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The INTERNATIONAL POLICE ORGANIZATION more commonly known as INTERPOL, is an intergovernmental organization facilitating international police cooperation. It was established as the INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL POLICE COMMISSION (ICPC) in 1923; it chose INTERPOL as its telegraphic address in 1946, and made it its common name in 1956.

Interpol
Interpol
has an annual budget of around €78 million, most of which is provided through annual contributions by its membership of 190 countries (as of 2015). In 2013, the Interpol
Interpol
General Secretariat employed a staff of 756, representing 100 member countries. Its current Secretary-General is Jürgen Stock , the former deputy head of Germany's Federal Criminal Police Office . He replaced Ronald Noble , a former United States
United States
Under Secretary of the Treasury for Enforcement , who stepped down in November 2014 after serving 14 years. Interpol's current President is Meng Hongwei , Deputy Minister of Public Security of China.

To keep Interpol
Interpol
as politically neutral as possible, its charter forbids it, at least in theory , from undertaking interventions or activities of a political, military, religious, or racial nature or involving itself in disputes over such matters. Its work focuses primarily on public safety and battling terrorism , crimes against humanity , genocide , environmental crime , war crimes , organized crime , piracy , illicit traffic in works of art , illicit drug production, drug trafficking , weapons smuggling , human trafficking , money laundering , child pornography , white-collar crime , Cybercrime , intellectual property crime , and corruption .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Constitution
Constitution
* 3 Methodology * 4 Finances

* 5 Criticism

* 5.1 2014 Russian intervention in Ukraine
Ukraine

* 6 The reform of Interpol
Interpol
mechanisms * 7 Emblem * 8 Members * 9 Sub-bureaus * 10 UN member states without membership * 11 Partially recognized states without membership * 12 Offices * 13 Secretaries-general and presidents * 14 See also * 15 References * 16 External links

HISTORY

In the first part of the 20th century, several efforts were taken to formalize international police cooperation, but they initially failed. Among these efforts were the First International Criminal Police Congress in Monaco
Monaco
in 1914, and the International Police Conference in New York in 1922. The Monaco
Monaco
Congress failed because it was organized by legal experts and political officials, not by police professionals, while the New York Conference failed to attract international attention.

In 1923, a new initiative was taken at the International Criminal Police Congress in Vienna
Vienna
, where the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC) was successfully founded as the direct forerunner of Interpol. Founding members included police officials from Austria, Germany, Belgium, Poland, China, Egypt, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
joined in 1928. The United States
United States
did not join Interpol
Interpol
until 1938, although a US police officer unofficially attended the 1923 congress.

Following _ Anschluss _ in 1938, the organization fell under the control of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
, and the Commission's headquarters were eventually moved to Berlin
Berlin
in 1942. Most members withdrew their support during this period. From 1938 to 1945, the presidents of Interpol
Interpol
included Otto Steinhäusl , Reinhard Heydrich , Arthur Nebe , and Ernst Kaltenbrunner . All were generals in the SS , and Kaltenbrunner was the highest ranking SS officer executed after the Nuremberg Trials
Nuremberg Trials
.

After the end of World War II
World War II
in 1945, the organization was revived as the International Criminal Police Organization by officials from Belgium
Belgium
, France
France
, Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Its new headquarters were established in Saint-Cloud , a suburb of Paris
Paris
. They remained there until 1989, when they were moved to their present location in Lyon
Lyon
.

Until the 1980s, Interpol
Interpol
did not intervene in the prosecution of Nazi
Nazi
war criminals in accordance with Article 3 of its Charter , which prohibited intervention in "political" matters.

In July 2010, former Interpol
Interpol
President Jackie Selebi was found guilty of corruption by the South African High Court in Johannesburg for accepting bribes worth €156,000 from a drug trafficker. After being charged in January 2008, Selebi resigned as president of Interpol
Interpol
and was put on extended leave as National Police Commissioner of South Africa. He was temporarily replaced by Arturo Herrera Verdugo, the National Commissioner of Investigations Police of Chile and former vice president for the American Zone, who remained acting president until October 2008 and the appointment of Khoo Boon Hui.

On 8 November 2012, the 81st General Assembly closed with the election of Deputy Central Director of the French Judicial Police Mireille Ballestrazzi as the first female president of the organization. In November 2016, Meng Hongwei , a politician from the People's Republic of China, was elected president at the 85th Interpol General Assembly, and will serve in this capacity until 2020.

CONSTITUTION

The role of Interpol
Interpol
is defined by the general provisions of its constitution.

Article 2 states that its role is:

* To ensure and promote the widest possible mutual assistance between all criminal police authorities within the limits of the laws existing in the different countries and in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights . * To establish and develop all institutions likely to contribute effectively to the prevention and suppression of ordinary law crimes.

Article 3 states:

It is strictly forbidden for the Organization to undertake any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character.

METHODOLOGY

Interpol
Interpol
ID card (front)

Contrary to the way it is frequently portrayed in popular culture, Interpol
Interpol
is not a supranational law enforcement agency and has no agents who are able to make arrests. Instead, it is an international organization that functions as a network of criminal law enforcement agencies from different countries. The organization thus functions as an administrative liaison among the law enforcement agencies of the member countries, providing communications and database assistance, assisted via the central headquarters in Lyon, France.

Interpol's collaborative form of cooperation is useful when fighting international crime because language, cultural and bureaucratic differences can make it difficult for police officials from different nations to work together. For example, if ICE and FBI
FBI
special agents track a terrorist to Italy, they may not know whom to contact in the Polizia di Stato , if the Carabinieri have jurisdiction over some aspect of the case, or who in the Italian government must be notified of the ICE/FBI's involvement. ICE and the FBI
FBI
can contact the Interpol National Central Bureau in Italy, which would act as a liaison between the United States
United States
and Italian law enforcement agencies.

Interpol's databases at the Lyon
Lyon
headquarters can assist law enforcement in fighting international crime. While national agencies have their own extensive crime databases, the information rarely extends beyond one nation's borders. Interpol’s databases can track criminals and crime trends around the world, specifically by means of collections of fingerprints and face photos, lists of wanted persons, DNA samples, and travel documents. Interpol's lost and stolen travel document database alone contains more than 12 million records. Officials at the headquarters also analyze these data and release information on crime trends to the member countries.

An encrypted Internet-based worldwide communications network allows Interpol
Interpol
agents and member countries to contact each other at any time. Known as I-24/7, the network offers constant access to Interpol's databases. While the National Central Bureaus are the primary access sites to the network, some member countries have expanded it to key areas such as airports and border access points. Member countries can also access each other's criminal databases via the I-24/7 system.

Interpol
Interpol
issued 13,637 notices in 2013, of which 8,857 were Red Notices , compared to 4,596 in 2008 and 2,037 in 2003. As of 2013, there are currently 52,880 valid notices in circulation.

In the event of an international disaster, terrorist attack, or assassination, Interpol
Interpol
can send an Incident Response Team (IRT). IRTs can offer a range of expertise and database access to assist with victim identification, suspect identification, and the dissemination of information to other nations' law enforcement agencies. In addition, at the request of local authorities, they can act as a central command and logistics operation to coordinate other law enforcement agencies involved in a case. Such teams were deployed eight times in 2013. Interpol
Interpol
began issuing its own travel documents in 2009 with hopes that nations would remove visa requirements for individuals travelling for Interpol
Interpol
business, thereby improving response times.

FINANCES

In 2013, Interpol's operating income was €78 million, of which 68 percent was contributed by member countries, mostly in the form of statutory contributions (67 percent) and 26 percent came from externally funded projects, private foundations and commercial enterprises. Financial income and reimbursements made up the other six percent of the total. From 2004 to 2010, Interpol's external auditors was the French Court of Audit . In November 2010, the Court of Audit was replaced by the Office of the Auditor General of Norway for a three-year term with an option for a further three years.

CRITICISM

Despite its politically neutral stance, some have criticized the agency for its role in arrests that critics contend were politically motivated. In 2008, the office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees pointed to the problem of arrests of refugees on the request of Interpol
Interpol
in connection with politically motivated charges. In their declaration, adopted in Oslo (2010), Monaco
Monaco
(2012), Istanbul (2013), and Baku (2014), the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly criticized some OSCE member States for their abuse of mechanisms of the international investigation and urged them to support the reform of Interpol
Interpol
in order to avoid politically motivated prosecution. The Istanbul Declaration of the OSCE cited specific cases of such prosecution, including those of the Russian activist Petr Silaev, financier William Browder , businessman Ilya Katsnelson, Belorussian politician Ales Michalevic , and Ukrainian politician Bohdan Danylyshyn. The resolution of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe of 31 January 2014 criticises the mechanisms of operation of the Commission for the Control of Interpol's files, in particular, non-adversarial procedures and unjust decisions. In 2014, PACE adopted a decision to thoroughly analyse the problem of the abuse of Interpol
Interpol
and to compile a special report on this matter. In May 2015, within the framework of the preparation of the report, the PACE Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights organised a hearing, during which both representatives of NGOs and Interpol
Interpol
had the opportunity to speak.

Organizations, such as the Open Dialog Foundation , Fair Trials International , Centre for Peace Studies , International Consortium of Investigative Journalists indicate that non-democratic states use Interpol
Interpol
in order to harass opposition politicians, journalists, human rights activists and businessmen. According to them, countries that frequently abuse the Interpol
Interpol
system include: China, Russia, Iran, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Tunisia.

The Open Dialog Foundation's report analysed 44 high-profile political cases, which went through the Interpol
Interpol
system. A number of persons who have been granted refugee status in the EU and the US, including: Russian businessman Andrey Borodin , a native of Chechnya Arbi Bugaev, the Kazakh opposition politician Mukhtar Ablyazov and his associate Artur Trofimov, a journalist from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Chandima Withana continue to remain on the public Interpol
Interpol
list. Some of the refugees remain on the list of Interpol
Interpol
even after courts have refused to extradite them to a non-democratic state (for example, Pavel Zabelin, a witness in the case of Mikhail Khodorkovsky , Alexandr Pavlov, former security chief of the Kazakh oppositionist Ablyazov ).

Interpol
Interpol
has recognized some requests to include persons on the wanted list as politically motivated, e.g., Indonesian activist Benny Wenda , Georgian politician Givi Targamadze , ex-president of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili , ex-president of Honduras
Honduras
Manuel Zelaya Rosales ; these persons have been removed from the wanted list. However, in most cases, Interpol
Interpol
removes a "red notice" against refugees only after an authoritarian state closes a criminal case or declares amnesty (for example, the cases of Russian activists, and political refugees: Petr Silaev, Denis Solopov, Aleksey Makarov, and Turkish sociologist Pinar Selek ).

Refugees who are included in the list of Interpol
Interpol
can be arrested when crossing the border. The procedure for filing an appeal with Interpol
Interpol
is a long and complex one. For example, the Venezuelan journalist Patricia Poleo and a colleague of Kazakh activist Ablyazov , Tatiana Paraskevich, who were granted refugee status, sought to overturn the politically motivated request for as long as one and a half years, and six months, respectively.

In 2013, Interpol
Interpol
was criticized over its multi-million-dollar deals with such private sector bodies as FIFA
FIFA
, Philip Morris , and the pharmaceutical industry. The criticism was mainly about the lack of transparency and potential conflicts of interest such as Codentify . After the 2015 FIFA
FIFA
scandal, the organization has severed ties with all the private-sector bodies that evoked such criticism, and has adopted a new and transparent financing framework.

In 2016, Taiwan
Taiwan
criticized Interpol
Interpol
for turning down Taiwan's application to join the General Assembly as an observer. The United States supports Taiwan's participation, and the U.S. Congress passed legislation directing the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to obtain observer status for Taiwan.

2014 RUSSIAN INTERVENTION IN UKRAINE

On 25 July 2014, despite Interpol's Constitution
Constitution
prohibiting them from undertaking any intervention or activities of a political or military nature, the Ukrainian nationalist paramilitary leader Dmytro Yarosh was placed on Interpol's international wanted list at the request of Russian authorities, which made him the only person wanted internationally after the beginning of the conflict between Ukraine and Russia
Russia
in 2014. For a long time, Interpol
Interpol
refused to place former President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych on the wanted list as a suspect in the mass killing of protesters during Euromaidan . Yanukovych was eventually placed on the wanted list on 12 January 2015. However, on 16 July 2015, after an intervention of Joseph Hage Aaronson LLP, the British law firm hired by the former Ukrainian President Yanukovych, the international arrest warrant against the former president of Ukraine
Ukraine
was suspended pending further review. In December 2014, the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) liquidated a sabotage and reconnaissance group that was led by a former agent of the Ukrainian Bureau of Interpol
Interpol
that also has family relations in the Ukrainian counter-intelligence agencies. This year, Russia
Russia
has made attempts to place on the Interpol
Interpol
wanted list Ukrainian politician Ihor Kolomoyskyi and Ukrainian civic activist Pavel Ushevets, subject to criminal persecution in Russia
Russia
following his pro-Ukrainian art performance in Moscow.

According to The Open Dialog Foundation, Russia
Russia
and other former Soviet republics like Azerbaijan, Belarus
Belarus
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
frequently misuse the Interpol
Interpol
system. The foundation's reports cite 44 politically motivated cases which have passed through the Interpol system. Of these, 18 cases originated in Russia, 10 in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and five in Belarus.

THE REFORM OF INTERPOL MECHANISMS

From 1–3 July 2015, Interpol
Interpol
organized a session of the Working Group on the Processing of Information, which was formed specifically in order to verify the mechanisms of information processing. The Working Group heard the recommendations of civil society as regards the reform of the international investigation system and promised to take them into account.

Human rights organisation, The Open Dialog Foundation, recommended that Interpol, in particular: create mechanism for the protection of rights of people having international refugee status; initiate closer cooperation of the Commission for the Control of Files with human rights NGO and experts on asylum and extradition; enforce sanctions for violations of Interpol's rules; strengthen cooperation with NGOs, the UN, OSCE, the PACE and the European Parliament.

Fair Trials International proposed to create effective remedies for individuals who are wanted under a Red Notice on unfair charges; to penalize nations which frequently abuse the Interpol
Interpol
system; to ensure more transparency of Interpol's work.

The Centre for Peace Studies also created recommendations for Interpol, in particular to delete Red Notices and Diffusions for people who were granted refugee status according to 1951 Refugee Convention issued by their countries of origin, and to establish an independent body to review Red Notices on regular basis.

EMBLEM

The current emblem of Interpol
Interpol
was adopted in 1950 and includes the following elements:

* the globe indicates worldwide activity * the olive branches represent peace * the sword represents police action * the scales signify justice

MEMBERS

* Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Albania
Albania
* Algeria
Algeria
* Andorra
Andorra
* Angola
Angola
* Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina
Argentina
* Armenia
Armenia
* Aruba * Australia
Australia
* Austria
Austria
* Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Bahamas * Bahrain
Bahrain
* Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* Barbados
Barbados
* Belarus
Belarus
* Belgium
Belgium
* Belize
Belize
* Benin
Benin
* Bhutan
Bhutan
* Bolivia
Bolivia
* Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
* Botswana
Botswana
* Brazil
Brazil
* Brunei
Brunei
* Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
* Burundi * Cambodia
Cambodia
* Cameroon
Cameroon
* Canada
Canada
* Cape Verde
Cape Verde
* Central African Republic * Chad
Chad
* Chile
Chile
* China
China
* Colombia
Colombia
* Comoros * Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
* Congo (Democratic Rep.) * Costa Rica
Costa Rica
* Côte d\'Ivoire * Croatia
Croatia
* Cuba
Cuba
* Curaçao * Cyprus
Cyprus
* Czech Republic
Czech Republic

* Denmark
Denmark
* Djibouti
Djibouti
* Dominica * Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
* East Timor
East Timor
* Ecuador
Ecuador
* Egypt
Egypt
* El Salvador
El Salvador
* Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea
Eritrea
* Estonia
Estonia
* Ethiopia
Ethiopia
* Fiji
Fiji
* Finland
Finland
* France
France
* Gabon
Gabon
* Gambia * Germany
Germany
* Ghana
Ghana
* Greece
Greece
* Grenada * Guatemala
Guatemala
* Guinea
Guinea
* Guinea-Bissau * Guyana
Guyana
* Haiti
Haiti
* Honduras
Honduras
* Hungary
Hungary
* Iceland
Iceland
* India
India
* Indonesia
Indonesia
* Iran
Iran
* Iraq
Iraq
* Ireland * Israel
Israel
* Italy
Italy
* Jamaica
Jamaica
* Japan
Japan
* Jordan
Jordan
* Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* Kenya
Kenya
* South Korea
South Korea
* Kuwait
Kuwait
* Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
* Laos
Laos
* Lebanon
Lebanon
* Latvia
Latvia
* Lesotho

* Liberia
Liberia
* Libya
Libya
* Liechtenstein * Lithuania
Lithuania
* Luxembourg
Luxembourg
* Macedonia * Madagascar
Madagascar
* Malawi * Malaysia
Malaysia
* Maldives
Maldives
* Mali
Mali
* Malta
Malta
* Marshall Islands * Mauritania
Mauritania
* Mauritius
Mauritius
* Mexico
Mexico
* Moldova
Moldova
* Monaco
Monaco
* Mongolia
Mongolia
* Montenegro
Montenegro
* Morocco
Morocco
* Mozambique
Mozambique
* Myanmar
Myanmar
* Namibia
Namibia
* Nauru * Nepal
Nepal
* Netherlands
Netherlands
* New Zealand
New Zealand
* Nicaragua
Nicaragua
* Niger
Niger
* Nigeria
Nigeria
* Norway
Norway
* Oman
Oman
* Pakistan
Pakistan
* Panama
Panama
* Papua New Guinea
Guinea
* Paraguay
Paraguay
* Peru
Peru
* Philippines
Philippines
* Poland
Poland
* Portugal
Portugal
* Qatar
Qatar
* Romania
Romania
* Russia
Russia
* Rwanda
Rwanda
* St. Kitts and Nevis * St. Lucia * St. Vincent and the Grenadines

* Samoa
Samoa
* São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
* Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* San Marino
San Marino
* Senegal
Senegal
* Serbia
Serbia
* Seychelles
Seychelles
* Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
* Singapore
Singapore
* Sint Maarten * Slovakia
Slovakia
* Slovenia
Slovenia
* Somalia
Somalia
* South Africa
South Africa
* South Sudan
South Sudan
* Spain
Spain
* Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
* Sudan
Sudan
* Suriname
Suriname
* Swaziland
Swaziland
* Sweden
Sweden
* Switzerland
Switzerland
* Syria
Syria
* Tajikistan
Tajikistan
* Tanzania
Tanzania
* Thailand
Thailand
* Togo
Togo
* Tonga
Tonga
* Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
* Tunisia
Tunisia
* Turkey
Turkey
* Turkmenistan * Uganda
Uganda
* Ukraine
Ukraine
* United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
* United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* United States
United States
* Uruguay
Uruguay
* Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
* Vatican City
Vatican City
* Venezuela
Venezuela
* Vietnam
Vietnam
* Yemen
Yemen
* Zambia
Zambia
* Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe

SUB-BUREAUS

* American Samoa
Samoa
* Anguilla
Anguilla
* Bermuda
Bermuda
* British Virgin Islands * Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
* Gibraltar
Gibraltar

* Hong Kong
Hong Kong
* Montserrat * Macau
Macau
* Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
* Turks and Caicos

UN MEMBER STATES WITHOUT MEMBERSHIP

* Kiribati * Micronesia * North Korea
North Korea
* Palau
Palau
* Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
* Tuvalu
Tuvalu
* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

PARTIALLY RECOGNIZED STATES WITHOUT MEMBERSHIP

* Kosovo
Kosovo
* Palestine * Taiwan
Taiwan
But Taiwan
Taiwan
is assigned in the International Police Executive Symposium, which has United Nations
United Nations
Special
Special
Consultative status.

OFFICES

In addition to its General Secretariat headquarters in Lyon, Interpol maintains seven regional bureaus:

* Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
, Argentina
Argentina
* San Salvador , El Salvador
El Salvador
* Yaoundé , Cameroon
Cameroon
* Abidjan
Abidjan
, Côte d\'Ivoire * Nairobi
Nairobi
, Kenya
Kenya
* Harare , Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
* Bangkok
Bangkok
, Thailand
Thailand
(Liaison Office) * EU , Brussels
Brussels
Liaison office, Den Haag Europol

Interpol's Command and Coordination Centres offer a 24/7 point of contact for national police forces seeking urgent information or facing a crisis. The original is in Lyon
Lyon
with a second in Buenos Aires added in September 2011. A third was opened in Singapore
Singapore
in September 2014.

Interpol
Interpol
opened a Special
Special
Representative Office to the United Nations in New York in 2004 and to the European Union
European Union
in Brussels
Brussels
in 2009.

The organization has constructed the Interpol
Interpol
Global Complex for Innovation (IGCI) in Singapore
Singapore
to act as its research and development facility, and a place of cooperation on digital crimes investigations. It was officially opened in April 2015, but had already become active beforehand. Most notably, a worldwide takedown of the SIMDA botnet infrastructure was co-ordinated and executed from IGCI's Cyber Fusion Centre in the weeks before the opening, as was revealed at the launch event.

SECRETARIES-GENERAL AND PRESIDENTS

Ronald Noble at the 6th Global Congress about combating piracy and counterfeiting .

SECRETARIES-GENERAL since organization's inception in 1923:

Oskar Dressler 1923–1946

Louis Ducloux 1946–1951

Marcel Sicot 1951–1963

Jean Népote 1963–1978

André Bossard 1978–1985

Raymond Kendall 1985–2000

Ronald Noble 2000–2014

Jürgen Stock 2014–

PRESIDENTS since organization's inception in 1923:

Johann Schober 1923–1932

Franz Brandl 1932–1934

Eugen Seydel 1934–1935

Michael Skubl 1935–1938

Otto Steinhäusl 1938–1940

Reinhard Heydrich 1940–1942

Arthur Nebe 1942–1943

Ernst Kaltenbrunner 1943–1945

Florent Louwage 1945–1956

Agostinho Lourenço 1956–1960

Sir Richard Jackson 1960–1963

Fjalar Jarva 1963–1964

Firmin Franssen 1964–1968

Paul Dickopf 1968–1972

William Leonard Higgitt 1972–1976

Carl Persson 1976–1980

Jolly Bugarin 1980–1984

John Simpson 1984–1988

Ivan Barbot 1988–1992

Norman Inkster 1992–1994

Björn Eriksson 1994–1996

Toshinori Kanemoto 1996–2000

Jesús Espigares Mira 2000–2004

Jackie Selebi 2004–2008

Arturo Herrera Verdugo 2008 (acting)

Khoo Boon Hui 2008–2012

Mireille Ballestrazzi 2012–2016

Meng Hongwei 2016–

SEE ALSO

* Lyon
Lyon
portal

* Europol , a similar EU-wide organization. * Intelligence assessment * International Criminal Court * Interpol notice * Interpol
Interpol
Terrorism
Terrorism
Watch List * Interpol Travel Document * UN Police * Cybercrime

REFERENCES

Notes

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ "Annual Report 2013" (PDF). Interpol. 2014. p. 9. Retrieved 31 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Constitution
Constitution
of the International Criminal Police Organization – INTERPOL" (PDF). INTERPOL. 1956. Retrieved 12 March 2016. * ^ "General Regulations of the International Criminal Police Organization – INTERPOL" (PDF). _Interpol, Office of Legal Affairs_. 1956. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Name and logo". INTERPOL. Retrieved 31 March 2017. * ^ "Germany\'s Jurgen Stock new Interpol
Interpol
chief". Sky News Australia
Australia
. APP . 8 November 2014. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014. * ^ "Neutrality (Article 3 of the Constitution)". INTERPOL. Retrieved 31 March 2017. * ^ "War crimes". INTERPOL. Retrieved 31 March 2017. * ^ Deflem, M. (2000). "Bureaucratization and Social Control: Historical Foundations of International Police Cooperation". _Law & Society Review_. 34 (3): 739. JSTOR 3115142 . doi :10.2307/3115142 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Interpol: Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). _Fair Trials International _. November 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2017. * ^ " Interpol
Interpol
Member States: The United Kingdom". Interpol. Retrieved 17 August 2012. * ^ " Interpol
Interpol
Member States: The United States". Interpol. Retrieved 5 January 2012. * ^ Deflem, Mathieu (2002). "The Logic of Nazification: The Case of the International Criminal Police Commission(\'Interpol\')". _International Journal of Comparative Sociology_. SAGE Publications. 43 (1): 21. doi :10.1177/002071520204300102 . Retrieved 31 March 2017.

* ^ Barnett, M.; Coleman, L. (2005). "Designing Police: Interpol and the Study of Change in International Organizations". _International Studies Quarterly_. 49 (4): 593. doi :10.1111/j.1468-2478.2005.00380.x . * ^ "Ex-S Africa police chief convicted". Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
. 2 July 2010. Retrieved 30 November 2010. * ^ Craig Timberg (13 January 2008). "S. African Chief of Police Put On Leave". _ The Washington Post _. Rustenburg . Retrieved 9 July 2013. * ^ "INTERPOL President Jackie Selebi resigns from post". Lyon: INTERPOL. 13 January 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2017. * ^ "France\'s Ballestrazzi becomes first female President of INTERPOL". Rome
Rome
: Interpol. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012. * ^ "Interpol: Mireille Ballestrazzi". Interpol. Retrieved 29 November 2016. * ^ "Interpol: President". Interpol. Retrieved 29 November 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Helmut K. Anheier ; Mark Juergensmeyer (2012). _Encyclopedia of Global Studies_. SAGE Publications. pp. 956–958. ISBN 978-1-4129-6429-6 . Retrieved 13 March 2016. * ^ "Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World". 2008. ISBN 9780195176322 . doi :10.1093/acref/9780195176322.001.0001 . * ^ "INTERPOL issues its first ever passports". Singapore: INTERPOL. 13 October 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2013. * ^ "AG-2004-RES-05: Appointment of Interpol
Interpol
External Auditor" (PDF). Cancún: INTERPOL. 8 October 2004. Retrieved 31 March 2017. * ^ "Questions and Answers: What is Canada\'s financial contribution to INTERPOL?". Royal Canadian Mounted Police . 17 March 2010. Retrieved 31 March 2017. * ^ "Financial Statements for the year ended 31 December 2011" (PDF). Interpol. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2013. * ^ "Audit assignments and secondments". _Riksrevisjonen – Office of the Auditor General of Norway_. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013. * ^ United Nations
United Nations
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Terrorism
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