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Jefferson County, Arkansas
Arkansas
is a county located in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Arkansas
Arkansas
in the area known as the Arkansas
Arkansas
Delta, that extends west of the Mississippi River. As of the 2010 census, the population was 77,435.[1] Its county seat and largest city is Pine Bluff.[2] Jefferson County is Arkansas's 21st county, formed on November 2, 1829, from portions of Arkansas
Arkansas
and Pulaski counties, and named for Thomas Jefferson,[3] third President of the United States. Jefferson County is included in the Pine Bluff, Arkansas
Arkansas
Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county is bisected by the Arkansas
Arkansas
River, which was critical to its development and long the chief transportation byway.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Major highways 2.2 Adjacent counties

3 Demographics 4 Government and infrastructure

4.1 Politics

5 Education 6 Communities

6.1 Cities 6.2 Towns 6.3 Census-designated places 6.4 Other unincorporated communities 6.5 Historical towns 6.6 Townships

7 Notable people 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit] The area that would later become Jefferson County was occupied by the Quapaw
Quapaw
when French explorers established the Arkansas
Arkansas
Post in the 17th century; the foreigners claimed this area as Louisiana, part of New France.[4] In March 1819, Robert Crittenden was appointed secretary of Arkansas Territory. That same year, Joseph Bonne, traveling upstream on the Arkansas
Arkansas
River from Arkansas
Arkansas
Post, built a cabin on a “high bluff covered with pine trees” on the river’s south bank.[4] Several years later, James Scull, also from Arkansas
Arkansas
Post, established a tavern and small inn on the river's north bank, across from what would become the site of Pine Bluff.[4] Five years later, Crittenden convinced the remaining Quapaw
Quapaw
to sign the November 15, 1824 treaty relinquishing what remained of their tribal lands.[4] Steamboat travel led to expanding settlement, "bringing to the area such men as French-born Napoleonic soldier Antoine Barraque (Pine Bluff’s principal east-west street was named for him) and brothers James T. and John Pullen (main thoroughfares were named for them)."[4] On November 2, 1829, Territorial Governor John Pope—Crittenden's successor—approved the establishment of Jefferson County. Bonne’s cabin was used as the county seat; by August 1832, "Pine Bluff Town" became the county seat."[4] The land in the county was developed as large cotton plantations, with fronts on the river for transportation. The plantations were dependent on the labor of enslaved African Americans, who comprised a majority of the population in the county well before the American Civil War. After the war, planters in Jefferson County gradually resumed cotton cultivation and processing. The economy was driven by cotton and the Delta area was highly productive. In 1886, Jefferson County produced 55,120 bales of cotton, the most in Arkansas, and the second-most throughout the South.[5] Transportation companies serving the county at the time included the Cotton Belt Route, the St. Louis – San Francisco Railway, Missouri Pacific, the Arkansas
Arkansas
River Packet Company, the Wiley Jones
Wiley Jones
Street Car Lines, and the Citizens Street Railway Company.[6] The street car lines operated primarily in Pine Bluff. Geography[edit] According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 914 square miles (2,370 km2), of which 871 square miles (2,260 km2) is land and 43 square miles (110 km2) (4.7%) is water.[7] About 75% of the county including the largest city, Pine Bluff, is located in the Arkansas
Arkansas
Delta with the remaining portion in the Arkansas
Arkansas
Timberlands.[citation needed] Consequently, it is largely low-lying flatland to the east used primarily for agriculture and expanses of trees used for timber to the west. Major highways[edit]

Interstate 530 U.S. Highway 65 U.S. Highway 79 U.S. Highway 270 U.S. Highway 425 Highway 15 Highway 31 Highway 46 Highway 58 Highway 81 Highway 88

Adjacent counties[edit]

Lonoke County (northeast) Arkansas
Arkansas
County (east) Lincoln County (southeast) Cleveland County (southwest) Grant County (west) Pulaski County (northwest)

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1830 772

1840 2,566

232.4%

1850 5,834

127.4%

1860 14,971

156.6%

1870 15,733

5.1%

1880 22,386

42.3%

1890 40,881

82.6%

1900 40,972

0.2%

1910 52,734

28.7%

1920 60,330

14.4%

1930 64,154

6.3%

1940 65,101

1.5%

1950 76,075

16.9%

1960 81,373

7.0%

1970 85,329

4.9%

1980 90,718

6.3%

1990 85,487

−5.8%

2000 84,278

−1.4%

2010 77,435

−8.1%

Est. 2016 70,016 [8] −9.6%

U.S. Decennial Census[9] 1790–1960[10] 1900–1990[11] 1990–2000[12] 2010–2016[1]

Age pyramid for Jefferson County (as of 2000).[13]

As of the 2010 census, there were 77,435 people residing in the county. 55.1% were Black or African American, 42.0% White, 0.8% Asian, 0.3% Native American, 0.7% of some other race and 1.2% of two or more races. 1.6% were Hispanic or Latino (of any race).[14] As of the 2000 census,[15] there were 84,278 people, 30,555 households, and 21,510 families residing in the county. The population density was 95 people per square mile (37/km²). There were 34,350 housing units at an average density of 39 per square mile (15/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 49.58% Black or African American, 48.46% White, 0.24% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, and 0.76% from two or more races. 0.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. By comparison, the county had 15,714 residents in 1870, 20% of whom were White.[16] In the county, there were 30,555 households out of which 33.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.40% were married couples living together, 18.80% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.60% were non-families. 26.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.13. The population was spread out with 26.30% under the age of 18, 10.80% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 22.10% from 45 to 64, and 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.40 males. Jefferson County experienced a decline in population between 2000 and 2010 of 8.1%.[17] The county has continued to decline in population since 2010, showing a 3.5% decrease in population to 74,723 between the 2010 census and the 2012 (-3.5%) census estimates.[18] The median income for a household in the county was $31,327, and the median income for a family was $38,252. Males had a median income of $31,848 versus $21,867 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,417. About 16.00% of families and 20.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.60% of those under age 18 and 17.80% of those age 65 or over. Government and infrastructure[edit]

Jefferson County, Arkansas voteby party in presidential elections [19]

Year GOP Dem Others

2016 35.72% 9,250 60.91% 15,772 3.36% 872

2012 34.77% 9,520 63.80% 17,470 1.44% 393

2008 35.89% 10,655 62.19% 18,465 1.92% 569

2004 33.51% 10,218 64.52% 19,675 1.97% 600

2000 32.22% 8,765 65.13% 17,716 2.65% 720

1996 22.87% 6,330 71.18% 19,701 5.95% 1,646

1992 23.74% 7,525 68.85% 21,819 7.41% 2,348

1988 42.08% 12,520 56.01% 16,664 1.91% 568

1984 44.10% 14,514 54.95% 18,082 0.95% 313

1980 35.60% 10,697 57.55% 17,292 6.85% 2,057

1976 27.67% 8,034 72.33% 21,001

1972 61.95% 16,888 37.95% 10,346 0.10% 26

1968 20.22% 4,860 37.96% 9,125 41.82% 10,053

1964 43.40% 9,968 56.04% 12,872 0.56% 129

1960 31.76% 4,839 55.41% 8,442 12.83% 1,954

1956 45.73% 5,743 51.17% 6,426 3.10% 389

1952 41.57% 5,925 58.24% 8,300 0.19% 27

1948 14.32% 1,176 61.92% 5,086 23.77% 1,952

1944 27.80% 1,578 72.15% 4,095 0.05% 3

1940 13.25% 587 86.45% 3,829 0.29% 13

1936 6.15% 224 93.66% 3,414 0.19% 7

1932 14.01% 419 85.22% 2,548 0.77% 23

1928 41.12% 1,830 58.67% 2,611 0.20% 9

1924 22.29% 707 61.48% 1,950 16.24% 515

1920 27.70% 1,048 70.58% 2,670 1.72% 65

1916 29.81% 923 70.19% 2,173 0.00% 0

1912 18.46% 579 52.88% 1,659 28.65% 899

1908 44.35% 1,386 50.72% 1,585 4.93% 154

1904 44.99% 1,324 51.65% 1,520 3.36% 99

1900 51.93% 1,477 47.93% 1,363 0.14% 4

1896 38.18% 1,050 60.11% 1,653 1.71% 47

The state has built a number of correctional facilities in and near Pine Bluff, and moved the headquarters of the Arkansas
Arkansas
Department of Correction (ADC) to here in 1979.[20][21][22] The administrative Annex East is on Harding Avenue in Pine Bluff, south of city hall.[23] The Diagnostic Unit,[24] the Pine Bluff Unit, and the Randall L. Williams Correctional Facility are in the "Pine Bluff Complex" in Pine Bluff.[25][26] The headquarters of the Arkansas
Arkansas
Correctional School system are within the Pine Bluff Complex.[26][27] The Arkansas
Arkansas
Department of Community Correction Southeast Arkansas Community Corrections Center is in Pine Bluff.[28] The Maximum Security Unit is 25 miles (40 km) north of central Pine Bluff and off Arkansas
Arkansas
Highway 15 in unincorporated Jefferson County.[29] The Tucker Unit
Tucker Unit
is also located north of Pine Bluff.[30] Historically the Arkansas
Arkansas
Boys' Industrial School and the Arkansas
Arkansas
Negro Boys' Industrial School were in the county.[31] Politics[edit] Jefferson County is strongly Democratic in races for president, governor, and the United States
United States
Senate. In the Reconstruction Era, the county's majority black residents favored presidential candidates from the Republican Party in every election from 1868 to 1888. In the early 1890s, white Southern Democrats passed laws to disenfranchise black voters from engaging in the political process, a process which ended by the 1960s, and blacks began to favor voting for Democrats and southern whites favored the Republicans. Since 1892, Democrats have carried the county in all but two presidential elections, when American Independent Party
American Independent Party
candidate George Wallace
George Wallace
won it in 1968 and Republican Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
won it in 1972, the latter whom carried every county in Arkansas. No Republican since George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
in 1988 has won over 40% of the county's vote. Education[edit] School districts serving sections of the county include:[32]

Dollarway School District Pine Bluff School District Watson Chapel School District White Hall School District DeWitt School District (headquartered in another county)

On July 1, 1983 the Plum Bayou School District consolidated into the Wabbaseka Tucker School District. On July 1, 1984, the Linwood School District consolidated into the Pine Bluff school district. The Altheimer-Sherrill School District and Wabbaseka Tucker school districts operated in Jefferson County until September 1, 1993, when they consolidated into the Altheimer Unified School District. On July 1, 2004, the Humphrey School District consolidated into the DeWitt district. Altheimer Unified consolidated into the Dollarway School District on July 10, 2006.[33] Communities[edit] Cities[edit]

Altheimer Humphrey Pine Bluff (county seat) Redfield White Hall

Towns[edit]

Sherrill Wabbaseka

Census-designated places[edit]

Sulphur Springs

Other unincorporated communities[edit]

Jefferson Lake Dick Midway Moscow Noble Lake Reydell Tucker Wright

Historical towns[edit]

Anrep[34] Bruce Byrd's Spring[35] Clements College Park Diantha[36] Dolton Fairfield Kratnek Lamb Lamberts Linn Noble's Lake Plum Bayou[4] Ray Station[37] Red Bluff Samples Secrest Sleeth[38] Walden Waldstein

Townships[edit]

Townships in Jefferson County, Arkansas
Arkansas
as of 2010

Townships in Arkansas
Arkansas
are the divisions of a county. Each township includes unincorporated areas; some may have incorporated cities or towns within part of their boundaries. Arkansas
Arkansas
townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States
United States
Census does list Arkansas
Arkansas
population based on townships (sometimes referred to as "county subdivisions" or "minor civil divisions"). Townships are also of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research. Each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Jefferson County are listed below; listed in parentheses are the cities, towns, and/or census-designated places that are fully or partially inside the township. [39][40]

Barraque (Redfield) Bogy Bolivar Dudley Lake Dunnington (Wabbaseka) Jefferson Melton Niven Old River Pastoria Plum Bayou (Altheimer, Sherrill) Richland Roberts (Humphrey) Spring Talladega Vaugine (Pine Bluff) Victoria Villemont Washington (White Hall) Whiteville

Notable people[edit]

Moses Clegg (1876-1918), American bacteriologist Bobby Hutton
Bobby Hutton
(1950-1968), Treasurer of the Black Panther Party

See also[edit]

Arkansas
Arkansas
portal

List of counties in Arkansas List of lakes in Jefferson County, Arkansas List of places named for Thomas Jefferson National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Arkansas

References[edit]

^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 12, 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2014.  ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.  ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States
United States
(Report) (2nd ed.). Washington: Government Printing Office. p. 168 – via United States
United States
Geological Survey.  ^ a b c d e f g Bearden, Russell E. (February 5, 2016). "Jefferson County". The Encyclopedia of Arkansas
Arkansas
History & Culture. Central Arkansas
Arkansas
Library System. Retrieved April 30, 2016.  ^ Jefferson County Immigration Bureau (August 1888). Jefferson County, Arkansas: Full Description. Chicago: C.S. Burch Publishing Co. p. 4. Retrieved August 21, 2011.  ^ Jefferson County Immigration Bureau (August 1888). Jefferson County, Arkansas: Full Description. Chicago: C.S. Burch Publishing Co. pp. 15–16. Retrieved August 21, 2011.  ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States
United States
Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved August 26, 2015.  ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.  ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved August 26, 2015.  ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved August 26, 2015.  ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved August 26, 2015.  ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States
United States
Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved August 26, 2015.  ^ Based on 2000 census data[needs update] ^ 2010 census report for Jefferson County, Arkansas ^ "American FactFinder". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.  ^ Jefferson County Immigration Bureau (August 1888). Jefferson County, Arkansas: Full Description. Chicago: C.S. Burch Publishing Co. p. 3. Retrieved August 21, 2011.  ^ Jefferson County at USA.com ^ "Quick Facts: Jefferson County, AR" Archived July 12, 2011, at WebCite, US Census Bureau ^ "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Retrieved November 18, 2016.  ^ "2006 Facts Brochure Archived 2009-08-06 at the Wayback Machine.." Arkansas
Arkansas
Department of Correction. July 1, 2005-June 30, 2006. 25 (25/38). Retrieved on August 15, 2010. ^ "Pine Bluff city, Arkansas." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on September 7, 2010. ^ "Central Office Archived December 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.." Arkansas
Arkansas
Department of Correction. Retrieved on June 28, 2010. ^ "Facilities." Arkansas
Arkansas
Department of Correction. Retrieved on June 28, 2010. ^ "Diagnostic Unit." Arkansas
Arkansas
Department of Correction. Retrieved on June 28, 2010. ^ "Pine Bluff Unit/Randall L. Williams Correctional Facility." Arkansas
Arkansas
Department of Correction. Retrieved on June 28, 2010. ^ a b "School Sites." Arkansas
Arkansas
Correctional School. Retrieved on July 18, 2010. ^ "Contact Us." Arkansas
Arkansas
Correctional School. Retrieved on July 18, 2010. ^ "Locations Archived 2011-02-26 at the Wayback Machine.." Arkansas Department of Community Corrections. Retrieved on March 5, 2011. "7301 West 13th Street, Pine Bluff, Arkansas
Arkansas
71602" ^ "Maximum Security Unit." Arkansas
Arkansas
Department of Correction. Retrieved on June 28, 2010. ^ "Pine Bluff Unit/Randall L. Williams Correctional Facility/Tucker Unit." Arkansas
Arkansas
Department of Correction. Retrieved on June 28, 2010. ^ Arkansas
Arkansas
State Highway Commission; United States
United States
Department of Agriculture (1936). General Highway and Transportation Map, Jefferson County, Arkansas
Arkansas
(Map). Archived from the original on December 31, 2003. Retrieved April 30, 2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ "SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP (2010 CENSUS): Jefferson County, AR." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on July 31, 2017. Note that, while the Altheimer Unified School District's boundaries are indicated, the district had already consolidated into Dollarway School District at the time the map was made. ^ "ConsolidationAnnex_from_1983.xls." Arkansas
Arkansas
Department of Education. Retrieved on July 31, 2017. ^ Easley, Tina. "Forgotten Places in Arkansas". Genealogy Trails. Genealogy Trails History Group. Retrieved April 30, 2016.  ^ Forte, Jim. "Post Offices--Past and Present". Genealogy Trails. Genealogy Trails History Group. Retrieved April 30, 2016.  ^ "Diantha (historical) in Jefferson County AR". AR HomeTownLocator. HTL, Inc. Retrieved April 30, 2016.  ^ Easley, Tina. "Forgotten Places in Arkansas
Arkansas
(Part Two)". Genealogy Trails. Genealogy Trails History Group. Retrieved April 30, 2016.  ^ Rand, McNally & Co.'s New Business Atlas Map of Arkansas
Arkansas
(Map). 1:900,000. Rand, McNally & Co. 1898. Retrieved April 30, 2016.  ^ 2011 Boundary and Annexation Survey (BAS): Jefferson County, AR (PDF) (Map). U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-19. Retrieved 2011-08-13.  ^ "Arkansas: 2010 Census Block Maps - County Subdivision". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 29, 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Pulaski, Jefferson, Lonoke, Faulkner, Grant, Saline, Perry, Garland and Hot Spring Counties, Arkansas. Chicago, Nashville and St. Louis: Goodspeed Publishing Co. 1889.  Leslie, James W. (1981). Pine Bluff and Jefferson County: A Pictorial History. Norfolk, Va.: Donning Co. ISBN 978-0898651485.  Pine Bluff and Jefferson County, Arkansas: Descriptive Pamphlet. Jefferson County Exposition and Bureau of Agriculture, Manufactures and Immigration. Feb 22, 1895 – via Graphic Printing Company, Pine Bluff, Ark.  Pine Bluff and Jefferson County, Arkansas: Full Description (World's Fair ed.). Jefferson County Bureau of Agriculture, Manufactures and Immigration. May 1893.  Wilson, W. H. D. (1872). Wilson's Map of Jefferson County, Arkansas (Map). Pine Bluff, Arkansas: W. H .D. Wilson, Real Estate Broker & General Land Agent. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutJefferson County, Arkansasat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Data from Wikidata

Government

Official website

General information

Geographic data related to Jefferson County, Arkansas
Arkansas
at OpenStreetMap Jefferson County, Arkansas
Arkansas
at ARGenWeb (argenweb.net) Jefferson Regional Medical Center Pine Bluff and Jefferson County Historical Museum Pine Bluff and Jefferson County Library System

Places adjacent to Jefferson County, Arkansas

Pulaski County

Lonoke County

Grant County

Jefferson County, Arkansas

Arkansas
Arkansas
County

Cleveland County

Lincoln County

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Jefferson County, Arkansas, United States

County seat: Pine Bluff

Cities

Altheimer Humphrey‡ Pine Bluff Redfield White Hall

Towns

Sherrill Wabbaseka

CDP

Sulphur Springs

Unincorporated communities

Jefferson Lake Dick Midway Moscow Noble Lake Reydell Sweden Tucker Wright

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

 State of Arkansas

Little Rock (capital)

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Society

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Regions

Arkansas
Arkansas
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Metros

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Largest cities

Little Rock Fort Smith Fayetteville Springdale Jonesboro North Little Rock Conway Rogers Pine Bluff Bentonville Hot Springs Benton Texarkana Sherwood Jacksonville Russellville Bella Vista West Memphis Paragould Cabot

Counties

Arkansas Ashley Baxter Benton Boone Bradley Calhoun Carroll Chicot Clark Clay Cleburne Cleveland Columbia Conway Craighead Crawford Crittenden Cross Dallas Desha Drew Faulkner Franklin Fulton Garland Grant Greene Hempstead Hot Spring Howard Independence Izard Jackson Jefferson Johnson Lafayette Lawrence Lee Lincoln Little River Logan Lonoke Madison Marion Miller Mississippi Monroe Montgomery Nevada Newton Ouachita Perry Phillips Pike Poinsett Polk Pope Prairie Pulaski Randolph Saline Scott Searcy Sebastian Sevier Sharp St. Francis Stone Union Van Buren Washington White Woodruff Yell

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 138383200

Coordinates: 34°17′15″N 91°56′32″W / 34.28750°N 91.94222°W / 3

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