Kalmia is a genus of about ten species of evergreen shrubs from 0.2–5 m tall, in the family Ericaceae. They are native to North America (mainly in the eastern half of the continent) and Cuba. They grow in acidic soils, with different species in wet acid bog habitats (K. angustifolia, K. polifolia) and dry, sandy soils (K. ericoides, K. latifolia). Kalmia was named by Linnaeus to honour his friend the botanist Pehr Kalm, who collected it in eastern North America during the mid-18th century. Earlier Mark Catesby saw it during his travels in Carolina, and after his return to England in 1726, imported seeds. He described it, a costly rarity, in his Natural History of Carolina, as Chamaedaphne foliis tini, that is to say "with leaves like the Laurustinus"; the botanist and plant-collector Peter Collinson, who had begged some of the shrub from his correspondent John Custis in Virginia, wrote, when his plants flowered, that "I Really Think it exceeds the Laurus Tinus."
Mountain laurel blooms showing the conjoined petals
The leaves are 2–12 cm long and simple lanceolate. The flowers are white, pink or purple, in corymbs of 10-50, reminiscent of Rhododendron flowers but flatter, with a star-like calyx of five conjoined petals; each flower is 1–3 cm diameter. The fruit is a five-lobed capsule, which splits to release the numerous small seeds. The foliage is toxic if eaten, with sheep being particularly prone to poisoning, hence the name lambkill used for some of the species. Other names for Kalmia, particularly Kalmia angustifolia, are sheep-laurel, lamb-kill, calf-kill, kill-kid, and sheep-poison, which may be written with or without the hyphen. (See species list below.) "Kid" here refers to a young goat, not a human child, but the foliage and twigs are toxic to humans as well. It has also been called spoonwood because Kalm was told by Dutch settlers of North America that Native Americans made spoons from the wood. Given its toxicity, this may be folklore rather than scientific fact. Kalmias are popular garden shrubs, grown for their decorative flowers. They should not be planted where they are accessible to livestock due to the toxicity. Kalmia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some lepidopteran species including Coleophora kalmiella which feeds exclusively on Kalmia.
1 Species 2 Bibliography
3 References 4 External links
Species (and infraspecific taxa) listed by The Plant List as "Accepted":
Kalmia angustifolia L. - Sheep-laurel, Lambkill Kalmia buxifolia (Bergius) Gift & Kron - Sandmyrtle Kalmia carolina Small - Carolina Mountain-laurel Kalmia cuneata Michx. - Whitewicky Kalmia ericoides C.Wright ex Griseb. - Cuban Kalmia
Kalmia ericoides var. aggregata (Small) Ebinger
Kalmia hirsuta Walter - Hairy Mountain-laurel Kalmia latifolia L. - Lambkill
Kalmia latifolia f. alba (Mouill.) Rehder Kalmia latifolia f. fuscata (Rehder) Rehder Kalmia latifolia f. obtusata (Rehder) Rehder Kalmia latifolia f. polypetala (G.Nicholson) Rehder
Kalmia microphylla (Hook.) A.Heller - Alpine laurel, Alpine Bog-laurel, Alpine Mountain-laurel
Kalmia microphylla subsp. occidentalis (Small) Roy L.Taylor & MacBryde
Kalmia polifolia Wangenh. - Bog Kalmia, Bog-laurel Kalmia simulata (Britton & M.Wilson) Southall
The related Kalmiopsis (Kalmiopsis leachiana) is a rare shrub native to the Siskiyou Mountains of southwest Oregon.
Jaynes, Richard A., 1997: Kalmia, mountain laurel and related species, Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.
^ Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Kalmia". ^ Natural History Education, Science, Technology regarding alternate names, accessed March 30, 2007. ^ Plants of Colonial Days by Raymond Leech Taylor, p. 61. (1996) ISBN 0-486-29404-8. Accessed March 30, 2007. ^ "The Plant List". Version 1.1. 2013. Retrieved 2017-10-22 – via Internet.
European Kalmia Society Kalmia.info: German Kalmia hybridizers Pieris.eu: Info about Kalmia latifolia
Wd: Q1427635 EoL: 61796 EPPO: 1KAMG FNA: 116931 FoC: 116931 Fossilworks: 55505 GBIF: 2882989 GRIN: 6253 IPNI: 14776-1 ITIS: 23672 NCBI: 45894 PLANTS: KALMI Tropicos: 400