. Otto Guilherme Gerstenberger
Junior (Brazilian) and Johann Krigeer (South African) reach the peak
without using supplemental oxygen.
* 1988 First successful American Expedition; led by Carlos Buhler,
from the North Face. Summiting were Buhler,
Peter Habeler (Austrian)
and Martin Zabaleta (Spanish)
* 1989 A Soviet expedition successfully traversed all four summits
Kangchenjunga that are higher than 8,000m. Two separate teams
traversed the summits in opposite directions.
* 1989 American Expedition led by Lou Whittaker, with six people
summiting on the Northwall: George Dunn, Craig van Hoy, Ed Viesturs,
Phil Ershler, Larry Nielson, Greg Wilson.
* 1991 Slovenian Marija Frantar and Joze Rozman attempted the first
ascent by a woman. Their bodies were later found below the summit
* 1991 Slovenian Andrej Štremfelj and
Marko Prezelj completed an
alpine-style climb up the south ridge of
Kangchenjunga to the south
summit (8,494 m).
Carlos Carsolio made the only summit that year. It was in a
solo climb without supplementary oxygen.
Wanda Rutkiewicz , the first woman in the world to ascend and
descend K2 and a world-renowned Polish climber, died after she
insisted on waiting for an incoming storm to pass, which she did not
Benoît Chamoux , Pierre Royer and their Sherpa guide
disappeared on 6 October near the summit.
Ginette Harrison was the first woman who climbed
Kangchenjunga North face.
Alan Hinkes , a British climber, was the only person to
summit in the 50th anniversary of the first ascent year.
Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner , an Austrian mountaineer, was the
second woman to reach the summit.
* 2009 Jon Gangdal and Mattias Karlsson reached the summit,
becoming, respectively, the first Norwegian and the first Swedish
mountaineer to summit this mountain.
Edurne Pasaban , a Spanish mountaineer, reached the summit
becoming the first woman to summit twelve eight-thousanders.
* In May 2009,
Kinga Baranowska was the first Polish woman to reach
the summit of Kangchenjunga.
* 2011 Tunc Findik became the first Turkish man to reach the peak of
Kangchenjunga, his seventh eight thousander, with Swiss partner Guntis
Brandts via the British 1955 SW Face route.
* 2011 Indian mountaineers Basanta Singha Roy and Debasish Biswas of
Mountaineers' Association of Krishnanagar (MAK), West Bengal, India,
Kangchenjunga Main on 20 May 2011.
* In May 2013, five climbers including Hungarian
Zsolt Erőss and
Péter Kiss reached the summit, but disappeared during the descent.
* In May 2014, Bulgarian
Boyan Petrov reached the peak without the
use of supplemental oxygen. Petrov is a diabetic.
Despite improved climbing gear the fatality rate of climbers
attempting to summit Kanchenjunga is high. Since the 1990s, more than
20% of people died while climbing Kanchenjunga's main peak.
See also: Tourism in North East
India Kanchenjunga as seen from
Some of the most famous views of
Kangchenjunga are from the hill
Darjeeling and Antu Dada of Ilam , Nepal. The Darjeeling
War Memorial is among the most visited places from which Kangchenjunga
is observed. On a clear day it presents an image not so much of a
mountain but of a white wall hanging from the sky. The people of
Kangchenjunga as a sacred mountain. Permission to climb
the mountain from the Indian side is rarely given.
Due to its remote location in
Nepal and the difficulty involved in
accessing it from India, the
Kangchenjunga region is not much explored
by trekkers. It has, therefore, retained much of its pristine beauty.
Sikkim too, trekking into the
Kangchenjunga region has just
recently been permitted. The
Goecha La trek is gaining popularity
amongst tourists. It goes to the
Goecha La Pass, located right in
front of the huge southeast face of Kangchenjunga. Another trek to
Green Lake Basin has recently been opened for trekking. This trek goes
to the Northeast side of
Kangchenjunga along the famous Zemu
Singalila in the Himalaya is journey around Kangchenjunga.
Five Treasures of Snow
The area around
Kangchenjunga is said to be home to a mountain deity,
called Dzö-nga or "
Kangchenjunga Demon", a type of yeti or rakshasa
. A British geological expedition in 1925 spotted a bipedal creature
which they asked the locals about, who referred to it as the
For generations, there have been legends recounted by the inhabitants
of the areas surrounding Mount Kanchenjunga, both in
Sikkim and in
Nepal, that there is a valley of immortality hidden on its slopes.
These stories are well known to both the original inhabitants of the
Lepcha people , and those of the Tibetan Buddhist cultural
tradition. In Tibetan, this valley is known as
Beyul Demoshong. In
1962 a Tibetan Lama by the name of Tulshuk Lingpa led over 300
followers into the high snow slopes of Kanchenjunga to ‘open the
Beyul Demoshong. The story of this expedition is recounted
in the 2011 book A Step Away from Paradise.
East face of Kangchenjunga, from near the Zemu glacier,
* In the
Swallows and Amazons series
Swallows and Amazons series of books by
Arthur Ransome , a
high mountain (unnamed in the books, but clearly based on the Old Man
of Coniston in the English
Lake District ) is given the name
"Kanchenjunga" by the children when they climb it in 1931.
* In The Epic of
Mount Everest , first published in 1926, Sir
Francis Younghusband : " For natural beauty Darjiling (
Darjeeling ) is
surely unsurpassed in the world. From all countries travellers come
there to see the famous view of Kangchenjunga, 28,150 feet (8,580 m)
in height, and only 40 miles (64 km) distant. Darjiling (Darjeeling)
itself is 7,000 feet (2,100 m) above sea-level and is set in a forest
of oaks, magnolia, rhododendrons , laurels and sycamores. And through
these forests the observer looks down the steep mountain-sides to the
Rangeet River only 1,000 feet (300 m) above sea-level, and then up and
up through tier after tier of forest-clad ranges, each bathed in a
haze of deeper and deeper purple, till the line of snow is reached;
and then still up to the summit of Kangchenjunga, now so pure and
ethereal we can scarcely believe it is part of the solid earth on
which we stand; and so high it seems part of the very sky itself."
* In 1999, official
James Bond author
Raymond Benson published High
Time to Kill . In this story, a microdot containing a secret formula
for aviation technology is stolen by a society called the Union.
During their escape, their plane crashes on the slopes of
James Bond becomes part of a climbing expedition in
order to retrieve the formula.
The Inheritance of Loss by
Kiran Desai , which won the 2006 Man
Booker Prize , is set partly in
Kalimpong , a hill station situated
Legend of the Galactic Heroes
Legend of the Galactic Heroes by
Yoshiki Tanaka , which won the
Seiun Award for "Best Novel of the Year" in 1988 and was adapted into
an anime series by
Kitty Films , the capital and holiest temple of the
Terraist Cult is on Earth beneath the rubble of Kangchenjunga.
Michelle Paver 's 2016 ghost story Thin Air concerns a fictional
expedition to climb
Kangchenjunga in 1935, and an earlier (also
fictional) expedition in 1906.
* The book Round
Kangchenjunga – A Narrative of Mountain Travel
Douglas Freshfield gives a complete account of his
travel around Kangchenjunga.
Kangchenjunga as seen from
Joseph Dalton Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker 1855. Himalayan Journals. Assistant-director
of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Laurence Waddell 1899. Among The Himalayas. Travels in Sikkim.
Book includes the exploration of the south of Kangchenjunga.
Aleister Crowley 1905. The Confessions of Aleister Crowley,
Chapters 51, 52 & 53, Tells of the
Kangchenjunga Expedition by he and
Douglas Freshfield 1903. Round
Kangchenjunga – A Narrative of
Mountain Travel and Exploration. Edward Arnold, London
* Paul Bauer 1937. Himalayan Campaign. Blackwell is the story of
Bauer's two attempts in 1929 and 1931, republished as Kangchenjunga
Challenge (William Kimber, 1955).
* Paul Bauer The German Attack on Kangchenjunga, The Himalayan
Journal, 1930 Vol. II.
* Lieut. Col. H.W. Tobin
Exploration and Climbing in The Sikkim
Himalaya The Himalayan Journal, April 1930 Vol. II. Provides the early
exploration and climbing attempts on Kangchenjunga.
F.S. Smythe The
Kangchenjunga Adventure, 1930 to 1931. Victor
Gollancz, Ltd. Smythe was the team member responsible for writing and
sending the dispatches to
The Statesman in Calcutta, (Mr. Alfred
Watson Editor), who transmitted the dispatches to
The Times (editors
Deakin & Bogaerde), during the expedition of 1930 * example.
* Prof. G. O. Dyhrenfurth The International Himalayan Expedition,
1930, The Himalayan Journal, April 1931, Vol. III. Details their
attempt on Kangchenjunga.
* H.W. Tilman The ascent of Nanda Devi, 7 June 1937, Cambridge
University Press. Relates the story of their intention to climb
* Irving, R. L. G. 1940. Ten Great Mountains. London, J. M. Dent &
John Angelo Jackson 1955. More than Mountains Book containing data
on the 1954
Kangchenjunga reconnaissance. Jackson was also a team
member of the first ascent of
Kangchenjunga in 1955, also relates the
Daily Mail "Abominable Snowman" or
Yeti Expedition, when the first
trek from Everest to
Kangchenjunga was accomplished * . Relevant pages
97 onwards with two detailed maps.
* Charles Evans
Kangchenjunga The Untrodden Peak, Hodder H. Hessell
Tiltman , The Geographical Journal, Vol. 81, No. 6 Jun., 1933, p. 568
* Paul Bauer 1931. Um Den Kantsch: der zweite deutsche Angriff auf
den Kangchendzönga, The Geographical Journal, Vol. 81, No. 4 Apr.,
1933, pp. 362–363
* Paul Bauer; Sumner Austin 1938. Himalayan Campaign: The German
Attack on Kangchenjunga, The Geographical Journal, Vol. 91, No. 5: 478
* Charles Evans;
George Band 1956.
Kangchenjunga Climbed. The
Geographical Journal 122 (1): 1–12.
* Charles Evans 1956. "Kangchenjunga: The Untrodden Peak". The Times
Literary Supplement .
* Lou Whittaker, Memoirs of a Mountain guide, 1994
List of elevation extremes by country
List of elevation extremes by country
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to KANGCHENJUNGA .
Kangchenjunga page on Himalaya-Info.org (German)
Kangchenjunga page on Summitpost.org
* Aleister Crowley\'s detailed account of the 1905 attempt on
Kangchenjunga History for a more detailed up