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Jeane Duane Kirkpatrick (née Jordan; November 19, 1926 – December 7, 2006) was an American diplomat and political scientist. An ardent anticommunist, she was a longtime Democrat who became a Republican in 1985. After serving as Ronald Reagan's foreign policy adviser in his 1980 campaign, she became the first woman to serve as US Ambassador to the United Nations.[1] She was known for the "Kirkpatrick Doctrine", which advocated supporting authoritarian regimes around the world if they went along with Washington's aims. She believed that they could be led into democracy by example. She wrote, "traditional authoritarian governments are less repressive than revolutionary autocracies."[2] Kirkpatrick served on Reagan's Cabinet on the National Security Council, Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, Defense Policy Review Board, and chaired the Secretary of Defense Commission on Fail Safe and Risk reduction of the Nuclear Command and Control System.[3] She wrote a syndicated newspaper column after leaving government service in 1985, specializing in analysis of the activities of the United Nations.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Cabinet 3 Ambassador to UN

3.1 Views on Israel

4 Political views 5 Later life 6 Personal life 7 Quotes 8 Awards and honors 9 In popular culture 10 Books authored 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Early life[edit] She was born in Duncan, Oklahoma, the daughter of an oilfield wildcatter, Welcher F. Jordan, and his wife, Leona (née Kile). She attended Emerson Elementary School there and was known to her classmates as "Duane Jordan." She had a younger sibling, Jerry. At 12, her father moved the family to Mt. Vernon, Illinois, where she graduated from Mt. Vernon Township High School. In 1948, she graduated from Barnard College
Barnard College
of Columbia University
Columbia University
after she received her associate degree from Stephens College
Stephens College
(then only a two-year institution) in Columbia, Missouri. In 1968, Kirkpatrick earned a PhD in political science from Columbia.[4] She spent a year of postgraduate study at Sciences Po
Sciences Po
at the University of Paris, which helped her learn French. She was fluent in Spanish.[5] Though she ultimately became a conservative, as a college freshman in 1945 she joined the Young People's Socialist
Socialist
League, the youth wing of the Socialist
Socialist
Party of America, influenced by her grandfather who was a founder of the Populist and Socialist
Socialist
parties in Oklahoma.[6] As Kirkpatrick recalled at a symposium in 2002:

It wasn't easy to find the YPSL in Columbia, Missouri. But I had read about it and I wanted to be one. We had a very limited number of activities in Columbia, Missouri. We had an anti-Franco rally, which was a worthy cause. You could raise a question about how relevant it was likely to be in Columbia, Missouri, but it was in any case a worthy cause. We also planned a socialist picnic, which we spent quite a lot of time organizing. Eventually, I regret to say, the YPSL chapter, after much discussion, many debates and some downright quarrels, broke up over the socialist picnic. I thought that was rather discouraging.[6]

At Columbia University, her principal adviser was Franz Leopold Neumann, a revisionist Marxist. In 1967, she joined the faculty of Georgetown University
Georgetown University
and became a full professor of government in 1973. She became active in politics as a Democrat in the 1970s and was involved in the later campaigns of former Vice President and Democratic presidential candidate Hubert Humphrey. Along with Humphrey, she was close to Henry Jackson, who ran for the Democratic nomination for President in 1972 and in 1976.[4] She was opposed to the candidacy of George McGovern. In 1976, she joined with Richard V. Allen
Richard V. Allen
and others to found the Committee on the Present Danger for the purpose of warning Americans against the Soviet Union's growing military power and the dangers of the SALT II treaty.[7] She also served on the Platform Committee for the Democratic Party in 1976.[8] Kirkpatrick published a number of articles in political science journals reflecting her disillusionment with the Democratic Party with specific criticism of the foreign policy of Democratic President Jimmy Carter. Her most well known piece was "Dictatorships and Double Standards", published in Commentary in November 1979.[9] In that piece, Kirkpatrick mentioned what she saw as a difference between authoritarian regimes and the totalitarian regimes such as the Soviet Union; sometimes, it was necessary to work with authoritarian regimes if it suited American purposes:[4] "No idea holds greater sway in the mind of educated Americans than the belief that it is possible to democratize governments, anytime and anywhere, under any circumstances ... Decades, if not centuries, are normally required for people to acquire the necessary disciplines and habits. In Britain, the road [to democratic government] took seven centuries to traverse ... The speed with which armies collapse, bureaucracies abdicate, and social structures dissolve once the autocrat is removed frequently surprises American policymakers."[1] Cabinet[edit]

Jeane Kirkpatrick
Jeane Kirkpatrick
(center) with the other members of the Reagan Administration, 1981

Kirkpatrick (left, in red) among the Reagan Cabinet, 1984

The piece came to the attention of Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
through his National Security Adviser Richard V. Allen.[4] Kirkpatrick then became a foreign policy adviser throughout Reagan's 1980 campaign and presidency and, after his election to the presidency, Ambassador to the United Nations, which she held for four years. The Economist writes that until then, "she had never spent time with a Republican before."[1] On the way to her first meeting with him, she told Allen, "Listen, Dick, I am an AFL-CIO
AFL-CIO
Democrat and I am quite concerned that my meeting Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
on any basis will be misunderstood."[7] She asked Reagan if he minded having a lifelong Democrat on his team; he replied that he himself had been a Democrat until he was 51, and in any event, he liked her way of thinking about American foreign policy.[5] She was one of the strongest supporters of Argentina's military dictatorship following the March 1982 Argentine invasion of the United Kingdom's Falkland Islands, which triggered the Falklands War. Kirkpatrick had a "soft spot" for Argentina's General Leopoldo Galtieri[1] and favored neutrality rather than the pro-British policy favored by Secretary of State Alexander Haig.[5] Kirkpatrick, who, according to British UN Ambassador Sir Anthony Parsons, was very mixed up with Latin American policy, even went as far as supporting the Argentinian dictatorship by urging the Reagan Administration to act as outlined as in the Rio Pact
Rio Pact
of 1947, which stated that an attack against one state in the hemisphere should be considered an attack against them all.[10] British ambassador Sir Nicholas Henderson allegedly characterized her in a diplomatic cable as "more fool than fascist ... she appears to be one of America's own-goal scorers, tactless, wrong-headed, ineffective, and a dubious tribute to the academic profession to which she [expresses] her allegiance."[11] The Reagan administration ultimately decided to declare support for the British, making her vote for United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
Resolution 502. At the 1984 Republican National Convention, she delivered the "Blame America First" keynote speech,[4] which renominated Reagan by praising his administration's foreign policy[5] while excoriating the leadership of what she called the " San Francisco
San Francisco
Democrats" (the Democrats had just held their convention in San Francisco) for the party's shift away from the policies of Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
and John F. Kennedy to a more strident antiwar position for which the left-wing of the Democratic Party had pushed since the Vietnam War. It was the first time since the 1952 speech from Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
that a non-party member had delivered the Republican Convention's keynote address.[8] Kirkpatrick, a member of the National Security Council, did not get along with either Secretary of State Haig or his successor, George Shultz. She disagreed with Shultz, most notably on the Iran-Contra affair in which she supported skimming money off arms sales to fund the Nicaraguan Contras[5] while Shultz told Kirkpatrick that it would be an "impeachable offense" to do so because of the massacres perpetrated by that group.[1] Shultz threatened to resign if Kirkpatrick was appointed National Security Adviser.[5] Kirkpatrick was more closely allied with Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and head of the CIA
CIA
William J. Casey
William J. Casey
on the issue.[12] Noam Chomsky, for example, referred to her as the "Chief sadist-in-residence of the Reagan Administration" and went on to criticize what he called the hypocrisy of supporting brutal military regimes that showed no respect for human rights or democracy while claiming to be protecting the region from communism.[13] Author Lars Schoultz has argued that her policy was based on her belief that "Latin Americans are pathologically violent" and goes on to criticize that as a prejudice with no factual basis.[14] Ambassador to UN[edit]

Kirkpatrick with President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
in the Oval Office.

Kirkpatrick said, "What takes place in the Security Council more closely resembles a mugging than either a political debate or an effort at problem-solving."[15] Still, she finished her term with a certain respect for the normative power of the United Nations
United Nations
as the "institution whose majorities claim the right to decide—for the world—what is legitimate and what is illegitimate."[16] She noted that the United States had increasingly ignored that significance and became increasingly isolated.[17] That was problematic, because "relative isolation in a body like the United Nations
United Nations
is a sign of impotence,"[18] especially given its ability to shape international attitudes.[19] She was ambassador to the UN during the September 1, 1983 Soviet shooting down of Korean Air Lines Flight 007, near Moneron Island. It had carried 269 passengers and crew including a sitting congressman, Larry McDonald
Larry McDonald
(D-GA). She played before the Security Council the audio of the electronic intercept of the interceptor pilot during the attack, and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
could no longer deny its responsibility for the shootdown.[citation needed] Kirkpatrick was a Board Member of the American Foundation for Resistance International and the National Council to Support the Democracy
Democracy
Movements, intended to help bring down Soviet and East European Communism. Along with Vladimir Bukovsky, Martin Colman and Richard Perle, she worked to organize democratic revolutions against communism.[citation needed] According to Jay Nordlinger, on a visit with American dignitaries, Soviet human rights activist Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Sakharov
said, "Kirkpatski, Kirkpatski, which of you is Kirkpatski?" When others pointed to Kirkpatrick, he said, "Your name is known in every cell in the Gulag" because she had named Soviet political prisoners on the floor of the UN.[12] Kirkpatrick said she would serve only one term at the UN and stepped down in April 1985.[5] Views on Israel[edit] Kirkpatrick was a staunch supporter of Israel.[20] During her ambassadorship at the United Nations, she considered its frequent criticism and condemnation of the Jewish state as holding Israel
Israel
to a double standard, which she attributed to hostility and regarded as politically motivated. In 1989, Mohammed Wahby, press director of Egypt's Information Bureau, wrote to the Washington Post, "Jeane Kirkpatrick has, somehow, consistently opposed any attempt to resolve the Arab–Israeli conflict". However, in a 1989 op-ed, Kirkpatrick warned Secretary of State James Baker
James Baker
and Bush not to get involved in the conflict because any intervention would fail.[21] Kirkpatrick frequently expressed disdain for what she perceived to be disproportionate attention towards Israel's at the expense of others' conflicts.[22] Anti-Defamation League
Anti-Defamation League
President Abraham Foxman
Abraham Foxman
issued a press release upon her death: "She will be fondly remembered for her unwavering and valiant support of the State of Israel
Israel
and her unequivocal opposition to anti-Semitism, especially during her tenure at the United Nations. She was always a true friend of the Jewish people."[23] Political views[edit] Comparing authoritarian and totalitarian regimes, she said:

" Authoritarian
Authoritarian
regimes really typically don't have complete command economies. Authoritarian
Authoritarian
regimes typically have some kind of traditional economy with some private ownership. The Nazi regime left ownership in private hands, but the state assumed control of the economy. Control was separated from ownership but it was really a command economy because it was controlled by the state. A command economy is an attribute of a totalitarian state."[24]

Explaining her disillusionment with international organizations, especially the United Nations, she stated:

"As I watched the behavior of the nations of the U.N. (including our own), I found no reasonable ground to expect any one of those governments to transcend permanently their own national interests for those of another country." "I conclude that it is a fundamental mistake to think that salvation, justice, or virtue come through merely human institutions." " Democracy
Democracy
not only requires equality but also an unshakable conviction in the value of each person, who is then equal. Cross cultural experience teaches us not simply that people have different beliefs, but that people seek meaning and understand themselves in some sense as members of a cosmos ruled by God."

Regarding socialism, she said:

"As I read the utopian socialists, the scientific socialists, the German Social Democrats and revolutionary socialists—whatever I could in either English or French—I came to the conclusion that almost all of them, including my grandfather, were engaged in an effort to change human nature. The more I thought about it, the more I thought this was not likely to be a successful effort. So I turned my attention more and more to political philosophy and less and less to socialist activism of any kind."[6]

Later life[edit] In April 1985, Kirkpatrick became a Republican, a move which The Economist called her "only recourse" after her speech at the 1984 Republican convention.[1] She returned to teaching at Georgetown University and became a fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, a Washington D.C.
Washington D.C.
think tank, and a contributor to the American Freedom Journal. In 1993, she cofounded Empower America, a public-policy organization. She was also on the advisory board of the National Association of Scholars, a group that works against what it regards as a liberal bias in universities in the United States, with its emphasis on multicultural education, and affirmative action. Kirkpatrick briefly considered running for President in 1988 against George H. W. Bush, because she believed he was not tough enough on Communism.[1][5] Kirkpatrick endorsed Senator Robert Dole of Kansas, who was the runner up to Bush. Despite a strong showing in the Iowa caucuses, Dole's campaign quickly faded after he lost the New Hampshire primary in February 1988. Kirkpatrick was an active surrogate campaigner for Dole even as he was losing, as was her old foe, Alexander Haig, who endorsed Dole after ending his own 1988 campaign several days before the New Hampshire primary.[citation needed] Along with Empower America
Empower America
co-directors William Bennett
William Bennett
and Jack Kemp, she called on the Congress to issue a formal declaration of war against the "entire fundamentalist Islamist terrorist
Islamist terrorist
network" the day after the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center. In 2003, she headed the US delegation to the United Nations
United Nations
Commission on Human Rights. Kirkpatrick was appointed to the Board of Directors of IDT Corp. in 2004.[3] It was revealed after her death that in 2003, she was sent as a US envoy, to meet an Arab delegation and attempt to convince them to support the Iraq War; she was supposed to argue that pre-emptive war was justifiable, but she knew that it would not work and instead argued that Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
had consistently gone against the UN.[5] However she described George W. Bush
George W. Bush
as "a bit too interventionist for my taste" and felt that what she described as "moral imperialism" was not "taken seriously anywhere outside a few places in Washington, DC."[1] Personal life[edit] On February 20, 1955, she married Evron Maurice Kirkpatrick, who was a scholar and a former member of the O.S.S. (the World War II-era predecessor of the CIA). Her husband died in 1995. They had three sons: Douglas Jordan (1956–2006), John Evron, and Stuart Alan.[25] She had been diagnosed with heart disease and had been in failing health for several years. Kirkpatrick died at her home in Bethesda, Maryland, on December 7, 2006 from congestive heart failure.[26] She was interred at Parklawn Memorial Park in Rockville, Maryland.[26] Quotes[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jeane Kirkpatrick

"When Marxist dictators shoot their way into power in Central America, the San Francisco
San Francisco
Democrats don't blame the guerrillas and their Soviet allies. They blame United States policies of one hundred years ago. But then they always blame America first."[27] "Russia is playing chess, while we are playing Monopoly. The only question is whether they will checkmate us before we bankrupt them."[28] "Americans need to face the truth about themselves, no matter how pleasant it is." "I don't think the government (of El Salvador) was responsible. The nuns were not just nuns; the nuns were political activists. We ought to be a little more clear-cut about this than we usually are. They were political activists on behalf of the Frente and somebody who is using violence to oppose the Frente killed them."[29]

Awards and honors[edit] Kirkpatrick received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor.[3] The Kennedy School of Government
Kennedy School of Government
at Harvard created a Kirkpatrick Chair in International Affairs in her honor.[30] She received an honorary doctorate degree from Universidad Francisco Marroquín in 1985,[31] she also received an honorary doctorate at Central Connecticut State University in 1991. She was awarded an honorary degree by Brandeis University
Brandeis University
in 1994, but declined it when her honor was met with protests from some professors and students, whom she described as "ideological zealots".[32] 53 professors opposed the award, with one[who?] stating: "We oppose the degree because she was the intellectual architect of Reagan administration policies that supported some of the Latin-American regimes with the most repressive records."[33] In 1995 she received the Walter Judd Freedom Award from The Fund for American Studies. In 2007, the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) honored Kirkpatrick with the creation of the Jeane Kirkpatrick Academic Freedom Award. The first recipient was Marine Corps reservist and correspondent Matt Sanchez.[34] Kirkpatrick was inducted into the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Women's Hall of Fame in 1984. In popular culture[edit] Kirkpatrick was portrayed by Lorelei King in the 2002 BBC
BBC
production of Ian Curteis's The Falklands Play. In Berkeley Breathed's daily comic strip Bloom County, Kirkpatrick becomes former Meadow Party Presidential candidate Bill the Cat's love interest before he is exposed as using that relationship to perform espionage for the Soviet Union.[35] A play written by Louis Nevaer, Reagan's Athena, about her tenure as ambassador to the U.N. premiered at the Fringe in New York in August 2016.[36] Books authored[edit]

Making War to Keep Peace, 2007 (ISBN 0-06-119543-X) The Withering Away of the Totalitarian State – And Other Surprises, 1992 (ISBN 0-8447-3728-3) Legitimacy and Force: National and International Dimensions, 1988 (ISBN 0-88738-647-4) International Regulation: New Rules in a Changing World Order, 1988 (ISBN 1-55815-026-9) Legitimacy and Force: Political and Moral Dimensions, 1988 (ISBN 0-88738-099-9) Legitimacy and Force: State Papers and Current Perspectives 1981–1985, 1987 (ISBN 0-88738-647-4) The United States and the World: Setting Limits, 1986 (ISBN 0-8447-1379-1) The Reagan Doctrine and U.S. Foreign Policy, 1985 (ISBN 99965-0-591-X) Reagan Phenomenon and Other Speeches on Foreign Policy, 1983 (ISBN 0-8447-1361-9) U.N. Under Scrutiny, 1982 (ISBN 99938-872-9-3) Dictatorships and Double Standards: Rationalism and Reason in Politics, 1982 (ISBN 0-671-43836-0) Presidential Nominating Process: Can It Be Improved, 1980 (ISBN 0-8447-3397-0) Dismantling the Parties: Reflections on Party Reform and Party Decomposition, 1978 (ISBN 0-8447-3293-1) The New Presidential Elite: Men and Women in National Politics, 1976 (ISBN 0-87154-475-X) Political Woman, 1974 (ISBN 0-465-05970-8), the first major study of women in American political life. It includes interviews with 50 successful political women, representing 26 states.[37]

See also[edit]

List of U.S. political appointments that crossed party lines Dictatorships and Double Standards List of notable Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
recipients

Biography portal Oklahoma
Oklahoma
portal New York City portal Maryland
Maryland
portal District of Columbia portal Law portal Politics portal Conservatism portal

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h "Jeane Kirkpatrick". The Economist. 2006-12-19. Retrieved 2007-08-16.  ^ "Middle Israel: The new world order". The Jerusalem Post. 2006-12-14. Retrieved 2007-08-16. [permanent dead link] ^ a b c "Jeane Kirkpatrick, Former United States Ambassador to The United Nations, Joins IDT Corporation Board of Directors". IDT Europe. 2004-09-27. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-08-16.  ^ a b c d e " Jeane Kirkpatrick
Jeane Kirkpatrick
and the Cold War (audio)". NPR. 2006-12-08. Retrieved 2007-08-16.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Cornwell, Rupert (December 11, 2006). "Jeane Kirkpatrick". London, UK: The Independent. Archived from the original on October 1, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-16.  ^ a b c "Socialism: What Happened? What Now?". symposium transcript. Notesonline and the New Economy Information Service. June 27, 2002. Archived from the original on December 6, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-09.  ^ a b Allen, Richard V. (2006-12-16). " Jeane Kirkpatrick
Jeane Kirkpatrick
and the Great Democratic Defection". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-08-16.  ^ a b William, Buckley (August 10, 1984). "Prime time for Mrs. Kirkpatrick?". National Review. Retrieved 2007-08-16.  ^ Jeane Kirkpatrick, "Dictatorships and Double Standards" Archived 2011-02-04 at the Wayback Machine., Commentary Magazine, vol 68, No 5, November 1979, pp. 34–45. Amazon.com profile; accessed May 20, 2014. ^ Aldous, Richard (2012). Reagan and Thatcher: The Difficult Relationship. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 80.  ^ according to John F. Burns (December 28, 2012). New York Times. p. 8 https://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/29/world/europe/falklands-war-caused-rare-friction-for-thatcher-and-reagan.html.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ a b O'Sullivan, John (December 31, 2006). "She was right: Jeane Kirkpatrick, statesman and intellectual". National Review. Retrieved 2007-08-16.  ^ Chomsky, Noam (1985). Turning the Tide. Boston, Massachusetts: South End Press. pp. 1–85. ISBN 0-89608-266-0.  ^ Schoultz, Lars (1998). Beneath the United States. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard
Harvard
University Press. pp. 374–80.  ^ Bosco, David L., Five to Rule Them All: The UN Security Council and the Making of the Modern World, Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 142. ^ Kirkpatrick, Jeane J., Legitimacy and Force Vol. 1 (Oxford: Transaction Books, 1988), p. xvi. ^ Kirkpatrick, Jeane J., "Standing Alone" in Legitimacy and Force, vol 1 (Oxford: Transaction Books, 1988), pp. 193–94. ^ Kirkpatrick, Jeane J., "Standing Alone" in Legitimacy and Force, vol 1 (Oxford: Transaction Books, 1988), 195. ^ Kirkpatrick, Jeane J., "The UN as a Political System" in Legitimacy and Force, vol 1 (Oxford: Transaction Books, 1988), p. 222. ^ "EMPOWER AMERICA: Twenty facts about Israel
Israel
and the Middle East". 2002-04-24. Archived from the original on 2002-06-01. Retrieved 2010-06-02.  ^ "Jeane Kirkpatrick's Mideast Warning". Washington Post. 1989-12-27. Retrieved 2007-08-16.  ^ "The United Nations
United Nations
and Israel
Israel
by Mitchell Bard". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2010-06-02.  ^ "ADL Mourns the Passing of Ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick". Archived from the original on 2007-03-04. Retrieved 2006-12-08.  ^ "Toward Humane Governance (Interview)". Religion & Liberty. 2 (2). March–April 1992. Retrieved 2006-12-09.  ^ Hartson, Merrill (December 8, 2006). "Jean Kirkpatrick, Ex-Ambassador, Dies". Forbes.com. Archived from the original on 2006-12-10. Retrieved 2006-12-09.  ^ a b "Former U.N. envoy Kirkpatrick dies". Politics (section). CNN.com. Associated Press. December 8, 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-12-08. Retrieved 2006-12-09.  ^ Speech at the 1984 Republican National Convention ^ Speech given during the 1988 Barrick Lecture Series at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas ^ [1], Commission on the Truth for El Salvador, footnote 163, New York, April 1, 1993, referencing Tampa Tribune, December 25, 1980; retrieved June 8, 2012. ^ "EDITORIAL: Jeane Kirkpatrick". Pueblo Chieftain. December 14, 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-16.  ^ Honorary Doctoral Degrees at Universidad Francisco Marroquín Archived 2011-05-01 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Staff (May 4, 1994). " Jeane Kirkpatrick
Jeane Kirkpatrick
declines honorary degree from Brandeis University". The Sunday Gazette. Retrieved 2014-06-24.  ^ "Jeane Kirkpatrick: hated, but right. (Originated from Boston Globe)". Knight-Ridder News Service. May 12, 1994. Retrieved 2007-08-16.  ^ "CPAC 2007 Agenda". CPAC. March 7, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-10-29. Retrieved 2008-04-10.  ^ Breathed, Berkeley. "Bloome County comic strip Feb 8, 1988". Bloome County comic strip. GoComics. Retrieved 20 September 2015.  ^ "HER EXCELLENCY ~~ formerly "Reagan's Athena"". Archived from the original on 2016-07-24.  ^ Review of Political Woman (1974) Archived 2013-08-13 at the Wayback Machine., american.com; accessed June 24, 2014.

External links[edit]

Honorary Doctoral Degrees, Universidad Francisco Marroquín "Jeane Kirkpatrick, Reagan's Forceful Envoy, Dies", 'The New York Times, December 9, 2006; accessed May 20, 2014. Appearances on C-SPAN "Kirkpatrick hit liberals for blaming America first", washtimes.com; accessed May 20, 2014. official website of Empower America American Enterprise Institute
American Enterprise Institute
website Profile: Jeane J. Kirkpatrick ADL Mourns the Passing of Ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick, Anti-Defamation League
Anti-Defamation League
press release; accessed May 20, 2014. The Cold War series: interview with Jeane Kirkpatrick, National Security Archive (February 28, 1999) " Jeane Kirkpatrick
Jeane Kirkpatrick
advocates war", The Oprah Winfrey Show, October 1, 2001. The National Association of Scholar's Board of Advisors Jeane Kirkpatrick
Jeane Kirkpatrick
interviewed by Peter Krogh, American Interests (1982)

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by Donald McHenry United States Ambassadors to the United Nations 1981–1985 Succeeded by Vernon Walters

v t e

Cabinet of President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1981–89)

Cabinet

Secretary of State

Alexander M. Haig Jr. (1981–82) George P. Shultz
George P. Shultz
(1982–89)

Secretary of the Treasury

Donald T. Regan (1981–85) James A. Baker (1985–88) Nicholas F. Brady
Nicholas F. Brady
(1988–89)

Secretary of Defense

Caspar W. Weinberger (1981–87) Frank C. Carlucci (1987–89)

Attorney General

William French Smith
William French Smith
(1981–85) Edwin Meese
Edwin Meese
(1985–88) Richard L. Thornburgh (1988–89)

Secretary of the Interior

James G. Watt
James G. Watt
(1981–83) William P. Clark (1983–85) Donald P. Hodel
Donald P. Hodel
(1985–89)

Secretary of Agriculture

John R. Block (1981–86) Richard E. Lyng (1986–89)

Secretary of Commerce

Malcolm Baldrige (1981–87) C. William Verity (1987–89)

Secretary of Labor

Raymond J. Donovan
Raymond J. Donovan
(1981–85) William E. Brock III (1985–87) Ann Dore McLaughlin (1987–89)

Secretary of Health and Human Services

Richard S. Schweiker (1981–83) Margaret M. Heckler (1983–85) Otis Bowen
Otis Bowen
(1985–89)

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Samuel R. Pierce (1981–89)

Secretary of Transportation

Drew Lewis (1981–83) Elizabeth H. Dole (1983–87) James H. Burnley IV
James H. Burnley IV
(1987–89)

Secretary of Energy

James B. Edwards
James B. Edwards
(1981–83) Donald P. Hodel
Donald P. Hodel
(1983–85) John S. Herrington
John S. Herrington
(1985–89)

Secretary of Education

Terrel H. Bell (1981–85) William J. Bennett (1985–88) Lauro F. Cavazos (1988–89)

Cabinet-level

Vice President

George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1981–89)

White House Chief of Staff

James A. Baker (1981–85) Donald T. Regan (1985–87) Howard H. Baker Jr. (1987–88) Kenneth M. Duberstein (1988–89)

Director of the Office of Management and Budget

David Stockman
David Stockman
(1981–85) James C. Miller III
James C. Miller III
(1985–88) Joseph R. Wright Jr. (1988–89)

Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency

Anne M. Gorsuch (1981–83) William D. Ruckelshaus (1983–85) Lee M. Thomas
Lee M. Thomas
(1985–89)

Director of Central Intelligence

William J. Casey
William J. Casey
(1981–87) William H. Webster
William H. Webster
(1987–89)

Ambassador to the United Nations

Jeane Kirkpatrick
Jeane Kirkpatrick
(1981–85) Vernon A. Walters
Vernon A. Walters
(1985–89)

Trade Representative

William E. Brock III (1981–85) Clayton K. Yeutter (1985–89)

Chairperson of the Council of Economic Advisers

Murray L. Weidenbaum (1981–82) Martin S. Feldstein (1982–84) Beryl W. Sprinkel (1985–89)

v t e

United States Ambassadors to the United Nations

Stettinius Austin Lodge Wadsworth Stevenson Goldberg Ball Wiggins Yost Bush Scali Moynihan Scranton Young McHenry Kirkpatrick Walters Pickering Perkins Albright Richardson Holbrooke Negroponte Danforth Bolton Khalilzad Rice Power Haley

v t e

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Women's Hall of Fame

1980–1989

1982

Hannah Diggs Atkins Kate Barnard June Brooks Gloria Stewart Farley Aloysius Larch-Miller Susan Ryan Peters Christine Salmon Edyth Thomas Wallace

1983

Zelia N. Breaux Kate Frank Leona Mitchell Jean Pitts Juanita Stout Alma Wilson

1984

Angie Debo Jeane Duane Kirkpatrick Jewell Russell Mann Zella J. Patterson

1985

Mae Boren Axton June Tompkins Benson Pam Olson Betty Durham Price Bertha Frank Teague

1986

Sara Ruth Cohen Vinita Cravens Rubye Hibler Hall Elizabeth Ann McCurdy Holmes Grace Elizabeth Hudlin Wilma P. Mankiller Edna Mae Phelps Evelyn La Rue Pittman

1990–1999

1993

Marie Cox Anita Faye Hill Moscelyne Larkin Jasinski Jacqulyn C. Longacre Shannon Lucid Clara Luper Opaline Deveraux Wadkins Pat Woodrum

1995

Nancy Goodman Feldman Barbara J. Gardner Ruthe Blalock Jones Mona Salyer Lambird Gloria Grace Langdon Bernice Compton Mitchell Donna Nigh

1996

Betty Boyd Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher Lela Foreman Sandy Ingraham Lorena Males Bernice Shedrick Valree Fletcher Wynn

1997

Isabel Keith Baker Jessie Thatcher Bost Norma Eagleton Kay Goebel Ruth Gilliland Kistler Hardaman Beverly Horse Mazola McKerson Penny Baldwin Williams

2000–2009

2001

Jari Askins Shirley Bellmon Dorothy Moses DeWitty Sandy Garrett Lynn Jones Yvonne Kauger Jill Zink Tarbel Dana Tiger

2003

Esther Houser Vicki Miles-LaGrange Linda Morrissey Lynn Schusterman Donna Shirley

2005

Wanda L. Bass Nancy L. Coats Mary Fallin Amelia Elizabeth "Bessie" Simison McColgin Jeanine Rhea Stephanie Kulp Seymour

2007

Sherri Coale Ginny Creveling Joe Anna Hibler Maxine Horner Kay Martin Terry Neese Claudia Tarrington Carolyn Thompson Taylor Della Warrior

2009

Rita Aragon Suzanne Edmondson Edna Hennessee Kim Henry Marabeau Looney M. Susan Savage Carolyn Whitener

2010–2019

2011

Laura Boyd Chloe Brown Joy Culbreath Marcia Mitchell Ardina Moore Cynthia Ross Kathy Taylor Helen Harrod Thompson

2013

Ida Blackburn Elaine Dodd Lou Kerr Terri Watkins Nancy Miller Linda Haneborg

2015

LaDonna Harris Mary Mélon Marion Paden Thelma Parks Ramona Paul Patty Roloff Avis Scaramucci

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 71474039 LCCN: n50048591 ISNI: 0000 0001 1769 4852 GND: 119012685 SUDOC: 032965443 BNF: cb12388752q (da

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