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James Middleton Cox (March 31, 1870 – July 15, 1957) was the 46th and 48th Governor of Ohio, a U.S. Representative from Ohio, and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States
President of the United States
in the election of 1920. He founded the chain of newspapers that continues today as Cox Enterprises, a media conglomerate. Born and raised in Ohio, Cox began his career as a newspaper copy reader before becoming an assistant to Congressman Paul J. Sorg. As owner of the Dayton Daily News, Cox introduced several innovations and crusaded against the local Republican Party boss. He served in the United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
from 1909 to 1913 before winning election as Governor of Ohio. As governor, Cox introduced a series of progressive reforms and supported Woodrow Wilson's handling of World War I
World War I
and its aftermath. He was chosen as the Democratic nominee for president on the fourth ballot of the 1920 Democratic National Convention. Running on a ticket with Franklin D. Roosevelt, Cox suffered the worst defeat in presidential election history[1] as the country accepted Republican nominee Warren G. Harding's call for a "return to normalcy" after the Wilson years. Cox retired from public office after the 1920 election to focus on his media conglomerate, which expanded into several cities. By 1939, his media empire extended from Dayton to Miami. He remained active in politics, supporting Roosevelt's campaigns and attending the 1933 London Economic Conference.

Contents

1 Early life and career 2 Governor of Ohio 3 Bid for presidency 4 Later years 5 Election history

5.1 President of the United States, 1920 5.2 Governor of Ohio 5.3 United States House of Representatives

6 Family 7 Legacy 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life and career[edit] Cox was born on a farm near the tiny Butler County, Ohio, village of Jacksonburg, the youngest son of Gilbert Cox and Eliza Andrew; he had six siblings.[2] He was educated in a one-room school until the age sixteen.[3] After his parents divorced, he moved with his mother in 1886 to Middletown, Ohio, where he started a journalistic apprenticeship at the Middletown Weekly Signal published by John Q. Baker. In 1892 he received a job at the Cincinnati Enquirer as a copy reader on the telegraph desk, and later started to report on spot news including the railroad news. In 1894, Cox became an assistant to Middletown businessman Paul J. Sorg
Paul J. Sorg
who was elected to U.S. Congress, and spent three formative years in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Sorg helped Cox to acquire the struggling Dayton Evening News, and Cox, after renaming it into the Dayton Daily News, turned it by 1900 into a successful afternoon newspaper outperforming competing ventures. He refocused local news, increased national, international and sports news coverage based on Associated Press
Associated Press
wire service, published timely market quotes with stock-exchange, grain and livestock tables, and introduced several innovations including photo-journalistic approach to news coverage, suburban columns, book serializations and McClure's
McClure's
Saturday magazine supplement inserts, among others. Cox started a crusade against Dayton's Republican boss, Joseph E. Lowes, who used his political clout to profit from government deals. He also confronted John H. Patterson, president of Dayton's National Cash Register Co., revealing facts of antitrust violations and bribery.[4] In 1905, foretelling his future media conglomerate, Cox acquired the Springfield Press-Republic published in Springfield, Ohio, and renamed it, the Springfield Daily News. In 1908, he ran for Congress as a Democrat and was elected. Cox represented Ohio
Ohio
in the United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
from 1909 to 1913, and resigned after winning election as Governor of Ohio.[3] Governor of Ohio[edit] as Governor of Ohio, in a three-way race gaining 41.5% of the vote. Cox served three terms; after winning the 1912 election, he served from 1913 to 1915; he lost reelection in 1914, but won the 1916 and 1918 elections, and served from 1917 to 1921. He presided over a wide range of measures such as laying the foundation of Ohio's unified highway system, creating no fault workers' compensation system and restricting child labor.[5] He introduced direct primaries and municipal home rule, started educational and prison reforms, and streamlined the budget and tax processes.[6] During World War I, Cox encouraged voluntary cooperation between business, labor, and government bodies. In 1918, he welcomed constitutional amendments for Prohibition and woman suffrage.[3] Cox supported the internationalist policies of Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
and reluctantly supported US entry into the League of Nations. In 1919, shortly after the Great War ended, Governor Cox backed the Ake law, introduced by H. Ross Ake, which banned the German language from being taught until the eighth grade, even in private schools. Cox claimed that teaching German was "a distinct menace to Americanism, and part of a plot formed by the German government to make the school children loyal to it."[7] Bid for presidency[edit]

Cox/Roosevelt electoral poster

Roosevelt (left) and Cox (right) at a campaign appearance in Washington, D.C., 1920

A capable and well-liked progressive reformer, Cox was nominated for the presidency by the Democratic party at the 1920 Democratic convention in San Francisco defeating A. Mitchell Palmer
A. Mitchell Palmer
and William Gibbs McAdoo on the forty-fourth ballot.[8] Cox conducted an activist campaign visiting 36 states and delivering 394 speeches mainly focusing on domestic issues, to the displeasure of the Wilsonians, who pictured the election "as a referendum on the League of Nations."[3] To fight unemployment and inflation, he suggested simultaneously lower income and business profits taxes. He promised to introduce national collective bargaining legislation and pledged his support to the Volstead Act. Cox spoke in support of Americanization
Americanization
to increase loyalty to the United States among immigrant population. Despite all efforts, Cox was defeated in the 1920 presidential election by a fellow Ohioan and newspaperman, U.S. Senator Warren G. Harding of Marion. The public had grown weary of the turmoil of the Wilson years, and eagerly accepted Harding's call for a "return to normalcy." Cox's running mate was future president, then-Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt. One of the better known analyses of the 1920 election is in Irving Stone's book about defeated presidential candidates, They Also Ran. Stone rated Cox as superior in every way over Warren Harding, claiming the former would have made a much better president; the author argued that there was never a stronger case in the history of American presidential elections for the proposition that the better man lost. Of the four men on both tickets, all but Cox would ultimately become president: Harding won, and was succeeded by his running mate Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
after dying in office, while Roosevelt would be elected president in 1932. However, Cox would outlive all three men by several years.

Cox with FDR in Dayton, Ohio
Ohio
during 1920 presidential campaign

During the campaign, Cox several times recorded for The Nation's Forum, a record label that made voice recordings of American political and civic leaders in 1918-1920.[9][10] Among them was the campaign speech now preserved at the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
which accused the Republicans of failing to acknowledge that President Wilson's successful prosecution of the Great War had, according to Cox, "saved civilization."[11] Later years[edit] After stepping down from public service, he concentrated on building a large media conglomerate, Cox Enterprises. In 1923 he acquired the Miami
Miami
Daily News and the Canton Daily News. In December 1939, he purchased the Atlanta Georgian
Atlanta Georgian
and Journal, just a week before that city hosted the premiere of Gone with the Wind.[12]:389 This deal included radio station WSB, which joined his previous holdings, WHIO in Dayton and WIOD in Miami, to give him, "'air' from the Great Lakes on the north to Latin America
Latin America
on the south."[12]:387 He continued to be involved in politics, and in 1932, 1936, 1940, and 1944, Cox supported and campaigned for the presidential candidacies of his former running mate Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1933, Cox was appointed by Roosevelt to the U.S. delegation to the failed London Economic Conference.[13] When he was seventy-six, Cox published his memoir, Journey through My Years (1946). In 1915, Cox built a home near those of industrialists Charles Kettering and Edward Deeds in what later became Kettering, Ohio
Ohio
where he lived for four decades. It was constructed in the classical French-Renaissance style with six bedrooms, six bathrooms, two tennis courts, a billiards room and an in-ground swimming pool.[14] Cox named the home, Trailsend and it was there he died in 1957 after a series of strokes.[15] He is interred in the Woodland Cemetery, Dayton, Ohio. Cox was a member of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ. Election history[edit] President of the United States, 1920[edit]

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral vote Running mate

Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote

Warren G. Harding Republican Ohio 16,144,093 60.32% 404 Calvin Coolidge Massachusetts 404

James M. Cox Democratic Ohio 9,139,661 34.15% 127 Franklin D. Roosevelt New York 127

Eugene V. Debs Socialist Indiana 913,693 3.41% 0 Seymour Stedman Illinois 0

Parley P. Christensen Farmer-Labor Illinois 265,398 0.99% 0 Max S. Hayes Ohio 0

Aaron S. Watkins Prohibition Indiana 188,787 0.71% 0 D. Leigh Colvin New York 0

James E. Ferguson American Texas 47,968 0.18% 0 William J. Hough New York 0

William Wesley Cox Socialist Labor Missouri 31,084 0.12% 0 August Gillhaus New York 0

Robert Colvin Macauley Single Tax Pennsylvania 5,750 0.02% 0 Richard C. Barnum Ohio 0

Other 28,746 0.11% — Other —

Total 26,765,180 100% 531

531

Needed to win 266

266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. "1920 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved September 11, 2012.  Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 31, 2005.  Governor of Ohio[edit]

Year Democratic Republican Others

1918[16] James M. Cox : 486,403 Frank B. Willis : 474,459  

1916[17] James M. Cox : 568,218 Frank B. Willis : 561,602 Tom Clifford : 36,908 John H. Dickason : 7,347

1914[18] James M. Cox : 493,804 Frank B. Willis : 523,074 James R. Garfield
James R. Garfield
(Progressive) : 60,904 Scott Wilkins (Socialist) : 51,441

1912[16] James M. Cox : 439,323 Robert B. Brown : 272,500  

United States House of Representatives[edit] Ohio's 3rd Congressional District 1910

James M. Cox
James M. Cox
(D), 31,539 George R. Young (R), 18,730 Harmon Evans (Socialist), 6,275 Richard E. O'Byrne (Prohibition), 286[19]

1908

James M. Cox
James M. Cox
(D), 32,534 votes William G. Frizell (R), 12,593 J. Eugene Harding
J. Eugene Harding
(Independent), 19,306 Howard H. Caldwell (Socialist), 2,943 Henry A. Thompson (Prohibition), 267[20]

Family[edit] Cox was married twice. His first marriage to Mayme Simpson Harding lasted from 1893 to 1912, and ended in divorce.[3] He married Margaretta Parker Blair in 1917 and she survived him.[3][21] Cox had six children, a daughter and two sons by Mayme Harding, and a son and two daughters by Margaretta Blair.[3][21] His son James Cox Jr. became chairman of Cox Enterprises
Cox Enterprises
and Cox Broadcasting Corporation in Atlanta, [22] and one of his daughters, Anne Cox Chambers, is still a major shareholder in Cox Enterprises. Legacy[edit] Cox practiced a variety of trades throughout his life, being a farmer, reporter, Congressional staff member, newspaper publisher and editor, politician, elected official and finally, a regional media magnate.[23] In Ohio
Ohio
Cox is remembered as a crusading publisher of the Dayton Daily News and progressive governor; the newspaper's editorial meeting room is still referred to as the Governor's Library. The James M. Cox Dayton International Airport, more commonly referenced simply as Dayton International Airport, was named for Cox as well. Cox is credited with words, "If there is anything in the theory of reincarnation of the soul then in my next assignment, if I be given the right of choice, I will ask for the aroma of printers ink."[4] The Cox Fine Arts Building at the Ohio
Ohio
Expo Center and State Fair in Columbus, Ohio, is named in honor of Cox. See also[edit]

Biography portal

Ohio
Ohio
gubernatorial elections List of Governors of Ohio

References[edit]

^ "Largest Landslide Victories In US Presidential Election History". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 2018-03-05.  ^ Goodman, Rebecca (2005). This Day in Ohio
Ohio
History. Emmis Books. p. 217. Retrieved 21 November 2013.  ^ a b c d e f g Cebula, James. "Cox, James Middleton". American National Biography Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 October 2015.  ^ a b Dayton Daily News
Dayton Daily News
history: James M. Cox ^ Stockwell, Mary (2001). Ohio
Ohio
Adventure. Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith. pp. 156–157. ISBN 9781423623823. Retrieved 1 October 2015.  ^ James M. Cox, Ohio
Ohio
History Central ^ Persecution of the German Language in Cincinnati and the Ake Law in Ohio, 1917-1919. Archived. ^ James M. Cox, Democratic Candidate for President, Library of Congress ^ Nation's Forum Recordings: 1918-1920, AuthenticHistory.com ^ American leaders speak, Library of Congress ^ Governor James M. Cox. The World War, Library of Congress
Library of Congress
sound recording ^ a b Cox, James M. (2004). Journey through my years. Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press. ^ US Delegation on Way to New York. The Free Lance-Star - May 31, 1933 ^ Former Cox mansion sold in cash deal, Dayton Daily News, April 27, 2015. ^ James M. Cox
James M. Cox
obituary, The New York Times, 16 July 1957. ^ a b Cleveland.com ^ Journal of the House of Representatives of the Eighty Second General Assembly of the State of Ohio. 1917. p. 26.  ^ Hildebrant, Charles Q. (1916). Ohio
Ohio
general statistics for the period commencing November 16, 1914 and ending June 30, 1915. 1. Ohio Secretary of State. p. 20.  ^ Langland, James (1911). The Chicago Daily News Almanac and Year Book for 1912. 28. Chicago, IL: Chicago Daily News Company. p. 444.  ^ Thompson, Carmi (1910). Annual Report of the Ohio
Ohio
Secretary of State, 1909. Springfield, OH: Springfield Publishing Company. p. 255.  ^ a b "James M. Cox". NNDB. Soylent Communications. Retrieved 2011-07-29.  ^ " James M. Cox Jr. Is Dead at 71; Led News, Broadcasting Chain". The New York Times. 28 October 1974.  ^ History of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, Ohio. Cincinnati: S. B. Nelson & Company. 1894. p. 590. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

James Middleton Cox Papers, Special
Special
Collections and Archives, Wright State University, Dayton, OH Cox, James M. (2004). Journey through my years. Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press. ISBN 9780865549593.  Bagby, Wesley M. The Road to Normalcy: The Presidential Campaign and Election of 1920. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1962. Cebula, James E. James M. Cox: Journalist and Politician. New York: Garland, 1985. Morris, Charles E. The Progressive Democracy Of James M. Cox. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1920. (From Project Gutenberg, full text.) Warner, Hoyt L. Progressivism in Ohio, 1897-1917. Columbus: Ohio
Ohio
State University Press, 1964.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to James M. Cox.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: James Middleton Cox

James M. Cox
James M. Cox
at Find a Grave

United States Congress. " James M. Cox
James M. Cox
(id: C000835)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.  Works by or about James M. Cox
James M. Cox
at Internet Archive 1920 Presidential Election Links

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U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by J. Eugene Harding Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Ohio's 3rd congressional district 1909–1913 Succeeded by Warren Gard

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Preceded by Judson Harmon Governor of Ohio 1913–1915 Succeeded by Frank B. Willis

Preceded by Frank B. Willis Governor of Ohio 1917–1921 Succeeded by Harry L. Davis

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Preceded by Woodrow Wilson Democratic nominee for President of the United States 1920 Succeeded by John W. Davis

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(1916 ←) United States presidential election, 1920
United States presidential election, 1920
(→ 1924)

Democratic Party Convention

Nominee

James M. Cox

VP nominee

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Candidates

William Gibbs McAdoo A. Mitchell Palmer Al Smith John W. Davis Edward I. Edwards Woodrow Wilson Robert Latham Owen

Republican Party Convention

Nominee

Warren G. Harding

VP nominee

Calvin Coolidge

Candidates

Leonard Wood Frank Orren Lowden Hiram Johnson William Cameron Sproul Nicholas Murray Butler Calvin Coolidge Robert M. La Follette, Sr. Jeter Connelly Pritchard Miles Poindexter Howard Sutherland Herbert Hoover

Third party and independent candidates

Socialist Party of America

Nominee

Eugene V. Debs

VP nominee

Seymour Stedman

Farmer–Labor Party

Nominee

Parley P. Christensen

VP nominee

Max S. Hayes

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Aaron S. Watkins

VP nominee

D. Leigh Colvin

American Party

Nominee

James E. Ferguson

VP nominee

William J. Hough

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

William Wesley Cox

VP nominee

August Gillhaus

Single Tax

Nominee

Robert Colvin Macauley

VP nominee

Richard C. Barnum

Other 1920 elections: House Senate

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 52779918 LCCN: n85127913 ISNI: 0000 0000 2518 2489 GND: 129860867 SUDOC: 168602180 BNF: cb16187287z (data) US Congress: C000

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