HOME
ListMoto - Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index


--- Advertisement ---



The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GDP per capita is higher. The HDI was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq for the UNDP.[1][2] The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality)", and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)". The index is based on the human development approach, developed by Ul Haq, often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Beings: well fed, sheltered, healthy; Doings: work, education, voting, participating in community life. It must also be noted that the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry (e.g. during a religious fast) is quite different to someone who is hungry because they cannot afford to buy food.[3]

Contents

1 Origins 2 Dimensions and calculation

2.1 New method (2010 Index onwards) 2.2 Old method (before 2010 Index)

3 2016 Human Development Index

3.1 Inequality-adjusted HDI

4 2015 Human Development Index

4.1 Inequality-adjusted HDI

5 2014 Human Development Index

5.1 Countries not included 5.2 Inequality-adjusted HDI

6 Past top countries

6.1 In each original HDI

7 Geographical coverage 8 Country/region specific HDI lists 9 Criticism

9.1 Sources of data error

10 See also

10.1 Indices 10.2 Other

11 References 12 External links

Origins[edit]

Mahbub ul Haq

The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Reports Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). These were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, and had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, and Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities.[4] Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public, academics, and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but also improvements in human well-being.

The underlying principle behind the Human Development Index.[5]

Dimensions and calculation[edit] New method (2010 Index onwards)[edit] Published on 4 November 2010 (and updated on 10 June 2011), the 2010 Human Development Index (HDI) combines three dimensions:[6][7]

A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling A decent standard of living: GNI per capita (PPP US$)

In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. The following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index (LEI)

=

LE

− 20

85 − 20

displaystyle = frac textrm LE -20 85-20

LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.

2. Education Index (EI)

=

MYSI

+

EYSI

2

displaystyle = frac textrm MYSI + textrm EYSI 2

[8]

2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI)

=

MYS

15

displaystyle = frac textrm MYS 15

[9]

Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025.

2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI)

=

EYS

18

displaystyle = frac textrm EYS 18

[10]

Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.

3. Income Index (II)

=

ln ⁡ (

GNIpc

) − ln ⁡ ( 100 )

ln ⁡ ( 75 , 000 ) − ln ⁡ ( 100 )

displaystyle = frac ln( textrm GNIpc )-ln(100) ln(75,000)-ln(100)

II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100.

Finally, the HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices:

HDI

=

LEI

EI

II

3

.

displaystyle textrm HDI = sqrt[ 3 ] textrm LEI cdot textrm EI cdot textrm II .

LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling (i.e. years that a person aged 25 or older has spent in formal education) EYS: Expected years of schooling (i.e. total expected years of schooling for children under 18 years of age) GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita Old method (before 2010 Index)[edit] The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report:

Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weighting) and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio (with one-third weighting). Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity.

HDI trends between 1975 and 2004

  OECD   Europe not in the OECD and CIS   Latin America and the Caribbean   East Asia

  Arab League   South Asia   Sub-Saharan Africa

This methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report. The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).[11] In general, to transform a raw variable, say

x

displaystyle x

, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allows different indices to be added together), the following formula is used:

x

 index

=

x − a

b − a

displaystyle x text index = frac x-a b-a

where

a

displaystyle a

and

b

displaystyle b

are the lowest and highest values the variable

x

displaystyle x

can attain, respectively. The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the uniformly weighted sum with ​1⁄3 contributed by each of the following factor indices:

Life Expectancy Index =

L E − 25

85 − 25

displaystyle frac LE-25 85-25

Education Index =

2 3

× A L I +

1 3

× G E I

displaystyle frac 2 3 times ALI+ frac 1 3 times GEI

Adult Literacy Index (ALI) =

A L R − 0

100 − 0

displaystyle frac ALR-0 100-0

Gross Enrollment Index (GEI) =

C G E R − 0

100 − 0

displaystyle frac CGER-0 100-0

GDP =

log ⁡

(

G D P p c

)

− log ⁡

( 100 )

log ⁡

( 40000 )

− log ⁡

( 100 )

displaystyle frac log left(GDPpcright)-log left(100right) log left(40000right)-log left(100right)

Other organizations/companies may include other factors, such as infant mortality, which produces a different HDI.

2016 Human Development Index[edit] Main article: List of countries by Human Development Index The 2016 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 21 March 2017, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2015. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[12]

= increase. = steady. = decrease. The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2015 report.

Rank Country Score

2016 estimates for 2015 [13] Change in rank from previous year[13] 2016 estimates for 2015 [13] Change from previous year [13]

1

 Norway 0.949 0.001

2

 Australia 0.939 0.002

2

  Switzerland 0.939 0.001

4 (2)  Germany 0.926 0.002

5 (1)  Denmark 0.925 0.002

5 (6)  Singapore 0.925 0.013

7 (1)  Netherlands 0.924 0.001

8

 Ireland 0.923 0.003

9 (7)  Iceland 0.921 0.002

10 (1)  Canada 0.920 0.001

10 (2)  United States 0.920 0.002

12

 Hong Kong 0.917 0.001

13 (4)  New Zealand 0.915 0.002

14 (1)  Sweden 0.913 0.004

15 (1)  Liechtenstein 0.912 0.001

16 (4)  United Kingdom 0.909 0.003

17 (3)  Japan 0.903 0.001

18

 South Korea 0.901 0.002

19

 Israel 0.899 0.001

20

 Luxembourg 0.898 0.002

21 (1)  France 0.897 0.003

22 (1)  Belgium 0.896 0.001

23

 Finland 0.895 0.002

24

 Austria 0.893 0.001

25 (2)  Spain 0.892 0.005

26

 Slovenia 0.890 0.002

27 (1)  Italy 0.887 0.006

28

 Czech Republic 0.878 0.003

29

 Greece 0.866 0.001

30

 Brunei 0.865 0.001

30 (1)  Estonia 0.865 0.002

32

 Andorra 0.858 0.001

33 (1)  Cyprus 0.856 0.002

33 (2)  Malta 0.856 0.003

33

 Qatar 0.856 0.001

36

 Poland 0.855 0.003

37

 Lithuania 0.848 0.002

38 (4)  Chile 0.847 0.002

38

 Saudi Arabia 0.847 0.002

40 (5)  Slovakia 0.845 0.003

41

 Portugal 0.843 0.002

42

 United Arab Emirates 0.840 0.004

43

 Hungary 0.836 0.002

44

 Latvia 0.830 0.002

45 (5)  Argentina 0.827 0.001

45 (1)  Croatia 0.827 0.004

47 (1)  Bahrain 0.824 0.001

48 (1)  Montenegro 0.807 0.003

49 (1)  Russia 0.804 0.001

50 (1)  Romania 0.802 0.004

51 (1)  Kuwait 0.800 0.001

Inequality-adjusted HDI[edit] Main article: List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)[14] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account". The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 206).

 Norway 0.898  Iceland 0.868  Netherlands 0.861  Australia 0.861  Germany 0.859   Switzerland 0.859  Denmark 0.858  Sweden 0.851  Ireland 0.850  Finland 0.843  Canada 0.839  Slovenia 0.838  United Kingdom 0.836  Czech Republic 0.830  Luxembourg 0.827  Belgium 0.821  Austria 0.815  France 0.813  United States 0.796  Slovakia 0.793  Japan 0.791  Spain 0.791  Estonia 0.788  Malta 0.786  Italy 0.784  Israel 0.778  Poland 0.774  Hungary 0.771  Cyprus 0.762  Lithuania 0.759  Greece 0.758  Portugal 0.755  South Korea 0.753  Croatia 0.752  Latvia 0.742  Montenegro 0.736  Russia 0.725  Romania 0.714  Argentina 0.698  Chile 0.691

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: Taiwan, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Kuwait. 2015 Human Development Index[edit] Main article: List of countries by Human Development Index The 2015 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 14 December 2015, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2014. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[15][16][17]

= increase. = steady. = decrease. The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2014 report.

Rank Country Score

2015 estimates for 2014 [18] Change in rank from previous year[18] 2015 estimates for 2014 [18] Change from previous year [18]

1

 Norway 0.944 0.002

2

 Australia 0.935 0.002

3

  Switzerland 0.930 0.002

4

 Denmark 0.923

5

 Netherlands 0.922 0.002

6

 Germany 0.916 0.001

6 (2)  Ireland 0.916 0.004

8 (1)  United States 0.915 0.002

9 (1)  Canada 0.913 0.001

9 (1)  New Zealand 0.913 0.002

11 (2)  Singapore 0.912 0.003

12

 Hong Kong 0.910 0.002

13

 Liechtenstein 0.908 0.001

14

 Sweden 0.907 0.002

14 (1)  United Kingdom 0.907 0.005

16

 Iceland 0.899

17

 South Korea 0.898 0.003

18

 Israel 0.894 0.001

18

 Macau 0.894 [19]

19

 Luxembourg 0.892 0.002

20 (1)  Japan 0.891 0.001

21

 Belgium 0.890 0.002

22

 France 0.888 0.001

23

 Austria 0.885 0.001

24

 Finland 0.883 0.001

25

 Taiwan 0.882 [20]

26

 Slovenia 0.880 0.001

27

 Spain 0.876 0.002

28

 Italy 0.873

29

 Czech Republic 0.870 0.002

30

 Greece 0.865 0.002

31

 Estonia 0.861 0.002

32

 Brunei 0.856 0.004

33

 Cyprus 0.850

33 (1)  Qatar 0.850 0.001

34

 Andorra 0.845 0.001

35 (1)  Slovakia 0.844 0.005

36 (1)  Poland 0.843 0.003

37

 Lithuania 0.839 0.002

37

 Malta 0.839 0.002

39

 Saudi Arabia 0.837 0.001

40

 Argentina 0.836 0.003

41 (1)  United Arab Emirates 0.835 0.002

42

 Chile 0.832 0.002

43

 Portugal 0.830 0.002

44

 Hungary 0.828 0.003

45

 Bahrain 0.824 0.003

46 (1)  Latvia 0.819 0.003

47 (1)  Croatia 0.818 0.001

48 (1)  Kuwait 0.816

49

 Montenegro 0.802 0.001

Inequality-adjusted HDI[edit] Main article: List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)[15] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account". Note: The green arrows (), red arrows (), and blue dashes () represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 216).

 Norway 0.893 ()  Netherlands 0.861 ( 1)   Switzerland 0.861 ( 1)  Australia 0.858 ( 2)  Denmark 0.856 ( 3)  Germany 0.853 ( 1)  Iceland 0.846 ( 1)  Sweden 0.846 ( 1)  Ireland 0.836 ( 1)  Finland 0.834 ( 1)  Canada 0.832 ( 2)  Slovenia 0.829 ()  United Kingdom 0.829 ( 3)  Czech Republic 0.823 ( 1)  Luxembourg 0.822 ( 1)  Belgium 0.820 ( 1)  Austria 0.816 ( 4)  France 0.811 ()  Slovakia 0.791 ( 2)  Estonia 0.782 ( 4)  Japan 0.780 ( 1)  Israel 0.775 ( 3)  Spain 0.775 ( 1)  Italy 0.773 ( 1)  Hungary 0.769 ( 2)  Malta 0.767 ()  Poland 0.760 ( 2)  United States 0.760 ()  Cyprus 0.758 ( 1)  Greece 0.758 ( 5)  Lithuania 0.754 ()  South Korea 0.751 ( 1)  Portugal 0.744 ( 1)  Croatia 0.743 ( 1)  Belarus 0.741  Latvia 0.730

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: Taiwan, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Cuba, and Kuwait. 2014 Human Development Index[edit] The 2014 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 24 July 2014 and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2013. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[21][16][17]

= increase. = steady. = decrease. The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2013 report.

Rank Country HDI

New 2014 estimates for 2013 [22] Change in rank between 2014 report and 2013 report[22] New 2014 estimates for 2013 [22] Change compared between 2014 report and 2013 report [22]

1

 Norway 0.944 0.011

2

 Australia 0.933 0.002

3

  Switzerland 0.917 0.001

4

 Netherlands 0.915

5

 United States 0.914 0.002

6

 Germany 0.911

7

 New Zealand 0.910 0.002

8

 Canada 0.902 0.001

9 (3)  Singapore 0.901 0.002

10

 Denmark 0.900

11 (3)  Ireland 0.899 0.017

12 (1)  Sweden 0.898 0.001

13

 Iceland 0.895 0.002

14

 United Kingdom 0.892 0.002

14

 Macau 0.892 [19]

15

 Hong Kong 0.891 0.002

15 (1)  South Korea 0.891 0.003

17 (1)  Japan 0.890 0.002

18 (2)  Liechtenstein 0.889 0.001

19

 Israel 0.888 0.002

20

 France 0.884

21

 Taiwan 0.882 [20]

22

 Austria 0.881 0.001

22

 Belgium 0.881 0.001

22

 Luxembourg 0.881 0.001

23

 Finland 0.879

24

 Slovenia 0.874

25

 Italy 0.872

26

 Spain 0.869

27

 Czech Republic 0.861

28

 Greece 0.853 0.001

29

 Brunei 0.852

30

 Qatar 0.851 0.001

31

 Cyprus 0.845 0.003

32

 Estonia 0.840 0.001

33

 Saudi Arabia 0.836 0.003

34 (1)  Lithuania 0.834 0.003

34 (1)  Poland 0.834 0.001

35

 Andorra 0.830

35 (1)  Slovakia 0.830 0.001

36

 Malta 0.829 0.002

37

 United Arab Emirates 0.827 0.002

38 (1)  Chile 0.822 0.003

38

 Portugal 0.822

39

 Hungary 0.818 0.001

40

 Bahrain 0.815 0.002

40

 Cuba 0.815 0.002

41 (2)  Kuwait 0.814 0.001

42

 Croatia 0.812

43

 Latvia 0.810 0.002

44

 Argentina 0.808 0.002

Countries not included[edit] Some countries were not included for various reasons, primarily due to the lack of necessary data. The following United Nations Member States were not included in the 2014 report:[21] North Korea, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Tuvalu. Inequality-adjusted HDI[edit] Main article: List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)[21] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account". Note: The green arrows (), red arrows (), and blue dashes () represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 168).

 Norway 0.891 ()  Australia 0.860 ()  Netherlands 0.854 ( 1)   Switzerland 0.847 ( 3)  Germany 0.846 ()  Iceland 0.843 ( 2)  Sweden 0.840 ( 4)  Denmark 0.838 ( 1)  Canada 0.833 ( 4)  Ireland 0.832 ( 4)  Finland 0.830 ()  Slovenia 0.824 ( 2)  Austria 0.818 ( 1)  Luxembourg 0.814 ( 3)  Czech Republic 0.813 ( 1)  United Kingdom 0.812 ( 3)  Belgium 0.806 ( 2)  France 0.804 ()  Israel 0.793 ( 1)  Japan 0.779 (New)  Slovakia 0.778 ( 1)  Spain 0.775 ( 2)  Italy 0.768 ( 1)  Estonia 0.767 ( 1)  Greece 0.762 ( 2)  Malta 0.760 ( 3)  Hungary 0.757 ( 1)  United States 0.755 ( 12)  Poland 0.751 ( 1)  Cyprus 0.752 ( 1)  Lithuania 0.746 ( 2)  Portugal 0.739 ()  South Korea 0.736 ( 5)  Latvia 0.725 ( 1)  Croatia 0.721 ( 4)  Argentina 0.680 ( 7)  Chile 0.661 ( 4)

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: Taiwan, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Cuba, and Kuwait. Past top countries[edit] The list below displays the top-ranked country from each year of the Human Development Index. Norway has been ranked the highest thirteen times, Canada eight times, and Japan three times. Iceland has been ranked highest twice. In each original HDI[edit] The year represents when the report was published. In parentheses is the year for which the index was calculated.

2016 (2015):  Norway 2015 (2014):  Norway 2014 (2013):  Norway 2013 (2012):  Norway 2011 (2011):  Norway 2010 (2010):  Norway 2009 (2007):  Norway 2008 (2006):  Iceland 2007 (2005):  Iceland 2006 (2004):  Norway 2005 (2003):  Norway 2004 (2002):  Norway 2003 (2001):  Norway 2002 (2000):  Norway 2001 (1999):  Norway 2000 (1998):  Canada 1999 (1997):  Canada 1998 (1995):  Canada 1997 (1994):  Canada 1996 (1993):  Canada 1995 (1992):  Canada 1994 (????):  Canada 1993 (????):  Japan 1992 (1990):  Canada 1991 (1990):  Japan 1990 (????):  Japan

Geographical coverage[edit] The HDI has extended its geographical coverage: David Hastings, of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, published a report geographically extending the HDI to 230+ economies, whereas the UNDP HDI for 2009 enumerates 182 economies and coverage for the 2010 HDI dropped to 169 countries.[23][24] Country/region specific HDI lists[edit]

African countries Argentine provinces Brazilian states Canadian provinces and territories Chilean regions Chinese administrative divisions European countries Indian states Indonesian provinces Latin American countries Mexican states Pakistani districts Philippine provinces Russian federal subjects South African provinces U.S. states (American Human Development Report (AHDR)) Venezuelan states

Criticism[edit]

HDI vs. ecological footprint

The Human Development Index has been criticized on a number of grounds, including alleged lack of consideration of technological development or contributions to the human civilization, focusing exclusively on national performance and ranking, lack of attention to development from a global perspective, measurement error of the underlying statistics, and on the UNDP's changes in formula which can lead to severe misclassification in the categorisation of 'low', 'medium', 'high' or 'very high' human development countries.[25] Sources of data error[edit] Economists Hendrik Wolff, Howard Chong and Maximilian Auffhammer discuss the HDI from the perspective of data error in the underlying health, education and income statistics used to construct the HDI. They identified three sources of data error which are due to (i) data updating, (ii) formula revisions and (iii) thresholds to classify a country's development status and conclude that 11%, 21% and 34% of all countries can be interpreted as currently misclassified in the development bins due to the three sources of data error, respectively. The authors suggest that the United Nations should discontinue the practice of classifying countries into development bins because: the cut-off values seem arbitrary, can provide incentives for strategic behavior in reporting official statistics, and have the potential to misguide politicians, investors, charity donors and the public who use the HDI at large.[25] In 2010, the UNDP reacted to the criticism and updated the thresholds to classify nations as low, medium, and high human development countries. In a comment to The Economist in early January 2011, the Human Development Report Office responded[26] to a 6 January 2011 article in the magazine[27] which discusses the Wolff et al. paper. The Human Development Report Office states that they undertook a systematic revision of the methods used for the calculation of the HDI, and that the new methodology directly addresses the critique by Wolff et al. in that it generates a system for continuously updating the human-development categories whenever formula or data revisions take place. In 2013, Salvatore Monni and Alessandro Spaventa emphasized that in the debate of GDP versus HDI, it is often forgotten that these are both external indicators that prioritize different benchmarks upon which the quantification of societal welfare can be predicated. The larger question is whether it is possible to shift the focus of policy from a battle between competing paradigms to a mechanism for eliciting information on well-being directly from the population.[28] See also[edit]

Sustainable development portal

Indices[edit]

Bhutan GNH Index Broad measures of economic progress Green national product Green gross domestic product (Green GDP) Gender Inequality Index Gender-related Development Index Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) Global Peace Index (GPI) Gross National Well-being (GNW) Happy Planet Index (HPI) Human Poverty Index Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) Legatum Prosperity Index List of countries by Human Development Index Living planet index Multidimensional Poverty Index Rule of Law Index OECD Better Life Index (BLI) Social Progress Index Where-to-be-born Index World Happiness Report

Other[edit]

Economic development Ethics of care Happiness economics Human Development and Capability Association International development Least developed country Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Right to an adequate standard of living Subjective life satisfaction Sustainable development Sustainable Development Goals

References[edit]

^ "Human Development Index". Economic Times.  ^ "The Human Development concept". UNDP. 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011.  ^ "What is Human Development". UNDP. 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.  ^ "The Human Development concept". UNDP. 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011.  ^ "What is Human Development". UNDP. 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.  ^ "Human Development Report 2010". UNDP. 4 November 2010.  ^ "Technical notes" (PDF). UNDP. 2013.  ^ "New method of calculation of Human Development Index (HDI)". India Study Channel. 2011-06-01. Retrieved 2017-11-19.  ^ Mean years of schooling (of adults) (years) is a calculation of the average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older in their lifetime based on education attainment levels of the population converted into years of schooling based on theoretical duration of each level of education attended. Source: Barro, R. J.; Lee, J.-W. (2010). "A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950–2010". NBER Working Paper No. 15902.  ^ (ESYI is a calculation of the number of years a child is expected to attend school, or university, including the years spent on repetition. It is the sum of the age-specific enrollment ratios for primary, secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary education and is calculated assuming the prevailing patterns of age-specific enrollment rates were to stay the same throughout the child's life. Expected years of schooling is capped at 18 years. (Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010). Correspondence on education indicators. March. Montreal.) ^ Definition, Calculator, etc. at UNDP site Archived 20 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Human Development Report 2016" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 12 July 2017.  ^ a b c d "Human Development Report 2016—'Human Development for everyone'" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 21 March 2017.  ^ http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2016_human_development_report.pdf ^ a b http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr_2015_statistical_annex.pdf ^ a b The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI.Macau in Figures, 2015 ^ a b Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. "2011中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI)" (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.  ^ a b c d "Human Development Report 2015—'Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience'" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 December 2015.  ^ a b The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI. Macau in Figures, 2016 ^ a b The UN does not recognize the Republic of China (Taiwan) as a sovereign state. The HDI report does not include Taiwan as part of the People's Republic of China when calculating China's figures. Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. "2011中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI)" (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.  ^ a b c http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-report-en-1.pdf ^ a b c d "Human Development Report 2014—'Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience'". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 25 July 2014.  ^ Hastings, David A. (2009). "Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index". United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Working Paper WP/09/02.  ^ Hastings, David A. (2011). "A "Classic" Human Development Index with 232 Countries". HumanSecurityIndex.org.  Information Note linked to data ^ a b Wolff, Hendrik; Chong, Howard; Auffhammer, Maximilian (2011). "Classification, Detection and Consequences of Data Error: Evidence from the Human Development Index". Economic Journal. 121 (553): 843–870. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.2010.02408.x.  ^ "UNDP Human Development Report Office's comments". The Economist. January 2011. [dead link] ^ "The Economist (pages 60–61 in the issue of Jan 8, 2011)". 6 January 2011.  ^ Monni, Salvatore; Spaventa, Alessandro (2013). "Beyond Gdp and HDI: Shifting the focus from Paradigms to Politics". Development. 56 (2): 227–231. doi:10.1057/dev.2013.30. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Human Development Index.

Human Development Index Human Development Tools and Rankings "Technical note explaining the definition of the HDI" (PDF).  (5.54 MB) New demographic datasets by 'Human Development Index (HDI)’ An independent HDI covering 232 countries, formulated along lines of the traditional (pre-2010) approach.

v t e

Economic classification of countries

Developed country Developing country Least Developed Countries World Bank high-income economy Newly industrialized country Heavily indebted poor countries

Three-World Model

First World Second World Third World Fourth World

Gross domestic product (GDP)

Nominal

By country

past and projected

per capita

per capita

Purchasing power parity (PPP)

By country

future estimates

per capita

per capita per hour worked per person employed

Gross national income (GNI)

(Nominal, Atlas method) per capita (PPP) per capita

Wages

Average wage

Europe by monthly average wage

Employee compensation (per hour) List of countries by median wage Minimum wages

Canada Europe United States

Wealth

Wealth per adult

Other national accounts

Gross National Happiness Net material product Research and development spending

Human development

Human Development Index

by country inequality-adjusted

Human Poverty Index Percentage living in poverty Social Progress Index

Digital divide

ICT Development Index Number of broadband Internet subscriptions Number of Internet users Smartphone penetration

Net international investment position (NIIP)

Per capita

v t e

Lists of countries by population statistics

Global

Current population Current population (United Nations)

(Sub-)Continents

Africa Asia Europe North America

Caribbean

Oceania South America

Intercontinental

Americas Arab world Commonwealth of Nations Eurasia European Union Islands Latin America Middle East

Cities/urban regions

National capitals Cities proper Metropolitan areas Urban areas Megacities Megalopolises

Past and future

Past population (United Nations) Past and future population 1 1000 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 1907 1939 1989 2000 2005 2010 Future population

Population density

Current density Current real density based on food growing capacity

Growth indicators

Population growth rate Natural increase Birth rate Mortality rate Fertility rate

Other demographics

Age at first marriage Divorce rate Ethnic and cultural diversity level Foreign-born population Immigrant population Linguistic diversity Median age Net migration rate Number of households Sex ratio Urban population Urbanization

Health

Antiviral medications for pandemic influenza HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate Infant and under-five mortality rates Life expectancy Percentage suffering from undernourishment Health expenditure covered by government Suicide rate Total health expenditure per capita Body Mass Index (BMI)

Education and innovation

Bloomberg Innovation Index Education Index International Innovation Index Innovation Union Scoreboard Literacy rate Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies Progress in International Reading Literacy Study Student skills Tertiary education attainment Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Women's average years in school World Intellectual Property Indicators

Economic

Development aid given

Official Development Assistance received

Employment rate Irrigated land area Human Development Index

by country inequality-adjusted

Human Poverty Index Imports Income equality Job security Labour force Number of millionaires (US dollars) Number of billionaires (US dollars) Percentage living in poverty Public sector Sen social welfare function Unemployment rate

List of international rankings List of top international rankings by country Lists by country

v t e

Lists of countries by quality of life rankings

General

Life expectancy

in Europe

World Happiness Report Happy Planet Index Human Development Index

by country inequality-adjusted

Legatum Prosperity Index Good Country Index Satisfaction with Life Index Where-to-be-born Index

Economic

Net take-home pay Job security Long-term unemployment rate Home ownership rate Smartphone ownership rate

Environment

Environmental Performance Index Environmental Vulnerability Index Natural disaster risk

Health

Cancer rate Health care quality Health expenditure covered by government Hospital beds Risk of death from non-communicable disease Teenage pregnancy rate

Social/Political

Government transparency Global Slavery Index Global Terrorism Index Global Competitiveness Index Social Progress Index Time devoted to leisure and personal care Women's average years in school

List of international rankings List of top international rankings by country Lists by country

v t e

Deprivation and poverty indicators

Social

Topics:

Social exclusion Social vulnerability Relative deprivation Disadvantaged Fushūgaku Hikikomori Social determinants of health in poverty

Measures:

Social Progress Index

Psychological

Topics:

psychological poverty Poverty and mental health Social and psychological value of money

Economic

Topics:

Energy poverty Money-rich, time-poor Poverty threshold Secondary poverty Asset poverty Housing stress Income deficit Survival sex Debt bondage

Measures:

Below Poverty Line (India) Homeless Vulnerability Index Misery index (economics) Gini coefficient Genuine progress indicator (GPI) Legatum Prosperity Index Poverty gap index

Physical

Topics:

Poverty and Violence Disability and poverty Food insecurity

Measures:

India State Hunger Index Global Hunger Index Disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) Global Peace Index (GPI)

Complex measures

Human Poverty Index (HPI) Human Development Index (HDI) Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) Laeken indicators (EU) Scottish index of multiple deprivation Townsend deprivation index Living Planet Index (LPI) Progress out of Poverty Index

Gender

Topics:

Feminization of poverty

Measures:

Gender-related Development Index (GDI) Gender Parity Index

Other

Theories of poverty Well-being Welfare Wellness Quality of Life Self-perceived quality-of-life scale Subjective well-being (SWB) Suboptimal health Stress Rural access issues Providing Urban Amenities to Rural Areas Post-materialism Pen's parade

v t e

Diseases of poverty

Diseases of poverty

AIDS Malaria Tuberculosis Measles Pneumonia Diarrheal diseases

Neglected diseases

Cholera Chagas disease African sleeping sickness Schistosomiasis Dracunculiasis River blindness Leishmaniasis Trachoma

Miscellaneous

Malnutrition Priority review voucher

v t e

Indices of Deprivation

National (general deprivation)

Carstairs index Index of Multiple Deprivation 2000 (IMD2000) Indices of deprivation 2004 (ID2004) Indices of deprivation 2007 (ID2007) Indices of deprivation 2010 (ID2010)

National (subject specific deprivation)

Underprivileged area score Department of Environment Index

Environment portal Category Commons Organizations

Authority control

.

Warning: Invalid argument supplied for foreach() in D:\Bitnami\wampstack-7.1.16-0\apache2\htdocs\php\PeriodicService.php on line 61