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JAMMU pronunciation (help ·info ) is the largest city in the Jammu Division and the winter capital of state of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
in India. It is situated on the banks of the Tawi River . It is administered by a municipal corporation .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography * 2 Etymology * 3 History * 4 Climate * 5 Transport * 6 Administration * 7 Economy

* 8 Tourism

* 8.1 Amar Mahal Palace * 8.2 Bahu Fort 74.87 . It has an average elevation of 327 m (1,073 ft). Jammu
Jammu
city lies at uneven ridges of low heights at the Shivalik hills . It is surrounded by Shivalik range to the north, east and southeast while the Trikuta Range surrounds it in the north-west. It is approximately 600 kilometres (370 mi) from the national capital, New Delhi
New Delhi
.

The city spreads around the Tawi river with the old city overlooking it from the north (right bank) while the new neighbourhoods spread around the southern side (left bank) of river. There are five bridges on the river. The city is built on a series of ridges .

ETYMOLOGY

The name Jammu
Jammu
is derived from its ruler who founded it. Raja Jambulochan founded this city and named it Jambupur which later changed to Jammu. Many historians and locals believe that Jammu
Jammu
was founded by Raja Jambu Lochan in the 14th century BC.

HISTORY

See also: History of the Punjab

Jammu
Jammu
has historically been the capital of Jammu
Jammu
Province and the winter capital of the east, while Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
princely state (1846–1952). Jambu Lochan was the brother of Raja Bahu Lochan who constructed a fort, Bahu Fort, on the bank of river Tawi . The city name figures in the ancient book Mahabharata . Excavation near Akhnoor , 32 kilometres (20 mi) from Jammu
Jammu
city, provides evidence that Jammu was once part of the Harappan civilization .

Remains from the Maurya , Kushan , Kushanshahs and Gupta periods have also been found in Jammu. After 480 CE, the area was dominated by the Hephthalites and ruled from Kapisa
Kapisa
and Kabul
Kabul
. They were succeeded by the Kushano -Hephthalite dynasty from 565 to 670 CE, then by the Shahi from 670 CE to the early 11th century, when the Shahi were destroyed by the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
.

Jammu
Jammu
is also mentioned in accounts of the campaigns of Timur . The area witnessed changes of control following invasions by Mughals and Sikhs , before finally falling under the control of the British .

The Dev Dynasty ruled it for about 984 years from 840 CE to 1816 CE. The city remained in scientific isolation and lagged behind other Indian cities. Then came the Dogra Rule that revived its ancient glory by building great temples, renovated old shrines, built educational institutes and many more. A 43 km long railway line connecting Jammu with Sialkot was laid in 1897 but it was abandoned after the Partition of India
India
as the railway link to Sialkot was broken. Jammu had no rail services until 1971, when the Indian Railways
Indian Railways
laid the Pathankot - Jammu Tawi Broad Gauge
Broad Gauge
line. The new Jammu Tawi station was opened in 1975. In 2000, much of the old railway station was demolished to make way for an art centre.

After partition of India, Jammu
Jammu
continued to be the winter capital of the state.

CLIMATE

Jammu, like the rest of north-western India, features a humid subtropical climate (Köppen : Cwa), with extreme summer highs reaching 46 °C (115 °F), and temperatures in the winter months occasionally falling below 4 °C (39 °F). June is the hottest month with average highs of 40.6 °C (105.1 °F), while January is the coldest month with average lows reaching 7 °C (45 °F). Average yearly precipitation is about 42 inches (1,100 mm) with the bulk of the rainfall in the months from June to September, although the winters can also be rather wet. In winter dense smog causes much inconvenience and temperature even drops to 2 °C (36 °F). In summer, particularly in May and June, extremely intense sunlight or hot winds can raise the mercury to 46 °C (115 °F). Following the hot season, the monsoon lashes the city with heavy downpours along with thunderstorms: rainfall may total up to 669 mm (26.3 in) in the wettest months.

CLIMATE DATA FOR JAMMU (1971–2000)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 28.0 (82.4) 31.7 (89.1) 37.2 (99) 43.9 (111) 47.4 (117.3) 47.2 (117) 45.0 (113) 41.7 (107.1) 38.9 (102) 37.9 (100.2) 34.2 (93.6) 28.1 (82.6) 47.4 (117.3)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 18.9 (66) 21.6 (70.9) 25.6 (78.1) 32.0 (89.6) 37.2 (99) 38.7 (101.7) 34.0 (93.2) 33.1 (91.6) 33.1 (91.6) 31.2 (88.2) 26.6 (79.9) 21.2 (70.2) 29.6 (85.3)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 7.8 (46) 9.8 (49.6) 13.9 (57) 18.9 (66) 23.3 (73.9) 26.0 (78.8) 25.3 (77.5) 24.8 (76.6) 23.1 (73.6) 18.1 (64.6) 13.0 (55.4) 9.0 (48.2) 17.7 (63.9)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 0.6 (33.1) 1.1 (34) 4.4 (39.9) 8.5 (47.3) 9.8 (49.6) 13.8 (56.8) 14.0 (57.2) 15.0 (59) 15.0 (59) 11.3 (52.3) 6.1 (43) 0.9 (33.6) 0.6 (33.1)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 52.4 (2.063) 79.0 (3.11) 74.9 (2.949) 47.1 (1.854) 34.8 (1.37) 87.3 (3.437) 371.5 (14.626) 370.2 (14.575) 140.9 (5.547) 25.1 (0.988) 10.1 (0.398) 38.3 (1.508) 1,331.6 (52.425)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 3.1 4.2 4.8 3.2 3.2 5.3 12.5 13.1 6.1 1.8 1.1 2.3 60.6

Source: India
India
Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)

TRANSPORT

Jammu Tawi station

Jammu
Jammu
city has a railway station called Jammu Tawi (station code JAT) that is connected with major cities of India. The old railway link to Sialkot was broken after the Partition of India
India
and Jammu
Jammu
had no rail services until 1971, when the Indian Railways
Indian Railways
laid the Pathankot - Jammu Tawi Broad Gauge
Broad Gauge
line. The new Jammu Tawi station was opened in October 1972 and is an origination point for Express trains. With the commencement of the Jammu–Baramulla line , all trains to the Kashmir Valley will pass through Jammu
Jammu
Tawi. A part of the Jammu–Baramulla project has been executed and the track has been extended to Katra . Jalandhar
Jalandhar
- Pathankot - Jammu Tawi section has been doubled and electrified. National Highway 1A

National Highway 1A which passes through Jammu
Jammu
connects it to the Kashmir valley . National Highway 1B connects Jammu
Jammu
with Poonch town. Jammu
Jammu
is just 80 kilometres (50 mi) from Kathua town, while it is 68 kilometres (42 mi) from Udhampur city. Katra is also 49 kilometres (30 mi) away.

Jammu Airport is in the middle of Jammu. It has direct flights to Srinagar
Srinagar
, Delhi
Delhi
, Amritsar
Amritsar
, Chandigarh
Chandigarh
, Leh and Mumbai
Mumbai
and Bengaluru
Bengaluru
. Jammu Airport operate daily 30 arrival and departure flights which is Goair
Goair
, Air India
India
, Spicejet and Indigo
Indigo
running daily flights.

The city has JKSRTC city buses under and mini buses for local transport which run on some defined routes. These mini buses are called "Matadors". Besides this auto-rickshaw and cycle-rickshaw service is also available. Local taxis are also available.

ADMINISTRATION

Jammu
Jammu
city serves as the winter capital of Jammu
Jammu
"> Jammu
Jammu
has a number of woodgrain mills to cater to the local population. One of the most famous local Basmati Rice is produced in RS Pura area near jammu, which is then processed in rice mills in Jammu. Apart from Rice Mills scattered all around Jammu, industrial estate at Bari Brahamna has a large presence of Industrial units manufacturing a variety of products right from carpets, electronic goods, electric goods etc. The local government gives incentives for new units by foregoing taxes for a few initial years of establishment. Bari Brahamna also has a freight rail link that helps carry the goods manufactured here to other parts of India.

TOURISM

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Amar Mahal Palace

Tourism is the largest industry in Jammu
Jammu
as in the rest of the state. It is also a focal point for the pilgrims going to Vaishno Devi and Kashmir valley as it is second last railway terminal in North India. All the routes leading to Kashmir, Poonch, Doda and Laddakh start from Jammu
Jammu
city. So throughout the year the city remains full of people from all the parts of India. Places of interest include old historic palaces like Mubarak Mandi, Purani Mandi, Rani Park, Amar Mahal, Bahu Fort, Raghunath Temple, Ranbireshwar Temple, Karbala, Peer Meetha, Old city and a number of shopping places, fun parks, etc.

AMAR MAHAL PALACE

The Amar Mahal Palace is a palace in Jammu, in the Indian state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, India, which has now been converted into a Museum. It was built in the nineteenth century for Raja Amar Singh , a Dogra king by a French architect on the lines of a French Chateau. The palace was donated to the Hari-Tara charitable trust by Dr. Karan Singh for use as a museum. It has many exhibits including a golden throne weighing 120 kg, Pahari miniature and Kangra miniature paintings, a library of 25,000 antique books and many rare art collections. The palace was the last official residence of the Dogra dynasty, and a large collection of portraits of the royal family are also on display in the Museum.

BAHU FORT "> Bahu Fort, Jammu, India
India

Nestled at a distance of 5 km from the city center, Bahu Fort and Garden lies on the left bank of the Tawi River in the city of Jammu. It was built by Raja Bahulochan more than 3000 years ago. Close to the fort, there is a shrine devoted to the Hindu Goddess Kali. It was renovated in 19th century by the Dogra rulers. There is a terraced garden, called Bagh-e-Bahu.

RAGHUNATH TEMPLE

Amongst the temples in Jammu, the Raghunath Temple takes pride of place being situated right in the heart of the city. This temple is situated at the city centre and was built in 1857. Work on the temple was started by Maharaja Gulab Singh, founder of the Kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir, in 1835 AD and was completed by his son Maharaja Ranbir Singh in 1860 AD. The inner walls of the main temple are covered with gold sheet on three sides. There are many galleries with lakhs of saligrams. The surrounding Temples are dedicated to various Gods and Goddesses connected with the epic Ramayana. This temple consists of seven shrines, each with a tower of its own. It is the largest temple complex in northern India. Though 130 years old, the complex is remarkable for sacred scriptures, one of the richest collections of ancient texts and manuscripts in its library. Its arches, surface and niches are undoubtedly influenced by Mughal architecture while the interiors of the temple are plated with gold. The main sanctuary is dedicated to Lord Vishnu's eighth incarnation and Dogras' patron deity, the Rama. It also houses a Sanskrit Library containing rare Sanskrit manuscripts.

PEER KHO CAVE

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Alongside the same Tawi river are the Peer Kho Cave temple, the Panchbakhtar temple and the Ranbireshwar temple dedicated to Lord Shiva with their own legends and specific days of worship. Peer Kho cave is located on the bank of river Tawi and it is widely believed that Ramayan character Jamvant (the bear god) meditated in this cave. The Ranbireshwar Temple has twelve Shiva lingams of crystal measuring 12" to 18" and galleries with thousands of saligrams fixed on stone slabs. Located on the Shalimar Road near the New Secretariat, and built by Maharaja Ranbir Singh in 1883 AD. It has one central lingam measuring seven and a half feet height (2.3 m) and twelve Shiva lingams of crystal measuring from 15 cm to 38 cm and galleries with thousands of Shiva lingams fixed on stone slabs.

VAISHNO DEVI

Situated at an altitude of 5,200 feet above sea level, the Holy Cave Shrine of Mata Vaishno Devi or Trikuta Bhagwati has been a beacon of faith and fulfilment to millions of devotees from all over the world. The pilgrimage to the Shrine holds great significance for the pilgrims. The Yatris have to undertake a trek of nearly 12 km from the base camp at Katra. At the culmination of their pilgrimage, the yatries are blessed with the Darshans of the Mother Goddess inside the Sanctum Sanctorum - the Holy Cave. These Darshans are in the shape of three natural rock formations called the Pindies. There are no statues or idols inside the Cave.

A geological study of the Holy Cave has indicated its age to be nearly a million years. As per belief the practice of worshipping Shakti, largely started in the Puranic period and the first mention of the Mother Goddess is in the epic Mahabharat. When the armies of Pandavs and Kaurvas were arrayed in the battlefield of Kurukshetra, Arjun, the chief warrior of Pandavs upon advice of Sri Krishna; meditated upon the Mother Goddess and sought Her blessings for victory. This is when Arjun addresses the Mother Goddess as 'Jambookatak Chityaishu Nityam Sannihitalaye', which means 'you who always dwell in the temple on the slope of the mountain in Jamboo' (probably referring to the present day Jammu). On a mountain, just adjacent to the Trikuta Mountain and overlooking the Holy Cave are five stone structures, which are believed to be the rock symbols of the five Pandavs.

MUBARAK MANDI PALACE

Mubarak Mandi is a palace in Jammu, India. The palace was the royal residence of the maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
from the Dogra dynasty. It was their main seat till 1925 when Maharaja Hari Singh moved to the Hari Niwas Palace in the northern part of Jammu. The palace is located in the heart of the old walled city of Jammu
Jammu
and overlooks the Tawi river.

DOGRA ART MUSEUM

Dogra Art Museum, Jammu
Jammu
previously known as the Dogra Art Gallery is a museum of Dogra cultural heritage housed in the Pink Hall of the Mubarak Mandi complex, Jammu, India. It is a government museum and the biggest in Jammu
Jammu
region, one of the three divisions in the north Indian state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir. The museum is unit of Directorate of Archives, Archaeology and Museums, under the Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Government . The building was erected in commemoration of the visit of the British Monarch Edward VII
Edward VII
when he came to Jammu
Jammu
as the Prince of Wales in 1875 . This building housed the Public Library as well as the Museum.

DEMOGRAPHICS

As of 2011 census, the population of Jammu
Jammu
city was 502,197. Males constituted 52.7% of the population; females numbered constituted 47.3% of the population. The sex ratio was 898 females per 1,000 males against national average of 940. Jammu
Jammu
had an average literacy rate of 89.66%, much higher than the national average of 74.4%: male literacy was 93.13% and female literacy was 85.82%. 8.47% of the population were under 6 years of age. The urban agglomeration of Jammu
Jammu
had a population of 657,314. Most of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir's Hindus live in the Jammu
Jammu
region and are closely related to the Punjabi-speaking peoples in the Punjab state; many speak Dogri , earlier considered a dialect of Punjabi ; Dogri is a dialect of Punjabi on the basis of grammar and vocabulary.

RELIGION IN JAMMU (2011)

Religion

Percent

Hinduism
Hinduism
  81.19%

Sikhism
Sikhism
  8.83%

Islam
Islam
  7.95%

Christianity
Christianity
  1.35%

Others   0.68%

RANK LANGUAGE 1961

1 DOGRI 55%

2 PUNJABI 22%

3 HINDI 11.6%

— OTHER 11.4%

EDUCATION

In the 2014–2015 General Budget of India
India
, Arun Jaitley , the Finance Minister of India
India
, proposed an Indian Institute of Technology and an Indian Institute of Management for the division. List of some educational institutions is provided below.

ENGINEERING COLLEGES IN JAMMU:-

* Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University , Katra, Kakrial * Government College of Engineering and Technology, Jammu * Mahant Bachittar Singh College of Engineering and Technology (MBSCET) Babliana, Jammu * Model Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jammu Kot Bhalwal, Jammu * Indian Institute of Technology Jammu
Jammu
(to be started) * Yogananda College of Engineering and Technology , Jammu * Bhargava College of Engineering and Technology , Samba, Jammu

MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS:-

* All India
India
Institute of Medical Sciences, Jammu
Jammu
(To be started). * AV Institute of Nursing and Paramedical Sciences , Jammu * New Modern Paramedical College , Jammu * Acharya Shri Chander College of Medical Sciences & Hospital * Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry , R.S. Pura * Government Medical College and Hospital, Bakshi Nagar Jammu * Indira Gandhi Govt. Dental College and Hospital , Jammu * Institute of Dental Sciences, Sehora Jammu
Jammu
* Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine , CSIR

GENERAL DEGREE COURSES (COLLEGES):-

* Govt. Degree College, Billawar * Govt. Gandhi Memorial Science College , Jammu * Govt. MAM PG College, Jammu * JD Institute of Fashion Technology, Jammu
Jammu
* National Institute of Technology and Science Indra Nagar , Miran Sahib, Jammu * New Modern College of IT "> Being comparatively safe from terrorism, Jammu
Jammu
has become a hub of refugees. At present there are about 9-13 lakhs refugees living in and around Jammu
Jammu
in different relief camps. These primarily include Kashmiri Pandit IDP who migrated from Kashmir in 1989, Pakistan administered Kashmir refugees (mainly Hindus), refugees from Reasi, Doda and Kishtwar (both Hindus and Muslims).

CUISINE

Jammu
Jammu
is known for its sund panjeeri , patisa , rajma with rice and Kalari cheese . Dogri food specialties include ambal, khatta meat, kulthein di dal , dal patt, maa da madra, rajma , and auriya. Pickles typical of Jammu
Jammu
are made of kasrod , girgle, mango with saunf , zimikand , tyaoo, seyoo, and potatoes. Auriya is a dish made with potatoes. Jammu
Jammu
cuisine features various chaats , especially gol gappas , kachalu, Chole bhature , gulgule, rajma kulche and dahi bhalla , among various others.

During weddings it is typical to make kayoor and sugar.

REFERENCES

* ^ " Jammu
Jammu
Municipal Corporation (Homepage)". Official website of Jammu
Jammu
Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008. * ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Jammu, India". * ^ "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 14, page 49 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
-- Digital South Asia Library". * ^ "‘Inaccessible’ Maya throws open doors to her MLAs". The Indian Express. 10 January 2009. C1 control character in title= at position 1 (help ) * ^ "Climate: Jammu
Jammu
- Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 29 August 2013. * ^ " Jammu
Jammu
Climatological Table Period: 1971–2000". India Meteorological Department . Retrieved April 10, 2015. * ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India
India
Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved April 10, 2015. * ^ "Scheme for voting by postal ballot by a person holding any office under the Govt. and verified to be moving along with the headquarters of the Govt. from Kashmir Province to Jammu
Jammu
Province or vice-versa." (PDF). Office of the Chief Electoral Officer, Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir. p. 1. Retrieved 8 December 2008. ...the State Govt. functions for six months (November to April) in the winter capital Jammu
Jammu
after which it moves to the summer capital Srinagar... * ^ "History of Jammu
Jammu
Municipal Corporation". Official website of Jammu
Jammu
Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2008. * ^ "Department of Tourism, Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
- Raghunath Temple". www.jktourism.org. Retrieved 2015-09-27. * ^ "Department of Tourism, Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
- Peer Khoh". www.jktourism.org. Retrieved 2015-09-27. * ^ "Shri Mata Vaishno Devi". * ^ "Shri Mata Vaishno Devi Yatra Online Registration & Helicopter Booking & much more". www.jammu.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27. * ^ " Jammu
Jammu
Municipal Corporation Demographics". Census of India
India
. Retrieved 25 April 2017. * ^ " Jammu & Kashmir (India): State, Major Agglomerations & Cities – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". City Population. Retrieved 25 April 2017. * ^ " Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir". Encyclopædia Britannica. * ^ " Jammu
Jammu
City Population Census 2011 - Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir". * ^ Kashmir, India
India
Superintendent of Census Operations, Jammu
Jammu
and; Kamili, M. H. "District Census Handbook, Jammu
Jammu
& Kashmir: Jammu" – via Google Books. * ^ " Jammu
Jammu
Pincode". citypincode.in. Retrieved 2014-05-19.

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