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Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c. 570–8 June 632 CE). Muslims believe that Islam
Islam
is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses and Jesus.[12][13][14] As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered and final revelation of God.[15] Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam
Islam
also teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell.[16][17] Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.[18][19] The cities of Mecca, Medina
Medina
and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
are home to the three holiest sites in Islam.[20] Aside from the theological viewpoint,[21][22][23] historically Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca,[24] and by the 8th century the Umayyad
Umayyad
Islamic caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River
Indus River
in the east. The Islamic Golden Age
Islamic Golden Age
refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate, when much of the historically Muslim world
Muslim world
was experiencing a scientific, economic and cultural flourishing.[25][26][27] The expansion of the Muslim world
Muslim world
involved various caliphates and empires, traders and conversion to Islam
Islam
by missionary activities (dawah).[28] Most Muslims are of one of two denominations:[29][30] Sunni (75–90%)[31] or Shia
Shia
(10–20%).[32] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia,[33] the largest Muslim-majority country, 31% in South Asia,[34][35] the largest population of Muslims in the world,[36] 23% in the Middle East-North Africa,[37] where it is the dominant religion[38] and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa.[39][40][41] Sizeable Muslim
Muslim
communities are also found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, China, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, and Russia.[42]

Contents

1 Etymology and meaning 2 Articles of faith

2.1 Concept of God 2.2 Angels 2.3 Revelations 2.4 Prophets and sunnah 2.5 Resurrection and judgment 2.6 Divine will

3 Acts of worship

3.1 Testimony 3.2 Prayer 3.3 Charity 3.4 Fasting 3.5 Pilgrimage 3.6 Recitation and memorization of the Quran

4 Law

4.1 Scholars 4.2 Schools of jurisprudence 4.3 Economics 4.4 Jihad

5 Society

5.1 Family life 5.2 Etiquette and diet 5.3 Social responsibilities 5.4 Character 5.5 Government

6 History

6.1 Muhammad
Muhammad
(610–632) 6.2 Caliphate
Caliphate
and civil strife (632–750) 6.3 Classical era (750–1258) 6.4 Pre-Modern era (1258–20th century) 6.5 Modern times (20th century–present)

7 Denominations

7.1 Sunni 7.2 Shia 7.3 Sufism 7.4 Other denominations 7.5 Non-denominational Muslims 7.6 Derived religions

8 Demographics 9 Culture

9.1 Architecture 9.2 Art 9.3 Poetry 9.4 Calendar

10 Criticism 11 See also 12 References

12.1 Notes 12.2 Citations 12.3 Books and journals

12.3.1 Encyclopedias

13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology and meaning

The Kaaba
Kaaba
in Mecca
Mecca
is the direction of prayer and destination of pilgrimage for Muslims

Islam
Islam
(Arabic: الإسلام‎, IPA: [alʔɪsˈlaːm] ( listen)) is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M
S-L-M
which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission, safeness, and peace.[43] In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God".[44][45] Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, and means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, and means "submitter" or "one who surrenders". The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam
Islam
as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God
God
desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam."[46] Other verses connect Islām and religion (dīn) together: "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam
Islam
for your religion."[47] Still others describe Islam
Islam
as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.[48] In the Hadith
Hadith
of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that also includes imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence).[49][50] Islam
Islam
was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone
Anglophone
societies. This term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God
God
is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Jesus Christ in Christianity. Some authors, however, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam
Islam
that exists within that system.[51] Articles of faith Main articles: Aqidah
Aqidah
and Iman Faith
Faith
(Iman) in the Islamic creed (Aqidah) is often represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith
Hadith
of Gabriel. Concept of God Main articles: God in Islam
God in Islam
and Allah

Medallion
Medallion
showing the word "Allah" (God) in Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey

Islam
Islam
is often seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions.[6] Its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd (Arabic: توحيد‎). God
God
is described in chapter 112 of the Quran
Quran
as: "Say, He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him" (112:1–4).[52] Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, and reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity
Trinity
and divinity of Jesus. In Islam, God
God
is beyond all comprehension and thus Muslims are not expected to visualise or anthropomorphise him.[53][54][55][56] God
God
is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful" (See Names of God
Names of God
in Islam).[57] Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "'Be' and so it is"[58] and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.[59][60] He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in need or distress calls him.[61] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God
God
who states, "I am nearer to him than (his) jugular vein."[62] God
God
consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh
Allāh
is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh (Arabic: إله‎) is the term used for a deity or a god in general.[63] Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Angels Main article: Islamic view of angels

Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
of the Archangel Israfil
Israfil
(reflects upon how angels are most commonly represented in Islam).

Belief in angels is fundamental to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel (Arabic: ملك‎ malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew
Hebrew
(malʾákh) and Greek (angelos). Angels
Angels
do not possess any bodily desires are not subject to temptations nor do they eat, drink or procreate. Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. Muslims believe that angels are made of light. They are described as "messengers with wings—two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases..."[64] Some scholars have emphasized a metaphorical reinterpretation of the concept of angels.[65] Pictorial depictions of angels are generally avoided in Islamic art, as the idea of giving form to anything immaterial is not accepted.[66][self-published source] Muslims therefore do not generally share the perceptions of angelic pictorial depictions, such as those found in Western art. Revelations Main articles: Quran, Wahy, and Islamic holy books See also: History of the Quran

The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha, consisting of seven verses.

The Islamic holy books
Islamic holy books
are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God
God
to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat
Tawrat
(Torah) and the Injil (Gospel), had become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both.[67] The Quran
Quran
(literally, "Recitation") is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal word of God
God
and is widely regarded as the finest literary work in the classical Arabic language.[68][69] Muslims believe that the verses of the Quran
Quran
were revealed to Muhammad by God
God
through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl) on many occasions between 610 CE until his death on June 8, 632.[70] While Muhammad
Muhammad
was alive, all of these revelations were written down by his companions (sahabah), although the prime method of transmission was orally through memorization.[71] The Quran
Quran
is divided into 114 chapters (suras) which combined, contain 6,236 verses (āyāt). The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and legal issues relevant to the Muslim
Muslim
community.[72] The Quran
Quran
is more concerned with moral guidance than legislation, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[73] Muslim
Muslim
jurists consult the hadith ("reports"), or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Quran
Quran
and assist with its interpretation. The science of Quranic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[74] The set of rules governing proper elocution of recitation is called tajwid. Muslims usually view "the Quran" as the original scripture as revealed in Arabic and that any translations are necessarily deficient, which are regarded only as commentaries on the Quran.[75] Prophets and sunnah Main articles: Prophets in Islam, Sunnah, and Hadith

The Arabic word for prophets preceded by the honorific "peace be upon them".

Muslims identify the 'prophets' (Arabic: أنبياء‎ anbiyāʾ ) of Islam
Islam
as those humans chosen by God
God
to be his messengers. According to the Quran, the prophets were instructed by God
God
to bring the "will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology
Islamic theology
says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the will of God. The Quran
Quran
mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.[76] Muslims believe that God
God
finally sent Muhammad
Muhammad
as the last law bearing prophet (Seal of the prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God). In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah
Sunnah
(literally "trodden path"). Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives and the Sunnah
Sunnah
is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Quran.[77] This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith, which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. Hadith
Hadith
Qudsi is a sub-category of hadith, regarded as verbatim words of God
God
quoted by Muhammad
Muhammad
but is not part of the Quran. A hadith involves two elements: a chain of narrators, called sanad, and the actual wording, called matn. Hadiths can be classified, by studying the narration, as "authentic" or "correct", called Sahih (Arabic: صَحِيْح‎), "good", called Ḥasan (Arabic: حَسَن‎) or "weak", called Ḍaʻīf (Arabic: ضَعِيْف‎) among others. Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Bukhari[78] collected over 300,000 hadith, but only included 2,602 distinct hadith that passed veracity tests that codified them as authentic into his book Sahih al-Bukhari,[78] which is considered by Sunnis to be the most authentic source after the Quran.[79][80] Another famous source(s) of hadiths is known as The Four Books, which Shias consider as the most authentic hadith reference.[81][82][83] Resurrection and judgment Main article: Qiyama Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", Yawm al-Qiyāmah (Arabic: يوم القيامة‎) is also crucial for Muslims. They believe the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God
God
but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Quran
Quran
and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The Quran
Quran
emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.[84] On Yawm al-Qiyāmah, Muslims believe all mankind will be judged on their good and bad deeds and consigned to Jannah
Jannah
(paradise) or Jahannam
Jahannam
(hell). The Qurʼan in Surat al-Zalzalah describes this as, "So whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it (99:7) and whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it (99:8)." The Qurʼan lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief in God
God
(Arabic: كفر‎ kufr), and dishonesty; however, the Qurʼan makes it clear God
God
will forgive the sins of those who repent if he so wills. Good deeds, such as charity, prayer and compassion towards animals,[85][86] will be rewarded with entry to heaven. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and blessings, with Qurʼanic references describing its features. Mystical
Mystical
traditions in Islam
Islam
place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[87] Yawm al-Qiyāmah is also identified in the Quran as Yawm ad- Dīn
Dīn
(Arabic: يوم الدين‎), "Day of Religion";[88] as-sāʿah (Arabic: الساعة‎), "the Last Hour";[89] and al-Qāriʿah (Arabic: القارعة‎), "The Clatterer".[90] Islamic apocalyptic literature describing Armageddon
Armageddon
is often known as fitna or malahim. A common expectation depicts Armageddon
Armageddon
with the arrival of the Mahdi
Mahdi
(prophesied redeemer) who will be sent and with the help of Jesus, to battle the Antichrist. They will triumph, liberating Islam
Islam
from cruelty, and this will be followed by a time of serenity with people living true to religious values.[91] Divine will Main article: Qadar The concept of divine will is referred to as al-qadāʾ wa l-qadar, which literally derives from a root that means to measure. Everything, good and bad, is believed to have been decreed.[92] Acts of worship See also: Five Pillars of Islam There are five basic religious acts in Islam, collectively known as 'The Pillars of Islam' (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion"), which are considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran
Quran
presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the creed (shahadah), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan, and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
(hajj) at least once in a lifetime.[93] Both Shia
Shia
and Sunni
Sunni
sects agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.[94] Apart from these, Muslims also perform other religious acts. Notable among them are charity (Sadaqah) and recitation of the Quran. Testimony Main article: Shahadah

Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Akbar
Akbar
with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith

The Shahadah,[95] which is the basic creed of Islam
Islam
that must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "ʾašhadu ʾal-lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu wa ʾašhadu ʾanna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh", or "I testify that there is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God"[96] (أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله). This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam
Islam
are required to recite the creed.[97] Prayer Main article: Salat See also: Mosque
Mosque
and Jumu'ah

Muslim
Muslim
men prostrating during prayer in the Umayyad
Umayyad
Mosque, Damascus.

Ritual
Ritual
prayers are called Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt (Arabic: صلاة). Salat
Salat
is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Performing prayers five times a day is compulsory but flexibility in the timing specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Quran.[98] The prayers are done with the chest in direction of the kaaba though in the early days of Islam, they were done in direction of Jerusalem. The act of supplicating is referred to as dua. A Mosque
Mosque
is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name masjid. A large mosque for gathering for Friday prayers or Eid prayers are called masjid jāmi.[99] Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim
Muslim
community as a place to meet and study. In Medina, Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, or the Prophet's Mosque, was also a place of refuge for the poor.[100] Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.[101] The means used to signal the approach of prayer time is a vocal call, known as the adhan. Charity Main articles: Zakat
Zakat
and Sadaqah "Zakāt" (Arabic: زكاة‎ zakāh "alms") is giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy and for those employed to collect Zakat; also, for bringing hearts together, freeing captives, for those in debt (or bonded labour) and for the (stranded) traveller.[102][103] It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". Conservative estimates of annual zakat is estimated to be 15 times global humanitarian aid contributions.[104] The amount of zakat to be paid on capital assets (e.g. money) is 2.5% (1/40) per year,[105] for people who are not poor. Sadaqah means optional charity which is practiced as religious duty and out of generosity.[106] Both the Quran
Quran
and the hadith have put much emphasis on spending money for the welfare of needy people,[107] and have urged the Muslims to give more as an act of optional charity.[108] The Quran
Quran
says: Spend something (in charity) out of the substance which We have bestowed on you, before Death should come to any of you (63:10). One of the early teachings of Muhammad
Muhammad
was that God
God
expects men to be generous with their wealth and not to be miserly ( Quran
Quran
%3Averse%3D1 107 :1–7).[109] Accumulating wealth without spending it to address the needs of the poor is generally prohibited and admonished.[110] Another kind of charity in Islam
Islam
is waqf which means perpetual religious endowment. Fasting Main article: Sawm Further information: Sawm
Sawm
of Ramadan Fasting (Arabic: صوم‎ ṣawm) from food and drink, among other things, must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadan. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, develop self-control and restraint and think of the needy. Sawm
Sawm
is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.[111] Pilgrimage Main articles: Hajj
Hajj
and Umrah

Pilgrims at the Masjid al-Haram
Masjid al-Haram
in Mecca
Mecca
during Hajj

The obligatory Islamic pilgrimage, called the ḥajj (Arabic: حج‎), has to be performed during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim
Muslim
who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj
Hajj
include: spending a day and a night in the tents in the desert plain of Mina, then a day in the desert plain of Arafat praying and worshiping God, following the foot steps of Abraham; then spending a night out in the open, sleeping on the desert sand in the desert plain of Muzdalifah; then moving to Jamarat, symbolically stoning the Devil
Devil
recounting Abraham's actions;[112][113][114] then going to Mecca
Mecca
and walking seven times around the Kaaba
Kaaba
which Muslims believe was built as a place of worship by Abraham; then walking seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah recounting the steps of Abraham's wife, while she was looking for water for her son Ismael in the desert before Mecca
Mecca
developed into a settlement.[115] Another form of pilgrimage, Umrah, can be undertaken at any time of the year. Recitation and memorization of the Quran Main article: Quran

Men reading the Quran
Quran
in a mosque

Muslims recite and memorize the whole or part of the Quran
Quran
as acts of virtue. Reciting the Quran
Quran
with elocution has been described as an excellent act of worship.[116] Pious Muslims recite the whole Quran
Quran
at the month of Ramadan.[117] In Islamic societies, any social program generally begins with the recitation of the Quran.[117] One who has memorized the whole Quran
Quran
is called a hafiz who, it is said, will be able to intercede for ten people on the Last Judgment Day.[116] Apart from this, almost every Muslim
Muslim
memorizes some portion of the Quran because they need to recite it during their prayers.

Al-Ikhlas

Sincerity is the Quran's 112th chapter as recited by Imam
Imam
Mishary Rashid Alafasy

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Law

Part of a series on

Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh)

Ritual

Shahada

Salat

Raka'ah Qibla Turbah

Sunnah
Sunnah
salat

(Tahajjud Tarawih)

Witr Nafl salat

Sawm

Zakat

Hajj

Ihram (clothing Mut'ah) Tawaf Umrah (and Hajj)

Political

Islamic leadership

Caliphate Imamah Wilayat al-faqih Bay'ah Dhimmi

Marital

Marriage

Contract Mahr

Misyar Halala Urfi Mut‘ah

Polygyny Divorce

Khula Zihar

Iddah Kafa'ah

Adoption

Sexual

Masturbation Hygiene Sexual violation Zina Awrah

Criminal

Hudud

Blasphemy Maisir  (gambling) Zina
Zina
 (illicit sex) Hirabah  (unlawful warfare) Fasad  ("mischief") Rajm
Rajm
 (stoning)

Tazir  (discretionary) Qisas
Qisas
 (retaliation) Diya  (compensation)

Etiquette

Adab Gender
Gender
segregation Mahram Honorifics Rada Toilet

Economic

History

Zakat

Jizya Nisab Khums Sadaqah (Waqf)

Bayt al-mal

Banking

Riba Murabaha Takaful Sukuk

Inheritance

Hygiene

Sexual Toilet Taharah Ihram Wudu Masah Ghusl Tayammum Miswak Najis

Dietary

Dhabihah Alcohol Pork

Comparison with kashrut

Military

Jihad Hudna Istijarah (asylum) Prisoners of war

Islamic studies

v t e

Main articles: Sharia
Sharia
and Fiqh Sharia
Sharia
is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.[118] It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran
Quran
and the Hadith. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its scholarly interpretations.[119][120] The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim
Muslim
traditionalists and reformists.[118] Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of sharia: the Quran, sunnah ( Hadith
Hadith
and prophetic biography), qiyas (analogical reasoning), and ijma (juridical consensus).[121] Different legal schools developed methodologies for deriving sharia rulings from scriptural sources using a process known as ijtihad involving inference.[119] Traditional jurisprudence distinguishes two principal branches of law, ʿibādāt (rituals) and muʿāmalāt (social relations), which together comprise a wide range of topics.[119] Its rulings assign actions to one of five categories: mandatory, recommended, permitted, abhorred, and prohibited.[119][120] Thus, some areas of sharia overlap with the Western notion of law while others correspond more broadly to living life in accordance with God's will.[120] Historically, sharia was interpreted by independent jurists (muftis). Their legal opinions (fatwas) were taken into account by ruler-appointed judges who presided over qāḍī's courts, and by maẓālim courts, which were controlled by the ruler's council and administered criminal law.[119][120] In the modern era, sharia-based criminal laws were widely replaced by statutes inspired by European models.[120] While the constitutions of most Muslim-majority states contain references to sharia, its classical rules were largely retained only in personal status (family) laws.[120] Legislative bodies which codified these laws sought to modernize them without abandoning their foundations in traditional jurisprudence.[120][122] The Islamic revival
Islamic revival
of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist
Islamist
movements for full implementation of sharia.[120][122] The role of sharia has become a contested topic around the world. There are ongoing debates as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and women's rights.[123][124][125] Scholars Main article: Ulama

Imam
Imam
teaches the Quran
Quran
in Crimea, (1850s, lithograph by Carlo Bossoli)

Islam, like Judaism, has no clergy in the sacerdotal sense, such as priests who mediate between God
God
and people. However, there are many terms in Islam
Islam
to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam. In the broadest sense, the term ulema (Arabic: علماء‎) is used to describe the body of Muslim
Muslim
scholars who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences. A jurist who interprets Islamic law is called a mufti (Arabic: مفتي‎) and often issues judicial opinions, called fatwas. A scholar of jurisprudence is called a faqih (Arabic: فقيه‎). Someone who studies the science of hadith is called a muhaddith. A qadi is a judge in an Islamic court. Honorific
Honorific
titles given to scholars include shiekh, mullah and maulvi. Imam
Imam
(Arabic: إمام‎) is a leadership position, often used in the context of conducting Islamic worship services. Schools of jurisprudence Main article: Madhab

The main Islamic madh'habs (schools of law) of Muslim
Muslim
countries or distributions

A school of jurisprudence is referred to as a madhab (Arabic: مذهب‎). The four major Sunni
Sunni
schools are the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali
Hanbali
and sometimes Ẓāhirī
Ẓāhirī
while the two major Shia schools are Ja'fari
Ja'fari
and Zaidi. Each differ in their methodology, called Usul al-fiqh. The following of decisions by a religious expert without necessarily examining the decision's reasoning is called taqlid. The term ghair muqallid literally refers to those who do not use taqlid and by extension do not have a madhab.[126] The practice of an individual interpretating law with independent reasoning is called ijtihad.[127] Economics Main article: Islamic economic jurisprudence To reduce the gap between the rich and the poor, Islamic economic jurisprudence encourages trade,[128] discourages the hoarding of wealth and outlaws interest-bearing loans (usury; the term is riba in Arabic).[129][130] Therefore, wealth is taxed through Zakat, but trade is not taxed. Usury, which allows the rich to get richer without sharing in the risk, is forbidden in Islam. Profit sharing and venture capital where the lender is also exposed to risk is acceptable.[131] Hoarding of food for speculation is also discouraged.[132] Grabbing other people's land is also prohibited. The prohibition of usury has resulted in the development of Islamic banking. During the time of Muhammad, any money that went to the state, was immediately used to help the poor. Then in 634, Umar
Umar
formally established the welfare state Bayt al-mal. The Bayt al-mal
Bayt al-mal
or the welfare state was for the Muslim
Muslim
and Non- Muslim
Muslim
poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled. The Bayt al-mal
Bayt al-mal
ran for hundreds of years under the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
in the 7th century and continued through the Umayyad
Umayyad
period and well into the Abbasid
Abbasid
era. Umar
Umar
also introduced Child Benefit and Pensions for the children and the elderly.[133][134][135][136] Jihad Main articles: Jihad, Islamic military jurisprudence, and List of expeditions of Muhammad Jihad
Jihad
means "to strive or struggle" (in the way of God). Jihad, in its broadest sense, is "exerting one's utmost power, efforts, endeavors, or ability in contending with an object of disapprobation". Depending on the object being a visible enemy, the Devil, and aspects of one's own self (such as sinful desires), different categories of jihad are defined.[137] Jihad
Jihad
also refers to one's striving to attain religious and moral perfection.[138] When used without any qualifier, Jihad
Jihad
is understood in its military form.[139][140] Some Muslim
Muslim
authorities, especially among the Shi'a and Sufis, distinguish between the "greater jihad", which pertains to spiritual self-perfection, and the "lesser jihad", defined as warfare.[141] Within Islamic jurisprudence, jihad is usually taken to mean military exertion against non- Muslim
Muslim
combatants.[142][143] Jihad
Jihad
is the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law and may be declared against illegal works, terrorists, criminal groups, rebels, apostates, and leaders or states who oppress Muslims.[144][145] Most Muslims today interpret Jihad
Jihad
as only a defensive form of warfare.[146] Jihad
Jihad
only becomes an individual duty for those vested with authority. For the rest of the populace, this happens only in the case of a general mobilization.[145] For most Twelver
Twelver
Shias, offensive jihad can only be declared by a divinely appointed leader of the Muslim
Muslim
community, and as such is suspended since Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi'soccultation in 868 AD.[147][148] Society Family life See also: Islam
Islam
and children, Women in Islam, and Marriage in Islam

The dome of the Carol I Mosque
Mosque
in Constanța, Romania, topped by the Islamic crescent

In a Muslim
Muslim
family, the birth of a child is attended with some religious ceremonies. Immediately after the birth, the words of Adhan is pronounced in the right ear of the child.[149] In the seventh day, the aquiqa ceremony is performed, in which an animal is sacrificed and its meat is distributed among the poor.[150] The head of the child is also shaved, and an amount of money equaling the weight of the child's hair is donated to the poor.[150] Apart from fulfilling the basic needs of food, shelter, and education, the parents or the elderly members of family also undertake the task of teaching moral qualities, religious knowledge, and religious practices to the children.[151] Marriage, which serves as the foundation of a Muslim
Muslim
family, is a civil contract which consists of an offer and acceptance between two qualified parties in the presence of two witnesses. The groom is required to pay a bridal gift (mahr) to the bride, as stipulated in the contract.[152] Most families in the Islamic world are monogamous.[153][154] Polyandry, a practice wherein a woman takes on two or more husbands is prohibited in Islam.[155] However, Muslim
Muslim
men are allowed to practice polygyny, that is, they can have more than one wife at the same time, up to a total of four, per Sura
Sura
4 Verse 3. A man does not need approval of his first wife for a second marriage as there is no evidence in the Qur'an
Qur'an
or hadith to suggest this.[156][157][158] The testimony of a woman is deemed in Islam
Islam
to be worth half that of a man.[159] With Muslims coming from diverse backgrounds including 49 Muslim-majority countries, plus a strong presence as large minorities throughout the world there are many variations on Muslim
Muslim
Weddings. Generally in a Muslim
Muslim
family, a woman's sphere of operation is the home and a man's corresponding sphere is the outside world. However, in practice, this separation is not as rigid as it appears.[160] With regard to inheritance, a son's share is double that of a daughter's.[161] Certain religious rites are performed during and after the death of a Muslim. Those near a dying man encourage him to pronounce the Shahada as Muslims want their last word to be their profession of faith. After the death, the body is bathed properly by the members of the same gender and then enshrouded in a threefold white garment called kafan.[162] Placing the body on a bier, it is first taken to a mosque where funeral prayer is offered for the dead person, and then to the graveyard for burial. Etiquette and diet Main articles: Adab (behavior) and Islamic dietary laws Many practices fall in the category of adab, or Islamic etiquette. This includes greeting others with "as-salamu 'alaykum" ("peace be unto you"), saying bismillah ("in the name of God") before meals, and using only the right hand for eating and drinking. Islamic hygienic practices mainly fall into the category of personal cleanliness and health. Circumcision of male offspring is also practiced in Islam. Islamic burial rituals include saying the Salat
Salat
al-Janazah ("funeral prayer") over the bathed and enshrouded dead body, and burying it in a grave. Muslims are restricted in their diet. Prohibited foods include pork products, blood, carrion, and alcohol. All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God
God
by a Muslim, Jew, or Christian, with the exception of game that one has hunted or fished for oneself. Food permissible for Muslims is known as halal food.[163] Social responsibilities Main article: Islam
Islam
and humanity In a Muslim
Muslim
society, various social service activities are performed by the members of the community. As these activities are instructed by Islamic canonical texts, a Muslim's religious life is seen incomplete if not attended by service to humanity.[164] In fact, In Islamic tradition, the idea of social welfare has been presented as one of its principal values.[164] The 2:177 verse of the Quran
Quran
is often cited to encapsulate the Islamic idea of social welfare.[165][note 2] Similarly, duties to parents, neighbors, relatives, sick people, the old, and minorities have been defined in Islam. Respecting and obeying one's parents, and taking care of them especially in their old age have been made a religious obligation.[151][166] A two-fold approach is generally prescribed with regard to duty to relatives: keeping good relations with them, and offering them financial help if necessary.[167] Severing ties with them has been admonished. Regardless of a neighbor's religious identity, Islam
Islam
teaches Muslims to treat neighboring people in the best possible manner and not to cause them any difficulty.[168][169] Concerning orphaned children, the Quran
Quran
forbids harsh and oppressive treatment to them while urging kindness and justice towards them. It also rebukes those who do not honor and feed orphaned children ( Quran
Quran
89:17–18). Character Main article: Morality
Morality
in Islam

The female Hijab
Hijab
represents modesty

The male beard represents natural masculinity

Indeed, the Muslim
Muslim
men and Muslim
Muslim
women, the believing men and believing women, the obedient men and obedient women, the truthful men and truthful women, the patient men and patient women, the humble men and humble women, the charitable men and charitable women, the fasting men and fasting women, the men who guard their private parts and the women who do so, and the men who remember Allah
Allah
often and the women who do so - for them Allah
Allah
has prepared forgiveness and a great reward. “ ”

Quran
Quran
(33:35)

The Quran
Quran
and the sunnah of Muhammad
Muhammad
prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, social, political, and religious life. Proper moral conduct, good deeds, righteousness, and good character come within the sphere of the moral guidelines.[170] In Islam, the observance of moral virtues is always associated with religious significance because it elevates the religious status of a believer[171] and is often seen as a supererogatory act of worshipping.[172] One typical Islamic teaching on morality is that imposing a penalty on an offender in proportion to their offense is permissible and just; but forgiving the offender is better. To go one step further by offering a favor to the offender is regarded the highest excellence.[171] The Quran
Quran
says: 'Repel (evil) with what is best' (41:34). Thus, a Muslim
Muslim
is expected to act only in good manners as bad manners and deeds earn vices.[173] The fundamental moral qualities in Islam
Islam
are justice, forgiveness, righteousness, kindness, honesty, and piety.[170] Other mostly insisted moral virtues include but not limited to charitable activities, fulfillment of promise, modesty and humility, decency in speech, tolerance, trustworthiness, patience, truthfulness, anger management, and sincerity of intention. As a religion, Islam
Islam
emphasizes the idea of having a good character as Muhammad
Muhammad
said: 'The best among you are those who have the best manners and character' (Sahih al-Bukhari, 8:73:56). In Islam, justice is not only a moral virtue but also an obligation to be fulfilled under all circumstances.[174] The Quran
Quran
and the hadith describe God
God
as being kind and merciful to His creatures, and tell people to be kind likewise. As a virtue, forgiveness is much celebrated in Islam, and is regarded as an important Muslim
Muslim
practice.[175] About modesty, Muhammad is reported as saying: ' Every religion has its characteristic, and the characteristic of Islam
Islam
is modesty'.[176] Government Main articles: Political aspects of Islam, Islamic state, Islam
Islam
and secularism, Islamic democracy, Sultanate, Khanate, Imamate, Emirate, Mansa (title), and Caliphate Mainstream Islamic law does not distinguish between "matters of church" and "matters of state"; the scholars function as both jurists and theologians. Currently no government conforms to Islamic economic jurisprudence, but steps have been taken to implement some of its tenets.[177][178][179] History Main articles: History of Islam
History of Islam
and Spread of Islam

A panoramic view of Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
(the Mosque
Mosque
of the Prophet) in Medina, Hejaz
Hejaz
region, today's Saudi Arabia, the second most sacred Mosque
Mosque
in Islam

Muhammad
Muhammad
(610–632)

Part of a series on

Muhammad

Life

Life in Mecca Migration to Medina Life in Medina Farewell Pilgrimage Milestones and records

Career

First revelation Military career Diplomatic career Conquest of Mecca Hadith

Miracles

Quran Isra and Mi'raj Splitting of the moon Miracles of Muhammad

Views

Jews Christians

Succession

Farewell Sermon Hadith
Hadith
(Pen and Paper) Saqifah Ahl al-Bayt Sahaba History

Praise

Durood Naat Mawlid

Perspectives

Islamic Muhammad
Muhammad
in the Bible Jewish Medieval Christian Historicity Criticism

Related

Mosque
Mosque
of the prophet Possessions Relics

Muhammad
Muhammad
portal Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Main articles: Muhammad
Muhammad
and Muhammad
Muhammad
in Islam See also: Early social changes under Islam Muslim
Muslim
tradition views Muhammad
Muhammad
(c. 570 – June 8, 632) as the seal of the prophets.[180] During the last 22 years of his life, beginning at age 40 in 610 CE, according to the earliest surviving biographies, Muhammad
Muhammad
reported revelations that he believed to be from God, conveyed to him through the archangel Gabriel (Jibril). Muhammad's companions memorized and recorded the content of these revelations, known as the Quran.[181] During this time, Muhammad
Muhammad
in Mecca
Mecca
preached to the people, imploring them to abandon polytheism and to worship one God. Although some converted to Islam, the leading Meccan authorities persecuted Muhammad and his followers. This resulted in the Migration to Abyssinia
Migration to Abyssinia
of some Muslims (to the Aksumite Empire). Many early converts to Islam
Islam
were the poor, foreigners and former slaves like Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi who was black. The Meccan élite felt that Muhammad
Muhammad
was destabilising their social order by preaching about one God
God
and about racial equality, and that in the process he gave ideas to the poor and to their slaves.[182][183][184][185] After 12 years of the persecution of Muslims by the Meccans and the Meccan boycott of the Hashemites, Muhammad's relatives, Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Muslims performed the Hijra ("emigration") to the city of Medina (formerly known as Yathrib) in 622. There, with the Medinan converts (Ansar) and the Meccan migrants (Muhajirun), Muhammad
Muhammad
in Medina established his political and religious authority. The Constitution of Medina
Medina
was formulated, instituting a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, Christian and pagan communities of Medina, bringing them within the fold of one community—the Ummah.[186][187] The Constitution established:

the security of the community religious freedoms the role of Medina
Medina
as a sacred place (barring all violence and weapons) the security of women stable tribal relations within Medina a tax system for supporting the community in time of conflict parameters for exogenous political alliances a system for granting protection of individuals a judicial system for resolving disputes where non-Muslims could also use their own laws and have their own judges.[188][189][190]

All the tribes signed the agreement to defend Medina
Medina
from all external threats and to live in harmony amongst themselves. Within a few years, two battles took place against the Meccan forces: first, the Battle of Badr in 624 – a Muslim
Muslim
victory, and then a year later, when the Meccans returned to Medina, the Battle of Uhud, which ended inconclusively. The Arab tribes in the rest of Arabia then formed a confederation and during the Battle of the Trench
Battle of the Trench
(March–April 627) besieged Medina, intent on finishing off Islam. In 628, the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
was signed between Mecca
Mecca
and the Muslims and was broken by Mecca
Mecca
two years later. After the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
many more people converted to Islam. At the same time, Meccan trade routes were cut off as Muhammad
Muhammad
brought surrounding desert tribes under his control.[191] By 629 Muhammad
Muhammad
was victorious in the nearly bloodless conquest of Mecca, and by the time of his death in 632 (at the age of 62) he had united the tribes of Arabia into a single religious polity.[192] The earliest three generations of Muslims are known as the Salaf, with the companions of Muhammad
Muhammad
being known as the Sahaba. Many of them, such as the largest narrator of hadith Abu Hureyrah, recorded and compiled what would constitute the sunnah. Caliphate
Caliphate
and civil strife (632–750) Further information: Muslim
Muslim
conquests, First Fitna, and Second Fitna

Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
built by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna

Stages of the Muslim
Muslim
conquests

With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim
Muslim
community. Abu Bakr, a companion and close friend of Muhammad, was made the first caliph. Under Abu Bakr, Muslims put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".[193] The Quran
Quran
was compiled into a single volume at this time. Abu Bakr's death in 634 resulted in the succession of Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab as the caliph, followed by Uthman
Uthman
ibn al-Affan, Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib and Hasan ibn Ali. The first four caliphs are known in Sunni Islam
Islam
as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn ("Rightly Guided Caliphs").[194] Under them, the territory under Muslim
Muslim
rule expanded deeply into the parts of the Persian and Byzantine
Byzantine
territories.[195] When Umar
Umar
was assassinated by Persians in 644, the election of Uthman as successor was met with increasing opposition. The standard copies of the Quran
Quran
were also distributed throughout the Islamic State. In 656, Uthman
Uthman
was also killed, and Ali
Ali
assumed the position of caliph. This led to the first civil war (the "First Fitna") over who should be caliph. Ali
Ali
was assassinated by Kharijites
Kharijites
in 661. To avoid further fighting, the new caliph Hasan ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali
signed a peace treaty, abdicating to Mu'awiyah, beginning the Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty, in return that he not name his own successor.[196] These disputes over religious and political leadership would give rise to schism in the Muslim community. The majority accepted the legitimacy of the first four leaders, and became known as Sunnis. A minority disagreed, and believed that only Ali
Ali
and some of his descendants should rule; they became known as the Shia.[197] Mu'awiyah appointed his son, Yazid I, as successor and after Mu'awiyah's death in 680, the "Second Fitna" broke out, where Husayn ibn Ali
Husayn ibn Ali
was killed at the Battle of Karbala, a significant event in Shia
Shia
Islam. The Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty conquered the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Narbonnese Gaul and Sindh.[198] Local populations of Jews and indigenous Christians, persecuted as religious minorities and taxed heavily to finance the Byzantine–Sassanid Wars, often aided Muslims to take over their lands from the Byzantines and Persians, resulting in exceptionally speedy conquests.[199][200] The generation after the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
but contemporaries of his companions are known as the Tabi'un, followed by the Tabi‘ al-Tabi‘in. The Caliph
Caliph
Umar
Umar
ibn Abd al-Aziz set up the influential committee, "The Seven Fuqaha of Medina",[201][202] headed by Qasim ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu Bakr.[203] Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas
wrote one of the earliest books on Islamic jurisprudence, the Muwatta,[204] as a consensus of the opinion of those jurists.[205][206][207] The descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
rallied discontented non-Arab converts (mawali), poor Arabs, and some Shi'a against the Umayyads and overthrew them, inaugurating the Abbasid dynasty in 750.[208] Classical era (750–1258) Further information: Islamic Golden Age, Hadith
Hadith
studies, and Islamic philosophy During this time, the Delhi Sultanate
Sultanate
took over northern parts of Indian subcontinent. Religious missions converted Volga Bulgaria
Volga Bulgaria
to Islam. Many Muslims also went to China
China
to trade, virtually dominating the import and export industry of the Song dynasty.[209]

The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq
Hunain ibn Ishaq
from a manuscript dated circa 1200.

This era is sometimes called the "Islamic Golden Age".[210] Public hospitals established during this time (called Bimaristan
Bimaristan
hospitals), are considered "the first hospitals" in the modern sense of the word,[211][212] and issued the first medical diplomas to license doctors.[213][214] The Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records
recognizes the University of Al Karaouine, founded in 859, as the world's oldest degree-granting university.[215] The doctorate is argued to date back to the licenses to teach in Muslim
Muslim
law schools.[216] Standards of experimental and quantification techniques, as well as the tradition of citation,[217] were introduced. An important pioneer in this, Ibn al-Haytham is regarded as the father of the modern scientific method and often referred to as the "world's first true scientist".[218][219][220][221] The government paid scientists the equivalent salary of professional athletes today.[217] It is argued that the data used by Copernicus
Copernicus
for his heliocentric conclusions was gathered and that Al-Jahiz
Al-Jahiz
proposed a theory of natural selection.[222][223] Ibn Sina pioneered the science of experimental medicine,[224] and was the first physician to conduct clinical trials.[225] His two most notable works, The Book of Healing
The Book of Healing
and The Canon of Medicine, were used as standard medicinal texts in the Muslim world and later in Europe. Amongst his contributions are the discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases,[224] and the introduction of clinical pharmacology.[226] In mathematics, the mathematician Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi gave his name to the concept of the algorithm, while the term algebra is derived from al-jabr.[227] Rumi
Rumi
wrote some of the finest Persian poetry and is still one of the best selling poets in America.[228][229] Legal institutions introduced include the trust and charitable trust (Waqf).[230][231] Al- Shafi'i
Shafi'i
codified a method to determine the reliability of hadith.[232] During the early Abbasid
Abbasid
era, the major Sunni
Sunni
hadith collections were compiled by scholars such as Bukhari and Muslim
Muslim
while major Shia
Shia
hadith collections by scholars such as Al-Kulayni and Ibn Babawayh were also compiled. The Ja'fari
Ja'fari
jurisprudence was formed from the teachings of Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
while the four Sunni
Sunni
Madh'habs, the Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki
Maliki
and Shafi'i, were established around the teachings of Abū Ḥanīfa, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas
and al- Shafi'i
Shafi'i
respectively. In the 9th century, al- Shafi'i
Shafi'i
provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence in his book ar-Risālah.[233] Al-Tabari
Al-Tabari
and Ibn Kathir completed the most commonly cited commentaries on the Quran, the Tafsir
Tafsir
al-Tabari in the 9th century and the Tafsir
Tafsir
ibn Kathir in the 14th century, respectively. Philosophers Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi
and Avicenna
Avicenna
sought to incorporate Greek principles into Islamic theology, while others like Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
argued against them and ultimately prevailed.[234] Caliphs such as Mamun al Rashid
Mamun al Rashid
and Al-Mu'tasim
Al-Mu'tasim
made the mutazilite philosophy an official creed and imposed it upon Muslims to follow. Mu'tazila was a Greek influenced school of speculative theology called kalam, which refers to dialectic.[235] Many orthodox Muslims rejected mutazilite doctrines and condemned their idea of the creation of the Quran. In inquisitions, Imam
Imam
Hanbal refused to conform and was tortured and sent to an unlit Baghdad
Baghdad
prison cell for nearly thirty months.[236] The other branch of kalam was the Ash'ari
Ash'ari
school founded by Al-Ash'ari. Some Muslims began to question the piety of indulgence in a worldly life and emphasized poverty, humility and avoidance of sin based on renunciation of bodily desires. Ascetics such as Hasan al-Basri
Hasan al-Basri
would inspire a movement that would evolve into Tasawwuf (Sufism).[237] Beginning in the 13th century, Sufism
Sufism
underwent a transformation, largely because of efforts to legitimize and reorganize the movement by Al-Ghazali, who developed the model of the Sufi order—a community of spiritual teachers and students.[238] The first Muslims states independent of a unified Muslim
Muslim
state emerged from the Berber Revolt (739/740-743). In 930, the Ismaili
Ismaili
group known as the Qarmatians
Qarmatians
unsuccessfully rebelled against the Abbassids, sacked Mecca
Mecca
and stole the Black Stone, which was eventually retrieved.[239] The Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
put an end to the Abbassid dynasty in 1258.[240] Pre-Modern era (1258–20th century)

Abdülmecid II
Abdülmecid II
was the last Caliph
Caliph
of Islam
Islam
from the Ottoman dynasty.

Islam
Islam
spread with Muslim
Muslim
trade networks and Sufi orders activity that extended into Sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia
Asia
and the Malay archipelago.[241][242] Under the Ottoman Empire, Islam
Islam
spread to Southeast Europe.[243] The Muslims in China
China
who were descended from earlier immigration began to assimilate by adopting Chinese names and culture while Nanjing
Nanjing
became an important center of Islamic study.[244][245] The Muslim world
Muslim world
was generally in political decline starting the 1800s, especially relative to the non- Muslim
Muslim
European powers. This decline was evident culturally; while Taqi al-Din founded an observatory in Istanbul
Istanbul
and the Jai Singh Observatory was built in the 18th century, there was not a single Muslim
Muslim
country with a major observatory by the twentieth century.[246] The Reconquista, launched against Muslim
Muslim
principalities in Iberia, succeeded in 1492. By the 19th century the British Empire had formally ended the Mughal dynasty in India.[247] The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
disintegrated after World War I
World War I
and the Caliphate
Caliphate
was abolished in 1924.[248] The majority and oldest group among Shia
Shia
at that time, the Zaydis, named after the great grandson of Ali, the scholar Zayd ibn Ali, used the Hanafi
Hanafi
jurisprudence, as did most Sunnis.[249][250][251] The Shia Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
rose to power in 1501 and later conquered all of Iran.[252] The ensuing mandatory conversion of Iran
Iran
to Twelver
Twelver
Shia Islam
Islam
for the largely Sunni
Sunni
population also ensured the final dominance of the Twelver
Twelver
sect within Shiism over the Zaidi and Ismaili sects.[253] Nader Shah, who overthrew the Safavids, attempted to improve relations with Sunnis by propagating the integration of Shiism by calling it the Jaafari Madh'hab.[254] A revival movement during this period was an 18th-century Salafi movement led by Ibn Abd al-Wahhab in today's Saudi Arabia. Referred to as Wahhabi, their self designation is Muwahiddun (unitarians). Building upon earlier efforts such as those by Ibn Taymiyyah
Ibn Taymiyyah
and Ibn al-Qayyim, the movement allegedly seeks to uphold monotheism and purify Islam
Islam
of what they see as later innovations. Their zeal against idolatrous shrines led to the desecration of shrines around the world, including that of Muhammad
Muhammad
and his companions in Mecca
Mecca
and Medina.[255][256] In the 19th century, the Deobandi
Deobandi
and Barelwi movements were initiated. Modern times (20th century–present) Further information: Islamic revival

The flag of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Contact with industrialized nations brought Muslim
Muslim
populations to new areas through economic migration. Many Muslims migrated as indentured servants, from mostly India
India
and Indonesia, to the Caribbean, forming the largest Muslim
Muslim
populations by percentage in the Americas.[257] The resulting urbanization and increase in trade in sub-Saharan Africa brought Muslims to settle in new areas and spread their faith, likely doubling its Muslim
Muslim
population between 1869 and 1914.[258] Muslim immigrants began arriving, many as guest workers and largely from former colonies, in several Western European nations since the 1960s. There are more and more new Muslim
Muslim
intellectuals who increasingly separate perennial Islamic beliefs from archaic cultural traditions.[259] Liberal Islam
Liberal Islam
is a movement that attempts to reconcile religious tradition with modern norms of secular governance and human rights. Its supporters say that there are multiple ways to read Islam's sacred texts, and they stress the need to leave room for "independent thought on religious matters".[260] Women's issues receive significant weight in the modern discourse on Islam.[261] Secular powers such as the Chinese Red Guards closed many mosques and destroyed Qurans,[262] and Communist Albania became the first country to ban the practice of every religion.[263] About half a million Muslims were killed in Cambodia by communists who, it is argued, viewed them as their primary enemy and wished to exterminate them since they stood out and worshipped their own god.[264] In Turkey, the military carried out coups to oust Islamist
Islamist
governments, and headscarves were banned in official buildings, as also happened in Tunisia.[265][266] Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani, along with his acolyte Muhammad
Muhammad
Abduh, have been credited as forerunners of the Islamic revival.[267] Abul A'la Maududi helped influence modern political Islam.[268] Islamist
Islamist
groups such as the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood advocate Islam
Islam
as a comprehensive political solution, often in spite of being banned.[269] In Iran, revolution replaced a secular regime with an Islamic state. In Turkey, the Islamist
Islamist
AK Party has democratically been in power for about a decade, while Islamist
Islamist
parties did well in elections following the Arab Spring.[270] The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
(OIC), consisting of Muslim
Muslim
countries, was established in 1969 after the burning of the Al-Aqsa Mosque
Mosque
in Jerusalem.[271] Piety appears to be deepening worldwide.[272][273][274] In many places, the prevalence of the hijab is growing increasingly common[275] and the percentage of Muslims favoring Sharia
Sharia
laws has increased.[276] With religious guidance increasingly available electronically, Muslims are able to access views that are strict enough for them rather than rely on state clerics who are often seen as stooges.[273] It is estimated that, by 2050, the number of Muslims will nearly equal the number of Christians around the world, "driven primarily by differences in fertility rates and the size of youth populations among the world's major religions, as well as by people switching faiths."[277] Perhaps as a sign of these changes, most experts agree that Islam
Islam
is growing faster than any other faith in East and West Africa.[278][279] Denominations Main article: Islamic schools and branches See also: Shia– Sunni
Sunni
relations

An overview of the major schools and branches of Islam.

Sunni

  Part of a series on

Sunni
Sunni
Islam

Beliefs

Monotheism Prophets and messengers Holy books Angels Judgement Day Predestination

Five Pillars

Declaration of Faith Prayer Charity Fasting Pilgrimage

Rightly-Guided Caliphs

Abu Bakr Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib

Sunni
Sunni
schools of law

Hanafi Maliki Shafi'i Hanbali

Others

Zahiri Awza'i Thawri Laythi Jariri

Sunni
Sunni
schools of theology

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalist

Others:

Mu'tazila Murji'ah

Contemporary movements

Ahl-i Hadith Al-Ahbash Barelvi Deobandi Islamic Modernism Salafi
Salafi
movement Wahhabism

Holy sites

Jerusalem Mecca Medina Mount Sinai

Lists

Literature

Kutub al-Sittah

Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Main article: Sunni
Sunni
Islam

Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni
Sunni
hadith books.

The largest denomination in Islam
Islam
is Sunni
Sunni
Islam, which makes up 75%–90% of all Muslims[31] and is arguably the world's largest religious denomination.[280] Sunni
Sunni
Muslims also go by the name Ahl as- Sunnah
Sunnah
which means "people of the tradition [of Muhammad]".[6][281][282][283][284] Sunnis believe that the first four caliphs were the rightful successors to Muhammad; since God
God
did not specify any particular leaders to succeed him and those leaders were elected. Sunnis believe that anyone who is righteous and just could be a caliph but they have to act according to the Quran
Quran
and the Hadith, the example of Muhammad and give the people their rights. The Sunnis follow the Quran
Quran
and the Hadith, which are recorded in sunni traditions known as Al-Kutub Al-Sittah
Al-Kutub Al-Sittah
(six major books). For legal matters derived from the Quran
Quran
or the Hadith, many follow four sunni madh'habs (schools of thought): Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki
Maliki
and Shafi'i. All four accept the validity of the others and a Muslim
Muslim
may choose any one that he or she finds agreeable.[285] Ahl al- Hadith
Hadith
is a movement that deemphasized sources of jurisprudence outside the quran and sunnah, such as informed opinion (ra'y). The Salafi
Salafi
movement claim to take the first three generations of Muslims, known as the salaf, as exemplary models.[286] In the 18th century, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abd al-Wahhab led a salafi movement, referred by outsiders as Wahhabism, in modern-day Saudi Arabia. The Deobandi movement is a reformist movement originating in South Asia, influenced by the Wahhabi
Wahhabi
movement.[287] Shia

  Part of a series on

Shia
Shia
Islam

Beliefs and practices

Monotheism Holy Books Prophethood Succession to Muhammad Imamate Angels Judgment Day Mourning of Muharram Intercession Clergy The Four Companions Arba'een
Arba'een
Pilgrimage

Holy days

Ashura Arba'een Mawlid Eid al-Fitr Eid al-Adha Eid al-Ghadeer

History

The verse of purification Two things Mubahala Khumm Fatimah's house First Fitna Second Fitna Battle of Karbala

Branches of Shi‘i Islam

Zaydi Shia Imami Shia

Twelvers

Ja'faris Batinis

Alevism Bektashism

Ghulat

Alawites Hurufism

Qizilbash

Ismāʿīlīs

Nizaris Taiyabi-Musta‘līs

Dawoodi Sulaymani Alavi

Batiniyya

Druze

Pamiris

Extinct sects

Ahl al-Kisa

Muhammad Ali Fatimah Hasan Hussein

Holy women

Fatimah Khadija bint Khuwaylid Umm Salama Zaynab bint Ali Umm Kulthum bint Ali Umm ul-Banin Fatimah bint Hasan Sukayna bint Husayn Rubab Shahrbanu Fātimah bint Mūsā Hakimah Khātūn Narjis Fatimah bint Asad Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim

Shia Islam
Shia Islam
portal

v t e

Main article: Shia
Shia
Islam See also: Safavid conversion of Iran
Iran
to Shia
Shia
Islam

The Imam
Imam
Hussein Shrine in Karbala, Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims.

The Shia
Shia
constitute 10–20% of Islam
Islam
and are its second-largest branch.[32] While the Sunnis believe that a Caliph
Caliph
should be elected by the community, Shia's believe that Muhammad
Muhammad
appointed his son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib, as his successor and only certain descendants of Ali could be Imams. As a result, they believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali ibn Abi Talib
was the first Imam
Imam
(leader), rejecting the legitimacy of the previous Muslim
Muslim
caliphs Abu Bakr, Uthman ibn al-Affan
Uthman ibn al-Affan
and Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab. Other points of contention include certain practices viewed as innovating the religion, such as the mourning practice of tatbir, and the cursing of figures revered by Sunnis. However, Jafar al-Sadiq himself disapproved of people who disapproved of his great grand father Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Zayd ibn Ali
Zayd ibn Ali
revered Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar.[288][289] More recently, Ali
Ali
Khamenei[290] and Grand Ayatollah
Grand Ayatollah
Ali al-Sistani[291] condemned the practice. Shia Islam
Shia Islam
has several branches, the most prominent being the Twelvers (the largest branch), Zaidis and Ismailis. Different branches accept different descendants of Ali
Ali
as Imams. After the death of Imam
Imam
Jafar al-Sadiq who is considered the sixth Imam
Imam
by the Twelvers
Twelvers
and the Ismaili's, the Ismailis recognized his son Isma'il ibn Jafar as his successor whereas the Twelver
Twelver
Shia's (Ithna Asheri) followed his other son Musa al-Kadhim
Musa al-Kadhim
as the seventh Imam. The Zaydis
Zaydis
consider Zayd ibn Ali, the uncle of Imam
Imam
Jafar al-Sadiq, as their fifth Imam, and follow a different line of succession after him. Other smaller groups include the Bohra as well as the Alawites
Alawites
and Alevi.[292] Some Shia
Shia
branches label other Shia
Shia
branches that do not agree with their doctrine as Ghulat. Sufism Main article: Sufism See also: Sufi– Salafi
Salafi
relations

Tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Rumi
in Konya, Turkey

Sufism, or tasawwuf (Arabic: تصوف‎), is a mystical-ascetic approach to Islam
Islam
that seeks to find a direct personal experience of God. It is not a sect of Islam
Islam
and its adherents belong to the various Muslim
Muslim
denominations. Classical Sufi scholars have focused on the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God
God
by making use of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use.[293][294][295] Hasan al-Basri
Hasan al-Basri
was inspired by the ideas of piety and condemnation of worldliness preached by Muhammad and these ideas were later developed by the influential theologian Al-Ghazali. Traditional Sufis, such as Bayazid Bastami, Jalaluddin Rumi, Haji Bektash Veli, Junaid Baghdadi, and Al-Ghazali, argued for Sufism
Sufism
being based upon the tenets of Islam
Islam
and the teachings of the prophet.[296][297][298][299] Sufi practices such as veneration of saints have faced stiff opposition from followers of Salafism
Salafism
and Wahhabism, who have sometimes physically attacked Sufi places of worship, leading to deterioration in Sufi– Salafi
Salafi
relations. The Barelvi
Barelvi
movement is a Sufi-influenced revivalist movement within Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
with over 200 million followers,[300] largely in South Asia.[301][302] Sufism
Sufism
enjoyed a strong revival in central Asia
Asia
and South Asia. Central Asia
Asia
is considered to be a center of Sufism. Sufism
Sufism
has played a significant role in fighting against Tsars of Russia and Soviet colonization. Here, Sufis and their different orders are the main religious sources.[303][304] Sufism
Sufism
is also strong in African countries such as Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Senegal, Chad
Chad
and Niger.[305][306] Other denominations

Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
is an Islamic reform movement (with Sunni
Sunni
roots) founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad[307] that began in India
India
in 1889 and is practiced by 10 to 20 million[308] Muslims around the world. Ahmad claimed to have fulfilled the prophecies concerning the arrival of the 'Imam Mahdi' and the 'Promised Messiah'. The Ibadi
Ibadi
is a sect that dates back to the early days of Islam
Islam
and is a branch of Kharijite
Kharijite
and is practiced by 1.45 million Muslims around the world.[309] Unlike most Kharijite
Kharijite
groups, Ibadism does not regard sinful Muslims as unbelievers. Mahdavia
Mahdavia
is an Islamic sect that believes in a 15th-century Mahdi, Muhammad
Muhammad
Jaunpuri The Quranists are Muslims who generally reject the Hadith.

Non-denominational Muslims Main article: Nondenominational Muslim Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.[310][311][312][313] Prominent figures who refused to identify with a particular Islamic denomination
Islamic denomination
have included Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani,[314] Muhammad
Muhammad
Iqbal[315] and Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Jinnah.[316] Recent surveys report that large proportions of Muslims in some parts of the world self-identify as "just Muslim", although there is little published analysis available regarding the motivations underlying this response.[305][317][318][319] The Pew Research Center reports that respondents self-identifying as "just Muslim" make up a majority of Muslims in seven countries (and a plurality in three others), with the highest proportion in Kazakhstan at 74%. At least one in five Muslims in at least 22 countries self-identify in this way.[305] Derived religions Some movements, such as the Druze, Berghouata
Berghouata
and Ha-Mim, either emerged from Islam
Islam
or came to share certain beliefs with Islam
Islam
and whether each is separate a religion or a sect of Islam
Islam
is sometimes controversial. Yazdânism
Yazdânism
is seen as a blend of local Kurdish beliefs and Islamic Sufi doctrine introduced to Kurdistan
Kurdistan
by Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir in the 12th century. Bábism
Bábism
stems from Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
passed through Siyyid ' Ali
Ali
Muhammad
Muhammad
i-Shirazi al-Bab while one of his followers Mirza Husayn ' Ali
Ali
Nuri Baha'u'llah
Baha'u'llah
founded the Bahai Faith.[320] Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
in late fifteenth century Punjab, incorporates aspects of both Islam
Islam
and Hinduism. African American Muslim
Muslim
movements include the Nation of Islam, Five-Percent Nation and Moorish scientists. Demographics Main articles: Muslim world
Muslim world
and Ummah See also: List of countries by Muslim
Muslim
population

World Muslim
Muslim
population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).

A comprehensive 2009 demographic study of 232 countries and territories reported that 23% of the global population, or 1.57 billion people, are Muslims. Of those, it is estimated that over 75–90% are Sunni
Sunni
and 10–20% are Shia[39][281][321] with a small minority belonging to other sects. Approximately 57 countries are Muslim-majority,[322] and Arabs
Arabs
account for around 20% of all Muslims worldwide.[323] The number of Muslims worldwide increased from 200 million in 1900 to 551 million in 1970,[324] and tripled to 1.6 billion by 2010.[277] The majority of Muslims live in Asia
Asia
and Africa.[325] Approximately 62% of the world's Muslims live in Asia, with over 683 million adherents in Indonesia, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh.[326][327] In the Middle East, non-Arab countries such as Iran
Iran
and Turkey
Turkey
are the largest Muslim-majority countries; in Africa, Egypt
Egypt
and Nigeria
Nigeria
have the most populous Muslim
Muslim
communities.[328][329] Most estimates indicate that the China
China
has approximately 20 to 30 million Muslims (1.5% to 2% of the population).[330][331][332][333] However, data provided by the San Diego State University's International Population Center to U.S. News & World Report suggests that China
China
has 65.3 million Muslims.[334] Islam
Islam
is the second largest religion after Christianity
Christianity
in many European countries,[335] and is slowly catching up to that status in the Americas, with between 2,454,000, according to Pew Forum, and approximately 7 million Muslims, according to the Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR), in the United States.[39][336]

Skyline
Skyline
of Jakarta, capital of Indonesia, the largest Muslim-majority country in the world.

According to the Pew Research Center, Islam
Islam
is set to equal Christianity
Christianity
worldwide in number of adherents by the year 2050. Islam is set to grow faster than any other major world religion, reaching a total number of 2.76 billion (an increase of 73%). High fertility rates play a factor, with Islam
Islam
having a rate of 3.1 compared to the world average of 2.5, and the minimum replacement level for a population at 2.1. Age also plays a role in these numbers due to the fact that Islam
Islam
has the highest number of adherents under the age of 15 (34% of the total religion) of any major religion (Christianity's is 27%). 60% of Muslims are between the ages of 16 and 59, while only 7% are aged 60+ (the smallest percentage of any major religion). Countries such as Nigeria
Nigeria
and the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
are expected to have Muslim
Muslim
majorities by 2050. In India, the Muslim
Muslim
population will be larger than any other country. Europe's non- Muslim
Muslim
population is set to decline as opposed to their Muslim
Muslim
population which is set to grow to 10% of Europe's total.[277] In 2005, a BBC News
BBC News
report revealed that growth rates of Islam in Europe
Islam in Europe
is due primarily to immigration and higher birth rates among Muslims.[337] Culture Main article: Islamic culture The term "Islamic culture" could be used to mean aspects of culture that pertain to the religion, such as festivals and dress code. It is also controversially used to denote the cultural aspects of traditionally Muslim
Muslim
people.[338] Finally, "Islamic civilization" may also refer to the aspects of the synthesized culture of the early Caliphates, including that of non-Muslims,[339] sometimes referred to as "Islamicate". Architecture Main article: Islamic architecture Perhaps the most important expression of Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture
is that of the mosque.[340] Varying cultures have an effect on mosque architecture. For example, North African and Spanish Islamic architecture such as the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kairouan contain marble and porphyry columns from Roman and Byzantine
Byzantine
buildings,[341] while mosques in Indonesia
Indonesia
often have multi-tiered roofs from local Javan styles.

Great Mosque
Mosque
of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali

Great Mosque
Mosque
of Xi'an
Xi'an
in Xi'an, China

Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan

Art Main article: Islamic art Islamic art
Islamic art
encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by Muslim
Muslim
populations.[342] It includes fields as varied as architecture, calligraphy, painting, and ceramics, among others. While not condemned in the Quran, making images of human beings and animals is frowned on in many Islamic cultures and connected with laws against idolatry common to all Abrahamic religions, as 'Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood reported that Muhammad
Muhammad
said, "Those who will be most severely punished by Allah
Allah
on the Day of Resurrection will be the image-makers" (reported by al-Bukhaari, see al-Fath, 10/382). However this rule has been interpreted in different ways by different scholars and in different historical periods, and there are examples of paintings of both animals and humans in Mughal, Persian and Turkish art. The existence of this aversion to creating images of animate beings has been used to explain the prevalence of calligraphy, tessellation and pattern as key aspects of Islamic artistic culture.[343]

The phrase Bismillah in 18th-century Ottoman calligraphy in the Thuluth
Thuluth
style

Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran

The Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia, the largest museum of Islamic arts in South East Asia

Poetry Main article: Islamic poetry Calendar

Islamic calendar

Months

Muharram Safar Rabi' al-awwal Rabi' al-Thani Jumada al-awwal Jumada al-Thani Rajab Sha'ban Ramadan Shawwal Dhu al-Qidah Dhu al-Hijjah

v t e

Main article: Islamic calendar

The phases of the Moon
Moon
form the basis for the Islamic calendar.

The formal beginning of the Muslim
Muslim
era was chosen, reportedly by Caliph
Caliph
Umar, to be the Hijra in 622 CE, which was an important turning point in Muhammad's fortunes. It is a lunar calendar with days lasting from sunset to sunset.[344] Islamic holy days fall on fixed dates of the lunar calendar, which means that they occur in different seasons in different years in the Gregorian calendar. The most important Islamic festivals are Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
(Arabic: عيد الفطر‎) on the 1st of Shawwal, marking the end of the fasting month Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
(عيد الأضحى) on the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah, coinciding with the end of the Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage.[345]

Criticism Main article: Criticism of Islam Criticism of Islam
Criticism of Islam
has existed since Islam's formative stages. Early criticism came from Christian authors, many of whom viewed Islam
Islam
as a Christian heresy or a form of idolatry and often explained it in apocalyptic terms.[346] Later there appeared criticism from the Muslim world itself, and also from Jewish
Jewish
writers and from ecclesiastical Christians.[347][348][349] Objects of criticism include the morality of the life of Muhammad, the last law bearing prophet of Islam, both in his public and personal life,[349][350] as seen in medieval Christian views on Muhammad. Issues relating to the authenticity and morality of the Quran, the Islamic holy book, are also discussed by critics.[351][352] Other criticisms focus on the question of human rights in modern Islamic nations, and the treatment of women in Islamic law and practice.[353][354] In wake of the recent multiculturalism trend, Islam's influence on the ability of Muslim
Muslim
immigrants in the West to assimilate has been criticized.[355] See also Main article: Outline of Islam

Book: Abrahamic religions Book: Islam

Criticism of Islam Challenge of the Quran Glossary of Islam History of Islam Islam
Islam
and violence Islam
Islam
and other religions Islam
Islam
by country Islamic economics Islamic ethics Islam
Islam
and humanity Morality
Morality
in Islam Islamic literature Islamic mythology Islamic poetry Islamic schools and branches Islamic studies List of Muslim
Muslim
empires and dynasties List of notable converts to Islam Lists of Muslims Major religious groups Muslim
Muslim
world Religious conversion#Islam Scientific foreknowledge in sacred texts Timeline of Muslim
Muslim
history Islam
Islam
in South Asia

References Notes

^ There are ten pronunciations of Islam
Islam
in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is /z/ or /s/, and whether the a is pronounced /ɑː/, /æ/ or (when the stress is on the first syllable) /ə/ (Merriam Webster). The most common are /ˈɪzləm, ˈɪsləm, ɪzˈlɑːm, ɪsˈlɑːm/ (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and /ˈɪzlɑːm, ˈɪslɑːm/ (American Heritage Dictionary). ^ The verse reads: 'It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces towards East or West; but it is righteousness to believe in Allah
Allah
and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Book
Book
and the Messengers; to spend of your substance, out of love for Him, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the ransom of slaves; to be steadfast in prayer, and practice regular charity, to fulfill the contracts which we have made; and to be firm and patient, in pain (or suffering) and adversity, and throughout all periods of panic. Such are the people of truth, the God
God
fearing'

Citations

^ " Surah
Surah
Al-Baqarah [2:255]". Surah
Surah
Al-Baqarah [2:255]. Retrieved 2018-01-18.  ^ John L. Esposito (2009). "Islam. Overview". In John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Subscription required (help)). Profession of Faith
Faith
[...] affirms Islam's absolute monotheism and acceptance of Muḥammad as the messenger of God, the last and final prophet.  ^ a b F. E. Peters (2009). "Allāh". In John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Subscription required (help)). the Muslims' understanding of Allāh is based [...] on the Qurʿān's public witness. Allāh
Allāh
is Unique, the Creator, Sovereign, and Judge of humankind. It is Allāh
Allāh
who directs the universe through his direct action on nature and who has guided human history through his prophets, Abraham, with whom he made his covenant, Moses, Jesus, and Muḥammad, through all of whom he founded his chosen communities, the "Peoples of the Book."  ^ a b "The Global Religious Landscape". Pew Forum. 18 December 2012.  ^ Burke, Daniel (April 4, 2015). "The world's fastest-growing religion is ..." CNN. Retrieved 18 April 2015.  ^ a b c Lippman, Thomas W. (2008-04-07). "No God
God
But God". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 2013-09-24. Islam
Islam
is the youngest, the fastest growing, and in many ways the least complicated of the world's great monotheistic faiths. It is based on its own holy book, but it is also a direct descendant of Judaism
Judaism
and Christianity, incorporating some of the teachings of those religions—modifying some and rejecting others.  ^ " PBS
PBS
– Islam: Empire of Faith
Faith
Faith
Faith
Islam
Islam
Today". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 2018-01-18.  ^ "Why Muslims are the world's fastest-growing religious group". Pew Research Center. 2017-04-06. Retrieved 2017-05-11.  ^ According to Oxford Dictionaries, " Muslim
Muslim
is the preferred term for 'follower of Islam,' although Moslem is also widely used." ^ Juan E. Campo, ed. (2009). "Allah". [[[:Template:Google.com/books?id=OZbyz Hr-eIC]] Encyclopedia of Islam] Check url= value (help). Encyclopedia of Islam. Facts on File. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-8160-5454-1.  ^ İbrahim Özdemir (2014). "Environment". In Ibrahim Kalin. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Subscription required (help)). When Meccan pagans demanded proofs, signs, or miracles for the existence of God, the Qurʾān's response was to direct their gaze at nature's complexity, regularity, and order. The early verses of the Qurʾān, therefore, reveal an invitation to examine and investigate the heavens and the earth, and everything that can be seen in the environment [...] The Qurʾān thus makes it clear that everything in Creation is a miraculous sign of God
God
(āyah), inviting human beings to contemplate the Creator.  ^ "People of the Book". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Retrieved 2010-12-18.  ^ Reeves, J. C. (2004). Bible and Qurʼān: Essays in scriptural intertextuality. Leiden [u.a.: Brill. Page 177 ^ Moghul, Haroon. "Why Muslims celebrate a Jewish
Jewish
holiday – CNN". CNN. Retrieved 2018-01-18.  ^ Bennett (2010, p. 101) ^ "Eschatology – Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-01-18.  ^ "Paradise (Jannat)". Al-Islam.org.  ^ Esposito (2002b, p. 17) ^ * Esposito (2002b, pp. 111,112,118)

"Shari'ah". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. 

^ Trofimov, Yaroslav (2008), The Siege of Mecca: The 1979 Uprising at Islam's Holiest Shrine, New York, p. 79, ISBN 0-307-47290-6  ^ Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 9, 12. ISBN 978-0-19-511234-4.  ^ Esposito (2002b), pp. 4–5. ^ Peters, F.E. (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-691-11553-2.  ^ Watt, William Montgomery (2003). Islam
Islam
and the Integration of Society. Psychology Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780415175876.  ^ George Saliba (1994), A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, pp. 245, 250, 256–7. New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-8023-7. ^ King, David A. (1983). "The Astronomy of the Mamluks". Isis. 74 (4): 531–555. doi:10.1086/353360.  ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y (1996). "Factors Behind the Decline of Islamic Science After the Sixteenth Century". In Sharifah Shifa Al-Attas. Islam
Islam
and the Challenge of Modernity, Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium on Islam
Islam
and the Challenge of Modernity: Historical and Contemporary Contexts, Kuala Lumpur, August 1–5, 1994. International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC). pp. 351–399. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.  ^ The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pg.125–258 ^ Harney, John (January 3, 2016). "How Do Sunni
Sunni
and Shia
Shia
Islam Differ?". The New York Times. Retrieved January 4, 2016.  ^ Almukhtar, Sarah; Peçanha, Sergio; Wallace, Tim (January 5, 2016). "Behind Stark Political Divisions, a More Complex Map of Sunnis and Shiites". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2016.  ^ a b

"Mapping the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim
Muslim
Population". Pew Research Center. October 7, 2009. Retrieved 2013-09-24. Of the total Muslim
Muslim
population, 10–13% are Shia
Shia
Muslims and 87–90% are Sunni
Sunni
Muslims.  Sunni
Sunni
Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide " Sunni
Sunni
Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim
Muslim
community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community." "Sunni". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved December 20, 2012. Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
is the largest denomination of Islam, comprising about 85% of the world's over 1.5 billion Muslims.  "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2010-08-25. Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim
Muslim
population... 

^ a b See

"Mapping the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim
Muslim
Population". Pew Research Center. 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2013-09-24. The Pew Forum's estimate of the Shia population (10–13%) is in keeping with previous estimates, which generally have been in the range of 10–15%. Some previous estimates, however, have placed the number of Shias at nearly 20% of the world's Muslim
Muslim
population.  "Shia". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved December 5, 2011. Shi'a Islam
Islam
is the second largest branch of the tradition, with up to 200 million followers who comprise around 15% of all Muslims worldwide...  "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2010-08-25. Shia Islam
Shia Islam
represents 10–20% of Muslims worldwide... 

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at Medina. pp. 227–228 Watt argues that the initial agreement came about shortly after the hijra and that the document was amended at a later date – specifically after the battle of Badr (AH [anno hijra] 2, = AD 624). Serjeant argues that the constitution is in fact 8 different treaties which can be dated according to events as they transpired in Medina, with the first treaty written shortly after Muhammad's arrival. R. B. Serjeant. "The Sunnah
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Books and journals

Accad, Martin (2003). "The Gospels in the Muslim
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Discourse of the Ninth to the Fourteenth Centuries: An Exegetical Inventorial Table (Part I)". Islam
Islam
and Christian- Muslim
Muslim
Relations. 14 (1).  Ahmed, Akbar
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Today: A Short Introduction to the Muslim World (2.00 ed.). I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-257-9.  Bennett, Clinton (2010). Interpreting the Qur'an: a guide for the uninitiated. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8264-9944-8.  Brockopp, Jonathan E. (2003). Islamic Ethics of Life: abortion, war and euthanasia. University of South Carolina press. ISBN 1-57003-471-0.  Cohen-Mor, Dalya (2001). A Matter of Fate: The Concept of Fate in the Arab World as Reflected in Modern Arabic Literature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513398-6.  Curtis, Patricia A. (2005). A Guide to Food Laws and Regulations. Blackwell Publishing Professional. ISBN 978-0-8138-1946-4.  Esposito, John (2010). Islam: The Straight Path (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-539600-3.  Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-511234-4.  Esposito, John; Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck (2000a). Muslims on the Americanization Path?. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513526-1.  Esposito, John (2000b). Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510799-9.  Esposito, John (2002a). Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516886-0.  Esposito, John (2002b). What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515713-3.  Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512558-4.  Esposito, John (2004). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd Rev Upd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518266-8.  Farah, Caesar (1994). Islam: Beliefs and Observances (5th ed.). Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 978-0-8120-1853-0.  Farah, Caesar (2003). Islam: Beliefs and Observances (7th ed.). Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 978-0-7641-2226-2.  Firestone, Reuven (1999). Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512580-0.  Ghamidi, Javed (2001). Mizan. Dar al-Ishraq. OCLC 52901690.  Goldschmidt, Jr., Arthur; Davidson, Lawrence (2005). A Concise History of the Middle East (8th ed.). Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-4275-7.  Griffith, Ruth Marie; Savage, Barbara Dianne (2006). Women and Religion
Religion
in the African Diaspora: Knowledge, Power, and Performance. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8370-9.  Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck (2002). Muslims in the West: from sojourners to citizens. Oxford University Press.  Hawting, G. R. (2000). The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
AD 661–750. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24073-5.  Hedayetullah, Muhammad
Muhammad
(2006). Dynamics of Islam: An Exposition. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55369-842-5.  Hofmann, Murad (2007). Islam
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and Qur'an. ISBN 978-1-59008-047-4.  Holt, P.M; Lewis, Bernard (1977). Cambridge
Cambridge
History of Islam, Vol. 1. Cambridge
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University Press. ISBN 0-521-29136-4.  Holt, P. M.; Lambton, Ann K.S; Lewis, Bernard (1977). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 2. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-521-29137-2.  Hourani, Albert; Ruthven, Malise (2003). A History of the Arab Peoples. Belknap Press; Revised edition. ISBN 978-0-674-01017-8.  Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar (2004). Counseling American Muslims: Understanding the Faith
Faith
and Helping the People. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0-313-32472-7.  Kramer, Martin (1987). Shi'Ism, Resistance, and Revolution. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-0453-3.  Lapidus, Ira (2002). A History of Islamic Societies (2nd ed.). Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3.  Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Routledge
Routledge
& Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7102-0462-0.  Lewis, Bernard (1993). The Arabs
Arabs
in History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-285258-2.  Lewis, Bernard (1997). The Middle East. Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-83280-7.  Lewis, Bernard (2001). Islam
Islam
in History: Ideas, People, and Events in the Middle East (2nd ed.). Open Court. ISBN 978-0-8126-9518-2.  Lewis, Bernard (2003). What Went Wrong?: The Clash Between Islam
Islam
and Modernity in the Middle East (Reprint ed.). Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-051605-5.  Lewis, Bernard (2004). The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. Random House, Inc., New York. ISBN 978-0-8129-6785-2.  Madelung, Wilferd (1996). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-521-64696-0.  Malik, Jamal; Hinnells, John R (2006). Sufism
Sufism
in the West. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-27408-7.  Menski, Werner F. (2006). Comparative Law in a Global Context: The Legal Systems of Asia
Asia
and Africa. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-521-85859-3.  Miller, Tracy, ed. (October 2009). Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim
Muslim
Population (PDF). Pew Research Center. Retrieved 2013-09-24.  Momen, Moojan (1987). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ism. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5.  Nasr, Seyed Muhammad
Muhammad
(1994). Our Religions: The Seven World Religions Introduced by Preeminent Scholars from Each Tradition (Chapter 7). HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-067700-7.  Nigosian, Solomon Alexander (2004). Islam: its history, teaching, and practices. Indiana
Indiana
University Press.  Patton, Walter M. (April 1900). "The Doctrine of Freedom in the Korân". The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures. Brill Academic Publishers. 16 (3): 129. doi:10.1086/369367. ISBN 90-04-10314-7.  Peters, F. E. (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11553-2.  Rahman, H. U. (1999). Chronology of Islamic History, 570-1000 CE (3rd ed.). Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd.  Rippin, Andrew (2001). Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (2nd ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-21781-1.  Sachedina, Abdulaziz (1998). The Just Ruler in Shi'ite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-511915-0.  Siljander, Mark D. and John David Mann. A Deadly Misunderstanding: a Congressman's Quest to Bridge the Muslim-Christian Divide. First ed. New York: Harper One, 2008. ISBN 978-0-06-143828-8 Smith, Jane I. (2006). The Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515649-2.  Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn; Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3.  Teece, Geoff (2003). Religion
Religion
in Focus: Islam. Franklin Watts Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7496-4796-4.  Trimingham, John Spencer (1998). The Sufi Orders in Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512058-2.  Turner, Colin (2006). Islam: the Basics. Routledge
Routledge
(UK). ISBN 0-415-34106-X.  Turner, Bryan S. (1998). Weber and Islam. Routledge
Routledge
(UK). ISBN 0-415-17458-9.  Waines, David (2003). An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-521-53906-4.  Watt, W. Montgomery (1973). The Formative Period of Islamic Thought. University Press Edinburgh. ISBN 0-85224-245-X.  Watt, W. Montgomery (1974). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman (New ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-881078-4.  Weiss, Bernard G. (2002). Studies in Islamic Legal Theory. Boston: Brill Academic publishers. ISBN 90-04-12066-1. 

Encyclopedias

William H. McNeill; Jerry H. Bentley; David Christian, eds. (2005). Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History. Berkshire Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-9743091-0-1.  Gabriel Oussani, ed. (1910). Catholic Encyclopedia.  Paul Lagasse; Lora Goldman; Archie Hobson; Susan R. Norton, eds. (2000). The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). Gale Group. ISBN 978-1-59339-236-9.  Ahmad, Imad-ad-Dean (2008). "Islam". In Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 256–58. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n155. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.  Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.  Erwin Fahlbusch; William Geoffrey Bromiley, eds. (2001). Encyclopedia of Christianity
Christianity
(1st ed.). Eerdmans Publishing Company, and Brill. ISBN 0-8028-2414-5.  John Bowden, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Christianity
Christianity
(1st ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-522393-4.  Bearman, P.J.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W. P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.  Richard C. Martin; Said Amir Arjomand; Marcia Hermansen; Abdulkader Tayob; Rochelle Davis; John Obert Voll, eds. (2003). Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
and the Muslim
Muslim
World. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0-02-865603-8.  Jane Dammen McAuliffe (ed.). Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an
Qur'an
Online. Brill Academic Publishers.  Salamone Frank, ed. (2004). Encyclopedia of Religious Rites, Rituals, and Festivals
Festivals
(1st ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-94180-8.  Glasse Cyril, ed. (2003). New Encyclopedia of Islam: A Revised Edition of the Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0759101906. 

Further reading

Abdul-Haqq, Abdiyah Akbar
Akbar
(1980). Sharing Your Faith
Faith
with a Muslim. Minneapolis: Bethany House Publishers. N.B. Presents the genuine doctrines and concepts of Islam
Islam
and of the Holy Qur'an, and this religion's affinities with Christianity
Christianity
and its Sacred Scriptures, in order to "dialogue" on the basis of what both faiths really teach. ISBN 0-87123-553-6 Akyol, Mustafa (2011). Islam
Islam
Without Extremes (1st ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-07086-6.  Arberry, A. J. (1996). The Koran Interpreted: A Translation (1st ed.). Touchstone. ISBN 978-0-684-82507-6.  Cragg, Kenneth (1975). The House of Islam, in The Religious Life of Man Series. Second ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1975. xiii, 145 p. ISBN 0-8221-0139-4 Hourani, Albert (1991). Islam
Islam
in European Thought. First pbk. ed. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 1992, cop. 1991. xi, 199 p. ISBN 0-521-42120-9; alternative ISBN on back cover, 0-521-42120-0 Khan, Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhsin; Al-Hilali Khan; Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi-ud-Din (1999). Noble Quran
Quran
(1st ed.). Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN 978-9960-740-79-9.  A. Khanbaghi (2006). The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early Modern Iran. I. B. Tauris. Khavari, Farid A. (1990). Oil and Islam: the Ticking Bomb. First ed. Malibu, Calif.: Roundtable Publications. viii, 277 p., ill. with maps and charts. ISBN 0-915677-55-5 Kramer (ed.), Martin (1999). The Jewish
Jewish
Discovery of Islam: Studies in Honor of Bernard Lewis. Syracuse University. ISBN 978-965-224-040-8. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Kuban, Dogan (1974). Muslim
Muslim
Religious Architecture. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-03813-2.  Lewis, Bernard (1994). Islam
Islam
and the West. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509061-1.  Lewis, Bernard (1996). Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the Age of Discovery. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510283-3.  Mubarkpuri, Saifur-Rahman (2002). The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Prophet. Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN 978-1-59144-071-0.  Najeebabadi, Akbar
Akbar
Shah (2001). History of Islam. Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN 978-1-59144-034-5.  Nigosian, S. A. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices (New ed.). Indiana
Indiana
University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-21627-4.  Rahman, Fazlur (1979). Islam
Islam
(2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-70281-2.  Tausch, Arno (2009). What 1.3 Billion Muslims Really Think: An Answer to a Recent Gallup Study, Based on the "World Values Survey". Foreword Mansoor Moaddel, Eastern Michigan University (1st ed.). Nova Science Publishers, New York. ISBN 978-1-60692-731-1.  Tausch, Arno (2015). The political algebra of global value change. General models and implications for the Muslim
Muslim
world. With Almas Heshmati and Hichem Karoui (1st ed.). Nova Science Publishers, New York. ISBN 978-1-62948-899-8.  Walker, Benjamin (1998). Foundations of Islam: The Making of a World Faith. Peter Owen Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7206-1038-3. 

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