Jan Karski (24 June 1914[a] – 13 July 2000) was a Polish World War
II resistance movement fighter and later professor at Georgetown
University. In 1942 and 1943 Karski reported to the Polish government
in exile and the Western Allies on the situation in German-occupied
Poland, especially the destruction of the
Warsaw Ghetto, and the
secretive German-Nazi extermination camps.
1 Early life
2 World War II
2.2 Reporting Nazi atrocities to the Western Allies
3 Life in the United States
5 Remembering Karski's mission
6 Awards and decorations
7 See also
10 External links
Jan Karski was born Jan Kozielewski on 24 June 1914[a] in Łódź,
Poland. He was born on St John's Day, and named Jan (the Polish
equivalent of John) according to the old Polish custom of naming
newborns after the saints. An error was made in the baptismal records
listing 8 August,[inconsistent] as Karski explained later in
interviews on several occasions (see Waldemar Piasecki's biography of
Karski: One Life, about to be published in Poland) as well as
published interviews with his family.
Jan Kozielewski's handwritten pre-WWII document showing birthdate from
Karski was raised a Catholic and remained so throughout his life.
He grew up in a multi-cultural neighborhood where the majority of the
population was then Jewish.
Jan Karski later remarked that (in his own
view), he had failed to fulfill his wartime mission. He said: "And
thus I myself became a Jew. And just as my wife’s entire family was
wiped out in the ghettos of Poland – in Nazi concentration camps and
crematoria – so have all the Jews who were slaughtered become my
family. But I am a Christian Jew… I am a practicing Catholic… My
faith tells me the second original sin has been committed by humanity.
This sin will haunt humanity to the end of time. And I want it to be
After intensive military training in the prestigious school for
mounted artillery officers in Włodzimierz Wołyński, he graduated
with a First in the Class of 1936 and ordered to the 5th Regiment of
Mounted Artillery, the same military unit where Colonel Józef Beck,
Poland's Foreign Affairs Minister, served. He completed his diplomatic
education between 1935 and 1938 in various posts in Romania (twice),
Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, and went on to join the
Diplomatic Service. After completing and gaining a First in Grand
Diplomatic Practice, on 1 January 1939 he started work in the Polish
Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
World War II
During the Polish September Campaign, Kozielewski's 5th Regiment was a
unit of the Kraków Cavalry Brigade, under General Zygmunt Piasecki
and a part of Armia Kraków defending the area between Zabkowice and
Częstochowa. After the last
Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski
Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski on 10
September 1939, some units including 1st Battery of 5th Regiment with
Kozielewski tried to reach Hungary but were captured by the Red Army
between 17 and 20 September. Kozielewski was held prisoner in
Kozielszczyna camp (presently Ukraine). He successfully concealed his
true rank of 2nd Lieutenant and after a uniform exchange, was
identified by the NKVD commander as a Private. He was handed over to
the Germans as a person born in Łódź, which was incorporated into
the Third Reich, thus escaping the Katyn massacre.
Jan Karski's missions
In November 1939 on a train to a
POW camp in
General Government (a
part of Poland which had not been fully incorporated into The Third
Reich), Karski managed to escape, and found his way to Warsaw. There
he joined the SZP (Służba Zwycięstwu Polski) – the first
resistance movement in occupied Europe organized by General Michał
Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski and a predecessor of ZWZ, later the Home Army
(AK). About that time he adopted a nom de guerre of Jan Karski, which
later became his legal name. Other noms de guerre used by him during
World War II
World War II included Piasecki, Kwaśniewski, Znamierowski,
Kruszewski, Kucharski, and Witold. In January 1940 Karski began to
organize courier missions with dispatches from the Polish underground
to the Polish Government in Exile, then based in Paris. As a courier,
Karski made several secret trips between France, Britain and Poland.
During one such mission in July 1940 he was arrested by the
Tatra Mountains in Slovakia. Severely tortured, he was finally
transported to a hospital in Nowy Sącz, from which he was smuggled
out with vital help of Józef Cyrankiewicz. After a short period of
rehabilitation, he returned to active service in the Information and
Propaganda Bureau of the Headquarters of the Polish Home
In 1942 Karski was selected by Cyryl Ratajski, the Polish Government
Delegate's Office at Home, to perform a secret mission to prime
Władysław Sikorski in London. Karski was to contact
Sikorski as well as various other Polish politicians and inform them
about Nazi atrocities in occupied Poland. In order to gather evidence,
Karski met Bund activist
Leon Feiner and was twice smuggled by Jewish
underground leaders into the
Warsaw Ghetto for the purpose of directly
observing what was happening to Polish Jews. Also, disguised as an
Estonian camp guard, he visited what he thought was Bełżec death
camp. In actuality, it seems that Karski only managed to get close
enough to witness a
Durchgangslager (transit camp) for Bełżec in the
town of Izbica Lubelska, located midway between Lublin and
Bełżec. Many historians have accepted this theory, as did Karski
Reporting Nazi atrocities to the Western Allies
"The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland", by the
Polish government-in-exile addressed to the wartime allies of the
then-United Nations, 10 December 1942
Starting in 1942, Karski reported to the Polish, British and U.S.
governments on the situation in Poland, especially on the destruction
Warsaw Ghetto and the
Holocaust of Polish Jews. He had also
carried out of Poland a microfilm with further information from the
underground movement on the extermination of European Jews in
German-occupied Poland. The Polish Foreign Minister Count Edward
Raczyński provided the Allies on this basis one of the earliest and
most accurate accounts of the Holocaust. A note by Raczynski entitled
The mass extermination of Jews in German occupied Poland, addressed to
the governments of the United Nations on 10 December 1942, would later
be published along with other documents in a widely distributed
Karski met with Polish politicians in exile including the Prime
Minister, as well as members of political parties such as the
Socialist Party, National Party, Labor Party, People's Party, Jewish
Bund and Poalei Zion. He also spoke to the British Foreign Secretary
Anthony Eden, giving a detailed statement on what he had seen in
Warsaw and Bełżec. In 1943 in London he met journalist Arthur
Koestler, author of Darkness at Noon. He then traveled to the United
States, and on 28 July 1943 Karski personally met with President
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt in the Oval Office, telling him about the
situation in Poland and becoming the first eyewitness to tell him
about the Jewish Holocaust. During their meeting, Roosevelt asked
about the condition of horses in Poland. Roosevelt did not ask one
question about the Jews. Karski went on to meet with many other
government and civic leaders in the United States, including Supreme
Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, Cordell Hull, William Joseph Donovan,
and Rabbi Stephen Wise. Frankfurter, skeptical of Karski's report,
said later "I did not say that he was lying, I said that I could not
believe him. There is a difference." Karski presented his report
to media, bishops of various denominations (including Cardinal Samuel
Stritch), members of the Hollywood film industry and artists, but
without much result. His warning about the Yalta solution and the
plight of stateless peoples became an inspiration for the formation of
the Office of High Commissioner for Refugees after the war.
In 1944, Karski published Courier from Poland: The Story of a Secret
State (with a selection featured in
Collier's six weeks before the
book's publication), in which he related his experiences in
wartime Poland. The book was a major success (a film of it was planned
but never realized) with more than 400,000 copies sold up to the end
of World War II.
My Report to the World: The Story of a Secret State was re-published
Georgetown University Press and released on 18 March 2013. A
Jan Karski panel discussion was held at the University in
conjunction with the book release, and featured a discussion of
Karski's legacy by School of Foreign Service Dean Carol Lancaster,
Georgetown University Chair of the board of directors Paul Tagliabue,
Former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, Former National Security
Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, Polish Ambassador
Ryszard Schnepf and
Rabbi Harold S. White.
Life in the United States
After the war ended, Karski remained in the United States and began
his studies at Georgetown University, receiving a PhD from the
institution in 1952. In 1954, Karski became a naturalized citizen
of the United States. He taught at
Georgetown University for 40 years
in the areas of East European affairs, comparative government and
international affairs. Among his students was
Bill Clinton (Class of
1968). In 1985, he published the academic study The Great Powers and
Poland based on research on a
Fulbright fellowship in 1974 to his
Jan Karski with General
Colin Powell at the opening of the United
Holocaust Memorial Museum.
Karski's 1942 report on the
Holocaust and the London Polish
government's appeal to the United Nations were briefly narrated by
Walter Laqueur in The Terrible Secret (1980). Karski became a public
figure thanks to
Elie Wiesel who made him a keynote speaker at the
Concentration Camps Liberators Conference (1981) and French film-maker
Claude Lanzmann for Lanzmann's film Shoah made with Karski's
testimony. The film was released in 1985 and included parts of the
first day of a 2-day interview Lanzman had had with Karski (only 40
minutes of the almost 9 hours of interview time.) The segment ends
with Karski stating he made his report. On the second day of
interviews, as Lanzman recalls, he met with a very different Karski,
who recounted in precise details his meeting with Roosevelt and other
high officials, notably Justice Frankfurter who, Karski recalls, did
not believe him. According to Lanzman, the tone and style of the
second day of interviews was so different, and the interview so long,
that it would not fit into Lanzman's vision. The missing segment was
released separately in 2010, possibly in response to a controversy
following the release of a novel on Karski's World War II
activities. Earlier, in their book on Karski, Wood and Jankowski
state that Karski wrote a book and article  (which was
published in English, French and Polish) called "Shoah, a Biased
Vision of the Holocaust", in which he pleaded for the production of
another documentary showing the missing part of his testimony and the
help given to Jews by Polish Righteous among the Nations.
E. Thomas Wood and Stanisław M. Jankowski published Karski:
How One Man Tried to Stop the Holocaust. In 2010, Lanzmann released a
further documentary entitled The Karski Report consisting of the
previously unreleased second half of his interview with Karski. In
1997, the documentary film My Mission directed by Waldemar Piasecki
and Michal Fajbusiewicz was released, presenting as never before all
details of Karski's war mission. In 1999, Tajne Panstwo book (Polish,
re-edited and re-wrote by Waldemar Piascecki version of Story of A
Secret State) got its premiere in King's Place in
Warsaw and became a
bestseller. In the same year, Jan Karski's Room was opened in the
Museum of Lodz City. The exposition grouped the most valuable
memorabilia, documents and decorations organized under Karski's
Following the fall of communism in Poland in 1989, Karski's wartime
role was officially acknowledged there. He received the Order of the
White Eagle (the highest Polish civil decoration) and the Order
Virtuti Militari (the highest military decoration awarded for bravery
in combat). He was married in 1965 to the 54-year-old dancer and
choreographer Pola Nireńska, a Polish Jew, whose family (with the
exception of her parents, who emigrated to
Israel shortly before the
Nazi invasion of Poland), died in the Holocaust. She committed suicide
in 1992. A similar fate met Jan Karski's older brother Colonel Marian
Kozielewski, also a war hero. The Kozielewski brothers were admirers
Jozef Pilsudski and members of the "forgotten army" that suffered
many deeply personal wounds.
US stamp from 1943, a tribute to Polish Underground State
During an interview with Hannah Rosen in 1995, Karski said about the
failure to rescue most of the Jews from mass murder:
It was easy for the Nazis to kill Jews, because they did it. The
Allies considered it impossible and too costly to rescue the Jews,
because they didn't do it. The Jews were abandoned by all governments,
church hierarchies and societies, but thousands of Jews survived
because thousands of individuals in Poland, France, Belgium, Denmark,
Holland helped to save Jews. Now, every government and church says,
"We tried to help the Jews", because they are ashamed, they want to
keep their reputations. They didn't help, because six million Jews
perished, but those in the government, in the churches they survived.
No one did enough.
Karski died of unspecified heart and kidney disease in Washington,
D.C., in 2000. He died at
Georgetown University Hospital. He was
interred at Mount Olivet Cemetery in Washington, next to the graves of
his wife and brother. He and Pola had no children.
Jan Karski Statue in Tel Aviv University
Jan Karski's Bench in front of the Consulate General of the Republic
of Poland in New York City
A mural He who does not condemn, acquiesces commemorating Karski at
30/32 Lubelska Street in Warsaw.
On 2 June 1982,
Yad Vashem recognised
Jan Karski as Righteous Among
the Nations. A tree bearing a memorial plaque in his name was
planted that same year at Yad Vashem's Avenue of the Righteous Among
the Nations in Jerusalem.
In 1991, Karski was awarded the
Wallenberg Medal of the University of
Michigan. Statues honoring Karski have been placed in New York City at
the corner of 37th Street and Madison Avenue (renamed as Jan Karski
Corner) and on the grounds of Georgetown University in
Washington, D.C. Additional benches, which were made by the
Kraków-based sculptor Karol Badyna, are located in Kielce, Łódź
Warsaw in Poland, and on campus of the
Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv University in
Israel. The talking Karski bench in
Warsaw near the Museum of the
History of Polish Jews has a button where a short talk from Karski can
be heard. Georgetown University, Oregon State University, Baltimore
Warsaw University, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University,
and the University of
Łódź all awarded Karski honorary doctorates.
In 1994, Karski was made an honorary citizen of
Israel in honor of his
efforts on behalf of Polish Jews during the
Holocaust (Shoah). Karski
was nominated for the Nobel Prize and formally recognized by the UN
General Assembly shortly before his death.
Shortly after his death, the
Jan Karski Society was established,
thanks to initiative of professor Karski's close friend, collaborator
and biographer Waldemar Piasecki. The society preserves his legacy and
administrates the prestigious
Jan Karski Eagle Award established by
himself in 2000. The list of laureates includes among them: Elie
Wiesel, Shimon Peres, Lech Walesa, Aleksander Kwasniewski, Tadeusz
Mazowiecki, Bronislaw Geremek, Jacek Kuron, Adam Michnik, Karol
Modzelewski, Oriana Fallaci, Dagoberto Valdés Hernández, Cardinal
Tygodnik Powszechny magazine, Hoover Institution,
Holocaust Memorial Museum.
In April 2011, the
Jan Karski U.S. Centennial Campaign was created to
increase interest in the life and legacy of the late Polish diplomat,
as the Centennial year of his birth in 2014 approached. The U.S.
Campaign, headed by Polish-American author Wanda Urbanska, worked in
partnership with the International Legacy program at the Polish
History Museum in Warsaw, Poland, under the direction of Ewa
Wierzynska. Polish Consul General Ewa Junczyk-Ziomecka hosted a gala
kickoff dinner in New York City on 30 May, consisting of
representatives from Georgetown University, Polish Catholic and Jewish
groups which comprised the steering committee.
One goal of the Campaign group was to obtain the Presidential Medal of
Freedom for Karski in advance of his Centennial, as well as to promote
educational activities, including workshops, artistic performances and
the revival of his 1944 book, Story of a Secret State. In December
2011, the support of 68 U.S. Representatives and 12 U.S. Senators was
obtained and a package for the Medal was submitted to the White
House. On 23 April 2012, U.S. President
Barack Obama announced
that Karski would receive the country's highest civilian honor, the
Presidential Medal of Freedom. The Medal was awarded by President
Obama on 29 May 2012 and presented to Adam Daniel Rotfeld, the former
Foreign Minister of Poland and himself a Jewish Holocaust
survivor. Jan Karski's family was omitted during the decoration
procedure and not invited for the presentation ceremony. Such a fact
generated strong family protest. The medal, along with Jan Karski's
honors, is on display at "the Karski office" in
according to the wishes of his surviving family led by his niece and
goddaughter Dr. Kozielewska-Trzaska.
In November 2012, having met its major goals, the
Jan Karski U.S.
Centennial Campaign was succeeded by the
Jan Karski Educational
Foundation, which continues to promote Karski's legacy and values,
particularly to young people from middle school through college age.
The President of the Foundation is Polish-American author Wanda
Urbanska. The Foundation sponsored three major conferences about
Karski in his centennial birth year, at
Georgetown University in
Washington, at Loyola University in Chicago, and in Warsaw.
A controversy began when a misspoken word in Barack Obama's
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom speech came to be known as "Gafa Obamy"
or Obama's gaffe, when the President referred to "a Polish death
camp" (instead of "death camp in Poland") when talking of the Nazi
German transit death camp that Karski had visited. "Polish death
camps" is a term often used to refer to Nazi concentration camps in
Poland, as opposed to (as may be implied) Polish concentration camps.
The terms "Polish death camp" or "Polish concentration camp" were
reportedly promulgated by ex-Nazis working for the West German secret
services. Historian Leszek Pietrzak explains the propaganda strategies
from the 1950s. President Obama later characterized his term as a
mis-statement and it was accepted by Polish President Bronisław
In early February 2014,
Jan Karski Society and the Karski family
appealed to President of Poland
Bronisław Komorowski to posthumously
Jan Karski to the rank of Brigadier General in recognition of
his contribution to the war effort as well as all couriers and
emissaries of Underground Polish State. The appeal received no
response for a year. Member of the Polish parliament Professor Tadeusz
Iwinski recently openly criticized the president of Poland for
inaction on Karski's behalf.
On 24 June 2014, the "Jan Karski. Mission Accomplished" Conference
took place in Lublin under the patronage of Professor Elie Wiesel,
Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, Aleksander Kwasniewski, President of
Poland (1995–2005), Moshe Kantor, President of the European Jewish
Congress, and Michael Schudrich, Chief Rabbi of Poland.
Remembering Karski's mission
Jan Karski and
Pola Nirenska at Mount Olivet Cemetery in
The former Foreign Minister of Poland
Władysław Bartoszewski in his
speech at the ceremony of the 60th anniversary of the liberation of
the concentration camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau, 27 January 2005, said:
"The Polish resistance movement kept informing and alerting the free
world to the situation. In the last quarter of 1942, thanks to the
Jan Karski and his mission, and also by other means,
the Governments of the United Kingdom and of the United States were
well informed about what was going on in Auschwitz-Birkenau."
A full-length play on Karski's life and mission, Coming to see Aunt
Sophie written by Arthur Feinsod, was released in May 2014 and played
to audiences in Germany and Poland. It played in Bloomington, Indiana
at the Jewish Theatre in June 2015 and in Australia in August.
A new play, "My Report to the World" was written by Clark Young and
Derek Goldman and premiered at
Georgetown University during the
conference honoring Karski's centennial year. It starred
David Strathairn as Karski. It has since been
Warsaw and is to be presented in New York in July 2015
with Strathairn again in the Karski role in all productions. Derek
Goldman directed the play in both Washington and New York. The July
performances are being presented in partnership with The Museum of
Jewish Heritage – A Living Memorial to the Holocaust, The Laboratory
for Global Performance and Politics at Georgetown University, Bisno
Productions, and the
Jan Karski Educational Foundation.
In 2009, French author
Yannick Haenel published his novel Jan Karski,
which won two French literary prizes: the
Prix Interallié and the
Prix du roman Fnac. The novel is structured in three sections. The
first chapter re-prints much of Karski's testimony from the
documentary film Shoah directed by Claude Lanzmann. The second chapter
paraphrases sections from Karski's book, The Story of a Secret State,
originally published in 1944. The third chapter is Haenel's fictitious
monologue in which he depicts Karski criticising the world for not
saving the Jews.
Lanzmann published a strong criticism of Haenel's novel, describing
the third chapter as "a falsification of history". He also criticised
the first chapter, writing that some have described it as a homage to
the film Shoah, but the word plagiarism would be equally
appropriate. Haenel responded to this criticism by writing that
Lanzmann did not understand how literature works, and that Lanzmann
was denying the complexity of Karski's testimony.
Awards and decorations
Order of the White Eagle
Silver Cross of the Virtuti Militari, twice
Home Army Cross
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom (United States)
Polish Secret State
Victor Martin – a Belgian academic, sent by the Belgian resistance
to report on the
List of Polish holocaust resisters
Righteous Among the Nations
Righteous Among the Nations by country
Rescue of Jews by
Poles during the Holocaust
^ a b c Karski's date of birth is sometimes given as 24 April 1914,
based on his baptismal records in Russian and subsequently shown on
his official birth certificate. 24 June was confirmed by the Karski's
family lawyer, Dr. Wieslawa Kozielewska-Trzaska, by Karski's niece and
god-daughter, and by the
Jan Karski Society, an organization
established shortly after his death to preserve his legacy. It is the
date Karski himself used on handwritten documents, including several
diplomatic dossiers at the League of Nations.
24 April was the birth date shown on both the diploma for Karski's
masters degree (awarded in 1935) and his certificate from the
Artillery Reserve Officer Cadet School (awarded in 1936). Some
Karski tribute organizations also recognize 24 April as his birth
date, as does the Google Cultural Institute's documentation, Museum of
Polish History and the Museum of the City of Łódź, to which Karski
left his papers, awards and artwork. The Polish PWN Encyclopedia
recognizes 24 April as his birth date.
In March 2014, the
United States Senate
United States Senate adopted a resolution honoring
Karski on the centennial of his birth, 24 April 2014. The resolution
was withdrawn and revised to recognize Karski on 24 June 2014,
according to the Polish Press Agency. The Polish Senate did the
same, according to the office of Bogdan Borusewicz.
Karski's diplomatic passport showed his date of birth as 22 March
^ a b c Patryk Małecki (27 November 2013). "
Jan Karski was born 24
June 1914. Nothing is going to change that" [
Jan Karski urodził się
24 czerwca 1914 roku. Nic tego nie zmieni]. Washington, D.C.:
Dziennikwschodni.pl – via Internet Archive.
^ Jan Karski. Photo-biography. Fotobiografia by Maciej Sadowski, Veda,
Warsaw, 2014, www.veda.com.pl
^ "Encyklopedia PWN – Sprawdzić możesz wszędzie, zweryfikuj
wiedzę w serwisie PWN – Karski Jan". Encyklopedia.pwn.pl. Retrieved
^ Polish Press Agency. "World News. Archived copy" – via Internet
^ a b Righteous Among the Nations. "The Envoy Jan Karski, Poland".
YadVashem.org. His compassion in the face of death and dying led
Karski to his moral self-identification as "a Christian Jew." – via
Internet Archive, 5 June 2011.
^ Deroy Murdock (May 28, 2012), WWII Hero Wins Presidential Medal of
Jan Karski was the first to warn FDR about the Final
Solution. National Review Online. Internet Archive.
^ Jakob Weiss,
The Lemberg Mosaic
The Lemberg Mosaic (New York: Alderbrook Press 2011) fn
^ In his book published in the USA during the war, Karski identified
the camp as
Bełżec death camp
Bełżec death camp even though he knew at the time that
the camp could not have been in Bełżec. The descriptions he gave are
incongruous with what is now known about Bełżec. His biographers
Wood and Jankowski later proposed that rather Karski actually had been
Izbica Lubelska "sorting camp". This theory was first time
presented by Prof. Jozef Marszalek from Maria Curie-Sklodowska
University of Lublin (UMCS), WW II historian and top specialist on
Nazi camps in occupied Poland . Many historians have accepted this
theory, as did Karski himself.
^ "Mass extermination". Projectinposterum.org. 10 December 1942.
^ "Algemeiner 07/17/2013". Algemeiner.com. 17 July 2013. Retrieved
^ Nigel Jones (4 May 2011). "Story of a Secret State by Jan Karski:
review". The daily telegraph. Karski reached London where he had an
interview with the foreign secretary Anthony Eden, the first of many
top officials to effectively ignore his account of the Nazis'
systematic effort to exterminate European Jewry. The very enormity of
Karski's report paradoxically worked against him being believed, and
paralysed any action against the killings. Logistically unable to
reach Poland, preoccupied with fighting the war on many fronts, and
unwilling to believe even the Nazis capable of such bestiality, the
Allies put the
Holocaust on the back burner. When Karski took his tale
across the Atlantic, the story was the same. President Roosevelt heard
him out, then asked about the condition of horses in Poland."
Claude Lanzmann (4 May 2011). "U.S
Holocaust memorial Museum, Claude
Lanzmann Interview with Jan Karski". Steven Spielberg Film and Video
Archive. Karski first told Roosevelt that the Polish nation was
depending on him to deliver them from the Germans. Karski said to
Roosevelt, "All hope, Mr. President, has been placed by the Polish
nation in the hands of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Karski says that he
told President Roosevelt about Belzec and the desperate situation of
the Jews. Roosevelt concentrated his questions and remarks entirely on
Poland and did not ask one question about the Jews ". Watch the video,
or see the full transcript
^ "The International
Raoul Wallenberg Foundation".
Raoulwallenberg.net. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
^ Szporer, Michael. "Jan Karski: The Man who Soldiered for Human
Rights". University of Maryland. Archived from the original on 27 July
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^ Abzug, Robert. H. 1999. America Views the Holocaust, 1933–1945: A
Brief Documentary History. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, p. 183.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 May 2015.
^ Storozynski, Alex (28 March 2014). "Karski's Story of a Secret State
– A Primer on the Polish Ethos". huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 25
Georgetown University video of the event". Georgetown.edu. 18 March
2013. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved
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Eastern Europe (1938–1948); Ph.D. dissertation 1952 for Georgetown
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^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 May 2010.
^ "Shoah : a biased account of the Holocaust. - University of
Toronto Libraries". search.library.utoronto.ca. Retrieved 11 January
^ "Revue ESPRIT". Retrieved 11 January 2018.
^ Jeffries, Stuart (9 June 2011). "
Claude Lanzmann on why Holocaust
documentary Shoah still matters". The Guardian. London.
^ "Interview with Jan Karski". Retrieved 2007-09-30.
^ Kaufman, Michael T. "
Jan Karski Dies at 86; Warned West About
Holocaust." New York Times. 15 July 2000.
Yad Vashem recognizes Karski". yadvashem.org. Retrieved
^ "Statue salutes Polish man who warned FDR of Nazi camps", New York
Daily News, 12 November 2007
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 June 2010.
^ "Monument to Honor Dr. Jan Karski", Polish-American Journal. 30
September 2002. vol 91; No. 9; page 8
^ Jan Karski. "
Jan Karski Educational Foundation (home)".
Jankarski.net. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
^ "President Obama Announces
Jan Karski as a Recipient of the
Presidential Medal of Freedom". whitehouse.gov. 26 April 2012.
Retrieved 27 April 2012.
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom Ceremony". Whitehouse.gov. 29
May 2012. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved
^ Jan Karski. "www.jankarski.net". Retrieved 2014-03-04.
^ "Matthew Kaminski: 'Gafa Obamy'". The Wall Street Journal. 30 May
^ "Jak Niemcy Polaków wrabiali w mordowanie Żydów – Leszek
Pietrzak – NowyEkran.pl". Archived from the original on 2011-10-29.
^ "President of the Republic of Poland / News / News / President on
Barack Obama's letter". President.pl. 1 June 2012. Retrieved
^ Address by the former Foreign Minister of Poland Wladysław
Bartoszewski at the ceremony of the 60th anniversary of the liberation
of the concentration camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau, 27 January 2005 see
^ "Kan Karski, Yannick Haenel". ksiegarniaedukator.pl. Retrieved 14
^ a b Lanzmann, Claude (23 January 2010). "
Jan Karski de Yannick
Haenel : Un faux roman". revue les temps modernes. Retrieved 14
^ Haenel, Yannick (25 January 2010). "Le recours à la fiction n'est
pas seulement un droit, il est nécessaire". Le Monde. Retrieved 14
Publications by Karski
"Polish Death Camp." Collier's, 14 October 1944, pp. 18–19,
Courier from Poland: The Story of a Secret State, Boston 1944 (Polish
edition: Tajne państwo: opowieść o polskim Podziemiu, Warszawa
Wielkie mocarstwa wobec Polski: 1919–1945 od Wersalu do Jałty. wyd.
I krajowe Warszawa 1992, Wyd. PIW ISBN 83-06-02162-2
Tajna dyplomacja Churchilla i Roosevelta w sprawie Polski:
Polska powinna stać się pomostem między narodami Europy Zachodniej
i jej wschodnimi sąsiadami,
Jan Karski (2001). Story of a Secret State. Simon Publications.
p. 391. ISBN 1-931541-39-6.
E. Thomas Wood & Stanisław M. Jankowski (1994). Karski: How One
Man Tried to Stop the Holocaust. John Wiley & Sons Inc. page 316;
J. Korczak, Misja ostatniej nadziei, Warszawa 1992.
E. T. Wood, Karski: opowieść o emisariuszu, Kraków 1996.
J. Korczak, Karski, Warszawa 2001.
S. M. Jankowski, Karski: raporty tajnego emisariusza, Poznań 2009.
Henry R. Lew, Lion Hearts Hybrid Publishers, Melbourne, Australia
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jan Karski.
Jan Karski – his activity to save Jews' lives during the Holocaust,
Yad Vashem website
The Last Letter From Szmul Zygielbojm, The Bund Representative With
The Polish National Council In Exile, 11 May 1943
Jan Karski Institute for Tolerance and Dialogue
Jan Karski papers at the
Hoover Institution Archives
Interviews with Jan Karski
Excerpts from biography of
Jan Karski and audio of his recollections
Jan Karski at The Wallenberg Endowment, University of
Jan Karski, a silent messenger by Jack Fuchs, 1 June 2001
Jan Karski from The Times, 17 July 2000
Interview with Jan Karski, 9 February 1995, at his home
The International Wallenberg Foundation: Jan Karski
Jan Karski Educational Foundation
Jan Karski, Humanity's Hero at the Google Cultural Institute
Holocaust memorial Museum,
Claude Lanzmann Interview with Jan
Photographic Memory: Snapshots of a Spy, Culture.pl
Jan Karski at Culture.pl
Righteous Among the Nations
List of individuals and groups assisting Jews
Holocaust in Poland
Seven Laws of Noah
Archbishop Damaskinos of Athens
Nations and groups
Related articles by country:
Rescue of the Danish Jews
Rescue of the Danish Jews • Rescue of
Poles during the Holocaust
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