The IRANIAN LANGUAGES or IRANIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages , which in turn are a branch of the Indo-European language family . The speakers of Iranian languages are known as Iranian peoples . Historical Iranian languages are grouped in three stages: Old Iranian (until 400 BC), Middle Iranian (400 BC – 900 AD), and New Iranian (since 900 AD). Of the Old Iranian languages, the better understood and recorded ones are Old Persian (a language of Achaemenid Iran) and Avestan (the language of the Avesta ). Middle Iranian languages included Middle Persian (a language of Sassanid Iran), Parthian , and Bactrian .
As of 2008, there were an estimated 150–200 million native speakers of Iranian languages. _ Ethnologue _ estimates that there are 86 Iranian languages, the largest among them being Persian , Pashto and Kurdish dialect continuum .
* 1 Term * 2 Proto-Iranian
* 3 Old Iranian
* 3.1 Isoglosses
The term _Iranian_ is applied to any language which descends from the ancestral Proto-Iranian language . _Iranian_ derives from the Persian and Sanskrit origin word _Arya_.
The use of the term for the Iranian language family was introduced in 1836 by Christian Lassen . Robert Needham Cust used the term _Irano-Aryan_ in 1878, and Orientalists such as George Abraham Grierson and Max Müller contrasted _Irano-Aryan_ (Iranian) and _Indo-Aryan_ (Indic). Some recent scholarship, primarily in German, has revived this convention.
The Iranian languages are divided into the following branches:
* The Western Iranian languages subdivided into:
* Southwestern, of which Persian is the dominant member; * Northwestern, of which Kurdish is the largest member.
* The Eastern Iranian languages subdivided into:
* Southeastern, of which Pashto is the dominant member; * Northeastern, by far the smallest branch, of which Ossetian is the dominant member.
All Iranian languages are descended from a common ancestor, Proto-Iranian . In turn, and together with Proto-Indo-Aryan and the Nuristani languages , Proto-Iranian descends from a common ancestor Proto-Indo-Iranian . The Indo-Iranian languages are thought to have originated in Central Asia. The Andronovo culture is the suggested candidate for the common Indo-Iranian culture _ca_. 2000 BC.
It was situated precisely in the western part of Central Asia that borders present-day Russia (and present-day Kazakhstan ). It was in relative proximity to the other satem ethno-linguistic groups of the Indo-European family , like Thracian , Balto-Slavic and others, and to common Indo-European's original homeland (more precisely, the steppes of southern Russia to the north of the Caucasus ), according to the reconstructed linguistic relationships of common Indo-European.
Proto-Iranian thus dates to some time after Proto-Indo-Iranian break-up, or the early second millennium BCE, as the Old Iranian languages began to break off and evolve separately as the various Iranian tribes migrated and settled in vast areas of southeastern Europe, the Iranian plateau , and Central Asia.
Innovations of Proto-Iranian compared to Proto-Indo-Iranian include (from Witzel, 2001):
* *s other than * turns into * * *bʰ, *dʰ, *gʰ merge into *b, *d, *g
* Fricativization of voiceless stops
* *p, *t, *k become *f, *θ, *x before another consonant * in all positions, *pʰ, *tʰ, *kʰ become *f, *θ, *x
The multitude of Middle Iranian languages and peoples indicate that great linguistic diversity must have existed among the ancient speakers of Iranian languages. Of that variety of languages/dialects, _direct_ evidence of only two have survived. These are:
_Indirectly_ attested Old Iranian languages are discussed below .
Old Persian is the Old Iranian dialect as it was spoken in south-western Iran by the inhabitants of Parsa , who also gave their name to their region and language. Genuine Old Persian is best attested in one of the three languages of the Behistun inscription, composed circa 520 BC, and which is the last inscription (and only inscription of significant length) in which Old Persian is still grammatically correct. Later inscriptions are comparatively brief, and typically simply copies of words and phrases from earlier ones, often with grammatical errors, which suggests that by the 4th century BC the transition from Old Persian to Middle Persian was already far advanced, but efforts were still being made to retain an "old" quality for official proclamations.
The other directly attested Old Iranian dialects are the two forms of Avestan , which take their name from their use in the Avesta , the liturgical texts of indigenous Iranian religion that now goes by the name of Zoroastrianism but in the Avesta itself is simply known as _vohu daena_ (later: _behdin_). The language of the Avesta is subdivided into two dialects, conventionally known as "Old (or 'Gathic') Avestan", and "Younger Avestan". These terms, which date to the 19th century, are slightly misleading since 'Younger Avestan' is not only much younger than 'Old Avestan', but also from a different geographic region. The Old Avestan dialect is very archaic, and at roughly the same stage of development as Rigvedic Sanskrit . On the other hand, Younger Avestan is at about the same linguistic stage as Old Persian, but by virtue of its use as a sacred language retained its "old" characteristics long after the Old Iranian languages had yielded to their Middle Iranian stage. Unlike Old Persian, which has Middle Persian as its known successor, Avestan has no clearly identifiable Middle Iranian stage (the effect of Middle Iranian is indistinguishable from effects due to other causes).
In addition to Old Persian and Avestan, which are the only _directly_ attested Old Iranian languages, all Middle Iranian languages must have had a predecessor "Old Iranian" form of that language, and thus can all be said to have had an (at least hypothetical) "Old" form. Such hypothetical Old Iranian languages include Carduchian (the hypothetical predecessor to Kurdish ) and Old Parthian . Additionally, the existence of unattested languages can sometimes be inferred from the impact they had on neighbouring languages. Such transfer is known to have occurred for Old Persian, which has (what is called) a "Median " substrate in some of its vocabulary. Also, foreign references to languages can also provide a hint to the existence of otherwise unattested languages, for example through toponyms/ethnonyms or in the recording of vocabulary, as Herodotus did for what he called "Scythian ".
Conventionally, Iranian languages are grouped in "western" and "eastern" branches. These terms have little meaning with respect to Old Avestan as that stage of the language may predate the settling of the Iranian peoples into western and eastern groups. The geographic terms also have little meaning when applied to Younger Avestan since it isn't known where that dialect (or dialects) was spoken either. Certain is only that Avestan (all forms) and Old Persian are distinct, and since Old Persian is "western", and Avestan was not Old Persian, Avestan acquired a default assignment to "eastern". Confusing the issue is the introduction of a western Iranian substrate in later Avestan compositions and redactions undertaken at the centers of imperial power in western Iran (either in the south-west in Persia, or in the north-west in Nisa/ Parthia and Ecbatana/Media).
Two of the earliest dialectal divisions among Iranian indeed happen to not follow the later division into Western and Eastern blocks. These concern the fate of the Proto-Indo-Iranian first-series palatal consonants, *ć and *dź:
* Avestan and most other Iranian languages have deaffricated and depalatalized these consonants, and have *ć > _s_, *dź > _z_. * Old Persian, however, has fronted these consonants further: *ć > _θ_, *dź > *ð > _d_.
As a common intermediate stage, it is possible to reconstruct depalatalized affricates: *c, *dz. (This coincides with the state of affairs in the neighboring Nuristani languages .) A further complication however concerns the consonant clusters *ćw and *dźw:
* Avestan and most other Iranian languages have shifted these clusters to _sp_, _zb_. * In Old Persian, these clusters yield _s_, _z_, with loss of the glide *w, but _without_ further fronting. * The Saka language , attested in the Middle Iranian period, and its modern relative Wakhi fail to fit into either group: in these, palatalization remains, and similar glide loss as in Old Persian occurs: *ćw > _š_, *dźw > _ž_.
A division of Iranian languages in at least three groups during the Old Iranian period is thus implied:
* Persid ( Old Persian and its descendants) * Sakan (Saka, Wakhi, and their Old Iranian ancestor) * Central Iranian (all other Iranian languages)
It is possible that other distinct dialect groups were already in existence during this period. Good candidates are the hypothethical ancestor languages of Alanian/Scytho-Sarmatian subgroup of Scythian in the far northwest; and the hypothetical "Old Parthian" (the Old Iranian ancestor of Parthian) in the near northwest, where original *dw > *b (paralleling the development of *ćw).
MIDDLE IRANIAN LANGUAGES
What is known in Iranian linguistic history as the "Middle Iranian" era is thought to begin around the 4th century BCE lasting through the 9th century. Linguistically the Middle Iranian languages are conventionally classified into two main groups, Western and Eastern .
The Western family includes Parthian (Arsacid Pahlavi) and Middle Persian , while Bactrian , Sogdian , Khwarezmian , Saka , and Old Ossetic (Scytho-Sarmatian) fall under the Eastern category. The two languages of the Western group were linguistically very close to each other, but quite distinct from their eastern counterparts. On the other hand, the Eastern group was an areal entity whose languages retained some similarity to Avestan. They were inscribed in various Aramaic -derived alphabets which had ultimately evolved from the Achaemenid Imperial Aramaic script, though Bactrian was written using an adapted Greek script.
Middle Persian (Pahlavi) was the official language under the Sasanian dynasty in Iran. It was in use from the 3rd century CE until the beginning of the 10th century. The script used for Middle Persian in this era underwent significant maturity. Middle Persian, Parthian and Sogdian were also used as literary languages by the Manichaeans , whose texts also survive in various non-Iranian languages, from Latin to Chinese. Manichaean texts were written in a script closely akin to the Syriac script .
NEW IRANIAN LANGUAGES
See also: Persian literature , Pashto literature , Ossetian literature , Kurdish literature , and Tajik literature Dark green: countries where Iranian languages are official. Teal: regional co-official/de facto status.
Following the Islamic Conquest of Persia (Iran), there were important changes in the role of the different dialects within the Persian Empire. The old prestige form of Middle Iranian , also known as Pahlavi, was replaced by a new standard dialect called Dari as the official language of the court. The name Dari comes from the word _darbâr_ (دربار), which refers to the royal court, where many of the poets, protagonists, and patrons of the literature flourished. The Saffarid dynasty in particular was the first in a line of many dynasties to officially adopt the new language in 875 CE. Dari may have been heavily influenced by regional dialects of eastern Iran, whereas the earlier Pahlavi standard was based more on western dialects. This new prestige dialect became the basis of Standard New Persian. Medieval Iranian scholars such as Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa (8th century) and Ibn al-Nadim (10th century) associated the term "Dari" with the eastern province of Khorasan , while they used the term "Pahlavi" to describe the dialects of the northwestern areas between Isfahan and Azerbaijan , and "Pârsi" ("Persian" proper) to describe the Dialects of Fars . They also noted that the unofficial language of the royalty itself was yet another dialect, "Khuzi", associated with the western province of Khuzestan . Geographic distribution of modern Iranian languages
The Islamic conquest also brought with it the adoption of Arabic script for writing Persian and much later, Kurdish, Pashto and Balochi. All three were adapted to the writing by the addition of a few letters. This development probably occurred some time during the second half of the 8th century, when the old middle Persian script began dwindling in usage. The Arabic script remains in use in contemporary modern Persian. Tajik script , used to write the Tajik language , was first Latinised in the 1920s under the then Soviet nationality policy. The script was however subsequently Cyrillicized in the 1930s by the Soviet government.
The geographical regions in which Iranian languages were spoken were pushed back in several areas by newly neighbouring languages. Arabic spread into some parts of Western Iran (Khuzestan), and Turkic languages spread through much of Central Asia, displacing various Iranian languages such as Sogdian and Bactrian in parts of what is today Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan and Tajikistan . In Eastern Europe , mostly comprising the territory of modern-day Ukraine , southern European Russia , and parts of the Balkans , the core region of the native Scythians , Sarmatians , and Alans had been decisively been taken over as a result of absorption and assimilation (e.g. Slavicisation ) by the various Proto-Slavic population of the region, by the 6th century AD. This resulted in the displacement and extinction of the once predominant Scythian languages of the region. Sogdian 's close relative Yaghnobi barely survives in a small area of the Zarafshan valley east of Samarkand , and Saka as Ossetic in the Caucasus, which is the sole remnant of the once predominant Scythian languages in Eastern Europe proper and large parts of the North Caucasus . Various small Iranian languages in the Pamir Mountains survive that are derived from Eastern Iranian.
_ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (October 2013)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_
ENGLISH ZAZA KURDISH (NORTHERN /CENTRAL ) PASHTO TATI TALYSHI BALOCHI MAZANDARANI PERSIAN MIDDLE PERSIAN PARTHIAN OLD PERSIAN AVESTAN OSSETIAN
_BEAUTIFUL_ rınd, xasek řind, nayab, bedew, delal/cwan x̌kūlay, x̌āista xojir ghašang sharr, soherâ, mah rang xoşgel, xojir zibā/xuš-čehr(e)/xoşgel(ak)/ghashanq/najib hučihr, hužihr hužihr naiba vahu-, srîra ræsughd
_BLOOD_ goyni xwîn/xwên wīna xevn xun hon xun xūn xōn gōxan
_BREAD_ nan, non nan ḍoḍəi, məṛəi nun nun nān, nagan nun nān nān nān
_BRING_ ardene anîn/hênan/weranîn, hawirdin (rā)wṛəl vârden, biyordon varde âurten, yārag, ārag biyârden āwurdan, biyār ("(you) bring!") āwurdan, āwāy-, āwar-, bar- āwāy-, āwar-, bar- bara- bara, bar- xæssyn
_BROTHER_ bıra brader, bra, bira wror bərâr bira, boli brāt, brās birâr barādar brād, brâdar brād, brādar brātar brātar- æfsymær
_COME_ ameyene hatin, were rā tləl biyâmiyan ome āhag, āyag,hatin biyamona, enen, biyâmuen āmadan āmadan, awar awar, čām āy-, āgam āgam- cæwyn
_CRY_ bermayene girîn, giryan žəṛəl bərma berame, bame greewag, greeten birme gerīstan/gerīye griy-, bram- barmâdan
_DARK_ tari tarî/tarîk skəṇ, skaṇ, tyara ul, gur, târica, târek toki thár sîyo, sîyu tārīk tārīg/k tārīg, tārēn
sâmahe, sâma tar
_DAUGHTER_ keyne, çêneke keç, kîj, qîz, dot/kiç, kîj, kenişk, düet (pehlewanî) lūr titiye, dətar kinə, kila dohtir, duttag kîjâ, deter doxtar duxtar duxt, duxtar
duxδar čyzg (Iron ), kizgæ (Digor )
_DAY_ roce/roje/roze řoj wrəd͡z (rwəd͡z) revj, ruz ruj roç ruz, ruj rūz rōz
raucah- raocah- bon
_DO_ kerdene kirin/kirdin kawəl korden karde kanag, kurtin hâkerden kardan kardan kartan kạrta- kәrәta- kænyn
_DOOR_ ber, keyber,çêber derî, derge/derke, derga wər darvâca bə gelo, darwāzag dar, loş dar dar dar, bar duvara- dvara- dwar
_DIE_ merdene mirin/mirdin mrəl bamarden marde mireg bamerden murdan murdan
mạriya- mar- mælyn
_DONKEY_ here ker xər astar, xar hə, hər har,her, kar xar xar xar
_EAT_ werdene xwarin / xwardin xwāṛə, xurāk / xwaṛəl harden harde warag, warâk xerâk / baxârden xordan / xurāk parwarz / xwâr, xwardīg parwarz / xwâr
hareθra / ad-, at- xærinag
_EGG_ hak, akk hêk/hêlke, tuxm hagəi merqâna, karxâ morqana, uyə heyg, heyk, ā morg merqâne, tîm, balî toxm, xāya ("testicle") toxmag, xâyag taoxmag, xâyag
_EARTH_ erd zemîn, zewî, ʿerz, erd d͡zməka (md͡zəka) zemin zamin zemin zamîn, bene zamīn zamīg zamīg zam- zãm, zam, zem zæxx
_EVENING_ şan êvar/êware māx̌ām (māš̥ām) nemâzi sar shav begáh nemâşun begáh ēvārag êbêrag
_EYE_ çım çav/çaw/çaş stərga coš čaş,gelgan ch.hem, chem çəş, bəj čashm čašm čašm čaša- čašman- cæst
_FATHER_ pi, pêr bav/bab, bawk, ba plār piyar, piya, dada piya, lala, po pit, piss pîyer, per pedar, baba pidar pid pitar pitar fyd
_FEAR_ ters tirs wēra (yara), bēra târs tars turs, terseg taşe-vaşe tars tars tars tạrsa- tares- tas
_FIANCé_ waşti xwestî, nîşankirî, dezgîran čənghol , čənghəla numuzâ nomja nāmzād numze nāmzād - -
_FINE_ weş, hewl xweş x̌a (š̥a), səm, ṭik ( Urdu origin) xojir, xar xoş wash, hosh xâr, xeş, xojir xoš, xūb, beh dārmag
srîra xorz, dzæbæx
_FINGER_ engışte, gışte, bêçıke til/qamik, bêçî, pêçîk, engust, pence gwəta anquš anqiştə lenkutk, mordâneg,changol angus angošt angust
_FIRE_ adır, adfır agir/awir, ahir wōr (ōr) taš otaş âch, âs taş, âtar ātaš, āzar âdur, âtaxsh ādur âç- âtre-/aêsma- art
_FISH_ mase masî kəb mâyi moy māhi, māhig mâhî māhi māhig māsyāg
_GO_ şo (şiyayış) çûn, řoştin, řoyiştin tləl šiyen, bišiyan şe jwzzegh, shutin şunen / burden ro/şo şow/row ay- ai- ay-, fra-vaz cæwyn
_GOD_ homa, huma, oma, heq Yezdan, xwedê, xuda, xodê, xwa(y) xwədāi xədâ Xıdo hwdâ xedâ xodā/izad xudā/yazdān
baga- baya- xwycaw
_GOOD_ hewl, rınd, weş baş, řind/baş, çak x̌ə (š̥ə) xâr, xojir çok jawáin, šarr,zabr xâr, xeş, xojir xub, nīkū, beh xūb, nêkog, beh
vahu- vohu, vaŋhu- xorz
_GRASS_ vaş giya/gya wāx̌ə (wāš̥ə) vâš alaf rem, sabzag vâş sabzeh, giyāh giyâ giya viş urvarâ kærdæg
_GREAT_ gırd, gırs, pil mezin, gir/gewre, mezin lōy, stər pilla yol, yal, vaz,dıjd mastar, mazan,tuh gat, pilla bozorg wuzurg, pīl, yal
vazraka- uta-, avañt styr
_HAND_ dest dest, des lās bâl dast dast das, bāl dast dast dast dasta- zasta- k'ux / arm
_HEAD_ ser ser sər kalla sə, sər saghar,sar, sarag kalle,sar sar sar
kalli sairi sær
_HEART_ zerri, zerre dil/dił/dir(Erbil)/zil zṛə dəl dıl dil, hatyr del, zel, zil del dil dil
_HORSE_ estor, (ostor/astor) asp/hesp/esp, hês(t)ir ās , aspa asb, astar asp asp asp, as asb asp, stōr asp, stōr aspa aspa- bæx
_HOUSE_ keye, ban mal/mał, xanu, xang kor kiya ka log, dawâr,ges sere, xene, kime xāne xânag
demâna-, nmâna- xædzar
_HUNGRY_ veyşan birçî/birsî lwəga vašnâ, vešir, gosna vahşian shudhagh veşnâ gorosne, goşne gursag, shuy veşnâg
_LANGUAGE_ (also _TONGUE_) zıwan, zon, zuan, zuon, juan, jüan ziman, ziwan žəba zobun, zəvân zivon zevān, zobān zivun, zebun zabān zuwān izβān hazâna- hizvā- ævzag
_LAUGH_ huyayene kenîn/pêkenîn, kenîn xandəl/xənda xurəsen, bexandastan sıre xendegh, hendeg rîk, baxendesten xande xande, xand
karta Syaoθnâvareza- xudyn
_LIFE_ cu/cuye, cewiyayış jiyan žwəndūn, žwənd zindәgi jimon zendegih, zind zindegî, jan zendegi, jan zīndagīh, zīwišnīh žīwahr, žīw-
gaêm, gaya- card
_MAN_ merdêk, camêrd, cuamêrd merd, mêr, pîyaw səṛay, mēṛə mardak, miarda merd merd mard(î) mard mard mard martiya- mašîm, mašya adæjmag
_MOON_ aşme, menge (for month) heyv, meh/mang (for month) spūgməi (spōẓ̌məi) mâng mang, owşum máh ma, munek mâh māh māh mâh- måŋha- mæj
_MOTHER_ maye, marde, maya dayek, dayk, daye, mak mōr mâr, mâya, nana moa, ma, ina mât, mâs mâr mâdar mâdar dayek mâtar mâtar- mad
_MOUTH_ fek dev, fek/dem xūla (xʷəla) duxun, dâ:ân gəv dap dâhun, lâmîze dahân dahân, rumb
åŋhânô, âh, åñh dzyx
_NAME_ name nav/naw, nam, nêw nūm num nom nâm num nâm nâm
nâman nãman nom
_NIGHT_ şewe şev/şew špa šö, šav şav šap, shaw şow shab shab
xšap- xšap- æxsæv
_OPEN (V)_ a-kerdene vekirin/kirdinewe prānistəl vâ-korden okarde pabožagh, paç vâ-hekârden bâz-kardan, va-kardan abâz-kardan, višādag
būxtaka- būxta- gom kænyn
_PEACE_ pêameyış, werêameyış aştî, aramî rōɣa, t͡sōkāləi dinj aşiş ârâm âştî âshti, ârâmeš, ârâmî âštih, râmīšn râm, râmīšn šiyâti- râma- fidyddzinad
_PIG_ xoz, xonz beraz, soḍər, xənd͡zir (Arabic) xu, xuyi, xug xug khug xî xūk xūk
_PLACE_ ca jî, jih, je(jega), ga d͡zāi yâga vira hend, jâgah jâ jâh/gâh gâh gâh gâθu- gâtu-, gâtav- ran
_READ_ wendene xwendin/xwêndin lwastəl, kōtəl baxânden hande, xwande wánagh baxinden, baxundesten xândan xwândan
_SAY_ vatene gotin/gutin, witin wayəl vâten, baguten vote gushagh baowten goftan, gap(-zadan) guftan, gōw-, wâxtan gōw- gaub- mrû- dzuryn
_SISTER_ waye xweh, xweşk, xoşk, xuşk, xoyşk xōr (xʷōr) xâke, xâv, xâxor, xuâr hova gwhâr xâxer xâhar/xwâhar xwahar
x ̌aŋhar- "sister" xo
_SMALL_ qıc, qıyt, qıj, qıçkek, qıtek, werdi biçûk, giçke, qicik, hûr kūčnay, waṛ(ū)kay qijel, qolâ hırd gwand, hurd peçik, biçuk, xurd kuchak, kam, xurd, rîz kam, rangas kam kamna- kamna- chysyl
_SON_ lac, laj, kaz, pısa kur, law/kuř d͡zoy (zoy) pur, zâ zoə, zurə baç, phusagh piser/rîkâ pesar, baça pur, pusar puhr puça pūθra- fyrt
_SOUL_ roh, gan jan, giyan, rewan, revan sā rəvân con rawân
ravân, jân rūwân, jyân rūwân, jyân
_SPRING_ wesar, usar behar, bihar, wehar spərlay vâ:âr əvəsor, bahar bhârgâh vehâr bahâr wahâr
_TALL_ berz bilind/berz lwəṛ, ǰəg pilla barz, bılınd bwrz, borz bilen(d) boland / bârez buland, borz bârež
_TEN_ des deh/de ləs da da deh da dah dah
datha dasa dæs
_THREE_ hirê, hiri, hirı sê, sisê drē so se, he sey se se sê hrē çi- θri- ærtæ
_VILLAGE_ dewe gund, dêhat, dê kəlay döh, da di helk, kallag, dê dih, male, kola deh, wis wiž dahyu- vîs-, dahyu- vîs qæw
_WANT_ waştene xwastin, xwestin, wîstin ɣ(ʷ)ux̌təl begovastan, jovastan piye lotagh bexâsten xâstan xwâstan
_WATER_ awe, owe, ou av/aw obə/ūbə âv, ö ov, wat(orandian dialect) âp ow âb âb/aw aw âpi avô- don
_WHEN_ key, çı wext kengê/key, kengê kəla key keyna kadi,ked ke key kay ka
_WIND_ va ba, wa (pehlewanî) siləi vâ vo gwáth vâ bâd wâd wa
vâta- dymgæ / wad
_WOLF_ verg gur/gurg, wurg lewə, šarmux̌ (šarmuš̥) varg varg gurkh verg gorg gurg
varka- vehrka birægh
_WOMAN_ cêniye, cênıke jin x̌əd͡za (š̥əd͡za) zeyniye, zenak jen, jiyan jan,jinik zan zan zan žan
gǝnā, γnā, ǰaini-, sylgojmag / us
_YEAR_ serre sal/sał kāl sâl sor, sal sâl sâl sâl sâl
θard ýâre, sarәd az
_YES / NO_ ya, heya, ê / nê, ney, ni erê, bełê, a / na, ne Hao, ao, wō / na, ya ahan / na ha / ne, na ere / na are / nâ baleh, ârē, hā / na, née ōhāy / ne hâ / ney yâ / nay, mâ yâ / noit, mâ o / næ
_YESTERDAY_ vizêri duh/dwênê, duêke parūn azira, degiru zir, zinə zí dîruz diruz dêrûž
diya(ka) zyō znon
ENGLISH ZAZA KURDISH (NORTHERN /CENTRAL ) PASHTO TATI TALYSHI BALOCHI MAZANDARANI PERSIAN MIDDLE PERSIAN PARTHIAN OLD PERSIAN AVESTAN OSSETIAN
* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Iranian". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Toward a Typology of European Languages edited by Johannes Bechert, Giuliano Bernini, Claude Buridant * ^ Persian Grammar: History and State of its Study by Gernot L. Windfuhr * ^ Windfuhr, Gernot. _The Iranian languages_. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. * ^ " Ethnologue report for Iranian". Ethnologue.com. * ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Report for Iranian languages". _Ethnologue: Languages of the World_ (Fifteenth ed.). Dallas: SIL International. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ (Skjærvø 2006 )
* ^ Lassen, Christian. 1936. Die altpersischen Keil-Inschriften von Persepolis. Entzifferung des Alphabets und Erklärung des Inhalts. Bonn: Weber. S. 182. This was followed by Wilhelm Geiger in his _Grundriss der Iranischen Philologie_ (1895). Friedrich von Spiegel (1859), _Avesta_, Engelmann (p. vii) used the spelling _Eranian_. * ^ Cust, Robert Needham. 1878. _A sketch of the modern languages of the East Indies._ London: Trübner.
* ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan . 1989. _History of northern areas of Pakistan._ Historical studies (Pakistan) series. National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research. "We distinguish between the Aryan languages of Iran, or Irano-Aryan, and the Aryan languages of India, or Indo-Aryan. For the sake of brevity, Iranian is commonly used instead of Irano-Aryan". * ^ Lazard, Gilbert . 1977. _Preface_ in: Oranskij, Iosif M. _Les langues iraniennes._ Traduit par Joyce Blau. * ^ Schmitt, Rüdiger. 1994. _Sprachzeugnisse alt- und mitteliranischer Sprachen in Afghanistan_ in: _Indogermanica et Caucasica. Festschrift für Karl Horst Schmidt zum 65. Geburtstag._ Bielmeier, Robert und Reinhard Stempel (Hrg.). De Gruyter. S. 168–196. * ^ Lazard, Gilbert. 1998. Actancy. Empirical approaches to language typology. Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-015670-9 , ISBN 978-3-11-015670-6 * ^ Michael Witzel (2001): Autochthonous Aryans? The evidence from Old Indian and Iranian texts. Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies 7(3): 1–115. * ^ Roland G. Kent: "Old Persion: Grammar Texts Lexicon". Part I, Chapter I: The Linguistic Setting of Old Persian. American Oriental Society, 1953. * ^ (Skjaervo 2006 ) vi(2). Documentation. * ^ Nicholas Sims-Williams, Iranica, under entry: Eastern Iranian languages * ^ Windfuhr, Gernot (2009). "Dialectology and Topics". _The Iranian Languages_. Routledge . pp. 18–21. * ^ Mary Boyce. 1975. _A Reader in Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian_, p. 14. * ^ Brzezinski, Richard; Mielczarek, Mariusz (2002). _The Sarmatians, 600 BC-AD 450_. Osprey Publishing. p. 39. (..) Indeed, it is now accepted that the Sarmatians merged in with pre-Slavic populations. * ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (1997). _Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture_. Taylor & Francis. p. 523. (..) In their Ukrainian and Polish homeland the Slavs were intermixed and at times overlain by Germanic speakers (the Goths) and by Iranian speakers (Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans) in a shifting array of tribal and national configurations. * ^ Atkinson, Dorothy; et al. (1977). _Women in Russia_. Stanford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780804709101 . (..) Ancient accounts link the Amazons with the Scythians and the Sarmatians, who successively dominated the south of Russia for a millennium extending back to the seventh century B.C. The descendants of these peoples were absorbed by the Slavs who came to be known as Russians. * ^ _Slovene Studies_. 9–11. Society for Slovene Studies. 1987. p. 36. (..) For example, the ancient Scythians, Sarmatians (amongst others), and many other attested but now extinct peoples were assimilated in the course of history by Proto-Slavs.
* Bailey, H. W. (1979). _Dictionary of Khotan Saka_. Cambridge University Press. 1979. 1st Paperback edition 2010. ISBN 978-0-521-14250-2 . * Schmitt, Rüdiger (ed.) (1989). _Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum_ (in German). Wiesbaden: Reichert. ISBN 3-88226-413-6 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Sims-Williams, Nicholas (1996). "Iranian languages". _Encyclopedia Iranica_. 7. Costa Mesa: Mazda. pp. 238–245. * Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.) (1996). "Iran". _Encyclopedia Iranica_. 7. Costa Mesa: Mazda. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Frye, Richard N. (1996). "Peoples of Iran". _Encyclopedia Iranica_. 7. Costa Mesa: Mazda. * Windfuhr, Gernot L. (1995). "Cases in Iranian languages and dialects". _Encyclopedia Iranica_. 5. Costa Mesa: Mazda. pp. 25–37. * Lazard, Gilbert (1996). "Dari". _Encyclopedia Iranica_. 7. Costa Mesa: Mazda. * Henning, Walter B. (1954). "The Ancient language of Azarbaijan". _Transactions of the Philological Society_. 53 (1): 157. doi :10.1111/j.1467-968X.1954.tb00282.x . * Rezakhani, Khodadad (2001). "The Iranian Language Family". * Skjærvø, Prods Oktor (2006). " Encyclopædia Iranica ". 13. contribution= ignored (help ) * Delshad, Farshid (2010). _Georgica et Irano-Semitica_ (PDF). Ars Poetica . Deutscher Wissenschaftsverlag DWV . ISBN 978-3-86888-004-5 .
* Mallory, J. P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (2006). _The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2
* Society for Iranian Linguistics * Kurdish and other Iranic Languages * Iranian EFL Journal * Audio and video recordings for over 50 languages spoken in Iran * Iranian language tree in Russian, identical with above classification. * Old Iranian Lessons (free online through the Linguistics Research Center at UT Austin)
* v * t * e
OLD / MIDDLE
* Classical * Buddhist
* Dramatic Prakrits
* Magadhi * Maharashtri * Shauraseni