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Paul Joseph Goebbels
Goebbels
(German: [ˈpaʊ̯l ˈjoːzəf ˈɡœbl̩s] ( listen);[1] 29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda
Propaganda
of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
from 1933 to 1945. He was one of Adolf Hitler's close associates and most devoted followers, and was known for his skills in public speaking and his deep, virulent antisemitism, which was evident in his publicly voiced views. He advocated progressively harsher discrimination, including the extermination of the Jews in the Holocaust. Goebbels, who aspired to be an author, obtained a Doctor of Philosophy degree from the University of Heidelberg
University of Heidelberg
in 1921. He joined the Nazi Party in 1924, and worked with Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser
in their northern branch. He was appointed as Gauleiter
Gauleiter
(district leader) for Berlin
Berlin
in 1926, where he began to take an interest in the use of propaganda to promote the party and its programme. After the Nazi Seizure of Power in 1933, Goebbels' Propaganda
Propaganda
Ministry quickly gained and exerted controlling supervision over the news media, arts, and information in Germany. He was particularly adept at using the relatively new media of radio and film for propaganda purposes. Topics for party propaganda included antisemitism, attacks on the Christian churches, and (after the start of the Second World War) attempting to shape morale. In 1943, Goebbels
Goebbels
began to pressure Hitler to introduce measures that would produce total war, including closing businesses not essential to the war effort, conscripting women into the labour force, and enlisting men in previously exempt occupations into the Wehrmacht. Hitler finally appointed him as Reich Plenipotentiary for Total War on 23 July 1944, whereby Goebbels
Goebbels
undertook largely unsuccessful measures to increase the number of people available for armaments production and the Wehrmacht. As the war drew to a close and Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
faced defeat, Magda Goebbels
Goebbels
and the Goebbels children
Goebbels children
joined him in Berlin. They moved into the underground Vorbunker, part of Hitler's underground bunker complex, on 22 April 1945. Hitler committed suicide on 30 April. In accordance with Hitler's will, Goebbels
Goebbels
succeeded him as Chancellor of Germany; he served one day in this post. The following day, Goebbels and his wife committed suicide, after poisoning their six children with cyanide.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Nazi activist 3 Propagandist in Berlin 4 Propaganda
Propaganda
Minister

4.1 Workings of the Ministry 4.2 Church struggle

5 World War II 6 Plenipotentiary for total war 7 Defeat and death 8 Antisemitism
Antisemitism
and the Holocaust 9 Family life 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Early life Paul Joseph Goebbels
Goebbels
was born on 29 October 1897 in Rheydt, an industrial town south of Mönchengladbach
Mönchengladbach
near Düsseldorf.[2] Both of his parents were Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
with modest family backgrounds.[2] His father Fritz was a factory clerk; his mother Katharina (née Odenhausen) was ethnically Dutch.[3] Goebbels
Goebbels
had five siblings: Konrad (1893–1947), Hans (1895–1949), Maria (1896–1896), Elisabeth (1901–1915), and Maria (1910–1949),[2] who married the German filmmaker Max W. Kimmich in 1938.[4] In 1932, Goebbels published a pamphlet of his family tree to refute the rumours that his grandmother was of Jewish ancestry.[5] During childhood, Goebbels
Goebbels
suffered from ill health, which included a long bout of inflammation of the lungs. He had a deformed right foot that turned inwards, due to a congenital deformity. It was thicker and shorter than his left foot.[2] He underwent a failed operation to correct it just prior to starting grammar school.[6] Goebbels
Goebbels
wore a metal brace and special shoe because of his shortened leg, and walked with a limp. He was rejected for military service in World War I
World War I
due to his deformity.[7]

Goebbels
Goebbels
in 1916

Goebbels
Goebbels
was educated at a Christian Gymnasium, where he completed his Abitur
Abitur
(university entrance examination) in 1917.[8] He was the top student of his class and was given the traditional honour to speak at the awards ceremony.[9] His parents initially hoped that he would become a Catholic priest, and Goebbels
Goebbels
seriously considered it.[10] He studied literature and history at the universities of Bonn, Würzburg, Freiburg, and Munich,[11] aided by a scholarship from the Albertus Magnus Society.[12] By this time Goebbels
Goebbels
had begun to distance himself from the church.[13] Historians, including Richard J. Evans
Richard J. Evans
and Roger Manvell, speculate that Goebbels' lifelong pursuit of women may have been in compensation for his physical disabilities.[14][15] At Freiburg, he met and fell in love with Anka Stalherm, who was three years his senior.[16] She went on to Würzburg to continue school, as did Goebbels.[7] In 1921 he wrote a semi-autobiographical novel, Michael, a three-part work of which only Parts I and III have survived.[17] Goebbels
Goebbels
felt he was writing his "own story".[17] Antisemitic content and material about a charismatic leader may have been added by Goebbels
Goebbels
shortly before the book was published in 1929 by Eher-Verlag, the publishing house of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
( National Socialist
National Socialist
German Workers' Party; NSDAP).[18] By 1920, the relationship with Anka was over. The break-up filled Goebbels
Goebbels
with thoughts of suicide.[19][a] At the University of Heidelberg, Goebbels
Goebbels
wrote his doctoral thesis on Wilhelm von Schütz, a minor 19th century romantic dramatist.[20] He had hoped to write his thesis under the supervision of Friedrich Gundolf, who at that time was a well known literary historian. It did not seem to bother Goebbels
Goebbels
that Gundolf was Jewish. Gundolf was no longer teaching, so directed Goebbels
Goebbels
to associate professor Max Freiherr von Waldberg. Waldberg, also Jewish, recommended Goebbels write his thesis on Wilhelm von Schütz. After submitting the thesis and passing his oral examination, Goebbels
Goebbels
earned his PhD
PhD
in 1921.[21] By 1940 he had written 14 books.[22] Goebbels
Goebbels
then returned home and worked as a private tutor. He also found work as a journalist and was published in the local newspaper. His writing during that time reflected his growing antisemitism and dislike for modern culture. In the summer of 1922, he met and began a love affair with Else Janke, a schoolteacher.[23] After she revealed to him that she was half-Jewish, Goebbels
Goebbels
stated the "enchantment [was] ruined."[24] Nevertheless, he continued to see her on and off until 1927.[25] He continued for several years to try to become a published author.[26] His diaries, which he began in 1923 and continued for the rest of his life, provided an outlet for his desire to write.[27] The lack of income from his literary works (he wrote two plays in 1923, neither of which sold[28]) forced him to take jobs as a caller on the stock exchange and as a bank clerk in Cologne, a job he detested.[29][30] He was dismissed from the bank in August 1923 and returned to Rheydt.[31] During this period, he read avidly and was influenced by the works of Oswald Spengler, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, and Houston Stewart Chamberlain, the British-born German writer whose book The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899) was one of the standard works of the extreme right in Germany.[32] He also began to study the "social question" and read the works of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Rosa Luxemburg, August Bebel
August Bebel
and Gustav Noske.[33][34] According to German historian Peter Longerich, Goebbels' diary entries from late 1923 to early 1924 reflected the writings of a man who was isolated, preoccupied by "religious-philosophical" issues, and lacked a sense of direction. Diary entries of mid-December 1923 forward show Goebbels
Goebbels
was moving towards the völkisch nationalist movement.[35] Nazi activist

Portrait of Goebbels

Goebbels
Goebbels
first took an interest in Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and Nazism
Nazism
in 1924.[36] In February 1924, Hitler's trial for treason began in the wake of his failed attempt to seize power in the Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch
of November 8–9, 1923.[37] The trial attracted widespread press coverage and gave Hitler a platform for propaganda.[38] Hitler was sentenced to five years prison, but was released on 20 December 1924, after serving just over a year.[39] Goebbels
Goebbels
was drawn to the NSDAP mostly because of Hitler's charisma and commitment to his beliefs.[40] He joined the NSDAP around this time, becoming member number 8762.[29] In late 1924, Goebbels
Goebbels
offered his services to Karl Kaufmann, who was Gauleiter
Gauleiter
(NSDAP district leader) for the Rhine-Ruhr District. Kaufmann put him in touch with Gregor Strasser, a leading Nazi organiser in northern Germany, who hired him to work on their weekly newspaper and to do secretarial work for the regional party offices.[41] He was also put to work as party speaker and representative for Rhineland-Westphalia.[42] Members of Strasser's northern branch of the NSDAP, including Goebbels, had a more socialist outlook than the rival Hitler group in Munich.[43] Strasser disagreed with Hitler on many parts of the party platform, and in November 1926 began working on a revision.[44] Hitler viewed Strasser's actions as a threat to his authority, and summoned 60 Gauleiters and party leaders, including Goebbels, to a special conference in Bamberg, in Streicher's Gau of Franconia, where he gave a two-hour speech repudiating Strasser's new political programme.[45] Hitler was opposed to the socialist leanings of the northern wing, stating it would mean "political bolshevization of Germany." Further, there would be "no princes, only Germans," and a legal system with no "... Jewish system of exploitation ... for plundering of our people." The future would be secured by acquiring land, not through expropriation of the estates of the former nobility, but through colonising territories to the east.[44] Goebbels was horrified by Hitler's characterisation of socialism as "a Jewish creation" and his assertion that a Nazi government would not expropriate private property. He wrote in his diary: "I no longer fully believe in Hitler. That's the terrible thing: my inner support has been taken away."[46] After reading Hitler's book Mein Kampf, Goebbels
Goebbels
found himself agreeing with Hitler's assertion of a "Jewish doctrine of Marxism".[47] In February 1926 Goebbels
Goebbels
gave a speech titled "Lenin or Hitler?" in which he asserted that communism or Marxism
Marxism
could not save the German people, but he believed it would cause a "socialist nationalist state" to arise in Russia.[48] In 1926, Goebbels
Goebbels
published a pamphlet titled "Nazi-Sozi" which attempted to explain how National Socialism differed from Marxism.[49] In hopes of winning over the opposition, Hitler arranged meetings in Munich with the three Greater Ruhr Gau leaders, including Goebbels.[50] Goebbels
Goebbels
was impressed when Hitler sent his own car to meet them at the railway station. That evening Hitler and Goebbels both gave speeches at a beer hall rally.[50] The following day, Hitler offered his hand in reconciliation to the three men, encouraging them to put their differences behind them.[51] Goebbels
Goebbels
capitulated completely, offering Hitler his total loyalty. He wrote in his diary: "I love him ... He has thought through everything," "Such a sparkling mind can be my leader. I bow to the greater one, the political genius." He later wrote: "Adolf Hitler, I love you because you are both great and simple at the same time. What one calls a genius."[52] As a result of the Bamberg and Munich meetings, Strasser's new draft of the party programme was discarded. The original National Socialist
National Socialist
Program of 1920 was retained unchanged, and Hitler's position as party leader was greatly strengthened.[52] Propagandist in Berlin At Hitler's invitation, Goebbels
Goebbels
spoke at party meetings in Munich and at the annual Party Congress, held in Weimar in 1926.[53] For the following year's event, Goebbels
Goebbels
was involved in the planning for the first time. He and Hitler arranged for the rally to be filmed.[54] Receiving praise for doing well at these events led Goebbels
Goebbels
to shape his political ideas to match Hitler's, and to admire and idolise him even more.[55] Goebbels
Goebbels
was first offered the position of party Gauleiter
Gauleiter
for the Berlin
Berlin
section in August 1926. He travelled to Berlin
Berlin
in mid-September and by the middle of October accepted the position. Thus Hitler's plan to divide and dissolve the northwestern Gauleiters group that Goebbels had served in under Strasser was successful.[56] Hitler gave Goebbels great authority over the area, allowing him to determine the course for organisation and leadership for the Gau. Goebbels
Goebbels
was given control over the local Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA) and Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) and answered only to Hitler.[57] The party membership numbered about 1,000 when Goebbels
Goebbels
arrived, and he reduced it to a core of 600 of the most active and promising members. To raise money, he instituted membership fees and began charging admission to party meetings.[58] Aware of the value of publicity (both positive and negative), he deliberately provoked beer-hall battles and street brawls, including violent attacks on the Communist Party of Germany.[59] Goebbels
Goebbels
adapted recent developments in commercial advertising to the political sphere, including the use of catchy slogans and subliminal cues.[60] His new ideas for poster design included using large type, red ink, and cryptic headers that encouraged the reader to examine the fine print to determine the meaning.[61]

Goebbels
Goebbels
speaks at a political rally (1932). This body position, with arms akimbo, was intended to show the speaker as being in a position of authority.[62]

Goebbels
Goebbels
giving a speech in Lustgarten, Berlin, August 1934. This hand gesture was used while delivering a warning or threat.[62]

Like Hitler, Goebbels
Goebbels
practised his public speaking skills in front of a mirror. Meetings were preceded by ceremonial marches and singing, and the venues were decorated with party banners. His entrance (almost always late) was timed for maximum emotional impact. Goebbels
Goebbels
usually meticulously planned his speeches ahead of time, using pre-planned and choreographed inflection and gestures, but he was also able to improvise and adapt his presentation to make a good connection with his audience.[63][62] He used loudspeakers, fire decorations, uniforms, and marches to attract attention to speeches.[64] Goebbels' tactic of using provocation to bring attention to the NSDAP, along with violence at the public party meetings and demonstrations, led the Berlin
Berlin
police to ban the NSDAP from the city on 5 May 1927.[65][66] Violent incidents continued, including young Nazis randomly attacking Jews in the streets.[62] Goebbels
Goebbels
was subjected to a public speaking ban until the end of October.[67] During this period, he founded the newspaper Der Angriff (The Attack) as a propaganda vehicle for the Berlin
Berlin
area, where few supported the party. It was a modern-style newspaper with an aggressive tone;[68] 126 libel suits were pending against Goebbels
Goebbels
at one point.[64] To his disappointment, circulation was initially only 2,000. Material in the paper was highly anti-communist and antisemitic.[69] Among the paper's favourite targets was the Jewish Deputy Chief of the Berlin
Berlin
Police Bernhard Weiß. Goebbels
Goebbels
gave him the derogatory nickname "Isidore" and subjected him to a relentless campaign of Jew-baiting in the hope of provoking a crackdown he could then exploit.[70] Goebbels
Goebbels
continued to try to break into the literary world, with a revised version of his book Michael finally being published, and the unsuccessful production of two of his plays (Der Wanderer and Die Saat (The Seed)). The latter was his final attempt at playwriting.[71] During this period in Berlin he had relationships with many women, including his old flame Anka Stalherm, who was now married and had a small child. He was quick to fall in love, but easily tired of a relationship and moved on to someone new. He worried too about how a committed personal relationship might interfere with his career.[72] The ban on the NSDAP was lifted before the Reichstag elections on 20 May 1928.[73] The NSDAP lost nearly 100,000 voters and earned only 2.6 per cent of the vote nationwide. Results in Berlin
Berlin
were even worse, where they attained only 1.4 per cent of the vote.[74] Goebbels
Goebbels
was one of 12 NSDAP members to gain election to the Reichstag.[74] This gave him immunity from prosecution for a long list of outstanding charges, including a three-week jail sentence he received in April for insulting the deputy police chief Weiß.[75] The Reichstag changed the immunity regulations in February 1931, and Goebbels
Goebbels
was forced to pay fines for libellous material he had placed in Der Angriff over the course of the previous year.[76] In his newspaper Berliner Arbeiterzeitung ( Berlin
Berlin
Workers Newspaper), Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser
was highly critical of Goebbels' failure to attract the urban vote.[77] However, the party as a whole did much better in rural areas, attracting as much as 18 per cent of the vote in some regions.[74] This was partly because Hitler had publicly stated just prior to the election that Point 17 of the party programme, which mandated the expropriation of land without compensation, would apply only to Jewish speculators and not private landholders.[78] After the election, the party refocused their efforts to try to attract still more votes in the agricultural sector.[79] In May, shortly after the election, Hitler considered appointing Goebbels
Goebbels
as party propaganda chief. But he hesitated, as he worried that the removal of Gregor Strasser from the post would lead to a split in the party. Goebbels considered himself well suited to the position, and began to formulate ideas about how propaganda could be used in schools and the media.[80]

Goebbels
Goebbels
used the death of Horst Wessel
Horst Wessel
(pictured) in 1930 as a propaganda tool[81] against "Communist subhumans".[82]

By 1930 Berlin
Berlin
was the party's second-strongest base of support after Munich.[64] That year the violence between the Nazis and communists led to local SA troop leader Horst Wessel
Horst Wessel
being shot by two members of the Communist Party of Germany. He later died in hospital.[83] Exploiting Wessel's death, Goebbels
Goebbels
turned him into a martyr for the Nazi movement. He officially declared Wessel's march Die Fahne hoch (Raise the flag), renamed as the Horst-Wessel-Lied, to be the NSDAP anthem.[81] The Great Depression
Great Depression
greatly impacted Germany
Germany
and by 1930 there was a dramatic increase in unemployment.[84] During this time, the Strasser brothers started publishing a new daily newspaper in Berlin, the Nationaler Sozialist.[85] Like their other publications, it conveyed the brothers' own brand of Nazism, including nationalism, anti-capitalism, social reform, and anti-Westernism.[86] Goebbels complained vehemently about the rival Strasser newspapers to Hitler, and admitted that their success was causing his own Berlin
Berlin
newspapers to be "pushed to the wall".[85] In late April 1930, Hitler publicly and firmly announced his opposition to Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser
and appointed Goebbels
Goebbels
to replace him as Reich leader of NSDAP propaganda.[87] One of Goebbels' first acts was to ban the evening edition of the Nationaler Sozialist.[88] Goebbels
Goebbels
was also given control of other Nazi papers across the country, including the party's national newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter
Völkischer Beobachter
(People's Observer). He still had to wait until 3 July for Otto Strasser
Otto Strasser
and his supporters to announce they were leaving the NSDAP. Upon receiving the news, Goebbels
Goebbels
was relieved the "crisis" with the Strassers was finally over and glad that Otto Strasser
Otto Strasser
had lost all power.[89] The rapid deterioration of the economy led to the resignation on 27 March 1930 of the coalition government that had been elected in 1928. A new cabinet was formed, and Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
used his power as president to govern via emergency decrees.[90] He appointed Heinrich Brüning as chancellor.[91] Goebbels
Goebbels
took charge of the NSDAP's national campaign for Reichstag elections called for 14 September 1930. Campaigning was undertaken on a huge scale, with thousands of meetings and speeches held all over the country. Hitler's speeches focused on blaming the country's economic woes on the Weimar Republic, particularly its adherence to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, which required war reparations that had proven devastating to the German economy. He proposed a new German society based on race and national unity. The resulting success took even Hitler and Goebbels
Goebbels
by surprise: the party received 6.5 million votes nationwide and took 107 seats in the Reichstag, making it the second largest party in the country.[92]

Goebbels
Goebbels
and his daughter Helga with Adolf Hitler

In late 1930 Goebbels
Goebbels
met Magda Quandt, a divorcée who had joined the party a few months earlier. She worked as a volunteer in the party offices in Berlin, helping Goebbels
Goebbels
organise his private papers.[93] Her flat on the Reichskanzlerplatz soon became a favourite meeting place for Hitler and other NSDAP officials.[94] Goebbels
Goebbels
and Quandt married on 19 December 1931.[95] For two further elections held in 1932, Goebbels
Goebbels
organised massive campaigns that included rallies, parades, speeches, and Hitler travelling around the country by aeroplane with the slogan "the Führer
Führer
over Germany".[96] Goebbels
Goebbels
wrote in his diary that the Nazis must gain power and exterminate Marxism.[97] He undertook numerous speaking tours during these election campaigns and had some of their speeches published on gramophone records and as pamphlets. Goebbels was also involved in the production of a small collection of silent films that could be shown at party meetings, though they did not yet have enough equipment to widely use this medium.[98][99] Many of Goebbels' campaign posters used violent imagery such as a giant half-clad male destroying political opponents or other perceived enemies such as "International High Finance".[100] His propaganda characterised the opposition as "November criminals", "Jewish wire-pullers", or a communist threat.[101] Support for the party continued to grow, but neither of these elections led to a majority government. In an effort to stabilise the country and improve economic conditions, Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Reich chancellor on 30 January 1933.[102] Propaganda
Propaganda
Minister To celebrate Hitler's appointment as chancellor, Goebbels
Goebbels
organised a torchlit parade in Berlin
Berlin
on the night of 30 January of an estimated 60,000 men, many in the uniforms of the SA and SS. The spectacle was covered by a live state radio broadcast, with commentary by longtime party member and future Minister of Aviation Hermann Göring.[103] Goebbels
Goebbels
was disappointed to not be given a post in Hitler's new cabinet. Bernhard Rust
Bernhard Rust
was appointed as Minister of Culture, the post Goebbels
Goebbels
was expecting to receive.[104] Like other NSDAP officials, Goebbels
Goebbels
had to deal with Hitler's leadership style of giving contradictory orders to his subordinates, while placing them into positions where their duties and responsibilities overlapped.[105] In this way, Hitler fostered distrust, competition, and infighting among his subordinates to consolidate and maximise his own power.[106] The NSDAP took advantage of the Reichstag fire
Reichstag fire
of 27 February 1933, with Hindenburg passing the Reichstag Fire Decree
Reichstag Fire Decree
the following day at Hitler's urging. This was the first of several pieces of legislation that dismantled democracy in Germany
Germany
and put a totalitarian dictatorship—headed by Hitler—in its place.[107] On 5 March, yet another Reichstag election took place, the last to be held before the defeat of the Nazis at the end of the Second World War.[108] While the NSDAP increased their number of seats and percentage of the vote, it was not the landslide expected by the party leadership.[109] Goebbels finally received Hitler's appointment to the cabinet, officially becoming head of the newly created Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda
Propaganda
on 14 March.[110]

Nazi book burning, 10 May 1933

The role of the new ministry, which set up its offices in the 18th-century Ordenspalais
Ordenspalais
across from the Reich Chancellery, was to centralise Nazi control of all aspects of German cultural and intellectual life.[111] Goebbels
Goebbels
hoped to increase popular support of the party from the 37 per cent achieved at the last free election held in Germany
Germany
on 25 March 1933 to 100 per cent support. An unstated goal was to present to other nations the impression that the NSDAP had the full and enthusiastic backing of the entire population.[112] One of Goebbels' first productions was staging the Day of Potsdam, a ceremonial passing of power from Hindenburg to Hitler, held in Potsdam on 21 March.[113] He composed the text of Hitler's decree authorising the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses, held on 1 April.[114] Later that month, Goebbels
Goebbels
travelled back to Rheydt, where he was given a triumphal reception. The townsfolk lined the main street, which had been renamed in his honour. On the following day, Goebbels
Goebbels
was declared a local hero.[115] Goebbels
Goebbels
converted the 1 May holiday from a celebration of workers' rights (observed as such especially by the communists) into a day celebrating the NSDAP. In place of the usual ad hoc labour celebrations, he organised a huge party rally held at Tempelhof Field in Berlin. The following day, all trade union offices in the country were forcibly disbanded by the SA and SS, and the Nazi-run German Labour Front was created to take their place.[116] "We are the masters of Germany," he commented in his diary entry of 3 May.[117] Less than two weeks later, he gave a speech at the Nazi book burning
Nazi book burning
in Berlin on 10 May,[118] a ceremony he suggested.[64] Meanwhile, the NSDAP began passing laws to marginalise Jews and remove them from German society. The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, passed on 7 April 1933, forced all non-Aryans to retire from the legal profession and civil service.[119] Similar legislation soon deprived Jewish members of other professions of their right to practise.[119] The first Nazi concentration camps (initially created to house political dissenters) were founded shortly after Hitler seized power.[120] In a process termed Gleichschaltung (co-ordination), the NSDAP proceeded to rapidly bring all aspects of life under control of the party. All civilian organisations, including agricultural groups, volunteer organisations, and sports clubs, had their leadership replaced with Nazi sympathisers or party members. By June 1933, virtually the only organisations not in the control of the NSDAP were the army and the churches.[121] In a move to manipulate Germany's middle class and shape popular opinion, the regime passed on 4 October 1933 the Schriftleitergesetz (Editor's Law), which became the cornerstone of the Nazi Party's control of the popular press.[122] Modeled to some extent on the system in Benito Mussolini's Italy, the law defined a Schriftleiter as anyone who wrote, edited, or selected texts and/or illustrated material for serial publication. Individuals selected for this position were chosen based on experiential, educational, and racial criteria.[123] The law required journalists to "regulate their work in accordance with National Socialism as a philosophy of life and as a conception of government."[124] At the end of June 1934, top officials of the SA and opponents of the regime, including Gregor Strasser, were arrested and killed in a purge later called the Night of Long Knives. Goebbels
Goebbels
was present at the arrest of SA leader Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
in Munich.[125] On 2 August 1934, President von Hindenburg died. In a radio broadcast, Goebbels announced that the offices of president and chancellor had been combined, and Hitler had been formally named as Führer
Führer
und Reichskanzler (leader and chancellor).[126] Workings of the Ministry The propaganda ministry was organised into seven departments: administration and legal; mass rallies, public health, youth, and race; radio; national and foreign press; films and film censorship; art, music, and theatre; and protection against counter-propaganda, both foreign and domestic.[127] Goebbels
Goebbels
style of leadership was tempestuous and unpredictable. He would suddenly change direction and shift his support between senior associates; he was a difficult boss and liked to berate his staff in public.[128] Goebbels
Goebbels
was successful at his job, however; Life wrote in 1938 that "[p]ersonally he likes nobody, is liked by nobody, and runs the most efficient Nazi department."[129] John Gunther
John Gunther
wrote in 1940 that Goebbels
Goebbels
"is the cleverest of all the Nazis", but could not succeed Hitler because "everybody hates him".[130] The Reich Film Chamber, which all members of the film industry were required to join, was created in June 1933.[131] Goebbels
Goebbels
promoted the development of films with a Nazi slant, and ones that contained subliminal or overt propaganda messages.[132] Under the auspices of the Reichskulturkammer
Reichskulturkammer
(Reich Chamber of Culture), created in September, Goebbels
Goebbels
added additional sub-chambers for the fields of broadcasting, fine arts, literature, music, the press, and the theatre.[133] As in the film industry, anyone wishing to pursue a career in these fields had to be a member of the corresponding chamber. In this way anyone whose views were contrary to the regime could be excluded from working in their chosen field and thus silenced.[134] In addition, journalists (now considered employees of the state) were required to prove Aryan
Aryan
descent back to the year 1800, and if married, the same requirement applied to the spouse. Members of any chamber were not allowed to leave the country for their work without prior permission of their chamber. A committee was established to censor books, and works could not be re-published unless they were on the list of approved works. Similar regulations applied to other fine arts and entertainment; even cabaret performances were censored.[135] Many German artists and intellectuals left Germany
Germany
in the pre-war years rather than work under these restrictions.[136]

Free radios were distributed in Berlin
Berlin
on Goebbels' birthday in 1938.

Hitler was the focal point at the 1934 Nuremberg Rally. Leni Riefenstahl and her crew are visible in front of the podium.

Goebbels
Goebbels
was particularly interested in controlling radio, which was then still a fairly new mass medium.[137] Sometimes under protest from individual states (particularly Prussia, headed by Göring), Goebbels gained control of radio stations nationwide, and placed them under the Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft
Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft
(German National Broadcasting Corporation) in July 1934.[138] Manufacturers were urged by Goebbels to produce inexpensive home receivers, called Volksempfänger (people's receiver), and by 1938 nearly ten million sets had been sold. Loudspeakers were placed in public areas, factories, and schools, so that important party broadcasts would be heard live by nearly all Germans.[137] On 2 September 1939 (the day after the start of the war), Goebbels
Goebbels
and the Council of Ministers proclaimed it illegal to listen to foreign radio stations. Disseminating news from foreign broadcasts could result in the death penalty.[139] Albert Speer, Hitler's architect and later Minister for Armaments and War Production, later said the regime "made the complete use of all technical means for domination of its own country. Through technical devices like the radio and loudspeaker, 80 million people were deprived of independent thought."[140] A major focus of Nazi propaganda
Nazi propaganda
was Hitler himself, who was glorified as a heroic and infallible leader and became the focus of a cult of personality.[141] Much of this was spontaneous, but some was stage-managed as part of Goebbels' propaganda work.[142] Adulation of Hitler was the focus of the 1934 Nuremberg Rally, where his moves were carefully choreographed. The rally was the subject of the film Triumph of the Will, one of several Nazi propaganda
Nazi propaganda
films directed by Leni Riefenstahl. It won the Gold Medal at the 1935 Venice Film Festival.[143] At the 1935 Nazi party congress rally at Nuremberg, Goebbels
Goebbels
declared that "Bolshevism is the declaration of war by Jewish-led international subhumans against culture itself."[144] Goebbels
Goebbels
was involved in planning the staging of the 1936 Summer Olympics, held in Berlin. It was around this time that he met and started having an affair with the actress Lída Baarová, whom he continued to see until 1938.[145] A major project in 1937 was the Degenerate Art Exhibition, organised by Goebbels, which ran in Munich from July to November. The exhibition proved wildly popular, attracting over two million visitors.[146] A degenerate music exhibition took place the following year.[147] Meanwhile, Goebbels
Goebbels
was disappointed by the lack of quality in the National Socialist
National Socialist
artwork, films, and literature.[148] Church struggle See also: Nazi persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany In 1933, Hitler signed the Reichskonkordat
Reichskonkordat
(Reich Concordat), a treaty with the Vatican that required the regime to honour the independence of Catholic institutions and prohibited clergy from involvement in politics.[149] However, the regime continued to target the Christian churches and to try to weaken their influence. Throughout 1935 and 1936, hundreds of clergy and nuns were arrested, often on trumped up charges of currency smuggling or sexual offences.[150][151] Goebbels widely publicised the trials in his propaganda campaigns, showing the cases in the worst possible light.[150] Restrictions were placed on public meetings, and Catholic publications faced censorship. Catholic schools were required to reduce religious instruction and crucifixes were removed from state buildings.[152][b] Hitler often vacillated on whether or not the Kirchenkampf
Kirchenkampf
(church struggle) should be a priority, but his frequent inflammatory comments on the issue were enough to convince Goebbels
Goebbels
to intensify his work on the issue;[153] in February 1937 he stated he wanted to eliminate the Protestant church.[154] In response to the persecution, Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI
had the "Mit brennender Sorge" ("With Burning Concern") Encyclical smuggled into Germany
Germany
for Passion Sunday
Passion Sunday
1937 and read from every pulpit. It denounced the systematic hostility of the regime toward the church.[155][156] In response, Goebbels
Goebbels
renewed the regime's crackdown and propaganda against Catholics.[157] His speech of 28 May in Berlin
Berlin
in front of 20,000 party members, which was also broadcast on the radio, attacked the Catholic church as morally corrupt. As a result of the propaganda campaign, enrolment in denominational schools dropped sharply, and by 1939 all such schools were disbanded or converted to public facilities. Harassment and threats of imprisonment led the clergy to be much more cautious in their criticism of the regime.[158] Partly out of foreign policy concerns, Hitler ordered a scaling back of the church struggle by the end of July 1937.[159] World War II As early as February 1933, Hitler announced that rearmament must be undertaken, albeit clandestinely at first, as to do so was in violation of the Versailles Treaty. A year later he told his military leaders that 1942 was the target date for going to war in the east.[160] Goebbels
Goebbels
was one of the most enthusiastic supporters of Hitler aggressively pursuing Germany's expansionist policies sooner rather than later. At the time of the Reoccupation of the Rhineland
Rhineland
in 1936, Goebbels
Goebbels
summed up his general attitude in his diary: "[N]ow is the time for action. Fortune favors the brave! He who dares nothing wins nothing."[161] In the lead-up to the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
crisis in 1938, Goebbels
Goebbels
took the initiative time and again to use propaganda to whip up sympathy for the Sudeten Germans while campaigning against the Czech government.[162] Still, Goebbels
Goebbels
was well aware there was a growing "war panic" in Germany
Germany
and so by July had the press conduct propaganda efforts at a lower level of intensity.[163] After the western powers acceded to Hitler's demands concerning Czechoslovakia in 1938, Goebbels
Goebbels
soon redirected his propaganda machine against Poland. From May onwards, he orchestrated a campaign against Poland, fabricating stories about atrocities against ethnic Germans in Danzig and other cities. Even so, he was unable to persuade the majority of Germans to welcome the prospect of war.[164] He privately held doubts about the wisdom of risking a protracted war against Britain and France by attacking Poland.[165] After the Invasion of Poland
Invasion of Poland
in 1939, Goebbels
Goebbels
used his propaganda ministry and the Reich chambers to control access to information domestically. To his chagrin, his rival Joachim von Ribbentrop, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, continually challenged Goebbels' jurisdiction over the dissemination of international propaganda. Hitler declined to make a firm ruling on the subject, so the two men remained rivals for the remainder of the Nazi era.[166] Goebbels
Goebbels
did not participate in the military decision making process, nor was he made privy to diplomatic negotiations until after the fact.[167]

Production of a newsreel at the front lines, January 1941

The Propaganda
Propaganda
Ministry took over the broadcasting facilities of conquered countries immediately after surrender, and began broadcasting prepared material using the existing announcers as a way to gain the trust of the citizens.[168] Most aspects of the media, both domestically and in the conquered countries, were controlled by Goebbels
Goebbels
and his department.[169][c] The German Home Service, the Armed Forces Programme, and the German European Service were all rigorously controlled in everything from the information they were permitted to disseminate to the music they were allowed to play.[170] Party rallies, speeches, and demonstrations continued; speeches were broadcast on the radio and short propaganda films were exhibited using 1,500 mobile film vans.[171] Hitler made fewer public appearances and broadcasts as the war progressed, so Goebbels
Goebbels
increasingly became the voice of the Nazi regime for the German people.[170] From May 1940 he wrote frequent editorials that were published in Das Reich which were later read aloud over the radio.[172] He found films to be his most effective propaganda medium, after radio.[173] At his insistence, initially half the films made in wartime Germany
Germany
were propaganda films (particularly on antisemitism) and war propaganda films (recounting both historical wars and current exploits of the Wehrmacht).[174] Goebbels
Goebbels
became preoccupied with morale and the efforts of the people on the home front. He believed that the more the people at home were involved in the war effort, the better their morale would be.[175] For example, he initiated a programme for the collection of winter clothing and ski equipment for troops on the eastern front.[175] At the same time, Goebbels
Goebbels
implemented changes to have more "entertaining material" in radio and film produced for the public, decreeing in late 1942 that 20 per cent of the films should be propaganda and 80 per cent light entertainment.[176] As Gauleiter
Gauleiter
of Berlin, Goebbels
Goebbels
dealt with increasingly serious shortages of necessities such as food and clothing, as well as the need to ration beer and tobacco, which were important for morale. Hitler suggested watering the beer and degrading the quality of the cigarettes so that more could be produced, but Goebbels
Goebbels
refused, saying the cigarettes were already of such low quality that it was impossible to make them any worse.[177] Through his propaganda campaigns, he worked hard to maintain an appropriate level of morale among the public about the military situation, neither too optimistic nor too grim.[178] The series of military setbacks the Germans suffered in this period – the thousand-bomber raid on Cologne
Cologne
(May 1942), the Allied victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein (November 1942), and especially the catastrophic defeat at the Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of Stalingrad
(February 1943) – were difficult matters to present to the German public, who were increasingly weary of the war and sceptical that it could be won.[179] On 15 January 1943, Hitler appointed Goebbels
Goebbels
as head of the newly created Air Raid Damage committee, which meant Goebbels
Goebbels
was nominally in charge of nationwide civil air defences and shelters as well as the assessment and repair of damaged buildings.[180] In actuality, the defence of areas other than Berlin
Berlin
remained in the hands of the local Gauleiters, and his main tasks were limited to providing immediate aid to the affected civilians and using propaganda to improve their morale.[181][182] By early 1943, the war produced a labour crisis for the regime. Hitler created a three-man committee with representatives of the State, the army, and the Party in an attempt to centralise control of the war economy. The committee members were Hans Lammers
Hans Lammers
(head of the Reich Chancellery), Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, chief of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
(Armed Forces High Command; OKW), and Martin Bormann, who controlled the Party. The committee was intended to independently propose measures regardless of the wishes of various ministries, with Hitler reserving most final decisions to himself. The committee, soon known as the Dreierausschuß (Committee of Three), met eleven times between January and August 1943. However, they ran up against resistance from Hitler's cabinet ministers, who headed deeply entrenched spheres of influence and were excluded from the committee. Seeing it as a threat to their power, Goebbels, Göring, and Speer worked together to bring it down. The result was that nothing changed, and the Committee of Three declined into irrelevance by September 1943.[183]

Sportpalast speech, 18 February 1943. The banner says "TOTALER KRIEG - KÜRZESTER KRIEG" ("Total War - Shortest War")

Partly in response to being excluded from the Committee of Three, Goebbels
Goebbels
pressured Hitler to introduce measures that would produce "total war", including closing businesses not essential to the war effort, conscripting women into the labour force, and enlisting men in previously exempt occupations into the Wehrmacht.[184] Some of these measures were implemented in an edict of 13 January, but to Goebbels' dismay, Göring demanded that his favourite restaurants in Berlin should remain open, and Lammers successfully lobbied Hitler to have women with children exempted from conscription, even if they had child care available.[185] After receiving an enthusiastic response to his speech of 30 January 1943 on the topic, Goebbels
Goebbels
believed he had the support of the German people in his call for total war.[186] His next speech, the Sportpalast speech
Sportpalast speech
of 18 February 1943, was a passionate demand for his audience to commit to total war, which he presented as the only way to stop the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
onslaught and save the German people from destruction. The speech also had a strong antisemitic element and hinted at the extermination of the Jewish people that was already underway.[187] The speech was presented live on radio and was filmed as well.[188] During the live version of the speech, Goebbels accidentally begins to mention the "extermination" of the Jews; this is omitted in the published text of the speech.[189] Goebbels' efforts had little impact for the time being, as while Hitler was in principle in favour of total war, he was not prepared to implement changes over the objections of his ministers.[190] The discovery around this time of a mass grave of Polish officers that had been killed by the Red Army in the 1940 Katyn massacre
Katyn massacre
was made use of by Goebbels
Goebbels
in his propaganda in an attempt to drive a wedge between the Soviets and the other western allies.[191] Plenipotentiary for total war

9 March 1945: Goebbels
Goebbels
awards 16-year-old Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth
Willi Hübner the Iron Cross
Iron Cross
for the defence of Lauban

After the Allied invasion of Sicily
Allied invasion of Sicily
(July 1943) and the strategic Soviet victory in the Battle of Kursk
Battle of Kursk
(July–August 1943), Goebbels began to recognise that the war could no longer be won.[192] Following the Allied invasion of Italy and the fall of Mussolini in September, he raised with Hitler the possibility of a separate peace, either with the Soviets or with Britain. Hitler rejected both of these proposals.[193] As Germany's military and economic situation grew steadily worse, on 25 August 1943 Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
took over the post of interior minister, replacing Wilhelm Frick.[194] Intensive air raids on Berlin
Berlin
and other cities took the lives of thousands of people.[195] Göring's Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
attempted to retaliate with air raids on London in early 1944, but they no longer had sufficient aircraft to make much of an impact.[196] While Goebbels' propaganda in this period indicated that a huge retaliation was in the offing, the V-1 flying bombs, launched on British targets beginning in mid-June 1944, had little effect, with only around 20 per cent reaching their intended targets.[197] To boost morale, Goebbels
Goebbels
continued to publish propaganda to the effect that further improvements to these weapons would have a decisive impact on the outcome of the war.[198] Meanwhile, in the Normandy landings
Normandy landings
of 6 June 1944, the Allies successfully gained a foothold in France.[199]

Goebbels
Goebbels
(centre) and Armaments Minister Albert Speer
Albert Speer
(to Goebbels' left) observe tests at Peenemünde, August 1943

Throughout July 1944, Goebbels
Goebbels
and Speer continued to press Hitler to bring the economy to a total war footing.[200] The 20 July plot, where Hitler was almost killed by a bomb at his field headquarters in East Prussia, played into the hands of those who had been pushing for change: Bormann, Goebbels, Himmler, and Speer. Over the objections of Göring, Goebbels
Goebbels
was appointed on 23 July as Reich Plenipotentiary for Total War, charged with maximising the manpower for the Wehrmacht and the armaments industry at the expense of sectors of the economy not critical to the war effort.[201] Through these efforts, he was able to free up an additional half a million men for military service.[202] However, as many of these new recruits came from the armaments industry, the move put him in conflict with armaments minister Speer.[203] Untrained workers from elsewhere were not readily absorbed into the armaments industry, and likewise the new Wehrmacht recruits waited in barracks for their turn to be trained.[204] At Hitler's behest, the Volkssturm
Volkssturm
(People's Storm) – a nationwide militia of men previously considered unsuitable for military service – was formed on 18 October 1944.[205] Goebbels
Goebbels
recorded in his diary that 100,000 recruits were sworn in from his Gau alone. However, the men, mostly age 45 to 60, received only rudimentary training and many were not properly armed. Goebbels' notion that these men could effectively serve on the front lines against Soviet tanks and artillery was unrealistic at best. The programme was deeply unpopular.[206][207] Defeat and death In the last months of the war, Goebbels' speeches and articles took on an increasingly apocalyptic tone.[208] By the beginning of 1945, with the Soviets on the Oder River
Oder River
and the Western Allies preparing to cross the Rhine, he could no longer disguise the fact that defeat was inevitable.[209] Berlin
Berlin
had little in the way of fortifications or artillery (or even Volkssturm
Volkssturm
units, 'civilian soldiers'), as almost everything had been sent to the front.[210] Goebbels
Goebbels
noted in his diary on 21 January that millions of Germans were fleeing westward.[211] He tentatively discussed with Hitler the issue of making peace overtures to the western allies, but Hitler again refused. Privately, Goebbels
Goebbels
was conflicted at pushing the case with Hitler since he did not want to lose the confidence of his Führer.[212] When other Nazi leaders urged Hitler to leave Berlin
Berlin
and establish a new centre of resistance in the National Redoubt in Bavaria, Goebbels opposed this, arguing for a heroic last stand in Berlin.[213] His family (except for Magda's son Harald, who had served in the Luftwaffe and been captured by the Allies) moved into their house in Berlin
Berlin
to await the end.[210] He and Magda may have discussed suicide and the fate of their young children in a long meeting on the night of 27 January.[214] He knew how the outside world would view the criminal acts committed by the regime, and had no desire to subject himself to the "debacle" of a trial.[215] He burned his private papers on the night of 18 April.[216] Goebbels
Goebbels
knew how to play on Hitler's fantasies, encouraging him to see the hand of providence in the death of United States
United States
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
on 12 April.[217] Whether Hitler really saw this event as a turning point as Goebbels
Goebbels
proclaimed is not known.[218] By this time, Goebbels
Goebbels
had gained the position he had wanted so long – at the side of Hitler. Göring was utterly discredited, although he was not stripped of his offices until 23 April.[219] Himmler, whose appointment as commander of Army Group Vistula
Army Group Vistula
had led to disaster on the Oder, was also in disgrace with Hitler.[220] Most of Hitler's inner circle, including Göring, Himmler, Ribbentrop, and Speer, prepared to leave Berlin
Berlin
immediately after Hitler's birthday celebration on 20 April.[221] Even Bormann was "not anxious" to meet his end at Hitler's side.[222] On 22 April, Hitler announced that he would stay in Berlin
Berlin
until the end and then shoot himself.[223] Goebbels
Goebbels
moved with his family into the Vorbunker, connected to the lower Führerbunker
Führerbunker
under the Reich Chancellery garden in central Berlin, that same day.[224] He told Vice-Admiral Hans-Erich Voss
Hans-Erich Voss
that he would not entertain the idea of either surrender or escape.[225] On 23 April, Goebbels
Goebbels
made the following proclamation to the people of Berlin:

I call on you to fight for your city. Fight with everything you have got, for the sake of your wives and your children, your mothers and your parents. Your arms are defending everything we have ever held dear, and all the generations that will come after us. Be proud and courageous! Be inventive and cunning! Your Gauleiter
Gauleiter
is amongst you. He and his colleagues will remain in your midst. His wife and children are here as well. He, who once captured the city with 200 men, will now use every means to galvanize the defense of the capital. The battle for Berlin
Berlin
must become the signal for the whole nation to rise up in battle ..."[226]

After midnight on 29 April, with the Soviets advancing ever closer to the bunker complex, Hitler married Eva Braun
Eva Braun
in a small civil ceremony within the Führerbunker.[227][d] Afterwards, Hitler hosted a modest wedding breakfast with his new wife.[228] Hitler then took secretary Traudl Junge
Traudl Junge
to another room and dictated his last will and testament.[229][d] Goebbels
Goebbels
and Bormann were two of the witnesses.[230] In his last will and testament, Hitler named no successor as Führer or leader of the Nazi Party. Instead, he appointed Goebbels
Goebbels
as Reich Chancellor; Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz, who was at Flensburg
Flensburg
near the Danish border, as Reich President; and Bormann as Party Minister.[231] Goebbels
Goebbels
wrote a postscript to the will stating that he would disobey Hitler's order to leave Berlin: "For reasons of humanity and personal loyalty", he had to stay.[232] Further, his wife and children would be staying, as well. They would end their lives "side by side with the Führer".[232] In the mid-afternoon of 30 April, Hitler shot himself.[233] After Hitler's suicide, Goebbels
Goebbels
was depressed. Voss later recounted Goebbels
Goebbels
as saying: "It is a great pity that such a man is not with us any longer. But there is nothing to be done. For us, everything is lost now and the only way out left for us is the one which Hitler chose. I shall follow his example."[234] On 1 May, Goebbels
Goebbels
completed his sole official act as Chancellor. He dictated a letter to General Vasily Chuikov
Vasily Chuikov
and ordered German General Hans Krebs to deliver it under a white flag. Chuikov, as commander of the Soviet 8th Guards Army, commanded the Soviet forces in central Berlin. Goebbels' letter informed Chuikov of Hitler's death and requested a ceasefire. After this was rejected, Goebbels
Goebbels
decided that further efforts were futile.[235] Later on 1 May, Vice-Admiral Voss saw Goebbels
Goebbels
for the last time: "... While saying goodbye I asked Goebbels
Goebbels
to join us. But he replied: 'The captain must not leave his sinking ship. I have thought about it all and decided to stay here. I have nowhere to go because with little children I will not be able to make it, especially with a leg like mine...' "[236]

The Goebbels
Goebbels
family. In this vintage manipulated image, Goebbels' stepson Harald Quandt
Harald Quandt
(who was absent due to military duty) was added to the group portrait.

On the evening of 1 May 1945, Goebbels
Goebbels
arranged for an SS dentist, Helmut Kunz, to inject his six children with morphine so that when they were unconscious, an ampule of cyanide could be then crushed in each of their mouths.[237] According to Kunz's later testimony, he gave the children morphine injections but it was Magda Goebbels
Magda Goebbels
and SS- Obersturmbannführer
Obersturmbannführer
Ludwig Stumpfegger, Hitler's personal doctor, who administered the cyanide.[237] At around 20:30, Goebbels
Goebbels
and Magda left the bunker and walked up to the garden of the Chancellery, where they committed suicide.[238] There are several different accounts of this event. According to one account, Goebbels
Goebbels
shot Magda and then himself. Another account was that they each bit on a cyanide ampule and were given a coup de grâce immediately afterwards.[239] Goebbels' SS adjutant Günther Schwägermann testified in 1948 that they walked ahead of him up the stairs and out into the Chancellery garden. He waited in the stairwell and heard the shots sound. Schwägermann then walked up the remaining stairs and, once outside, saw their lifeless bodies. Following Goebbels' prior order, Schwägermann had an SS soldier fire several shots into his body, which did not move.[238] The bodies were then doused with petrol, but they were only partially burned and not buried.[239] A few days later, Voss was brought back to the bunker by the Soviets to identify the partly burned bodies of Joseph and Magda Goebbels
Magda Goebbels
and their children. The remains of the Goebbels' family, Hitler, Braun, General Krebs, and Hitler's dogs were repeatedly buried and exhumed.[240] The last burial was at the SMERSH facility in Magdeburg
Magdeburg
on 21 February 1946. In 1970, KGB
KGB
director Yuri Andropov authorised an operation to destroy the remains.[241] On 4 April 1970, a Soviet KGB
KGB
team used detailed burial charts to exhume five wooden boxes at the Magdeburg
Magdeburg
SMERSH
SMERSH
facility. Those were burned, crushed, and scattered into the Biederitz river, a tributary of the nearby Elbe.[242] Antisemitism
Antisemitism
and the Holocaust

A ruined synagogue in Munich after Kristallnacht

Like many Germans of that time, Goebbels
Goebbels
was antisemitic from a young age.[243] After joining the NSDAP and meeting Hitler, his antisemitism grew and became more radical. He began to see the Jews as a destructive force with a negative impact on German society.[244] After the Nazis seized power, he repeatedly urged Hitler to take action against the Jews.[245] Despite his extreme antisemitism, Goebbels spoke of the "rubbish of race-materialism" and of the unnecessity of biological racism for the Nazi ideology.[246] He also described Himmler's ideology as "in many regards, mad" and thought Alfred Rosenberg's theories were ridiculous.[246] The Nazi party's goal was to remove Jews from German cultural and economic life, and eventually to remove them from the country altogether.[247] In addition to his propaganda efforts, Goebbels actively promoted the persecution of the Jews through pogroms, legislation, and other actions.[248] Discriminatory measures he instituted in Berlin
Berlin
in the early years of the regime included bans against their using public transport and requiring that Jewish shops be marked as such.[249] In November 1938, the German diplomat Ernst vom Rath
Ernst vom Rath
was killed in Paris by a young Jewish man. In response, Goebbels
Goebbels
arranged for inflammatory antisemitic material to be released by the press, and the result was the start of a pogrom. Jews were attacked and synagogues destroyed all over Germany. The situation was further inflamed by a speech Goebbels
Goebbels
gave at a party meeting on the night of 8 November, where he obliquely called for party members to incite further violence against Jews while making it appear to be a spontaneous series of acts by the German people. At least a hundred Jews were killed, several hundred synagogues were damaged or destroyed, and thousands of Jewish shops were vandalised in an event called Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
(Night of Broken Glass). Around 30,000 Jewish men were sent to concentration camps.[250] The destruction stopped after a conference held on 12 November, where Göring pointed out that the destruction of Jewish property was in effect the destruction of German property, since the intention was that it would all eventually be confiscated.[251] Goebbels
Goebbels
continued his intensive antisemitic propaganda campaign that culminated in Hitler's 30 January 1939 Reichstag speech, which Goebbels
Goebbels
helped to write:[252]

Goebbels
Goebbels
ordered all German Jews to wear an identifying yellow badge.

If international finance Jewry in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the bolshevization of the earth and thereby the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe![253]

While Goebbels
Goebbels
had been pressing for expulsion of the Berlin
Berlin
Jews since 1935, there were still 62,000 living in the city in 1940. Part of the delay in their deportation was that they were needed as workers in the armaments industry.[254] Deportations of German Jews began in October 1941, with the first transport from Berlin
Berlin
leaving on 18 October. Some Jews were shot immediately on arrival in destinations such as Riga
Riga
and Kaunas.[255] In preparation for the deportations, Goebbels
Goebbels
ordered that all German Jews were required by law to wear an identifying yellow badge as of 5 September 1941.[256] On 6 March 1942, Goebbels
Goebbels
received a copy of the minutes of the Wannsee Conference.[257] The document made the Nazi policy clear: the Jewish population of Europe was to be sent to extermination camps in occupied areas of Poland and killed.[258] His diary entries of the period show that he was well aware of the fate of the Jews. "In general, it can probably be established that 60 percent of them will have to be liquidated, while only 40 percent can be put to work. ... A judgment is being carried out on the Jews which is barbaric but thoroughly deserved," he wrote on 27 March 1942.[259] Goebbels
Goebbels
had frequent discussions with Hitler about the fate of the Jews, a subject they discussed almost every time they met.[260] He was aware throughout that the Jews were being exterminated, and completely supported this decision. He was one of the few top Nazi officials to do so publicly.[261] Family life

Post-reconciliation photo commissioned by Hitler, 1938[262]

Hitler was very fond of Magda Goebbels
Magda Goebbels
and the children.[263] He enjoyed staying at the Goebbels' Berlin
Berlin
apartment, where he could relax.[264] Magda had a close relationship with Hitler, and became a member of his small coterie of female friends.[94] She also became an unofficial representative of the regime, receiving letters from all over Germany
Germany
from women with questions about domestic matters or child custody issues.[265] In 1936, Goebbels
Goebbels
met the Czech actress Lída Baarová and by the winter of 1937 began an intense affair with her.[266] Magda had a long conversation with Hitler about it on 15 August 1938.[267] Unwilling to put up with a scandal involving one of his top ministers, Hitler demanded that Goebbels
Goebbels
break off the relationship.[268] Thereafter, Joseph and Magda seemed to reach a truce until the end of September.[267] The couple had another falling out at that point, and once again Hitler became involved, insisting the couple stay together.[269] Hitler arranged for publicity photos to be taken of himself with the reconciled couple in October.[270] Magda too had affairs, including a relationship with Kurt Ludecke in 1933[271] and Karl Hanke
Karl Hanke
in 1938.[272] The Goebbels
Goebbels
family included Harald Quandt
Harald Quandt
(Magda's son from her first marriage; born 1921),[273] plus Helga (1932), Hilde (1934), Helmuth (1935), Holde (1937), Hedda (1938), and Heide (1940).[274] Harald was the only member of the family to survive the war.[275] See also

Glossary of Nazi Germany Gottbegnadeten list List of Nazi Party
Nazi Party
leaders and officials Nazi propaganda

References Informational notes

^ Among Goebbels' school papers offered for auction in 2012 were more than 100 love letters written between Goebbels
Goebbels
and Stalherm. The Telegraph 2012. ^ Hitler later removed the restriction on crucifixes, as it was damaging morale. Rees & Kershaw 2012. ^ Rosenberg's foreign ministry retained partial control of foreign propaganda, and the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
had its own propaganda organisation. Goebbels' department and duties also overlapped with those of Reich press chief Otto Dietrich. Longerich 2015, p. 693. ^ a b The MI5
MI5
website, using the sources available to Hugh Trevor-Roper (an MI5
MI5
agent and author of The Last Days of Hitler), records the marriage as taking place after Hitler had dictated his last will and testament. MI5, Hitler's Last Days

Citations

^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary: Goebbels ^ a b c d Longerich 2015, p. 5. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 2. ^ Hull 1969, p. 149. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 299. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 6. ^ a b Longerich 2015, p. 14. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 7. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 10. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 6. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, pp. 10–11, 14. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, pp. 6–7. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 14. ^ Evans 2003, p. 204. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 164. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 12, 13. ^ a b Longerich 2015, p. 16. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, pp. 19, 26. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 20, 21. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 17. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 21, 22. ^ Gunther 1940, p. 66. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 22–25. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 24. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 72, 88. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, pp. 32–33. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 3. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 32. ^ a b Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 33. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 25–26. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 27. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 24–26. ^ Reuth 1994, p. 28. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 43. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 28, 33, 34. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 36. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 127–131. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 133–135. ^ Evans 2003, pp. 196, 199. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 36, 37. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, pp. 40–41. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 46. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 167. ^ a b Kershaw 2008, p. 169. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 168–169. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 66. ^ Reuth 1994, p. 66. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 63. ^ Goebbels
Goebbels
1927. ^ a b Longerich 2015, p. 67. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 68. ^ a b Kershaw 2008, p. 171. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, pp. 61, 64. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 94. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 62. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 71, 72. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 75. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 75. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, pp. 75–77. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 81. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, pp. 76, 80. ^ a b c d Longerich 2015, p. 82. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, pp. 75–79. ^ a b c d Gunther 1940, p. 67. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 79. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 93, 94. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 84. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 89. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 82. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, pp. 80–81. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 95, 98. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 108–112. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 99–100. ^ a b c Evans 2003, p. 209. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 94. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 147–148. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 100–101. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 189. ^ Evans 2003, pp. 209, 211. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 116. ^ a b Longerich 2015, p. 124. ^ Siemens 2013, p. 143. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 123. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 127. ^ a b Longerich 2015, pp. 125, 126. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 200. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 128. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 129. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 130. ^ Evans 2003, pp. 249–250. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 199. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 202. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 151–152. ^ a b Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 94. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 167. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 227. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 182. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 172, 173, 184. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 125. ^ Evans 2003, pp. 290–291. ^ Evans 2003, p. 293. ^ Evans 2003, p. 307. ^ Evans 2003, pp. 310–311. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 206. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 131. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 323. ^ Evans 2003, pp. 332–333. ^ Evans 2003, p. 339. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 212. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 121. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 212–213. ^ Evans 2005, p. 121. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 214. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 218. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 221. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 128–129. ^ Evans 2003, p. 358. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 224. ^ a b Longerich 2010, p. 40. ^ Evans 2003, p. 344. ^ Evans 2005, p. 14. ^ Hale 1973, pp. 83–84. ^ Hale 1973, pp. 85–86. ^ Hale 1973, p. 86. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, pp. 132–134. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 137. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, pp. 140–141. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 370. ^ LIFE Magazine 1938. ^ Gunther 1940, p. 19. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 224–225. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 157. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 142. ^ Evans 2005, p. 138. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, pp. 142–143. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 140. ^ a b Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 127. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 226. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 434. ^ Snell 1959, p. 7. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 292–293. ^ Evans 2005, pp. 122–123. ^ Evans 2005, pp. 123–127. ^ Goebbels
Goebbels
1935. ^ Thacker 2010, pp. 184, 201. ^ Evans 2005, pp. 171, 173. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 351. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 346, 350. ^ Evans 2005, pp. 234–235. ^ a b Thacker 2010, p. 189. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 382. ^ Evans 2005, pp. 239–240. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 382. ^ Longerich 2012, p. 223. ^ Shirer 1960, pp. 234–235. ^ Evans 2005, pp. 241–243. ^ Evans 2005, p. 244. ^ Evans 2005, pp. 245–247. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 334. ^ Evans 2005, pp. 338–339. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 352, 353. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 380–382. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 381, 382. ^ Evans 2005, p. 696. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 212. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, pp. 155, 180. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 422, 456–457. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, pp. 185–186. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 693. ^ a b Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 188. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 181. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 470. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 190. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 468–469. ^ a b Longerich 2015, p. 509. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 510, 512. ^ Thacker 2010, pp. 235–236. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 502–504. ^ Thacker 2010, pp. 246–251. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 567. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 615. ^ Thacker 2010, pp. 269–270. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 749–753. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 549–550. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 553–554. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 555. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 255. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 256. ^ Goebbels
Goebbels
1944. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 577. ^ Thacker 2010, pp. 256–257. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 594. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 607, 609. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 611. ^ Thacker 2010, pp. 268–270. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 627–628. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 634. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 637. ^ Evans 2008, pp. 623–624. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 637–639. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 643. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 282. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 651. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 660. ^ Evans 2008, p. 675. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 284. ^ Evans 2008, p. 676. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 292. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 892, 893, 897. ^ a b Thacker 2010, p. 290. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 288. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 897, 898. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 924, 925, 929, 930. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 289. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 291. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 295. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 918. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 918, 919. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 913, 933. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 891, 913–914. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 296. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 932. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 929. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 298. ^ Vinogradov 2005, p. 154. ^ Dollinger 1967, p. 231. ^ Beevor 2002, pp. 342, 343. ^ Beevor 2002, p. 343. ^ Beevor 2002, pp. 343, 344. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 950. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 949, 950. ^ a b Longerich 2015, p. 686. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 955. ^ Vinogradov 2005, p. 157. ^ Vinogradov 2005, p. 324. ^ Vinogradov 2005, p. 156. ^ a b Beevor 2002, pp. 380, 381. ^ a b Joachimsthaler 1999, p. 52. ^ a b Beevor 2002, p. 381. ^ Vinogradov 2005, pp. 111, 333. ^ Vinogradov 2005, p. 333. ^ Vinogradov 2005, pp. 335, 336. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 24–25. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 39–40. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 145. ^ a b Michael 2006, p. 177. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 454–455. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 156. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 454. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 455–459. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 400–401. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 205. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 469. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 464–466. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 236. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 235. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 513. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 309–310. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 514. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 328. ^ Thacker 2010, pp. 326–329. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 391. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 159, 160. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 160. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 179. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 317, 318. ^ a b Longerich 2015, p. 392. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 170. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 392–395. ^ Longerich 2015, pp. 391, 395. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 317. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 204. ^ Longerich 2015, p. 152. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 165. ^ Thacker 2010, p. 149.

Bibliography

Beevor, Antony (2002). Berlin: The Downfall 1945. London: Viking-Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-670-03041-5.  Dollinger, Hans (1967) [1965]. The Decline and Fall of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. New York: Bonanza. ISBN 978-0-517-01313-7.  Evans, Richard J. (2003). The Coming of the Third Reich. Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-14-303469-8.  Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3.  Evans, Richard J. (2008). The Third Reich At War. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-14-311671-4.  Goebbels, Joseph (1944) [1943]. "Nun, Volk steh auf, und Sturm brich los!" [Nation, Rise Up, and Let the Storm Break Loose]. German Propaganda
Propaganda
Archive. Calvin College.  Goebbels, Joseph (1927) [1926]. "Der Nazi-Sozi" [The Nazi-Sozi]. German Propaganda
Propaganda
Archive. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Calvin College.  Goebbels, Joseph (September 1935). "Jews will destroy culture". Nazi Party Congress at Nuremberg.  Gunther, John (1940). Inside Europe. New York: Harper & Brothers. OCLC 836676034.  Hale, Oron J. (1973). The Captive Press in the Third Reich. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ASIN B0011UXVDG. ISBN 0-691-00770-5.  "Hitler's Last Days". mi5.gov.uk. MI5
MI5
Security Service. Retrieved 6 June 2015.  Hull, David Stewart (1969). Film in the Third Reich: A Study of the German Cinema, 1933–1945. Berkeley: University of California Press.  Joachimsthaler, Anton (1999) [1995]. The Last Days of Hitler: The Legends, the Evidence, the Truth. Trans. Helmut Bögler. London: Brockhampton Press. ISBN 978-1-86019-902-8.  Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06757-6.  Longerich, Peter (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280436-5.  Longerich, Peter (2012). Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959232-6.  Longerich, Peter (2015). Goebbels: A Biography. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-1400067510.  Manvell, Roger; Fraenkel, Heinrich (2010) [1960]. Doctor Goebbels: His Life and Death. New York: Skyhorse. ISBN 978-1-61608-029-7.  Michael, Robert (2006). Holy Hatred: Christianity, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust. Springer. ISBN 0230601987.  Rees, Laurence (writer, director) Kershaw, Ian (writer, consultant) (2012). The Dark Charisma of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(television documentary). UK: BBC. Retrieved 6 September 2014.  Reuth, Ralf Georg (1994). Goebbels. Harvest. ISBN 978-0-15-600139-7.  Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0.  Siemens, Daniel (2013). The Making of a Nazi Hero: The Murder and Myth of Horst Wessel. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-0-85773-313-9.  Snell, John L. (1959). The Nazi Revolution: Germany's Guilt Or Germany's Fate?. Boston: Heath & Co. OCLC 504833477.  Staff (28 March 1938). "Hitler Takes Austria: Goebbels
Goebbels
and Reichsautobahn". LIFE Magazine. 4 (3): 20. Retrieved 28 February 2016.  Staff (25 September 2012). "Joseph Goebbels
Goebbels
love letters up for auction". The Telegraph. Associated Press.  Thacker, Toby (2010) [2009]. Joseph Goebbels: Life and Death. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-27866-0.  Vinogradov, V. K. (2005). Hitler's Death: Russia's Last Great Secret from the Files of the KGB. Chaucer Press. ISBN 978-1-904449-13-3. 

Further reading

Bramsted, Ernest (1965). Goebbels
Goebbels
and National Socialist
National Socialist
Propaganda, 1925–1945. Michigan State University Press.  Gilbert, Martin (2006). Kristallnacht: Prelude to Destruction. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-057083-5.  Heiber, Helmut (1972). Goebbels. New York: Hawthorn Books. OCLC 383933.  Herf, Jeffrey (2005). "The 'Jewish War': Goebbels
Goebbels
and the Antisemitic Campaigns of the Nazi Propaganda
Propaganda
Ministry". Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 19 (1): 51–80. doi:10.1093/hgs/dci003.  Miller, Michael D.; Schulz, Andreas (2012). Albrecht, Herbert; Hüttmann, H. Wilhelm, eds. Gauleiter. 1. The Regional Leaders of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
and their Deputies, 1925 – 1945. Bender. ISBN 978-1-932970-21-0.  Moeller, Felix (2000). The Film Minister: Goebbels
Goebbels
and the Cinema in the Third Reich. Axel Menges. ISBN 978-3-932565-10-6.  Mollo, Andrew (1988). Ramsey, Winston, ed. "The Berlin
Berlin
Führerbunker: The Thirteenth Hole". After the Battle. London: Battle of Britain International (61).  Rentschler, Eric (1996). The Ministry of Illusion: Nazi Cinema and Its Afterlife. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-57640-7. 

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Joseph Goebbels

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Joseph Goebbels

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Joseph Goebbels.

Online books, movies, images, and speeches at the Internet Archive Collection of speeches and essays by Joseph Goebbels
Goebbels
at Calvin College The Man Behind Hitler, documentary film and supplementary material from PBS

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Camps

Concentration

Bergen-Belsen Bogdanovka Buchenwald Dachau Danica Dora Đakovo Esterwegen Flossenbürg Gonars Gospić Gross-Rosen Herzogenbusch Jadovno Janowska Kaiserwald Kraków-Płaszów Kruščica Lobor Mauthausen-Gusen Neuengamme Rab Ravensbrück Sachsenhausen Salaspils Sisak children's camp Stutthof Tenja Theresienstadt Topovske Šupe Uckermark Warsaw

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Bełżec Chełmno Jasenovac Majdanek Maly Trostenets Sajmište Slana Sobibór Treblinka

Transit

be Breendonk Mechelen fr Gurs Drancy it Bolzano Risiera di San Sabba nl Amersfoort Schoorl Westerbork

Methods

Einsatzgruppen Gas van Gas chamber Extermination through labour Human medical experimentation

Nazi units

SS-Totenkopfverbände Concentration Camps Inspectorate Politische Abteilung Sanitätswesen

Victims

Jews

Roundups

fr Izieu Marseille Vel' d'Hiv

Pogroms

Kristallnacht Bucharest Dorohoi Iaşi Jedwabne Kaunas Lviv Odessa Tykocin Wąsosz

Ghettos

Poland

Białystok Kraków Łódź Lublin Lwów Warsaw

Elsewhere

Budapest Kovno Minsk Riga Vilna

"Final Solution"

Wannsee Conference Operation Reinhard Holocaust trains Extermination camps

Einsatzgruppen

Babi Yar Bydgoszcz Kamianets-Podilskyi Ninth Fort Piaśnica Ponary Rumbula Erntefest

Resistance

Jewish partisans Ghetto uprisings

Warsaw Białystok Częstochowa

End of World War II

Death marches Wola Bricha Displaced persons Holocaust denial

trivialization

Others

Romani people (gypsies) Poles Soviet POWs Slavs in Eastern Europe Homosexuals People with disabilities Serbs Freemasons Jehovah's Witnesses Black people

Responsibility

Organizations

Nazi Party Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD) Waffen-SS Wehrmacht

Units

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiments Orpo Police Battalions

Collaborators

Ypatingasis būrys Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann Arajs Kommando Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Trawnikis Nederlandsche SS Special
Special
Brigades

Individuals

Major perpetrators Nazi ideologues

Early elements Aftermath Remembrance

Early elements

Nazi racial policy Nazi eugenics Nuremberg Laws Haavara Agreement Madagascar Plan Forced euthanasia (Action T4)

Aftermath

Nuremberg trials Denazification Holocaust survivors

Survivor guilt

Reparations

Remembrance

Days of remembrance Memorials and museums

v t e

Chancellors of Germany

North German Confederation
North German Confederation
Bundeskanzler (1867–1871)

Otto von Bismarck

German Empire
German Empire
Reichskanzler (1871–1918)

Otto von Bismarck Leo von Caprivi Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst Bernhard von Bülow Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg Georg Michaelis Georg von Hertling Prince Maximilian of Baden Friedrich Ebert

Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
Reichskanzler (1919–1933)

Philipp Scheidemann
Philipp Scheidemann
(as Ministerpräsident) Gustav Bauer
Gustav Bauer
(as Ministerpräsident and Chancellor) Hermann Müller Konstantin Fehrenbach Joseph Wirth Wilhelm Cuno Gustav Stresemann Wilhelm Marx Hans Luther Wilhelm Marx Hermann Müller Heinrich Brüning Franz von Papen Kurt von Schleicher

Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Reichskanzler (1933–1945)

Adolf Hitler Joseph Goebbels Count Schwerin von Krosigk (as Leading Minister)

Federal Republic Bundeskanzler (1949–present)

Konrad Adenauer Ludwig Erhard Kurt Georg Kiesinger Willy Brandt Helmut Schmidt Helmut Kohl Gerhard Schröder Angela Merkel

List of Chancellors of Germany

v t e

Members of the Hitler Cabinet

Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(Chancellor / Führer) Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
(President of the Reichstag) Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
(Stabschef-SA) Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
(Reichsführer-SS) Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
(Deputy Führer)1 Franz von Papen
Franz von Papen
(Vice-Chancellor)

Acting officeholders shown in italics

Minister of Foreign Affairs

Konstantin von Neurath Joachim von Ribbentrop

Minister of the Interior

Wilhelm Frick Heinrich Himmler

Minister of Finance

Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk

Minister of Justice

Franz Gürtner Franz Schlegelberger Otto Georg Thierack

Minister of the Reichswehr

Werner von Blomberg Wilhelm Keitel

Minister of Economics

Alfred Hugenberg Kurt Schmitt Hjalmar Schacht Hermann Göring Walther Funk

Minister for Food and Agriculture

Alfred Hugenberg Richard Walther Darré Herbert Backe

Minister for Labour

Franz Seldte

Minister for Postal Affairs

Paul Freiherr von Eltz-Rübenach Wilhelm Ohnesorge

Minister for Transport

Paul Freiherr von Eltz-Rübenach Julius Dorpmüller

Minister of Aviation

Hermann Göring

Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda

Joseph Goebbels

Minister for Science and Education

Bernhard Rust

Minister for Church Affairs

Hanns Kerrl Hermann Muhs

Minister for Armaments and Ammunition

Fritz Todt Albert Speer

Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories

Alfred Rosenberg

Minister of State for Bohemia and Moravia

Karl Hermann Frank

Minister without portfolio

Hans Frank Otto Meissner Arthur Seyss-Inquart Martin Bormann Hans Lammers Konstantin Hierl

1 Until May 1941.

v t e

Final occupants of the Führerbunker
Führerbunker
by date of departure (1945)

20 April

Hermann Göring Heinrich Himmler

21 April

Robert Ley Karl-Jesko von Puttkamer

22 April

Karl Gebhardt Christa Schroeder Johanna Wolf Eckhard Christian

23 April

Albert Bormann Theodor Morell Hugo Blaschke Joachim von Ribbentrop Albert Speer Julius Schaub

24 April

Walter Frentz

28 April

Robert Ritter von Greim Hanna Reitsch

29 April

Bernd Freytag von Loringhoven Gerhard Boldt Rudolf Weiss Wilhelm Zander Heinz Lorenz Willy Johannmeyer Walter Wagner

30 April

Nicolaus von Below

1 May

Wilhelm Mohnke Traudl Junge Gerda Christian Constanze Manziarly Else Krüger Otto Günsche Walther Hewel Ernst-Günther Schenck Hans-Erich Voss Johann Rattenhuber Peter Högl Werner Naumann Martin Bormann Hans Baur Ludwig Stumpfegger Artur Axmann Georg Betz Heinz Linge Erich Kempka Heinrich Doose Günther Schwägermann Ewald Lindloff Hans Reisser Armin D. Lehmann Josef Ochs Heinz Krüger Werner Schwiedel Gerhard Schach Hans Fritzsche

2 May

Helmuth Weidling Hans Refior Theodor von Dufving Siegfried Knappe Rochus Misch

Still present on 2 May

Werner Haase Erna Flegel Helmut Kunz Fritz Tornow Liselotte Chervinska Johannes Hentschel

Committed suicide

Ernst-Robert Grawitz Adolf Hitler Eva Hitler (Eva Braun) Joseph Goebbels Magda Goebbels Alwin-Broder Albrecht Wilhelm Burgdorf Hans Krebs Franz Schädle

Executed

Hermann Fegelein

Killed

Blondi
Blondi
(Hitler's dog) Goebbels
Goebbels
children

Unknown

Heinrich Müller

v t e

Wartime propagandists

Spanish–American War

William Randolph Hearst Joseph Pulitzer

Spanish Civil War

Gonzalo Queipo de Llano José Millán Astray

World War II

Joseph Goebbels Tokyo Rose Axis Sally (German) Axis Sally (Italian) William Joyce
William Joyce
(Lord Haw-Haw) Paul Ferdonnet Robert Henry Best Frederick Wilhelm Kaltenbach Philippe Henriot Thomas Baty Constance Drexel Ezra Pound Donald S. Day Yuri Levitan

Sino-Japanese War

Eastern Jewel

Korean War

Seoul City Sue Pyongyang Sally

Iraq War

Ahmed Chalabi Muhammad Saeed al-Sahhaf

Vietnam War

Hanoi Hannah

Gulf War

Nayirah

Falklands War

Argentine Annie

Libyan Civil War

Moussa Ibrahim

v t e

National Socialist
National Socialist
German Workers' Party

Leader

Anton Drexler
Anton Drexler
(1919–1921) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1921–1945) Martin Bormann
Martin Bormann
(1945)

Related articles

Germany
Germany
and World War I Stab-in-the-back myth Weimar Republic Treaty of Versailles Occupation of the Ruhr Politischer Arbeiter-Zirkel German Workers' Party Thule Society National Socialist
National Socialist
Program Nuremberg Rally Ranks and insignia Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA) Beer Hall Putsch Brown House, Munich Horst-Wessel-Lied Party songs Adolf Hitler's rise to power Night of the Long Knives Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) Enabling Act of 1933 NSDAP/AO Greater German Reich Hitler Youth World War II Operation Werwolf Denazification Article 21 Paragraph 2 (de facto prohibition) National Socialism German Question Jewish Question Anti-Semitism in Germany

Party offices

NSDAP Office of Racial Policy NSDAP Office of Foreign Affairs NSDAP Office of Colonial Policy NSDAP Office of Military Policy Hitler's Chancellery Nazi Party
Nazi Party
Chancellery Amt Rosenberg

Publications

Völkischer Beobachter Das Schwarze Korps Das Reich Innviertler Heimatblatt Arbeitertum Der Angriff

Members

Gottfried Feder Dietrich Eckart Alfred Rosenberg Joseph Goebbels Heinrich Himmler Reinhard Heydrich Hermann Göring Gregor Strasser Otto Strasser Albert Speer Rudolf Hess Ernst Kaltenbrunner Adolf Eichmann Joachim von Ribbentrop Houston Stewart Chamberlain Hans Frank Rudolf Höss Richard Walther Darré Baldur von Schirach Artur Axmann Ernst Röhm Wilhelm Frick Josef Mengele Ernst Hanfstaengl Julius Streicher Hermann Esser

Derivatives

Black Front (Strasserism) / German Social Union Deutsche Rechtspartei (through entryism) / Deutsche Reichspartei / National Democratic Party of Germany Socialist Reich Party

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 49226219 LCCN: n79106293 ISNI: 0000 0001 2131 8198 GND: 118540041 SELIBR: 188354 SUDOC: 026895455 BNF: cb11905264v (data) NLA: 35129689 NDL: 00441106 NKC: jn20000601935 BNE: XX950

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