The INDO-IRANIAN LANGUAGES, or INDO-IRANIC LANGUAGES, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family . It has more than 1 billion speakers, stretching from the Caucasus (Ossetian ) and the Balkans (Romani/Gypsy ) eastward to Xinjiang (Sarikoli ) and Assam (Assamese ), and south to the Maldives (Maldivian ).
The common ancestor of all of the languages in this family is called Proto-Indo-Iranian —also known as Common Aryan—which was spoken in approximately the late 3rd millennium BC. The three branches of the modern Indo- Iranian languages are Indo-Aryan , Iranian , and Nuristani . Additionally, sometimes a fourth independent branch, Dardic , is posited, but recent scholarship in general places Dardic languages as archaic members of the Indo-Aryan branch.
* 1 Languages * 2 History * 3 Features * 4 References * 5 Sources * 6 External links
Indo-Iranian consists of three groups:
* Indo-Aryan (Indic) * Iranian (Iranic) * Nuristani
Most of the largest languages (in terms of native speakers) are a part of the Indo-Aryan group: Hindustani (Hindi–Urdu, ~590 million ), Bengali (205 million ), Punjabi (100 million), Marathi (75 million), Gujarati (50 million), Bhojpuri (40 million), Awadhi (40 million), Maithili (35 million), Odia (35 million), Marwari (30 million), Sindhi (25 million), Rajasthani (20 million), Chhattisgarhi (18 million), Assamese (15 million), Sinhalese (16 million), Nepali (17 million), and Rangpuri (rajbanshi) (15 million). Among the Iranian branch, major languages are Persian (60 million), Pashto (ca. 50 million), Kurdish (35 million), and Balochi (8 million), with a total number of native speakers of more than 1471 million. Numerous smaller languages exist.
The oldest attested Indo- Iranian languages are Vedic Sanskrit (ancient Indo-Aryan), Older and Younger Avestan and Old Persian (ancient Iranian languages). A few words from another Indo-Aryan language (see Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni ) are attested in documents from the ancient Mitanni and Hittite kingdoms in the Near East.
Innovations shared with other languages affected by the satem sound changes include:
* Fronting and assibilation of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) palato-velar stops: *ḱ, *ǵʰ, *ǵ > *ĉ, *ĵʰ, *ĵ * The merger of the PIE labiovelar and plain velar stops: *kʷ, *gʷʰ, *gʷ > *k, *gʰ, *g * The Ruki sound law
Innovations shared with Greek include:
* The vocalization of the PIE syllabic nasals *m̥, *n̥ to *a * Grassmann\'s law
Innovations unique to Indo-Iranian include:
* The lowering of PIE *e to *a
* *o was also lowered to *a, though this occurred in several other Indo-European languages as well.
* Brugmann\'s law
* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Indo-Iranian". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Mahulkar, D. D. _Pre-Pāṇinian Linguistic Studies_. * ^ Puglielli, Annarita; Mara Frascarelli. _Linguistic Analysis: From Data to Theory_. * ^ Bashir, Elena (2007). Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George, eds. _The Indo-Aryan languages_. p. 905. ISBN 978-0415772945 . 'Dardic' is a geographic cover term for those Northwest Indo-Aryan languages which __ developed new characteristics different from the IA languages of the Indo-Gangetic plain. Although the Dardic and Nuristani (previously 'Kafiri') languages were formerly grouped together, Morgenstierne (1965) has established that the Dardic languages are Indo-Aryan, and that the Nuristani languages constitute a separate subgroup of Indo-Iranian. * ^ Edwards, Viv. "Urdu/Hindi Today". BBC. * ^ Thompson, Irene. "Bengali". AboutWorldLanguages. Retrieved March 29, 2013. * ^ CIA- The World Factbook: 14.7 million in Turkey (18%), 4.9–6.5 million in Iraq (15-20%), 8 million in Iran (10%)"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2011. (all for 2014), plus several million in Syria, neighboring countries, and the diaspora
* Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1994). _A comparative study of Santali and Bengali_. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co. ISBN 81-7074-128-9 * Nicholas Sims-Williams, ed. (2002). _Indo-Iranian Languages and Peoples_. Oxford University Press .