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Establishment of a Jacobin
Jacobin
society:

1789–91: Abolition of the Ancien Régime, creation of a parliament, introduction of a Constitution and separation of powers 1791–95: Establishment of a republic, fusion of powers into the National Convention, establishment of an authoritarian-democratic state

Headquarters Dominican convent, Rue Saint-Honoré, Paris

Region

France

Methods From democratic initiatives to public violence

Membership (1793)

Around 500,000[1]

Official language

French

President

Antoine Barnave
Antoine Barnave
(first) Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
(last)

Key people

Brissot, Robespierre, Duport, Marat, Desmoulins, Mirabeau, Danton, Billaud-Varenne, Barras, Collot d'Herbois, Saint-Just

Subsidiaries

Newspapers:

L'Ami du peuple Le Vieux Cordelier

Affiliations

All groups in the National Convention

Montagnards Girondins Maraisards

The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (French: Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins (English: /ˈdʒæ.kə.bɪnz/; French: [ʒa.kɔ.bɛ̃]), was the most influential political club during the French Revolution. Initially founded in 1789 by anti-Royalist deputies from Brittany, the club grew into a nationwide republican movement, with a membership estimated at a half million or more.[1] The Jacobin
Jacobin
Club was heterogeneous and included both prominent parliamentary factions of the early 1790s, the Mountain and the Girondins. In 1792–93, the Girondins
Girondins
were more prominent in leading France, the period when war was declared on Austria and Prussia, the monarchy was overthrown and the Republic
Republic
created. In May 1793, led by Maximilien de Robespierre, the leaders of the Mountain faction succeeded in sidelining the Girondin faction and controlled the government until July 1794. Their time in government was characterized by high levels of political violence; for this reason some historians label roughly that period of Jacobin/Mountain government as 'Reign of Terror'. In October 1793, twenty-one prominent Girondins
Girondins
were guillotined. The Mountain-dominated government executed 17,000 opponents nationwide, purportedly to suppress the Vendée insurrection and the 'Federalist insurrections', and to prevent any other insurrections. In July 1794, the government of Robespierre and allies was pushed out of power; Robespierre and 21 associates were executed. In November 1794, the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club was closed. Today, Jacobin
Jacobin
and Jacobinism are used in a variety of senses. In Britain, where the term Jacobin
Jacobin
has been linked primarily to the Mountain, it is sometimes used as a pejorative for radical, left-wing revolutionary politics, especially when it exhibits dogmatism and violent repression.[2] In France, Jacobin
Jacobin
now generally indicates a supporter of a centralized republican state and strong central government powers[3] and/or supporters of extensive government intervention to transform society.[4] It is also used in other related senses, indicating proponents of a state education system which strongly promotes and inculcates civic values, and proponents of a strong nation-state capable of resisting any undesirable foreign interference.[4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Foundation 1.2 Transfer to Paris 1.3 Growth (1789–91) 1.4 Character (1789–91) 1.5 Polarization Robespierre & Co. vs 'Girondins' (1791–92) 1.6 Opposition Montagnards– Girondins
Girondins
in Convention (1792–93) 1.7 Girondins
Girondins
disbarred from National Convention 1.8 Montagnard rule, civil war (1793–94) 1.9 Reunion Jacobin
Jacobin
adherents (1799)

2 Influence

2.1 Political influence 2.2 Cultural influence

3 List of Presidents of the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club 4 Electoral results 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading

7.1 Primary sources

8 External links

History[edit] Foundation[edit] When the Estates General of 1789 in France
France
was convened in May–June 1789 at the Palace of Versailles, the club, originated as the Club Breton, was composed exclusively of a group of Breton representatives attending those Estates General.[5] They soon were joined by deputies from other regions throughout France. Among early members were the dominating comte de Mirabeau, Parisian deputy Abbé Sieyès, Dauphiné deputy Antoine Barnave, Jérôme Pétion, the Abbé Grégoire, Charles Lameth, Alexandre Lameth, Robespierre, the duc d'Aiguillon, and La Revellière-Lépeaux. At this time, meetings occurred in secret, and few traces remain concerning what took place or where the meetings were convened.[citation needed] Transfer to Paris[edit] By the March on Versailles
Versailles
in October 1789, the club, still entirely composed of deputies, reverted to being a provincial caucus for National Constituent Assembly deputies from Brittany. As of October 1789, the group rented for its meetings the refectory of the monastery of the Jacobins in the Rue Saint-Honoré, adjacent to the seat of the Assembly.[6] The name Jacobins, given in France
France
to the Dominicans (because their first house in Paris
Paris
was in the Rue Saint-Jacques), was first applied to the club in ridicule by its enemies. The club was re-founded in November 1789, after an address from the London Revolution Society congratulating the French on "conquering their liberty" led National Assembly deputies to found their own Société de la Révolution.[citation needed] Growth (1789–91)[edit]

The Jacobin
Jacobin
Club was in the Rue Saint-Honoré, Paris.

Once in Paris, the club soon extended its membership to others besides deputies. All citizens were allowed to enter, and even foreigners were welcomed: the English writer Arthur Young joined the club in this manner on 18 January 1790. Jacobin
Jacobin
Club meetings soon became a place for radical and rousing oratory that pushed for republicanism, widespread education, universal suffrage, separation of church and state, and other reforms.[7] On 8 February 1790, the society became formally constituted on this broader basis by the adoption of the rules drawn up by Barnave, which were issued with the signature of the duc d'Aiguillon, the president. The club's objectives were defined as:

to discuss in advance questions to be decided by the National Assembly; to work for the establishment and strengthening of the constitution in accordance with the spirit of the preamble (that is, of respect for legally constituted authority and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen); and to correspond with other societies of the same kind which should be formed in the realm.

At the same time the rules of order of election were settled, and the constitution of the club determined. There was to be a president, elected every month, four secretaries, a treasurer, and committees elected to superintend elections and presentations, the correspondence, and the administration of the club. Any member who by word or action showed that his principles were contrary to the constitution and the rights of man was to be expelled.[citation needed] By the 7th article the club decided to admit as associates similar societies in other parts of France
France
and to maintain with them a regular correspondence. By 10 August 1790 there were already one hundred and fifty-two affiliated clubs; the attempts at counter-revolution led to a great increase of their number in the spring of 1791, and by the close of the year the Jacobins had a network of branches all over France. At the peak there were at least 7,000 chapters throughout France, with a membership estimated at a half-million or more. It was this widespread yet highly centralised organization that gave to the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club great power.[1] Character (1789–91)[edit]

Seal of the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club from 1789–1792, during the transition from Absolutism to Constitutional monarchy

By early 1791, clubs like the Jacobins, the Club des Cordeliers
Cordeliers
and the Cercle Social were increasingly dominating French political life. Numbers of men were member of two or more of such clubs. Women were not accepted as members of the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club (nor of most other clubs), but they were allowed to follow the discussions from the balconies. The rather high subscription of the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club confined its membership to well-off men. The Jacobins claimed to speak on behalf of the people but were themselves not of 'the people': contemporaries saw the Jacobins as a club of the bourgeoisie.[8] As far as the central society in Paris
Paris
was concerned, it was composed almost entirely of professional men (such as the lawyer Robespierre) and well-to-do bourgeoisie (like the brewer Santerre). From the start, however, other elements were also present. Besides the teenage son of the Duc d'Orléans, Louis Philippe, a future king of France, liberal aristocrats such as the duc d'Aiguillon, the prince de Broglie, and the vicomte de Noailles, and the bourgeoisie formed the mass of the members. The club further included people like "père" Michel Gérard, a peasant proprietor from Tuel-en-Montgermont, in Brittany, whose rough common sense was admired as the oracle of popular wisdom, and whose countryman's waistcoat and plaited hair were later on to become the model for the Jacobin
Jacobin
fashion.[citation needed] The Jacobin
Jacobin
Club supported the monarchy up until the very eve of the republic (20 September 1792). They did not support the petition of 17 July 1791 for the king's dethronement, but instead published their own petition calling for replacement of king Louis XVI.[9] The departure of the conservative members of the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club to form their own Feuillants Club in July 1791 to some extent radicalized the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club.[5] Polarization Robespierre & Co. vs 'Girondins' (1791–92)[edit] Further information: History of France
France
§ War and internal uprisings (Oct. 1791–Aug. 1792) Late 1791, a group of Jacobins in the Legislative Assembly propagated war with Prussia and Austria. Most prominent among them was Brissot, other members were Pierre Vergniaud, Fauchet, Maximin Isnard, Jean-Marie Roland.[9] Maximilien Robespierre, also a Jacobin, strongly pleaded against war with Prussia and Austria – but in the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club, not in the Assembly where he was not seated. Disdainfully, Robespierre addressed those Jacobin
Jacobin
war promotors as 'the faction from the Gironde'; some, not all of them, were indeed from department Gironde. The Assembly in April 1792 finally decided for war, thus following the 'Girondin' line on it, but Robespierre's place among the Jacobins had now become much more prominent.[9] From then on, a polarization process started among the members of the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club, between a group around Robespierre – after September 1792 called 'Montagnards' or 'Montagne', in English 'the Mountain' – and the Girondins. These groups never had any official status, nor official memberships. The Mountain
The Mountain
was not even very homogenous in their political views: what united them was their aversion from the Girondins.[10] The Legislative Assembly, governing France
France
from October 1791 until September 1792, was dominated by men like Brissot, Isnard and Roland: Girondins. But after June 1792, Girondins
Girondins
visited less and less the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club, where Robespierre, their fierce opponent, grew more and more dominant.[11] Opposition Montagnards– Girondins
Girondins
in Convention (1792–93)[edit] Further information: History of France
France
§ Bloodbath in Paris, Republic
Republic
established (Sept. 1792) On 21 September 1792, after the fall of the monarchy, the title assumed by the Jacobin
Jacobin
club after the promulgation of the constitution of 1791 (Société des amis de la constitution séants aux Jacobins à Paris) was changed to Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité (Society of Jacobins, friends of liberty and equality).[citation needed] In the newly elected National Convention, governing France
France
as of 21 September 1792, Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
made his comeback in the center of French power.[11] Together with his 25-year-young protégé Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, Marat, Danton and other associates they took places on the left side on the highest seats of the session room: therefore that group around and led by Robespierre was called 'the Mountain' (French: la Montagne, les Montagnards). Some historians prefer to identify a parliamentary group around Robespierre as 'Jacobins',[2][12] what can be confusing because not all Montagnards were Jacobin, and their primal enemies, the Girondins, were (originally) also Jacobins. But by September 1792, Robespierre indeed had also become the dominant voice in the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club.[10] Since late 1791, the Girondins
Girondins
became the opponents of Robespierre but originally also Jacobins who took places on the right side of the session room of the Convention; but by now, they stopped visiting the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club.[10] Those parliamentary groups, Montagnards and Girondins, never had any official status, but historians estimate the Girondins
Girondins
in the Convention at 150 men strong, the Montagnards at 120. The remaining 480 of the 750 deputies of the Convention were called 'the Plain' (French: la Plaine) and managed to keep some speed in the debates while Girondins
Girondins
and Montagnards were mainly occupied with nagging the opposite side.[10] Most Ministries were manned by friends or allies of the Girondins. But while the Girondins
Girondins
were stronger than the Montagnards outside Paris, inside Paris
Paris
the Montagnards were much more popular, implying that the public galleries of the Convention were always loudly cheering for Montagnards, while jeering at Girondins
Girondins
speaking.[10] On 6 April 1793, the Convention established the Comité de salut public (Committee of Public Prosperity, also translated as Committee of Public Safety) as sort of executive government of nine, later twelve members, always accountable to the National Convention. Initially it counted no Girondins
Girondins
and only one or two Montagnards, but gradually the influence of Montagnards in the Committee grew.[10] Girondins
Girondins
disbarred from National Convention[edit] See also: History of France
France
§ Showdown in the Convention (May–June 1793), and Insurrection of 31 May – 2 June 1793 Early April 1793, Minister of War, Pache, said to the National Convention that the 22 leaders of the Girondins
Girondins
should be banned. Later that month, the Girondin Guadet accused the Montagnard Marat of 'preaching plunder and murder' and trying 'to destroy the sovereignty of the people'. A majority of the Convention agreed to put Marat on trial, but the court of justice quickly acquitted Marat. This apparent victory of the Montagnards intensified their antipathies of the Girondins, and more proposals were vented to get rid of the Girondins.[10] On both 18 and 25 May 1793, the acting president of the Convention, Isnard, a Girondin, warned that the disturbances and disorder on the galleries and around the Convention would finally lead the country to anarchy and civil war, and he threatened on 25 May: "If anything should befall to the representatives of the nation, I declare, in the name of France, that all of Paris
Paris
will be obliterated". The next day, Robespierre said in the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club that the people should "rise up against the corrupted deputies" in the Convention. On 27 May, both Girondins
Girondins
and Montagnards accused the other party of propagating civil war.[10] On 2 June 1793, the Convention was besieged in its Tuileries Palace
Tuileries Palace
by a crowd of around 80,000 armed soldiers, clamorously on the hand of the Montagnards. In a chaotic session a decree was adopted that day by the Convention, expelling 22 leading Girondins
Girondins
from the Convention, including Lanjuinais, Isnard and Fauchet.[10][13] Montagnard rule, civil war (1793–94)[edit] Further information: History of France
France
§ Counter-revolution subdued (July 1793–April 1794), and Reign of Terror Around June 1793, Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
and some of his associates ('Montagnards’) gained greater power in France.[14] Many of them, like Robespierre himself, were Jacobin: Fouché,[15] Collot d'Herbois,[14] Billaud-Varenne,[16] Marat,[14] Danton,[17] Saint-Just.[18] Three other powerful Montagnards[14] were not known as Jacobin: Barère,[19] Hébert[20] and Couthon.[21] In 'culture wars' and history writing after 1793 however, the group around Robespierre dominating French politics in June 1793–July 1794 was often designated as 'Jacobins'.[2][12] Many of these Montagnards (and Jacobins) entered, or were already, in the de facto executive government of France, the Committee of Public Prosperity (or Public Safety): Barère was in it since April 1793[22] until at least October 93,[14] Danton served there from April until July 1793,[17] Couthon[23] and Saint-Just[24] had entered the Committee in May, Robespierre entered it in July,[14] Collot d'Herbois[25] in September and Billaud-Varenne[16] also around September 1793. Robespierre for his steadfast adherence to and defence of his views received the nickname and reputation of l'Incorruptible (The Incorruptible or The Unassailable).[26] Several deposed Girondin- Jacobin
Jacobin
Convention deputies, among them Jean-Marie Roland, Brissot, Pétion, Louvet, Buzot and Guadet, left Paris
Paris
to help organize revolts in more than 60 of the 83 departments against the politicians and Parisians, mainly Montagnards, that had seized power over the Republic. The government in Paris
Paris
called such revolts 'federalist' which was not accurate: most did not strive for regional autonomy but for a different central government.[14] In October 1793, 21 former Girondin Convention deputies were sentenced to death for supporting an insurrection in Caen.[14] In March 1794, the Montagnard Hébert and some followers were sentenced to death; in April the Montagnard Danton and 13 of his followers were sentenced to death; in both cases after insinuation by Robespierre in the Convention that those "internal enemies" were promoting 'the triumph of tyranny'.[22] Meanwhile, the Montagnard-dominated government resorted also to harsh measures to repress what they considered counter-revolution, conspiracy[22][14] and "enemies of freedom" in the provinces outside Paris, resulting in 17,000 death sentences between September 1793 and July 1794 in all of France.[27][28] In late June 1794, three colleagues on the Committee of Public Prosperity/Safety – Billaud-Varenne, Collot d'Herbois and Carnot – called Robespierre a dictator. Late July 1794, Robespierre and 21 associates including the Jacobin
Jacobin
Saint-Just and the Montagnard Couthon were sentenced to death by the National Convention
National Convention
and guillotined.[22] Probably because of the high level of repressive violence – but also to discredit Robespierre and associates as sole responsibles for it[29] – historians have taken up the habit to roughly label the period June 1793–July 1794 as 'Reign of Terror'. Later and modern scholars explain that high level of repressive violence with: France was menaced by civil war and by a coalition of foreign hostile powers, requiring the discipline of the Terror to mold France
France
into a united Republic
Republic
capable of resisting this double peril.[30] Reunion Jacobin
Jacobin
adherents (1799)[edit]

Engraving "Closing of the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club, during the night of 27–28 July 1794, or 9–10 Thermidor, year 2 of the Republic"

With Robespierre and other leading Montagnards and Jacobins being executed in July 1794, Montagnards and Girondins
Girondins
as groups seem to have ceased to play a significant role in French history: historians make no more mention of them. Also the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club seems not to have played a decisive role any longer.[citation needed] The Jacobin
Jacobin
club was disbanded on 12 November 1794. An attempt to reorganize Jacobin
Jacobin
adherents was the foundation of the Réunion d'amis de l'égalité et de la liberté, in July 1799, which had its headquarters in the Salle du Manège
Salle du Manège
of the Tuileries, and was thus known as the Club du Manège. It was patronized by Barras, and some two hundred and fifty members of the two councils of the legislature were enrolled as members, including many notable ex-Jacobins. It published a newspaper called the Journal des Libres, proclaimed the apotheosis of Robespierre and Babeuf, and attacked the Directory as a royauté pentarchique. But public opinion was now preponderatingly moderate or royalist, and the club was violently attacked in the press and in the streets. The suspicions of the government were aroused; it had to change its meeting-place from the Tuileries
Tuileries
to the church of the Jacobins (Temple of Peace) in the Rue du Bac, and in August it was suppressed, after barely a month's existence. Its members avenged themselves on the Directory by supporting Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte.[31] Influence[edit] Political influence[edit] The Jacobin
Jacobin
movement encouraged sentiments of patriotism and liberty amongst the populace. The movement's contemporaries, such as the King Louis XVI, located the effectiveness of the revolutionary movement not "in the force and bayonets of soldiers, guns, cannons and shells but by the marks of political power". [32] Ultimately, the Jacobins were to control several key political bodies, in particular the Committee of Public Safety and, through it, the National Convention, which was not only a legislature but also took upon itself executive and judicial functions. The Jacobins as a political force were seen as "less selfish, more patriotic, and more sympathetic to the Paris Populace."[33] This gave them a position of charismatic authority that was effective in generating and harnessing public pressure, generating and satisfying sans-culotte pleas for personal freedom and social progress.[citation needed] The Jacobin
Jacobin
Club developed into a bureau for French republicanism and revolutionary purity, and abandoned its original laissez faire economic views in favor of interventionism.[citation needed] In power, they completed the abolition of feudalism that had been formally decided 4 August 1789, but had been held in check by a clause requiring compensation for the abrogation of the feudal privileges.[citation needed] Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
entered the political arena at the very beginning of the Revolution, having been elected to represent Artois at the Estates General. Robespierre was viewed as the quintessential political force of the Jacobin
Jacobin
Movement, thrusting ever deeper the dagger of liberty within the despotism of the Monarchy. As a disciple of Rousseau, Robespierre's political views were rooted in Rousseau's notion of the social contract, which promoted "the rights of man". [34] Robespierre particularly favored the rights of the broader population to eat, for example, over the rights of individual merchants. "I denounce the assassins of the people to you and you respond, 'let them act as they will.' In such a system, all is against society; all favors the grain merchants." Robespierre famously elaborated this conception in his speech on 2 December 1792: "What is the first goal of society? To maintain the imprescribable rights of man. What is the first of these rights? The right to exist."[35] The ultimate political vehicle for the Jacobin
Jacobin
movement was the Reign of Terror overseen by the Committee of Public Safety, who were given executive powers to purify and unify the Republic.[36] The Committee instituted requisitioning, rationing, and conscription to consolidate new citizen armies. They instituted the Terror as a means of combating those they perceived as enemies within: Robespierre declared, "the first maxim of your policy ought to be to lead the people by reason and the people's enemies by terror.".[31] The meeting place of the Fraternal Society of Patriots of Both Sexes was an old library room of the convent which hosted the Jacobins, and it was suggested that the Fraternal Society grew out of the regular occupants of a special gallery allotted to women at the Jacobin Club.[37] Cultural influence[edit] The cultural influence of the Jacobin
Jacobin
movement during the French Revolution revolved around the creation of the Citizen. As commented in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's 1762 book The Social Contract, "Citizenship is the expression of a sublime reciprocity between individual and General will."[38] This view of citizenship and the General Will, once empowered, could simultaneously embrace the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and adopt the liberal French Constitution of 1793, then immediately suspend that constitution and all ordinary legality and institute Revolutionary Tribunals that did not grant a presumption of innocence.[39] The Jacobins saw themselves as constitutionalists, dedicated to the Rights of Man, and, in particular, to the Declaration's principle of "preservation of the natural rights of liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression" (Article II of the Declaration). The constitution reassured the protection of personal freedom and social progress within French society. The cultural influence of the Jacobin movement was effective in reinforcing these rudiments, developing a milieu for revolution. The Constitution was admired by most Jacobins as the foundation of the emerging republic and of the rise of citizenship.[40] The Jacobins were foes of both the Church and of atheism. They set up a new religious cult to replace Catholicism.[41] They advocated deliberate government-organized terror as a substitute for both the rule of law and the more arbitrary terror of mob violence, inheritors of a war that, at the time of their rise to power, threatened the very existence of the Revolution. Once in power the Jacobins completed the overthrow of the Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
and successfully defended the Revolution from military defeat. However, to do so, they brought the Revolution to its bloodiest phase, and the one with least regard for just treatment of individuals. They consolidated republicanism in France
France
and contributed greatly to the secularism and the sense of nationhood that have marked all French republican regimes to this day. However, their ruthless and unjudicial methods discredited the Revolution in the eyes of many. The resulting Thermidorian Reaction shuttered all of the Jacobin
Jacobin
clubs, removed all Jacobins from power, and condemned many, well beyond the ranks of the Mountain, to death or exile.[42] List of Presidents of the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club[edit]

1789 – Antoine Barnave 1789 – Isaac René Guy le Chapelier 1789–90 – Jacques-François Menou 1790–91 – Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau 1791–92 – Pierre-Antoine Antonelle 1792–93 – Jean-Paul Marat 1793–94 – Maximilien Robespierre 1794–95 – Abolished

Electoral results[edit]

Election year No. of overall votes % of overall vote No. of overall seats won +/– Leader

1791 774,000 (3) 18.3

136 / 745

New

Jacques Pierre Brissot

National Convention

1792 907,200[43] 26.7

200 / 749

74

Maximilien Robespierre

Legislative Body

1795 Did not participate (6) Did not participate

64 / 750

146

See also[edit]

Maximilien de Robespierre Pierre-Antoine Antonelle Jacobin
Jacobin
Club of Mysore

References[edit]

^ a b c Brinton, Crane (2011) [1930]. The Jacobins: An Essay in the New History. Transaction Publishers. p. xix. ISBN 9781412848107. Retrieved 16 April 2015.  ^ a b c Brown, Charles Brockden (2009) [1793–1799]. Barnard, Philip; Shapiro, Stephen, eds. Charles Brockden Brown's Wieland, Ormond, Arthur Mervyn, and Edgar Huntly. Hackett Publishing. p. 360. ISBN 9781624662034. Retrieved 17 April 2015.  ^ Rey, Alain, ed. (1992). Dictionnaire historique de la langue française (in French). Dictionnaires Le Robert. ISBN 978-2321000679.  ^ a b Furet, François; Ozouf, Mona (2007). Dictionnaire critique de la Révolution française: Idées. Champs (in French). Paris: Flammarion. p. 243. ISBN 978-2081202955.  ^ a b Phillips, Walter Alison (1911). "Jacobins, The". In Chisolm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 16 April 2015.  ^ Alpaugh, Micah (Fall 2014). "The British Origins of the French Jacobins: Radical Sociability and the Development of Political Club Networks, 1787–1793". European History Quarterly. 44 (4): 593–619. doi:10.1177/0265691414546456. Retrieved 17 April 2015.  (subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries) ^ "World History: The Modern Era". Worldhistory.abc-clio.com. Retrieved 2012-08-11.  ^ (in Dutch) Noah Shusterman – De Franse Revolutie (The French Revolution). Veen Media, Amsterdam, 2015. (Translation of: The French Revolution. Faith, Desire, and Politics. Routledge, London/New York, 2014.) Chapter 3 (p. 95–139) : The Civil Constitution of the Clergy (summer 1790–spring 1791). ^ a b c (in Dutch) Noah Shusterman – De Franse Revolutie (The French Revolution). Veen Media, Amsterdam, 2015. (Translation of: The French Revolution. Faith, Desire, and Politics. Routledge, London/New York, 2014.) Chapter 4 (p. 141–186): The flight of the king and the decline of the French monarchy (summer 1791–summer 1792). ^ a b c d e f g h i (in Dutch) Noah Shusterman – De Franse Revolutie (The French Revolution). Veen Media, Amsterdam, 2015. (Translation of: The French Revolution. Faith, Desire, and Politics. Routledge, London/New York, 2014.) Chapter 6 (p. 223–269) : The new French republic and its enemies (fall 1792–summer 1793). ^ a b (in Dutch) Noah Shusterman – De Franse Revolutie (The French Revolution). Veen Media, Amsterdam, 2015. (Translation of: The French Revolution. Faith, Desire, and Politics. Routledge, London/New York, 2014.) Chapter 5 (p. 187–221) : The end of the monarchy and the September Murders (summer–fall 1792). ^ a b Shariatmadari, David (27 January 2015). "Is it time to stop using the word 'terrorist'?". the Guardian. Retrieved 8 July 2017.  ^ "Historic Figures: Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
(1758–1794)". BBC. Retrieved 18 August 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i (in Dutch) Noah Shusterman – De Franse Revolutie (The French Revolution). Veen Media, Amsterdam, 2015. (Translation of: The French Revolution. Faith, Desire, and Politics. Routledge, London/New York, 2014.) Chapter 7 (p. 271–312) : The federalist revolts, the Vendée and the beginning of the Terror (summer–fall 1793). ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Fouché, Joseph, Duke of Otranto. Retrieved 28 June 2017. ^ a b 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Billaud-Varenne, Jacques Nicolas. Retrieved 28 June 2017. ^ a b " Georges Danton
Georges Danton
profile". Britannica.com. Retrieved 30 June 2017.  ^ Hampson, Norman (1991). Saint-Just. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, Ltd. Pages 78–79. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Barère de Vieuzac, Bertrand. Retrieved 7 July 2017. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Hébert, Jacques René. Retrieved 29 June 2017. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Couthon, Georges. Retrieved 28 June 2017. ^ a b c d (in Dutch) Noah Shusterman – De Franse Revolutie (The French Revolution). Veen Media, Amsterdam, 2015. (Translation of: The French Revolution. Faith, Desire, and Politics. Routledge, London/New York, 2014.) Chapter 8 (p. 313–356) :The Terror (fall 1793–summer 1794). ^ Colin Jones, The Longman Companion to the French Revolution
French Revolution
(London: Longman Publishing Group, 1990), 90-91 ^ Hampson, Norman (1991). Saint-Just. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, Ltd. Page 111. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Collot d'Herbois, Jean Marie. Retrieved 28 June 2017. ^ Thompson 1988, p. 174. ^ "Reign of Terror". Encyclopædia Britannica (2015). Retrieved 19 April 2017.  ^ 'Principal Dates and Time Line of the French Revolution'. marxists.org. Retrieved 21 April 2017. ^ Schama 1989, p. 851. ^ Haydon, Colin; Doyle, William, eds. (2006). Robespierre. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 260–61. ISBN 978-0521026055. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ a b "Modern History Sourcebook: Maximilien Robespierre: Justification of the Use of Terror". Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved 2012-07-25.  ^ Schama 1989, p. 279. ^ Bosher, John F. (1989). The French Revolution. W. W. Norton. p. 186. ISBN 978-0393959970.  ^ Schama 1989, p. 475. ^ "Robespierre," by Mazauric, C., in "Dictionnaire historique de la Revolution francaise," ed. Albert Soboul. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris: 1989. ^ Redfern, Nick (2017-03-14). Secret Societies: The Complete Guide to Histories, Rites, and Rituals. Visible Ink Press. ISBN 9781578596461.  ^ Alger, John Goldworth (1894). Glimpses of the French Revolution: Myths, Ideals, and Realities. Sampson Low, Marston & Company. p. 144. Retrieved 23 April 2015.  ^ Schama 1989, p. 354. ^ Peter McPhee, ed. (28 September 2012). A Companion to the French Revolution. Wiley. p. 385. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Brinton, Crane (2011) [1930]. The Jacobins: An Essay in the New History. Transaction Publishers. pp. 212–13. ISBN 9781412848107. Retrieved 16 April 2015.  ^ Gottschalk, Louis R. (1929). The Era of the French Revolution (1715–1815). Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 258–59.  ^ Bosher, John F. (1988). The French Revolution. W. W. Norton. pp. 191–208. ISBN 9780393025880.  ^ with The Mountain

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Phillips, Walter Alison (1911). "Jacobins, The". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 117–119.  Bibliography

Schama, Simon (1989). Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-55948-7.  Shusterman, Noah (2014) –The French Revolution. Faith, Desire, and Politics. Routledge, London/New York. Thompson, J.M. (1988). Robespierre. New York, NY: B. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0631155041. 

Further reading[edit]

Brinton, Crane (1930). The Jacobins: An Essay in the New History. Transaction Publishers
Transaction Publishers
(published 2011).  Desan, Suzanne. "'Constitutional Amazons': Jacobin
Jacobin
Women's Clubs in the French Revolution." in Re-creating Authority in Revolutionary France
France
ed. Bryant T. Ragan, Jr., and Elizabeth Williams. (Rutgers UP, 1992). Harrison, Paul R. The Jacobin
Jacobin
Republic
Republic
Under Fire: The Federalist Revolt in the French Revolution
French Revolution
(2012) excerpt and text search Higonnet, Patrice L.-R. Goodness beyond Virtue: Jacobins during the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1998) excerpt and text search Kennedy, Michael A. The Jacobin
Jacobin
Clubs in the French Revolution, 1793–1795 (2000) Lefebvre, Georges. The French Revolution: From 1793 to 1799 (Vol. 2. Columbia University Press, 1964) Marisa Linton, Choosing Terror: Virtue, Friendship and Authenticity in the French Revolution
French Revolution
(Oxford University Press, 2013). McPhee, Peter. Robespierre: A Revolutionary Life (Yale University Press, 2012) excerpt and text search Palmer, Robert Roswell. Twelve who ruled: the year of the Terror in the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1941) Soboul, Albert. The French revolution: 1787–1799 (1975) pp. 313–416

Primary sources[edit]

Stewart, John Hall, ed. (1951). A documentary survey of the French Revolution. New York: Macmillan. pp. 454–538. Retrieved 16 April 2015. 

External links[edit]

The Jacobins Mount Holyoke college course site

v t e

French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism
Feudalism
(4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris
Paris
Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany
Brittany
(13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 133733713 LCCN: nr89014045 ISNI: 0000 0001 2248 5246 GND: 5022898-5 SUDOC: 035648821 BNF: cb13324598d (d

.