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Julius Schreck
Julius Schreck
(13 July 1898 – 16 May 1936) was a senior Nazi official and close confidant of Adolf Hitler. Born in Munich, Schreck served in World War I
World War I
and shortly afterwards joined right-wing paramilitary units. He joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in 1920 and developed a close friendship with Adolf Hitler. Schreck was a founding member of the Sturmabteilung
("Storm Detachment"; SA) and was active in its development. Later in 1925, he became the first leader of the Schutzstaffel
("Protection Squadron"; SS). He then served for a time as a chauffeur for Hitler. Schreck developed meningitis in 1936 and died on 16 May of that year. Hitler gave him a state funeral which was attended by several members of the Nazi elite with Hitler delivering the eulogy.


1 Early life 2 Career in the SA 3 Career in the SS 4 Death 5 References

5.1 Citations 5.2 Bibliography 5.3 Online

Early life[edit] Julius Schreck
Julius Schreck
was born on 13 July 1898 in Munich
in Bavaria. He served in the German Army during World War I. After the war ended in November 1918, he became a member of Freikorps
Epp, a right-wing paramilitary unit formed to combat the communistic revolution. Schreck was an early member of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party; NSDAP), having joined in 1920 and documented as member #53. Schreck developed a friendship with the party's leader Adolf Hitler during its early years.[1] Career in the SA[edit] Schreck was a founding member of the Sturmabteilung
("Storm Detachment"; SA), being involved in its growth and development.[2] This was a paramilitary wing of the party designed to disrupt political opponents and provide muscle for security tasks. Hitler, in early 1923, ordered the formation of a small separate bodyguard dedicated to his service and protection rather than an uncontrolled mass of the party, such as the SA.[3] Originally the unit was composed of only eight men, commanded by Schreck and Joseph Berchtold.[4] It was designated the Stabswache ("Staff Guard").[5] The Stabswache were issued unique badges, but at this point the Stabswache was still under overall control of the SA, whose membership continued to increase. Schreck resurrected the use of the Totenkopf
("death's head") as the unit's insignia, a symbol various elite forces had used in the past, including specialized assault troops of Imperial Germany
Imperial Germany
in World War I who used Hutier infiltration tactics.[6] In May 1923, the unit was renamed Stoßtrupp-Hitler
("Shock Troop-Hitler").[4][6] The unit was solely responsible for Hitler's personal protection.[2] On 9 November 1923 the Stoßtrupp, along with the SA and several other paramilitary units, took part in the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich.[2] The plan was to seize control of the city in a coup d'état and then challenge the government in Berlin. The putsch was quickly crushed by the local police and resulted in the death of 16 Nazi supporters and 4 police officers. In the aftermath of the failed putsch both Hitler, Schreck, and other Nazi leaders were incarcerated at Landsberg Prison.[2] The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
and all associated formations, including the Stoßtrupp, were officially disbanded.[7] Career in the SS[edit] After Hitler's release from prison on 20 December 1924, the Nazi Party was officially refounded. In 1925, Hitler ordered Schreck to organise the formation of a new bodyguard unit, the Schutzkommando ("Protection Command").[8] Hitler wanted a small group of tough ex-soldiers like Schreck, who would be loyal to him. The unit included old Stoßtrupp members like Emil Maurice
Emil Maurice
and Erhard Heiden.[9][10] The unit made its first public appearance in April 1925. That same year, the Schutzkommando was expanded to a national level. It was also successively renamed the Sturmstaffel ("Storm Squadron") and then finally the Schutzstaffel
("Protection Squadron"; SS) on 9 November 1925.[11] Schreck became SS member #5.[12] He was asked by Hitler to command the bodyguard company. Schreck never referred to himself as Reichsführer-SS, but the title was retroactively applied to him in later years.[13] In 1926, Schreck stood down as commander and Berchtold took over the leadership. Berchtold changed the title of the office position, which became known as the Reichsführer-SS.[14] Schreck remained on the SS rolls as an SS- Führer
and worked as Hitler's private chauffeur after Maurice until 1934.[15] In 1930, after the SS had begun to expand under Heinrich Himmler, Schreck was appointed an SS-Standartenführer, but had little actual power. He continued to serve at Hitler's side and they were on very good terms.[15] Death[edit] In 1936, Schreck developed meningitis and died on 16 May in Munich.[15] He was a well-liked man and Hitler was distraught when Schreck died.[15] His final rank was SS-Brigadeführer, a rank equivalent to that of a Generalmajor in the Wehrmacht.[16] Schreck was accorded a Nazi state funeral with Hitler delivering his eulogy. Schreck's funeral was attended by many senior Nazi officials, including Hermann Göring, Joseph Goebbels, Rudolf Hess, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Konstantin von Neurath, Emil Maurice, Hans Baur, Heinrich Hoffmann and Baldur von Schirach.[17] Himmler referred to him as "Adolf Hitler's first SS man."[18] As with many other buried Nazi Party members, Schreck's grave marker was removed after World War II and there is a stone without inscription on the spot where he was buried.[17] References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Hamilton 1984, pp. 172, 173. ^ a b c d Hamilton 1984, p. 172. ^ McNab 2009, pp. 14, 16. ^ a b Weale 2010, p. 16. ^ McNab 2009, p. 14. ^ a b McNab 2009, p. 16. ^ Wegner 1990, p. 62. ^ Weale 2010, p. 26. ^ Weale 2010, pp. 16, 26. ^ McNab 2009, pp. 10, 11. ^ Weale 2010, pp. 26, 27, 29. ^ Hoffmann 2000, p. 8. ^ McNab 2009, pp. 16, 17. ^ Weale 2010, p. 30. ^ a b c d Hamilton 1984, p. 173. ^ Hoffmann 2000, p. 330. ^ a b Schreck, Julius 2015. ^ Hoffmann 2000, p. 16.


Hamilton, Charles (1984). Leaders & Personalities of the Third Reich, Vol. 1. R. James Bender Publishing. ISBN 0-912138-27-0.  Hoffmann, Peter (2000) [1979]. Hitler's Personal Security: Protecting the Führer
1921–1945. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-30680-947-7.  McNab, Chris (2009). The SS: 1923–1945. Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-906626-49-5.  Weale, Adrian (2010). The SS: A New History. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-1408703045.  Wegner, Bernd (1990). The Waffen-SS: Organization, Ideology and Function. Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-14073-5. 


"Schreck, Julius". World War II
World War II
Gravestones. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 

Government offices

Preceded by new office Reich Leader of the SS 1925–1926 Succeeded by Joseph Berchtold

v t e



Allgemeine SS Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV) Waffen-SS


Reichsführer-SS SS and police leader SS personnel SS commands


Julius Schreck Joseph Berchtold Erhard Heiden Heinrich Himmler Karl Hanke

Main departments

Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS SS Main Office Head Operational Office Reich Main Security Office
Reich Main Security Office
(RSHA) Economics and Administration Office Office of Race and Settlement (RuSHA) Main Office for Ethnic Germans (VOMI) Office of the Reich Commissioner for Germanic Resettlement (RKFDV) Courts Office Personnel Office Education Office

Ideological institutions

Ahnenerbe Das Schwarze Korps SS-Junkerschule Bad Tölz Lebensborn

Police and security services

Regular uniform police (Orpo) Schutzpolizei (Schupo) Criminal police (Kripo) Secret State police (Gestapo) State Security police (SiPo) SS Security Service (SD)


SS-Begleitkommando des Führers Reichssicherheitsdienst


Einsatzgruppen Schutzmannschaft Belarusian Auxiliary Police Latvian Police Battalions Ypatingasis būrys Lithuanian Security Police Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions Rollkommando Hamann Arajs Kommando Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Trawnikis Estonian Auxiliary Police Police Regiment Centre


Verfügungstruppe (SS-VT) Leibstandarte (LSSAH) SS Division Das Reich SS Division Totenkopf SS Polizei Division SS Division Wiking

Foreign SS units

Germanic-SS Germaansche SS in Nederland Germaansche SS in Vlaanderen Germanske SS Norge Schalburg Corps Britisches Freikorps S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A. Finnish Volunteer Battalion of the Waffen-SS

SS-controlled enterprises

Ostindustrie Deutsche Wirtschaftsbetriebe Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke DEST Allach porcelain Apollinaris Mattoni Sudetenquell Anton Loibl

SS awards

SS Sword of Honour SS Honour Ring SS Honor Dagger

Ranks, uniforms and insignia

Uniforms and insignia of the SS Ranks and insignia of the Waffen-SS Ranks and insignia of the Orpo Corps colours of the Waffen-SS

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 25790374 LCCN: n00028190 ISNI: 0000 0001 0881 1