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Northern European
ethnic groups

* Around 800,000 people born in Ireland
Ireland
reside in Great Britain, with around 14,000,000 people claiming Irish ancestry.[13]

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v t e

The Irish people
Irish people
(Irish: Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture. Ireland
Ireland
has been inhabited for about 12,500 years according to archaeological studies (see Prehistoric Ireland). For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been primarily a Gaelic people
Gaelic people
(see Gaelic Ireland). Anglo-Normans
Anglo-Normans
conquered parts of Ireland
Ireland
in the 12th century, while England's 16th/17th-century (re)conquest and colonisation of Ireland brought a large number of English and Lowland Scots people to parts of the island, especially the north. Today, Ireland
Ireland
is made up of the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
(an independent state) and the smaller Northern Ireland
Ireland
(a part of the United Kingdom). The people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities including British, Irish, Northern Irish or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, language, music, dance, sports, cuisine and mythology. Although Irish (Gaelic/Gaeilge) was their main language in the past, today most Irish people
Irish people
speak English as their first language. Historically, the Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, and the Irish also had their own religion, law code and style of dress. There have been many notable Irish people
Irish people
throughout history. After Ireland's conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, and the Irish came to be seen as a nation of "saints and scholars". The 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus
Columbanus
is regarded as one of the "fathers of Europe",[14] followed by saints Cillian and Fergal. The scientist Robert Boyle
Robert Boyle
is considered the "father of chemistry", and Robert Mallet one of the "fathers of seismology". Famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker, James Joyce, C.S. Lewis
C.S. Lewis
and Seamus Heaney. Notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Sir Robert McClure, Sir Alexander Armstrong, Sir Ernest Shackleton
Sir Ernest Shackleton
and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides.[15] Many presidents of the United States
United States
have had some Irish ancestry. The population of Ireland
Ireland
is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, making the Irish diaspora
Irish diaspora
one of the biggest of any nation. Historically, emigration from Ireland
Ireland
has been the result of conflict, famine and economic issues. People of Irish descent are found mainly in English-speaking countries, especially the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada
Canada
and Australia. There are also significant numbers in Argentina, Mexico
Mexico
and New Zealand. The United States
United States
has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia
Australia
those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country outside Ireland.[16] Many Icelanders
Icelanders
have Irish and Scottish Gaelic forebears.[17]

Contents

1 Origins and antecedents

1.1 Prehistoric and legendary ancestors 1.2 Genetics 1.3 Black Irish

2 History

2.1 Early expansion and the coming of Christianity 2.2 Migration and invasion in the Middle Ages 2.3 Surnames 2.4 Late Medieval and Tudor Ireland 2.5 Plantations 2.6 Enlightenment Ireland 2.7 19th century

2.7.1 The Great Famine / An Górta Mór

2.8 20th century

3 Recent history

3.1 Religions in Ireland 3.2 Irish identity 3.3 Europe

4 Irish diaspora 5 References 6 References 7 External links

Origins and antecedents[edit] Prehistoric and legendary ancestors[edit] Main articles: Prehistoric Ireland
Ireland
and Early history of Ireland

Carrowmore
Carrowmore
tomb, c. 3000 BC

During the past 10,000 years of inhabitation, Ireland
Ireland
has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores. The ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields
Céide Fields
and Newgrange—are almost unknown. Neither their languages nor terms they used to describe themselves have survived. As late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland
Ireland
did not appear to have a collective name for themselves. Ireland
Ireland
itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu
Ériu
by the islanders, Iouerne and Hiverne to the Greeks, and Hibernia
Hibernia
to the Romans. Scotland
Scotland
takes its name from Scota, who in Irish mythology, Scottish mythology, and pseudohistory, is the name given to two different mythological daughters of two different Egyptian Pharaohs to whom the Gaels
Gaels
traced their ancestry, allegedly explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders, and later to the Irish invaders of Argyll
Argyll
and Caledonia
Caledonia
which became known as Scotland. Other Latin
Latin
names for people from Ireland
Ireland
in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti
Attacotti
and Gael. This last word, derived from the Welsh gwyddel "raiders", was eventually adopted by the Irish for themselves. However, as a term it is on a par with Viking, as it describes an activity (raiding, piracy) and its proponents, not their actual ethnic affiliations. The terms Irish and Ireland
Ireland
are probably derived from the goddess Ériu.[18] A variety of historical ethnic groups have inhabited the island, including the Airgialla, Fir Ol nEchmacht, Delbhna, Fir Bolg, Érainn, Eóganachta, Mairtine, Conmaicne, Soghain, and Ulaid. In the cases of the Conmaicne, Delbhna, and perhaps Érainn, it can be demonstrated that the tribe took their name from their chief deity, or in the case of the Ciannachta, Eóganachta, and possibly the Soghain, a deified ancestor. This practice is paralleled by the Anglo-Saxon dynasties' claims of descent from Woden, via his sons Wecta, Baeldaeg, Casere and Wihtlaeg. The Greek mythographer Euhemerus originated the concept of Euhemerism, which treats mythological accounts as a reflection of actual historical events shaped by retelling and traditional mores. In the 12th century, Icelandic bard and historian Snorri Sturluson
Snorri Sturluson
proposed that the Norse gods were originally historical war leaders and kings, who later became cult figures, eventually set into society as gods. This view is in agreement with Irish historians such T. F. O'Rahilly and Francis John Byrne; the early chapters of their respective books, Early Irish history and mythology (reprinted 2004) and Irish Kings and High-Kings (3rd revised edition, 2001), deal in depth with the origins and status of many Irish ancestral deities. One legend states that the Irish were descended from one Míl Espáine, whose sons supposedly conquered Ireland
Ireland
around 1000 BC or later.[19] The character is almost certainly a mere personification of a supposed migration by a group or groups from Iberia to Ireland. It is from this that the Irish were, as late as the 1800s, popularly known as "Milesian".[20] Medieval Irish historians, over the course of several centuries, created the genealogical dogma that all Irish were descendants of Míl, ignoring the fact that their own works demonstrated inhabitants in Ireland
Ireland
prior to his supposed arrival. This doctrine was adapted between the 10th and 12th centuries, as demonstrated in the works of Eochaidh Ua Floinn (936–1004); Flann Mainistrech (died 25 November 1056); Tanaide (died c. 1075) and Gilla Cómáin mac Gilla Samthainde (fl. 1072). Many of their compositions were incorporated into the compendium Lebor Gabála Érenn. This tradition was enhanced and embedded in the tradition by successive historians such as Dubsúilech Ó Maolconaire (died 1270); Seán Mór Ó Dubhagáin (d.1372); Giolla Íosa Mór Mac Fir Bhisigh (fl. 1390–1418); Pilip Ballach Ó Duibhgeannáin (fl. 1579–1590) and Flann Mac Aodhagáin (alive 1640). The first Irish historian who questioned the reliability of such accounts was Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh (murdered 1671). Genetics[edit] See also: Genetic history of Europe, Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Europe, and Genetic history of the British Isles Genetic research shows a strong similarity between the Y chromosome haplotypes of Irish men with Gaelic surnames and males from the area of Spain
Spain
and Portugal, especially Galicia, Asturias, and Cantabria (and perhaps former Basque country).[21] The incidence of the R1b haplogroup is 70% or more in Celtic regions – Cumbria
Cumbria
and Cornwall in England, the Celtic Northern region in Portugal (Douro Litoral, Minho and Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro), northern Spain
Spain
(Celtic Galicia, Asturias, León, Cantabria
Cantabria
and Basque Country), western France
France
(Béarn, Gascony, Guyenne, Saintonge, Angoumois, Aunis, Poitou, Touraine, Anjou
Anjou
and the Celtic Brittany), and Celtic Countries – Wales
Wales
and Scotland
Scotland
in Britain. R1b's incidence declines gradually with distance from these areas but it is still common across the central areas of Europe. R1b is the most frequent haplogroup in Germany and in the Low Countries, and is common in southern Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and in northern and central Italy. This led to writers, such as Stephen Oppenheimer and Bryan Sykes, to conclude that the majority of Irish people primarily descend from an "Iberian refugium" population bottleneck dating back to the last ice age.[22][23] However, this haplogroup is now believed by some to have originated over 12,000 years more recently than previously thought.[24] It thus follows that Irish and many other R1b subclades will be considerably younger than the maximum age of 18,000 years. The previous estimates, based on inaccurate dating methods (30,000+ years BP), made R1b and its subclades seem to be more useful indicators of the paleolithic era populations of western Europe than they actually are. According to recent 2009 studies by Bramanti et al. and Malmström et al. on mtDNA,[25][26] related western European populations appear to be largely from the neolithic and not paleolithic era, as previously thought. There was discontinuity between mesolithic central Europe and modern European populations mainly due to an extremely high frequency of haplogroup U (particularly U5) types in mesolithic central European sites. The existence of an especially strong genetic association between the Irish and the Basques, one even closer than the relationship between other west Europeans, was first challenged in 2005,[27] and in 2007 scientists began looking at the possibility of a more recent Mesolithic- or even Neolithic-era entrance of R1b into Europe.[28] A new study published in 2010 by Balaresque et al. implies either a Mesolithic- or Neolithic- (not Paleolithic) era entrance of R1b into Europe.[29] However, all these genetic studies are in agreement that the Irish and Basque (along with the Welsh) share the highest percentage of R1b populations. A recent whole genome analysis of 1 neolithic and 3 Bronze Age
Bronze Age
skeletal remains in Ireland
Ireland
suggested that the original farming population was mostly similar to present day Sardinians and the 3 Bronze Age
Bronze Age
remains had a Steppe component to their genetics showing links with Eastern Europe. Most modern Irish share more DNA with the 3 Bronze Age
Bronze Age
men from Rathlin than the earlier Ballynahatty neolithic woman.[30][31] A recent genetic study done on the Irish show that they have two main ancestry sources a French component (mostly northwestern French) and West Norwegian from the Viking
Viking
era. [32][33] Black Irish[edit] "Black Irish" redirects here. For Irish people
Irish people
of black African descent, see Black people in Ireland. Black Irish is an ambiguous term sometimes used (mainly outside Ireland) as a reference to a dark-haired phenotype appearing in people of Irish origin.[34] However, dark hair in people of Irish descent is common, although darker skin complexions appear less frequently.[35] One popular speculation suggests the Black Irish are descendants of survivors of the Spanish Armada, despite research discrediting such claims.[36] In Bob Quinn's documentary series Atlantean, he explores an alternative 'Iberian' hypothesis, proposing the existence of an ancient sea-trading route skirting the Atlantic coast from North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
to regions such as Connemara. While preferring the term "The Atlantean Irish", Quinn's reference to certain phenotypical characteristics (within elements of the Irish populace and diaspora) as possible evidence of a previous Hibernian-Iberian (and possibly Berber) admixture mirrors common descriptions of the Black Irish.[37] The term has also come to be used to refer to the African-Irish descendants of those who live on Barbados
Barbados
and Montserrat,[38] a number of whom have Irish surnames, still retain part of their Irish accents and sing bilingual songs.[39] History[edit] Early expansion and the coming of Christianity[edit] See also: Early history of Ireland

Finnian of Clonard
Finnian of Clonard
imparting his blessing to the "Twelve Apostles of Ireland"

One Roman historian records that the Irish people
Irish people
were divided into "sixteen different nations" or tribes.[40] Traditional histories assert that the Romans never attempted to conquer Ireland, although it may have been considered.[40] The Irish were not, however, cut off from Europe; they frequently raided the Roman territories,[40] and also maintained trade links.[41] Among the most famous people of ancient Irish history are the High Kings of Ireland, such as Cormac mac Airt and Niall of the Nine Hostages, and the semi-legendary Fianna. The 20th-century writer Seumas MacManus
Seumas MacManus
wrote that even if the Fianna
Fianna
and the Fenian Cycle were purely fictional, it would still be representative of the character of the Irish people:

...such beautiful fictions of such beautiful ideals, by themselves presume and prove beautiful-souled people, capable of appreciating lofty ideals.[42]

The introduction of Christianity
Christianity
to the Irish people
Irish people
during the 5th century brought a radical change to the Irish people's foreign relations.[43] The only military raid abroad recorded after that century is a presumed invasion of Wales, which according to a Welsh manuscript may have taken place around the 7th century.[43] In the words of Seumas MacManus:

If we compare the history of Ireland
Ireland
in the 6th century, after Christianity
Christianity
was received, with that of the 4th century, before the coming of Christianity, the wonderful change and contrast is probably more striking than any other such change in any other nation known to history.[43]

Following the conversion of the Irish to Christianity, Irish secular laws and social institutions remained in place.[44] Migration and invasion in the Middle Ages[edit] See also: Early Medieval Ireland
Ireland
800–1166 and Norman invasion of Ireland

The approximate area of the Dál Riata
Dál Riata
(shaded)

The 'traditional' view is that, in the 4th or 5th century, Gaelic language and culture was brought to Scotland
Scotland
by settlers from Ireland, who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata
Dál Riata
on Scotland's west coast.[45][46] This is based mostly on medieval writings from the 9th and 10th centuries. The archaeologist Ewan Campbell argues against this view, saying that there is no archeological or placename evidence for a migration or a takeover by a small group of elites. He states that "the Irish migration hypothesis seems to be a classic case of long-held historical beliefs influencing not only the interpretation of documentary sources themselves, but the subsequent invasion paradigm being accepted uncritically in the related disciplines of archaeology and linguistics."[47] Dál Riata
Dál Riata
and the territory of the neighbouring Picts
Picts
merged to form the Kingdom of Alba, and Gaelic language and culture became dominant there. The country came to be called Scotland, after the Roman name for the Gaels: Scoti. The Isle of Man and the Manx people
Manx people
also came under massive Gaelic influence in their history. Irish missionaries such as Saint Columba
Columba
brought Christianity
Christianity
to Pictish Scotland. The Irishmen of this time were also "aware of the cultural unity of Europe", and it was the 6th-century Irish monk Columbanus
Columbanus
who is regarded as "one of the fathers of Europe".[14] Another Irish saint, Aidan of Lindisfarne, has been proposed as a possible patron saint of the United Kingdom,[48] while Saints Kilian and Vergilius became the patron saints of Würzburg
Würzburg
in Germany and Salzburg
Salzburg
in Austria, respectively. Irish missionaries founded monasteries outside Ireland, such as Iona Abbey, the Abbey of St Gall in Switzerland, and Bobbio Abbey
Bobbio Abbey
in Italy. Common to both the monastic and the secular bardic schools were Irish and Latin. With Latin, the early Irish scholars "show almost a like familiarity that they do with their own Gaelic".[49] There is evidence also that Hebrew
Hebrew
and Greek were studied, the latter probably being taught at Iona.[50]

"The knowledge of Greek", says Professor Sandys in his History of Classical Scholarship, "which had almost vanished in the west was so widely dispersed in the schools of Ireland
Ireland
that if anyone knew Greek it was assumed he must have come from that country."'[51]

Since the time of Charlemagne, Irish scholars had a considerable presence in the Frankish court, where they were renowned for their learning.[52] The most significant Irish intellectual of the early monastic period was the 9th century Johannes Scotus Eriugena, an outstanding philosopher in terms of originality.[52] He was the earliest of the founders of scholasticism, the dominant school of medieval philosophy.[53] He had considerable familiarity with the Greek language, and translated many works into Latin, affording access to the Cappadocian Fathers
Cappadocian Fathers
and the Greek theological tradition, previously almost unknown in the Latin
Latin
West.[52] The influx of Viking
Viking
raiders and traders in the 9th and 10th centuries resulted in the founding of many of Ireland's most important towns, including Cork, Dublin, Limerick, and Waterford
Waterford
(earlier Gaelic settlements on these sites did not approach the urban nature of the subsequent Norse trading ports). The Vikings
Vikings
left little impact on Ireland
Ireland
other than towns and certain words added to the Irish language, but many Irish taken as slaves inter-married with the Scandinavians, hence forming a close link with the Icelandic people. In the Icelandic Laxdœla saga, for example, "even slaves are highborn, descended from the kings of Ireland."[54] The first name of Njáll Þorgeirsson, the chief protagonist of Njáls saga, is a variation of the Irish name Neil. According to Eirik the Red's Saga, the first European couple to have a child born in North America was descended from the Viking
Viking
Queen of Dublin, Aud the Deep-minded, and a Gaelic slave brought to Iceland.[15]

Irish Gaels
Gaels
in a painting from the 16th century

The arrival of the Anglo-Normans
Anglo-Normans
brought also the Welsh, Flemish, Anglo-Saxons, and Bretons. Most of these were assimilated into Irish culture and polity by the 15th century, with the exception of some of the walled towns and the Pale areas.[44] The Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
also saw the settlement of Scottish gallowglass families of mixed Gaelic-Norse -Pict descent, mainly in the north; due to similarities of language and culture they too were assimilated. Surnames[edit] Main article: Irish name Further information: Celtic onomastics

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The Irish were among the first people in Europe to use surnames as we know them today.[55] It is very common for people of Gaelic origin to have the English versions of their surnames beginning with 'Ó' or 'Mac' (Over time however many have been shortened to 'O' or Mc). 'O' comes from the Gaelic Ó which in turn came from Ua, which means "grandson", or "descendant" of a named person. Mac is the Gaeilge for son. Names that begin with "O'" include Ó Bánion (O'Banion), Ó Briain (O'Brien), Ó Cheallaigh (O'Kelly), Ó Conchobhair (O'Connor, O'Conor), Ó Chonaill (O'Connell), O'Coiligh (Cox), Ó Cuilinn (Cullen), Ó Domhnaill (O'Donnell), Ó Máille (O'Malley), Ó Mathghamhna (O'Mahony), Ó Néill (O'Neill), Ó Sé (O'Shea), Ó Súilleabháin (O'Sullivan), and Ó Tuathail (O'Toole).[56] Names that begin with Mac or Mc include Mac Cárthaigh (MacCarthy), Mac Diarmada (MacDermott), Mac Domhnaill (MacDonnell), and Mac Mathghamhna (MacMahon) Mag Uidhir (Maguire). Mac is commonly anglicised Mc. However, "Mac" and "Mc" are not mutually exclusive, so, for example, both "MacCarthy" and "McCarthy" are used. While both "Mac" and "Ó'" prefixes are Gaelic in origin, "Mac" is more common in Scotland
Scotland
and in Ulster
Ulster
than in the rest of Ireland; furthermore, "Ó" is far less common in Scotland
Scotland
than it is in Ireland. The proper surname for a woman in Irish uses the feminine prefix nic (meaning daughter) in place of mac. Thus a boy may be called Mac Domhnaill whereas his sister would be called Nic Dhomhnaill or Ní Dhomhnaill – the insertion of 'h' follows the female prefix in the case of most consonants (bar H, L, N, R, & T). A son has the same surname as his father. A female's surname replaces Ó with Ní (reduced from Iníon Uí – "daughter of the grandson of") and Mac with Nic (reduced from Iníon Mhic – "daughter of the son of"); in both cases the following name undergoes lenition. However, if the second part of the surname begins with the letter C or G, it is not lenited after Nic.[citation needed] Thus the daughter of a man named Ó Maolagáin has the surname Ní Mhaolagáin and the daughter of a man named Mac Gearailt has the surname Nic Gearailt. When anglicised, the name can remain O' or Mac, regardless of gender. There are a number of Irish surnames derived from Norse personal names, including Mac Suibhne (Sweeney) from Swein and McAuliffe from "Olaf". The name Cotter, local to County Cork, derives from the Norse personal name Ottir. The name Reynolds is an Anglicization of the Gaelic Mac Raghnaill, itself originating from the Norse names Randal or Reginald. Though these names were of Viking
Viking
derivation some of the families who bear them appear to have had Gaelic origins. "Fitz" is an old Norman French variant of the Old French word fils (variant spellings filz, fiuz, fiz, etc.), used by the Normans, meaning son. The Normans
Normans
themselves were descendants of Vikings, who had settled in Normandy
Normandy
and thoroughly adopted the French language
French language
and culture.[57] With the exception of the Gaelic-Irish Fitzpatrick (Mac Giolla Phádraig) surname, all names that begin with Fitz – including FitzGerald
FitzGerald
(Mac Gearailt), Fitzsimons
Fitzsimons
(Mac Síomóin/Mac an Ridire) and FitzHenry (Mac Anraí) – are descended from the initial Norman settlers. A small number of Irish families of Gaelic origin came to use a Norman form of their original surname—so that Mac Giolla Phádraig became Fitzpatrick—while some assimilated so well that the Gaelic name was dropped in favor of a new, Hiberno-Norman form. Another common Irish surname of Norman Irish origin is the 'de' habitational prefix, meaning 'of' and originally signifying prestige and land ownership. Examples include de Búrca (Burke), de Brún, de Barra (Barry), de Stac (Stack), de Tiúit, de Faoite (White), de Londras (Landers), de Paor (Power). The Irish surname "Walsh" (in Gaelic Breathnach) was routinely given to settlers of Welsh origin, who had come during and after the Norman invasion. The Joyce and Griffin/Griffith (Gruffydd) families are also of Welsh origin. The Mac Lochlainn, Ó Maol Seachlainn, Ó Maol Seachnaill, Ó Conchobhair, Mac Loughlin and Mac Diarmada families, all distinct, are now all subsumed together as MacLoughlin. The full surname usually indicated which family was in question, something that has been diminished with the loss of prefixes such as Ó and Mac. Different branches of a family with the same surname sometimes used distinguishing epithets, which sometimes became surnames in their own right. Hence the chief of the clan Ó Cearnaigh (Kearney) was referred to as An Sionnach (Fox), which his descendants use to this day. Similar surnames are often found in Scotland
Scotland
for many reasons, such as the use of a common language and mass Irish migration to Scotland
Scotland
in the late 19th and early to mid-20th centuries. Late Medieval and Tudor Ireland[edit] See also: Gaelic Ireland
Ireland
and Lordship of Ireland

Gaelic Irish soldiers in the Low Countries, from a drawing of 1521 by Albrecht Dürer

The Irish people
Irish people
of the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
were active as traders on the European continent.[58] They were distinguished from the English (who only used their own language or French) in that they only used Latin abroad—a language "spoken by all educated people throughout Gaeldom".[59] According to the writer Seumas MacManus, the explorer Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
visited Ireland
Ireland
to gather information about the lands to the west,[60] a number of Irish names are recorded on Columbus' crew roster preserved in the archives of Madrid
Madrid
and it was an Irishman named Patrick Maguire
Maguire
who was the first to set foot in the Americas
Americas
in 1492;[60] however, according to Morison and Miss Gould[clarification needed], who made a detailed study of the crew list of 1492, no Irish or English sailors were involved in the voyage.[61] An English report of 1515 states that the Irish people
Irish people
were divided into over sixty Gaelic lordships and thirty Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
lordships.[44] The English term for these lordships was "nation" or "country".[44] The Irish term "oireacht" referred to both the territory and the people ruled by the lord.[44] Literally, it meant an "assembly", where the Brehons would hold their courts upon hills to arbitrate the matters of the lordship.[44] Indeed, the Tudor lawyer John Davies described the Irish people
Irish people
with respect to their laws:

There is no people under the sun that doth love equal and indifferent (impartial) justice better than the Irish, or will rest better satisfied with the execution thereof, although it be against themselves, as they may have the protection and benefit of the law upon which just cause they do desire it.[62]

Another English commentator records that the assemblies were attended by "all the scum of the country"—the labouring population as well as the landowners.[44] While the distinction between "free" and "unfree" elements of the Irish people
Irish people
was unreal in legal terms, it was a social and economic reality.[44] Social mobility was usually downwards, due to social and economic pressures.[44] The ruling clan's "expansion from the top downwards" was constantly displacing commoners and forcing them into the margins of society.[44] As a clan-based society, genealogy was all important.[44] Ireland
Ireland
'was justly styled a " Nation of Annalists"'.[63] The various branches of Irish learning—including law, poetry, history and genealogy, and medicine—were associated with hereditary learned families.[64] The poetic families included the Uí Dhálaigh (Daly) and the MacGrath.[44] Irish physicians, such as the O'Briens in Munster
Munster
or the MacCailim Mor in the Western Isles, were renowned in the courts of England, Spain, Portugal and the Low Countries.[62] Learning was not exclusive to the hereditary learned families, however; one such example is Cathal Mac Manus, the 15th century diocesan priest who wrote the Annals of Ulster.[64] Other learned families included the Mic Aodhagáin and Clann Fhir Bhisigh.[64] It was this latter family which produced Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh, the 17th century genealogist and compiler of the Leabhar na nGenealach. (see also Irish medical families). Plantations[edit] See also: Plantations of Ireland
Ireland
and Ulster-Scots

Robert Boyle, Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
scientist and father of chemistry, whose family obtained land in the plantations

After Ireland
Ireland
was subdued by England, the English—under James I of England
England
(r.  1603–1625), the Lord Protector
Lord Protector
Oliver Cromwell (1653–1658), William III of England
William III of England
(r.  1689–1702) and their British successors—began the settling of Protestant Scottish and English colonists into Ireland, where they settled most heavily in the northern province of Ulster. The Plantations of Ireland, and in particular the Plantation of Ulster
Ulster
in the 17th century, introduced great numbers of Scottish, English as well as French Huguenots as colonists. Many Gaelic Irish were displaced during the 17th century plantations. Only in the major part of Ulster
Ulster
did the plantations of mostly Scottish prove long-lived; the other three provinces (Connacht, Leinster, and Munster) remained heavily Gaelic Irish. Eventually, the Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
and Protestant populations of those three provinces decreased drastically as a result of the political developments in the early 20th century in Ireland, as well as the Catholic Church's Ne Temere decree for mixed marriages, which obliged the non-Catholic partner to have the children raised as Catholics[citation needed]. Enlightenment Ireland[edit] See also: United Irishmen, Nicholas Callan, and Protestant Ascendancy

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There have been notable Irish scientists. The Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
scientist Robert Boyle
Robert Boyle
(1627–1691) is considered the father of chemistry for his book The Sceptical Chymist, written in 1661.[65] Boyle was an atomist, and is best known for Boyle's Law. The hydrographer Rear Admiral Francis Beaufort
Francis Beaufort
(1774–1857), an Irish naval officer of Huguenot
Huguenot
descent, was the creator of the Beaufort scale
Beaufort scale
for indicating wind force. George Boole
George Boole
(1815–1864), the mathematician who invented Boolean algebra, spent the latter part of his life in Cork. The 19th century physicist George Stoney introduced the idea and the name of the electron. He was the uncle of another notable physicist, George FitzGerald.

Jonathan Swift, one of the foremost prose satirists in the English language

The Irish bardic system, along with the Gaelic culture and learned classes, were upset by the plantations, and went into decline. Among the last of the true bardic poets were Brian Mac Giolla Phádraig (c. 1580–1652) and Dáibhí Ó Bruadair (1625–1698). The Irish poets of the late 17th and 18th centuries moved toward more modern dialects. Among the most prominent of this period were Séamas Dall Mac Cuarta, Peadar Ó Doirnín, Art Mac Cumhaigh, Cathal Buí Mac Giolla Ghunna, and Seán Clárach Mac Domhnaill. Irish Catholics continued to receive an education in secret "hedgeschools", in spite of the Penal laws.[66] A knowledge of Latin
Latin
was common among the poor Irish mountaineers in the 17th century, who spoke it on special occasions, while cattle were bought and sold in Greek in the mountain market-places of Kerry.[67] For a comparatively small population of about 6 million people, Ireland
Ireland
made an enormous contribution to literature. Irish literature encompasses the Irish and English languages. Notable Irish writers, playwrights and poets include Jonathan Swift, Laurence Sterne, Oscar Wilde, Oliver Goldsmith, James Joyce, George Bernard Shaw, Samuel Beckett, Bram Stoker, W.B Yeats, Séamus Heaney and Brendan Behan. 19th century[edit] Main article: Anti-Irish racism

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The Great Famine / An Górta Mór[edit] Main article: Great Irish Famine Known as An Górta Mór (The great hunger) in Gaeilge, millions of Irish people
Irish people
died and emigrated during Ireland's largest famine. The famine lasted from 1845 - 1849, it was worst during 1847 which was known as Black '47. The famine occurred due to the extremely impoverished Irish population's staple food the potato being infected with Blight. This meant the crop failed and turned black. Starving people who tried to eat them would only vomit it back up soon afterwards. Soup kitchens were set up but made little difference. The English government produced little aid. Sending raw corn known as 'Peel's Brimstone' to Ireland. It was known by this name after the British PM at the time and the fact that native Irish weren't aware on how to cook corn. This led to little or no improvement. The British government set up workhouses which were disease ridden (with cholera, TB and others) but they also failed as little food was available and many died on arrival as they were overworked. Some English political figures at the time saw the famine as a purge from God to exterminate the majority of the native Irish population. Irish people
Irish people
emigrated to escape the famine journeying predominantly to the east coast of the US especially Boston
Boston
and New York, Liverpool in England, Australia, Canada
Canada
and New Zealand. Many records show the majority of emigrants to Australia
Australia
were in fact prisoners sent to assist in the construction of English colonies there. A substantial proportion of these committed crimes in hopes of being extradited to Australia. Favouring it to the persecution and hardships they endured in their homeland. Emigrants travelled on 'Coffin Ships' they were called this as there were high mortality rates on board. Many died of disease or starved. Conditions on board were abysmal - tickets were expensive so stowaways were common, little food stuff was given to passengers who were simply viewed as cargo in the eyes of the ship workers. Famous coffin ships include the Jeanie Johnston
Jeanie Johnston
and the Dunbrody. There are many statues and memorials in Dublin, New York and other cities in memory of the famine. The fields of Athenry is a famous song about the great famine and is often sung at national team sporting events in memory and homage to those affected by the famine. The Great famine is one of the biggest events in Irish history and is ingrained in the identity on the nation to this day. It was a major in factor in Irish Nationalism and Ireland's fight for Independence during subsequent rebellions. As many Irish people
Irish people
felt a stronger need to regain Independence from English rule.

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20th century[edit] See also: Partition of Ireland, Irish Free State, Northern Ireland, and Republic of Ireland After the Irish War of Independence
Irish War of Independence
(1919–1921) the Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed which led to the formation of the semi-independent Irish Free State
Irish Free State
(now the independent Republic of Ireland) which consisted of 26 counties in the south and Donegal in the North-West. The remaining six counties in the northeast remained in the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland. It is predominately religion, historical, and political differences that divide the two communities of (nationalism and unionism). Four polls taken between 1989 and 1994 revealed that when asked to state their national identity, over 79% of Northern Irish Protestants replied "British" or "Ulster" with 3% or less replying "Irish", while over 60% of Northern Irish Catholics replied "Irish" with 13% or less replying "British" or "Ulster".[68] A survey in 1999 showed that 72% of Northern Irish Protestants considered themselves "British" and 2% "Irish", with 68% of Northern Irish Catholics considering themselves "Irish" and 9% "British".[69] The survey also revealed that 78% of Protestants and 48% of all respondents felt "Strongly British", while 77% of Catholics and 35% of all respondents felt "Strongly Irish". 51% of Protestants and 33% of all respondents felt "Not at all Irish", while 62% of Catholics and 28% of all respondents felt "Not at all British".[70][71][citation needed] Recent history[edit] See also: Demographics of the Republic of Ireland
Demographics of the Republic of Ireland
and Demography of Northern Ireland Religions in Ireland[edit] In the Republic of Ireland, as of 2011, 3,861,335 people or about 84.16% of the population are Roman Catholic.[72] In Northern Ireland about 41.6% of the population are Protestant (19.1% Presbyterian, 13.7% Church of Ireland, 3.0% Methodist, 5.8% Other Christian) whilst approximately 40.8% are Catholic as of 2011. The 31st International Eucharistic Congress
International Eucharistic Congress
was held in Dublin
Dublin
in 1932, that year being the supposed 1,500th anniversary of Saint Patrick's arrival. Ireland
Ireland
was then home to 3,171,697 Catholics, about a third of whom attended the Congress.[73][74] It was noted in Time Magazine that the Congress' special theme would be "the Faith of the Irish."[73] The massive crowds were repeated at Pope John Paul II's Mass in Phoenix Park in 1979.[75] The idea of faith has affected the question of Irish identity even in relatively recent times, apparently more so for Catholics and Irish-Americans. Today the majority of Irish people in the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
identify as Catholic, although church attendance have significantly dropped in recent decades. In Northern Ireland, where almost 50% of the population is Protestant, there has also been a decline in attendances.

What defines an Irishman? His faith, his place of birth? What of the Irish-Americans? Are they Irish? Who is more Irish, a Catholic Irishman such as James Joyce
James Joyce
who is trying to escape from his Catholicism and from his Irishness, or a Protestant Irishman like Oscar Wilde
Oscar Wilde
who is eventually becoming Catholic? Who is more Irish... someone like C.S. Lewis, an Ulster
Ulster
Protestant, who is walking towards it, even though he never ultimately crosses the threshold?[76]

This has been a matter of concern over the last century for the followers of nationalist ideologists such as DP Moran. Irish identity[edit] Thomas Davis, a prominent Protestant Irish nationalist who founded the Young Ireland
Ireland
movement, identified the Irish as a Celtic nation.[77] He estimated that ethnically, 5/6ths of the nation were either of Gaelic Irish-origin, descended from returned Scottish Gaels
Gaels
(including much of the Ulster
Ulster
Scots) and some Celtic Welsh (such as his own ancestors and those carrying surnames such as Walsh and Griffiths).[77] As part of this he was a staunch supporter of the Irish language
Irish language
as the "national language".[77] In regards to the Germanic minority in Ireland
Ireland
(of Norman and Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
origin) he believed that they could be assimilated into Irishness if they had a "willingness to be part of the Irish Nation."[78] Europe[edit] The Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
joined the European Community in 1973, and Irish citizens became additionally Citizens of the European Union
European Union
with the Maastricht Treaty
Maastricht Treaty
signed in 1992. This brought a further question for the future of Irish identity; whether Ireland
Ireland
was "closer to Boston
Boston
than to Berlin:"

History and geography have placed Ireland
Ireland
in a very special location between America and Europe... As Irish people
Irish people
our relationships with the United States
United States
and the European Union
European Union
are complex. Geographically we are closer to Berlin
Berlin
than Boston. Spiritually we are probably a lot closer to Boston
Boston
than Berlin. – Mary Harney, Tánaiste, 2000[79]

Irish diaspora[edit] Main article: Irish diaspora See also: Irish American, Irish Argentine, Irish Chilean, Irish Australian, Irish Brazilian, Irish Canadian, Irish Mexicans, Irish people in Jamaica, Irish community in Britain, Scots-Irish American, and Montserrat

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General
General
The 1st Duke of Tetuan, Grandee of Spain
Spain
and President of the Council of Ministers of Spain

The Irish diaspora
Irish diaspora
consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and nations of the Caribbean such as Jamaica
Jamaica
and Barbados. These countries all have large minorities of Irish descent, who in addition form the core of the Catholic Church in those countries. Many famous and influential figures have claimed Irish ancestry such as Che Guvara, Walt Disney, Barack Obama, JFK, Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali
and Maréchal The 1st Duke of Magenta, the second President of the Third Republic. Many Irish people
Irish people
were also transported to the island of Montserrat, to work as indentured servants, exiled prisoners or slaves. Unlike African chattel slaves, the majority of Irish labourers who were sent to Montserrat
Montserrat
did so by personal choice although they were tricked into doing so by the promise of payment and land of which they did not receive.[80] Some were exiled by the English Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
due to the large Irish population and their attempted rebellion on 17 March 1768. To this day, the Island celebrates St. Patrick's Day
St. Patrick's Day
as a public holiday to commemorate the event.[81] People of Irish descent also feature strongly in Latin
Latin
America, especially in Argentina
Argentina
and important minorities in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. In 1995, President Mary Robinson
Mary Robinson
reached out to the "70 million people worldwide who can claim Irish descent."[82] Today the diaspora is believed to contain an estimated 80 million people.[83]

Maréchal The 1st Duke of Magenta, military commander and, later, President of the French Republic

There are also large Irish communities in some mainland European countries, notably in Spain, France
France
and Germany. Between 1585 and 1818, over half a million Irish departed Ireland
Ireland
to serve in the wars on the Continent, in a constant emigration romantically styled the "Flight of the Wild Geese" and, before that, in the 'Flight of the Earls', just before the Plantation of Ulster.[84] In the early years of the English Civil War, a French traveller remarked that the Irish "are better soldiers abroad than at home".[85] Later, Irish brigades in France
France
and Spain
Spain
fought in the Wars of the Spanish and Austrian Succession and the Napoleonic Wars.[84] In the words of Field Marshal The 1st Duke of Wellington, the Irish-born 'Iron Duke', a notable representative of the Irish military diaspora, " Ireland
Ireland
was an inexhaustible nursery for the finest soldiers".[86] The British Legion were units that fought under Simón Bolívar against Spain
Spain
for the independence of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Peru. Venezuelans called them the Albion
Albion
Legion. They were composed of over seven thousand volunteers, mainly Napoleonic War veterans from Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. Volunteers in the British Legion were motivated by a combination of both genuine political and mercenary motives.[87] The most famous cause of emigration was the Great Famine of the late 1840s. A million are thought to have emigrated to Liverpool
Liverpool
as a result of the famine.[88] For both the Irish in Ireland
Ireland
and those in the resulting diaspora, the famine entered folk memory[89] and became a rallying point for various nationalist movements.

John Carroll, first Roman Catholic bishop and archbishop in the United States

People of Irish descent are the second largest self-reported ethnic group in the United States, after German Americans. Nine of the signatories of the American Declaration of Independence
American Declaration of Independence
were of Irish origin.[90] Among them was the sole Catholic signatory, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, whose family were the descendants of Ely O'Carroll, an Irish prince who had suffered under Cromwell.[91] At least twenty-five presidents of the United States
United States
have some Irish ancestral origins, including George Washington.[92][93][94][95] Since John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
took office in 1961, every American President (with the exception of Gerald Ford and Donald Trump) has had some Irish blood.[96][97][98] An Irish-American, James Hoban, was the designer of the White House. Commodore John Barry, who was born in County Wexford, was the father of the United States
United States
Navy.[99]

John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
visiting the John Barry Memorial in Wexford, Ireland

In the mid-19th century, large numbers of Irish immigrants were conscripted into Irish regiments
Irish regiments
of the United States
United States
Army at the time of the Mexican-American War. The vast majority of the 4,811 Irish-born soldiers served in the U.S. Army, but some defected to the Mexican Army, primarily to escape mistreatment by Anglo-Protestant officers and the strong anti-Catholic discrimination in America.[100] These were the San Patricios, or Saint Patrick's Battalion—a group of Irish led by Galway-born John O'Riley, with some German, Scottish and American Catholics.[100] They fought until their surrender at the decisive Battle of Churubusco, and were executed outside Mexico
Mexico
City by the American government on 13 September 1847.[100] The battalion is commemorated in Mexico
Mexico
each year on 12 September.[101] During the 18th and 19th centuries, 300,000 free emigrants and 45,000 convicts left Ireland
Ireland
to settle in Australia.[102] Today, Australians of Irish descent are one of the largest self-reported ethnic groups in Australia, after English and Australian. In the 2006 Census, 1,803,741 residents identified themselves as having Irish ancestry either alone or in combination with another ancestry.[103] However this figure does not include Australians with an Irish background who chose to nominate themselves as 'Australian' or other ancestries. The Australian embassy in Dublin
Dublin
states that up to 30 percent of the population claim some degree of Irish ancestry.[104] It is believed that as many as 30,000 Irish people
Irish people
emigrated to Argentina
Argentina
between the 1830s and the 1890s.[8] This was encouraged by the clergy, as they considered a Catholic country, Argentina, preferable to a Protestant United States. This flow of emigrants dropped sharply when assisted passage to Australia
Australia
was introduced at which point the Argentine government responded with their own scheme and wrote to Irish bishops, seeking their support. However, there was little or no planning for the arrival of a large number of immigrants, no housing, no food.[105] Many died, others made their way to the United States
United States
and other destinations, some returned to Ireland, a few remained and prospered. Thomas Croke
Thomas Croke
Archbishop of Cashel, said: "I most solemnly conjure my poorer countrymen, as they value their happiness hereafter, never to set foot on the Argentine Republic however tempted to do so they may be by offers of a passage or an assurance of comfortable homes."[106] Some famous Argentines of Irish descent include Che Guevara, former president Edelmiro Julián Farrell, and admiral William Brown. There are people of Irish descent all over South America, such as the Chilean liberator Bernardo O'Higgins and the Peruvian photographer Mario Testino. Although some Irish retained their surnames intact, others were assimilated into the Spanish vernacular. The last name O'Brien, for example, became Obregón. People of Irish descent are also one of the largest self-reported ethnic groups in Canada, after English, French and Scottish Canadians. As of 2006, Irish Canadians
Irish Canadians
number around 4,354,155.[7]

Ethnic groups in Europe List of Americans of Irish descent List of expatriate Irish populations List of Ireland-related topics List of Irish people Tanistry The Ireland
Ireland
Funds Norse–Gaels Hiberno-Normans Anglo Irish Ulster-Scots dialects Ulster-Scots people Irish Travellers

References[edit]

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Neolithic
and Bronze Age
Bronze Age
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Ireland
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with "Irish Roots"". irishamericanheritage.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-25.  ^ Marck, John T. "William H. Taft". aboutfamouspeople.com. Retrieved 2008-06-25.  ^ "Warren Gamaliel Harding". thinkquest.com. Retrieved 2008-06-25.  ^ Marck, John T. "Harry S. Truman". aboutfamouspeople.com. Retrieved 2008-06-25.  ^ "American Presidents with Irish Ancestors". Directory of Irish Genealogy. Retrieved 2008-06-25.  ^ "The Man Who Made Trump Who He Is". Politico. Retrieved 2017-01-24.  ^ "Donald Trump's Scottish roots: How a tiny island could shape a President". CNN. Retrieved 2017-01-24.  ^ John Barry Kelly. "Commodore Barry". Archived from the original on 5 August 2013. Retrieved 2007-06-25.  ^ a b c Michael G. Connaughton (September 2005). "Beneath an Emerald Green Flag, The Story of Irish Soldiers in Mexico". The Society for Irish Latin
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References[edit]

Aldous, Richard (2007). Great Irish Speeches. London: Quercus Publishing PLC. ISBN 1-84724-195-6.  Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820171-0.  Ellis, Steven G. (1985). Tudor Ireland: Crown, Community, and the Conflict of Cultures, 1470–1603. Great Britain: Longman. ISBN 0-582-49341-2.  MacManus, Seamus (1921). The Story of the Irish Race: A Popular History of Ireland. Ireland: The Irish Publishing Co. ISBN 0-517-06408-1. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  McLaughlin, Mark G. (1980). The Wild Geese: The Irish Brigades of France
France
and Spain. Christopher Warner, illustrator. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 0-85045-358-5.  Nicholls, Kenneth W. (1972). Gaelic and Gaelicised Ireland
Ireland
in the Middle Ages. Gill and Macmillan. ISBN 0-7171-0561-X.  Oppenheimer, Stephen (2006). The Origins of the British: A Genetic Detective Story. Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1890-0.  Sykes, Bryan (2006). Blood of the Isles: Exploring the Genetic Roots of Our Tribal History. DNA, Fossil. ISBN 0-593-05652-3.  Toman, Rolf (2007). The Art of Gothic: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. photography by Achim Bednorz. Tandem Verlag GmbH. ISBN 978-3-8331-4676-3.  Various (2001). The Sagas of Icelanders. edited by Smiley, Jane. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-100003-9.  libraryireland.com

External links[edit]

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