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Isaac Israel Hayes
Isaac Israel Hayes
(March 5, 1832 – December 17, 1881) was an Arctic explorer, physician and politician. Life[edit] Hayes was born in Chester County, Pennsylvania. After completing his medical studies at the University of Pennsylvania, Hayes signed on as ship's surgeon for an 1853-5 expedition led by Elisha Kent Kane
Elisha Kent Kane
to search for John Franklin. His 1854 exploration of the east coast of Ellesmere Island
Ellesmere Island
north of 79° North resulted in new and accurately mapped geographical discoveries. Hayes was apparently the first non-aboriginal explorer of Ellesmere. Hayes led his own expedition 1860-1 which claimed to have reached the farthest north land ever, on the Ellesmere Island
Ellesmere Island
coast at 81°35' North, 70°30' West. It was later found that this position is deep within Ellesmere, not on the coast, and that Hayes's resulting map of Ellesmere north of 80° North was erroneous, possibly because he had represented seriously non-noon sextant observations of the Sun as having been taken at noon, but more likely due to his having deliberately inverted the 2nd digit in his report of his farthest lone lower limb sextant double altitude of the sun, to read 56°52′ instead of the true observation 59°52′. It is hard to explain how else he could have produced a latitude too high by one and a half degrees in tandem with an exactly correct longitude. Hayes's 1861 farthest was at Cape Collinson, less than 10 miles north of 80° north, longitude 70°30′ west. Hayes returned to the United States in 1861 claiming also to have seen the fictional Open Polar Sea
Open Polar Sea
reported by Elisha Kent Kane
Elisha Kent Kane
in 1855. The Civil War, however, had come to preoccupy Americans and diminished public interest in Hayes' reports of discovery. Hayes's expedition was memorialized in Frederic Edwin Church's painting Aurora Borealis, completed in 1865. During the American Civil War, Hayes commanded Satterlee Hospital, a sprawling Union army
Union army
4,500-bed hospital in Philadelphia. Hayes was a Republican member of the New York State Assembly
New York State Assembly
(New York Co., 7th D.) in 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1880 and 1881. The United States Range on Canada's Ellesmere Island
Ellesmere Island
is named after his ship. Ostrov Kheysa, an island in Franz Josef Land
Franz Josef Land
(Russia) is named after Isaac I. Hayes. Further reading[edit]

Robert E. Johnson, HAYES, ISAAC ISRAEL in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 11, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed February 16, 2015, http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/hayes_isaac_israel_11E.html. Michael Robinson, The Coldest Crucible: Arctic
Arctic
Exploration and American Culture (University of Chicago Press, 2006) Douglas W. Wamsley, Polar Hayes: The Life and Contributions of Isaac Israel Hayes, M.D, (American Philosophical Society Press, 2009) ISBN 0-87169-262-7

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article about Isaac Israel Hayes.

Works by Isaac Israel Hayes
Isaac Israel Hayes
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Isaac Israel Hayes
Isaac Israel Hayes
at Internet Archive Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Hayes Biography Hayes' 1860-1 backers, data, alterations, maps, picture of farthest The Open Polar Sea
Open Polar Sea
by I. I. Hayes (Internet Archive)

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 88215892 LCCN: n86853136 ISNI: 0000 0000 8162 3410 GND: 138159068 SELIBR: 325186 SUDOC: 069082057 BNF: cb10021531g (data) BIBSYS: 90252

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