INDUSTRIALISATION or INDUSTRIALIZATION is the period of social and
economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society
into an industrial society , involving the extensive re-organisation
of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing .
As industrial workers' incomes rise, markets for consumer goods and
services of all kinds tend to expand and provide a further stimulus to
industrial investment and economic growth .
* 1 Background
* 2 Social consequences
* 2.1 Urbanisation
* 2.1.1 Exploitation
* 2.2 Changes in family structure
* 3 Current situation
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 Further reading
The first transformation to an industrial economy from an
agricultural one, known as the
Industrial Revolution , took place from
the mid-18th to early 19th century in certain areas in
North America; starting in Great Britain, followed by Belgium,
Germany, and France. Characteristics of this early industrialisation
were technological progress, a shift from rural work to industrial
labor, financial investments in new industrial structure, and early
developments in class consciousness and theories related to this.
Later commentators have called this the First Industrial Revolution.
Industrial Revolution " labels the later changes that
came about in the mid-19th century after the refinement of the steam
engine , the invention of the internal combustion engine , the
harnessing of electricity and the construction of canals, railways and
electric-power lines. The invention of the assembly line gave this
phase a boost. Coal mines, steelworks, and textile factories replaced
homes as the place of work.
By the end of the 20th century,
East Asia had become one of the most
recently industrialised regions of the world. The BRICS states
(Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) are undergoing the
process of industrialisation.
There is considerable literature on the factors facilitating
industrial modernisation and enterprise development.
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Main article: Urbanisation
The concentration of labour into factories has increased urbanisation
and the size of settlements, to serve and house the factory workers.
Exploitation of labour and Exploitation of natural
Workers have to either leave their families or bring them along in
order to work in the towns and cities where these industries are
CHANGES IN FAMILY STRUCTURE
The family structure changes with industrialisation. The sociologist
Talcott Parsons noted that in pre-industrial societies there is an
extended family structure spanning many generations who probably
remained in the same location for generations. In industrialised
societies the nuclear family , consisting of only parents and their
growing children, predominates. Families and children reaching
adulthood are more mobile and tend to relocate to where jobs exist.
Extended family bonds become more tenuous.
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2006 GDP composition of sector and labour force by occupation.
The green, red, and blue components of the colours of the countries
represent the percentages for the agriculture, industry, and services
As of 2018 the "international development community" (
World Bank ,
Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) , many
United Nations departments, and some other organisations) endorses
development policies like water purification or primary education and
co-operation amongst third world communities . Some members of the
economic communities do not consider contemporary industrialisation
policies as being adequate to the global south (
Third World countries)
or beneficial in the longer term, with the perception that they may
only create inefficient local industries unable to compete in the
free-trade dominated political order which industrialisation has
Green politics may represent more
visceral reactions to industrial growth. Nevertheless, repeated
examples in history of apparently successful industrialisation
(Britain, Soviet Union, South Korea, China, etc) may make conventional
industrialisation seem like an attractive or even natural path
forward, especially as populations grow, consumerist expectations rise
and agricultural opportunities diminish.
The relationships among economic growth, employment, and poverty
reduction are complex. Higher productivity , it is argued, may lead to
lower employment (see jobless recovery ). There are differences
across sectors , whereby manufacturing is less able than the tertiary
sector to accommodate both increased productivity and employment
opportunities; more than 40% of the world's employees are "working
poor ", whose incomes fail to keep themselves and their families above
the $2-a-day poverty line . There is also a phenomenon of
deindustrialisation , as in the former USSR countries' transition to
market economies, and the agriculture sector is often the key sector
in absorbing the resultant unemployment.
Division of labour
Idea of Progress
* Newly industrialised country
Paul Bairoch (1995). Economics and World History: Myths and
University of Chicago Press . p. 95.
* ^ O\'Sullivan, Arthur ; Sheffrin, Steven M. (2003). Economics:
Principles in Action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson
Prentice Hall. p. 472. ISBN 0-13-063085-3 .
OCLC 50237774 .
* ^ Griffin, Emma, A Short History of the British Industrial
Revolution. In 1850 over 50 percent of the British lived and worked in
cities. London: Palgrave (2010)
* ^ "Sustainable Industrialization in Africa - Springer" (PDF).
download.springer.com. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
* ^ Pollard, Sidney: Peaceful Conquest.The
Europe 1760–1970, Oxford 1981.
* ^ Buchheim, Christoph: Industrielle Revolutionen. Langfristige
Wirtschaftsentwicklung in Großbritannien, Europa und in Übersee,
München 1994, S. 11-104.
* ^ Jones, Eric: The European Miracle: Environments, Economics and
Geopolitics in the History of
Europe and Asia, 3. ed. Cambridge 2003.
* ^ Henning, Friedrich-Wilhelm: Die Industrialisierung in
Deutschland 1800 bis 1914, 9. Aufl., Paderborn/München/Wien/Zürich
1995, S. 15-279.
* ^ Industry & Enterprise: An International Survey Of Modernisation
">(PDF). download.springer.com. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
* ^ Lewis F. Abbott, Theories Of Industrial Modernisation &
Enterprise Development: A Review, ISM/Google Books, revised 2nd
edition, 2003. ISBN 978-0-906321-26-3 .
* ^ The effect of industrialisation on the family, Talcott Parsons,
the isolated nuclear family. Blacks Academy. Educational Database .
Accessed April 2008.
* ^ United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Un.org
(2008-05-20). Retrieved on 2013-07-29.
* ^ A B C Claire Melamed, Renate Hartwig and Ursula Grant 2011.
Jobs, growth and poverty: what do we know, what don\'t we know, what
should we know? Archived 20 May 2011 at the
Wayback Machine . London:
Overseas Development Institute
* Chandler Jr., Alfred D. (1993). The Visible Hand: The Management
Revolution in American Business. Belknap Press of Harvard University
Press. ISBN 978-0674940529 .
* Hewitt, T., Johnson, H. and Wield, D. (Eds) (1992)
industrialisation and Development, Oxford University Press: Oxford.
* Hobsbawm, Eric (1962): The Age of Revolution. Abacus.
* Kemp, Tom (1993) Historical Patterns of Industrialisation,
Longman: London. ISBN 0-582-09547-6
* Kiely, R (1998) industrialisation and Development: A comparative
analysis, UCL Press:London.
* Landes, David. S. (1969). The Unbound Prometheus: Technological
Change and Industrial Development in Western
Europe from 1750 to the
Present. Cambridge, New York: Press Syndicate of the University of
Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-09418-6 .
* Pomeranz, Ken (2001)The Great Divergence: China,
Europe and the
Making of the Modern World
Economy (Princeton Economic History of the
Western World) by (Princeton University Press; New Ed edition, 2001)
* Tilly, Richard H.: Industrialization as an Historical Process,
European History Online , Mainz:
Institute of European History , 2010,
retrieved: 29 February 2011.
* GND : 4026776-3
* HDS : 13824