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The Indo- Iranian languages
Iranian languages
or Indo-Iranic languages[2][3], or Aryan languages,[4] constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family. It has more than 1 billion speakers, stretching from Europe
Europe
(Romani) and the Caucasus
Caucasus
(Ossetian) eastward to Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(Sarikoli) and Assam
Assam
(Assamese), and south to Sri Lanka (Sinhalese) and the Maldives
Maldives
(Maldivian). The common ancestor of all of the languages in this family is called Proto-Indo-Iranian—also known as Common Aryan—which was spoken in approximately the late 3rd millennium BC. The three branches of the modern Indo- Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are Indo-Aryan, Iranian, and Nuristani. Additionally, sometimes a fourth independent branch, Dardic, is posited, but recent scholarship in general places Dardic languages as archaic members of the Indo-Aryan branch.[5]

Contents

1 Languages 2 History 3 Features 4 Notes 5 References 6 Sources 7 External links

Languages[edit]

Indo-Iranian languages

Indo-Iranian consists of three groups:

Indo-Aryan languages Iranian/Iranic Nuristani

Part of a series on

Indo-European topics

Languages

List of Indo-European languages

Historical

Albanian Armenian Balto-Slavic

Baltic Slavic

Celtic Germanic Hellenic

Greek

Indo-Iranian

Indo-Aryan Iranian

Italic

Romance

Extinct

Anatolian Tocharian Paleo-Balkan Dacian Illyrian Liburnian Messapian Mysian Paeonian Phrygian Thracian

Reconstructed

Proto-Indo-European language

Phonology: Sound laws, Accent, Ablaut

Hypothetical

Daco-Thracian Graeco-Armenian Graeco-Aryan Graeco-Phrygian Indo-Hittite Italo-Celtic Thraco-Illyrian

Grammar

Vocabulary Root Verbs Nouns Pronouns Numerals Particles

Other

Proto-Anatolian Proto-Armenian Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
(Proto-Norse) Proto-Celtic Proto-Italic Proto-Greek Proto-Balto-Slavic (Proto-Slavic) Proto-Indo-Iranian
Proto-Indo-Iranian
(Proto-Iranian)

Philology

Hittite texts Hieroglyphic Luwian Linear B Rigveda Avesta Homer Behistun Gaulish epigraphy Latin epigraphy Runic epigraphy Ogam Gothic Bible Armenian Bible Slanting Brahmi Old Irish glosses

Origins

Homeland Proto-Indo-Europeans Society Religion

Mainstream

Kurgan
Kurgan
hypothesis Indo-European migrations Eurasian nomads

Alternative and fringe

Anatolian hypothesis Armenian hypothesis Indigenous Aryans Baltic homeland Paleolithic Continuity Theory

Archaeology

Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
(Copper Age)

Pontic Steppe

Domestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe cultures

Bug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk Yamna

Mikhaylovka culture

Caucasus

Maykop

East-Asia

Afanasevo

Eastern Europe

Usatovo Cernavodă Cucuteni

Northern Europe

Corded ware

Baden Middle Dnieper

Bronze Age

Pontic Steppe

Chariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka Srubna

Northern/Eastern Steppe

Abashevo culture Andronovo Sintashta

Europe

Globular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus Urnfield Lusatian

South-Asia

BMAC Yaz Gandhara grave

Iron Age

Steppe

Chernoles

Europe

Thraco-Cimmerian Hallstatt Jastorf

Caucasus

Colchian

India

Painted Grey Ware Northern Black Polished Ware

Peoples and societies

Bronze Age

Anatolians Armenians Mycenaean Greeks Indo-Iranians

Iron Age

Indo-Aryans

Indo-Aryans

Iranians

Iranians

Scythians Persians Medes

Europe

Celts

Gauls Celtiberians Insular Celts

Hellenic peoples Italic peoples Germanic peoples Paleo-Balkans/Anatolia:

Thracians Dacians Illyrians Phrygians

Middle Ages

East-Asia

Tocharians

Europe

Balts Slavs Albanians Medieval Europe

Indo-Aryan

Medieval India

Iranian

Greater Persia

Religion and mythology

Reconstructed

Proto-Indo-European religion Proto-Indo-Iranian
Proto-Indo-Iranian
religion

Historical

Hittite

Indian

Vedic

Hinduism

Buddhism Jainism

Iranian

Persian

Zoroastrianism

Kurdish

Yazidism Yarsanism

Scythian

Ossetian

Others

Armenian

Europe

Paleo-Balkans Greek Roman Celtic

Irish Scottish Breton Welsh Cornish

Germanic

Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse

Baltic

Latvian Lithuanian

Slavic Albanian

Practices

Fire-sacrifice Horse sacrifice Sati Winter solstice/Yule

Indo-European studies

Scholars

Marija Gimbutas J.P. Mallory

Institutes

Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European

Publications

Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture The Horse, the Wheel and Language Journal of Indo-European Studies Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch Indo-European Etymological Dictionary

v t e

Most of the largest languages (in terms of speakers) are a part of the Indo-Aryan group: Hindustani (Hindi–Urdu, ~590 million[6]), Bengali (205 million[7]), Punjabi (100 million), Marathi (75 million), Gujarati (50 million), Bhojpuri (40 million), Awadhi (40 million), Maithili (35 million), Odia (35 million), Marwari (30 million), Sindhi (25 million), Assamese (24 million), Rajasthani (20 million), Chhattisgarhi (18 million), Sinhalese (16 million), Nepali (17 million), and Rangpuri (rajbanshi) (15 million). Among the Iranian branch, major languages are Persian (60 million), Pashto
Pashto
(ca. 50 million), Kurdish (35 million),[8] and Balochi (8 million), with a total number of native speakers of more than 1471 million. Numerous smaller languages exist. History[edit] The common proto-language of the Indo- Iranian languages
Iranian languages
is Proto-Indo-Iranian, which has been reconstructed. The oldest attested Indo- Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are Vedic Sanskrit (ancient Indo-Aryan), Older and Younger Avestan and Old Persian (ancient Iranian languages). A few words from another Indo-Aryan language (see Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni) are attested in documents from the ancient Mitanni
Mitanni
and Hittite kingdoms in the Near East.

Features[edit] Innovations shared with other languages affected by the satem sound changes include:[citation needed]

Fronting and assibilation of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) palato-velar stops: *ḱ, *ǵʰ, *ǵ > *ĉ, *ĵʰ, *ĵ The merger of the PIE labiovelar and plain velar stops: *kʷ, *gʷʰ, *gʷ > *k, *gʰ, *g The Ruki sound law

Innovations shared with Greek include:[citation needed]

The vocalization of the PIE syllabic nasals *m̥, *n̥ to *a Grassmann's law

Innovations unique to Indo-Iranian include:[citation needed]

The lowering of PIE *e to *a

*o was also lowered to *a, though this occurred in several other Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
as well.

Brugmann's law

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Indo-Iranian". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ D. D. Mahulkar (1990). Pre-Pāṇinian Linguistic Studies. Northern Book Centre. ISBN 978-81-85119-88-5.  ^ Annarita Puglielli; Mara Frascarelli (2011). Linguistic Analysis: From Data to Theory. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-022250-0.  ^ Numeral Types and Changes Worldwide, by Jadranka (EDT) Gvozdanovic, Language Arts & Disciplines,1999, Page 221. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-01-02. : "The usage of 'Aryan languages' is not to be equated with Indo-Aryan languages, rather Indo-Iranic languages of which Indo-Aryan is a subgrouping." ^ Bashir, Elena (2007). Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George, eds. The Indo-Aryan languages. p. 905. ISBN 978-0415772945. 'Dardic' is a geographic cover term for those Northwest Indo-Aryan languages which [..] developed new characteristics different from the IA languages of the Indo-Gangetic plain. Although the Dardic and Nuristani (previously 'Kafiri') languages were formerly grouped together, Morgenstierne (1965) has established that the Dardic languages are Indo-Aryan, and that the Nuristani languages
Nuristani languages
constitute a separate subgroup of Indo-Iranian.  ^ Edwards, Viv. "Urdu/Hindi Today". BBC.  ^ Thompson, Irene. "Bengali". AboutWorldLanguages. Retrieved March 29, 2013.  ^ CIA- The World Factbook: 14.7 million in Turkey (18%)[1][not in citation given], 4.9–6.5 million in Iraq (15-20%)[2][not in citation given], 8 million in Iran (10%)"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2011. [not in citation given] (all for 2014), plus several million in Syria, neighboring countries, and the diaspora

Sources[edit]

Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1994). A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co. ISBN 81-7074-128-9 Nicholas Sims-Williams, ed. (2002). Indo-Iranian Languages and Peoples. Oxford University Press. 

External links[edit]

Look up Indo-Iranian Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Indo-Iranian languages.

Swadesh lists of Indo-Iranian basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix)

v t e

Indo-Iranian languages

Indo-Aryan (Indic)

Old / Middle

Old

Vedic Sanskrit

Classical Buddhist

Mitanni-Aryan

Middle

Abahatta Apabhraṃśa Dramatic Prakrits

Magadhi Maharashtri Shauraseni

Elu Gāndhārī Paisaci Pāli Prakrit

Modern

Central (Hindustani)

Hindi

Awadhi Bagheli Bhojpuri Bombay Hindi Braj Bhasha Bundeli Caribbean Hindi Chhattisgarhi Fiji Hindi Haflong Hindi Haryanvi Kannauji Khari Boli Sansi Boli

Urdu

Dakhini Hyderabadi Urdu Rekhta (early form)

Others

Danwar Parya

Eastern

Bengali–Assamese

Assamese Bengali Bishnupriya Manipuri Chakma Chittagonian Hajong Kayort Kharia Thar Nahari Rajbanshi Rohingya Sylheti

Bihari

Angika Vajjika Magahi Maithili Majhi Sadri

Odia

Odia Kosli Bodo Parja Kupia Reli

Halbic

Halbi Bhatri Kamar Mirgan Nahari

Others

Mal Paharia

Northern

Garhwali Kumaoni Nepali

Palpa

Northwestern

Aer Dogri Hindko Kangri Kutchi Punjabi Sindhi Saraiki

Southern

Marathi–Konkani

Konkani Marathi

Insular

Maldivian Sinhala

Western

Bhil

Bhili Gamit

Rajasthani

Bagri Goaria Gojri Jaipuri Malvi Marwari Mewari Dhatki (sociolect)

Others

Domari Gujarati Kalto Khandeshi Parkari Koli Romani Saurashtra

Others

Dardic

Dameli Domaaki Gawar-Bati Kalami Kalash Kashmiri Khowar Kohistani Nangalami Palula Pashayi Shina Shumashti Torwali Ushoji

Iranian

Old / Middle

Old

Western

Old Persian Median

Eastern

Avestan Old Scythian

Middle

Western

Middle Persian Parthian

Eastern

Bactrian Khwarezmian Ossetic

Jassic

Sakan (Sacian) Scythian Sogdian

Modern

North

Old Azari Balochi Central Iran Zoroastrian Dari Fars Gilaki Gorani Kurdic

Sorani Kurmanji Southern group Laki

Mazandarani Semnani Taleshi Deilami Tati Zazaki

Eastern

Pamir

Ishkashimi Sanglechi Wakhi Munji Yidgha Vanji Yazghulami Shughni Roshani Khufi Bartangi Sarikoli

Others

Ossetian

Digor Iron

Pashto

Central Pashto Northern Pashto Southern Pashto Wanetsi

Yaghnobi Ormuri Parachi

Western

South

Persian

Caucasian Tat Dari Tajik

Luri

Feyli Bakhtiari Kumzari

Larestani Bashkardi

Other Indo-Iranian languages

Nuristani

Kamkata-viri

Kamviri Kata-vari Mumviri

Others

Askunu Kalasha-ala Kamkata-viri Tregami Vasi-vari

Italics indicate extinct languages.

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